MR. O'CONNOR: On Mr. Littlepage's place it seems that some blackberries thrive better in the shade of the walnut tree than anywhere else.
DR. BROOKS: In West Virginia there is a locality where blackberries grow wild, and it is a matter of common knowledge that black berries will grow under the black walnut but that apple trees will not grow there. I have noticed that the best place to plant jimson seed is under the black walnut trees. I have no definite information about this but there is something in the influence of the black walnut trees.
MR. BIXBY: I have noticed at my place that cabbages planted under black walnut trees were somewhat stunted. I believe that it was the effect of the walnut trees growing so speedily that there was not enough nourishment for both.
THE PRESIDENT: The next lantern slide lecture will be by Mr. Reed.
MR. REED: (This lecture was delivered in a darkened hall where it was not possible for the reporter to take notes. However, the gist of the talk is here given).
The slides illustrated various methods of nut tree propagation, and that it is possible successfully to graft or bud nut trees at almost any time from February until the very end of the growing period. In working over large trees the first method in the season to be employed was shown to be that of the cleft graft. Following this, with large stocks, would be the slip-bark graft, or with smaller stocks, the chip-bud. The slip-bark graft has the advantage of being feasible at any time when the bark slips. Dormant scions are more often used with this form of propagation, although by no means necessary, as Dr. Morris has demonstrated that by applying a coat of paraffin over the entire scion and the cut surfaces of the stock, it is possible to use growing scions at almost any time when they can be obtained. The chip-bud is most successful during a relatively short period, beginning about ten days before the buds begin to swell and continuing until after the trees are practically in full leaf. From this time on the patch, or some other modification of the annular bud, is most commonly used.
In top-working, when the cleft-graft has failed, the patch-bud may be used late in summer, by inserting buds of the current season's growth in the base of the new shoots springing up from below where the cut was made in the stock for the graft, thus affording two opportunities for propagation during the same season.
The slides showed various methods of propagating the filbert by layering, and of propagating more difficult species by inarching. They were from a collection soon to be placed in the hands of the extension Service of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and of the various state colleges of agriculture.
THE PRESIDENT: We will now adjourn, and will meet in the room upstairs in this building at 10 o'clock tomorrow morning.
SECOND DAY—MORNING SESSION
Meeting called to order by the President, at 10 a. m.
THE PRESIDENT: I have the great pleasure of introducing to you Dr. Howe, Assistant Director of the Botanical Gardens.
DR. HOWE: I shall only take a minute to say that we are delighted to have you here, and that if we can do anything to assist you, or to perpetuate your success, I hope you will please let us know. As the Spaniards say, "The house is yours."
I hope that your visit will be so pleasant that you may find it convenient to come here again.
THE SECRETARY: Mr. Jones will you tell us something about the handling of seeds for planting?
MR. JONES: I did not give the subject any thought before coming here but I might say that the nuts should be gathered promptly and dried, placing them in a shady spot, for they can be injured where the sun is too warm. We stratify them in sand. Then in the spring you can sift the sand through a sieve, take out the nuts and plant them.
In stratifying chestnuts we keep them between layers of wire mesh, for mice are very fond of these nuts. We cover the nuts with sand and leaves. Chinkapins we usually keep in cold storage.
THE SECRETARY: When you stratify these nuts where do you keep them?
MR. JONES: Right out in the open on top of the ground. A frame may be made with wire nailed on the bottom. This may be set out anywhere in the garden, but down a little into the dirt. Put in the nuts between layers of sand and leaves.
THE SECRETARY: Mr. Kelsey told me that the best way he had found to keep nuts was to bury them in a deep hole, perhaps two feet deep. Have you had experience with that way?
MR. JONES: The way I described is the usual way to keep seed and we get very fine results. We do that in order to keep the seed cool and so that they will not dry out. But we always have to watch out for mice. It might be a good idea, in stratifying chestnuts in the box with wire mesh on the bottom, to place the box at an angle that would drain off at least part of the water.
THE SECRETARY: Dr. Zimmerman, have you anything to say?
DR. ZIMMERMAN: I discovered by accident that black walnuts and hickories could be kept very nicely in the dry state until spring; then put water on them and they will sprout very nicely. But my chestnuts get moldy that way.
MR. BIXBY: We cover the nuts with at least a sprinkle of earth, may be four or five inches.
THE SECRETARY: Mr. Jones would keep them with practically no dirt but with sand and leaves.
MR. JONES: I would use a little sand over them, two parts of sand to one part of nuts. We put in six inches of nuts and alternating layers of sand.
DR. BROOKS: I know of a man who puts a layer of chestnuts and one of moss and says that in the spring the nuts are in splendid condition.
MR. BIXBY: I have had the nuts sprout very much better when they were stratified as soon as gathered.
MR. O'CONNOR: I bought about 5 bushels of black walnuts, paying 75 cents a bushel for them. I simply dumped them out on the ground, not bothering about the shucks at all, and covered them over with dirt. I paid no more attention to them until spring. Then I put the nuts in trenches with dirt about 5 inches over the top. The mice did not bother them, and I think they did well that way.
THE PRESIDENT: Did the frost affect them?
MR. O'CONNOR: No, not at all.
THE PRESIDENT: I have a black walnut tree at home that started to grow in a neighbor's cellar. It had grown a foot and a half and was rather white in color. I cut off the top and planted it out in the open. Today the tree is still growing and is all right.
We will now have an address by Prof. Neilson, of Canada.
PROF. NEILSON: Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is a real pleasure for me to get back to this convention once more. I tried to come last year but owing to certain difficulties I was not able to do so.
Before I give you my report on nut culture in Canada, I want to tell you some of my troubles. Two or three years ago, when I began to express my interest in nut culture, I thought it would be a good idea to get some nuts from China. I wrote to several missionaries in Northwestern China at about our latitude, and I finally secured five bushels of Persian walnuts and one bushel of Chinese chestnuts. The nuts were a long time on the road and very few were in fit condition to use when they arrived. I stored some of the Persian walnuts in our cellar at the Ontario College. The rest of the nuts I distributed to others.
The nuts at the college did not fare very well. When I left there I gave directions to the members of the Department to look after them carefully. This is how they did it. Someone broke into the cellar where the nuts were stratified in the sand, and ran off with about one bushel. The Chinese chestnuts arrived in about the same condition as the Chinese walnuts. Of these I managed to save about a peck. We divided the nuts into three equal lots. Some we kept at the Guelph Experiment Station, some at Vineland, and some in the Southwestern Station. Of those at Guelph, out of the whole lot, 35 nuts germinated, and of these the mice ate all but five. These five were taken outside and carefully placed in a flat; but someone came along and ran into the flat and smashed those five plants all to pieces.
In addition to this some of my friends tried to tell me that I was chasing wild geese; that nut trees would not ever be important commercially in Canada; that 99 per cent of the value of the nut tree was for shade anyhow (as if he meant shade for pigs and cows); and that they were not even ornamental.
Before I read my paper, however, I will say that the work I am now doing is somewhat different from that I had when I was last here, when I was Prof. of Horticulture. I am now doing extension work for the government.
PROGRESS REPORT ON NUT CULTURE IN CANADA
Jas. A. Neilson, M. S., Extension Horticulturist, Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland, Ontario
During the season of 1923-24 there has been a marked increase in the interest shown in the culture of nut bearing trees in all parts of Canada where nut trees can be grown. This is indicated by the numerous letters of enquiry and personal requests for information on nut culture which have been received by our Station. A total of 450 letters were received or sent out by our office during the past year besides numerous enquiries answered by a personal visit.
The search for good nut trees has resulted in some interesting additions to the data presented in the paper published in the last report. One of the most gratifying features of this phase of the work has been the discovery of several new localities where the European filbert is growing successfully. It has been located or reported at twenty widely separate points in Ontario, the northernmost of which is on Wolf Island at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River in approximately 44,100 N. Lat. This plantation is said to have been established before 1840 and would therefore be nearly 90 years old. Another interesting point in connection with filberts is the amazing way in which they thrive under conditions of absolute neglect. Several of the plantations observed during the past year were not given the slightest attention and yet were doing very nicely. Obviously this is not good practice but it would seem to indicate that excellent results could be secured in Southern Ontario by the proper choice of varieties and the best cultural methods. This survey also showed that the sweet chestnut grew as far north as Georgian Bay.
The prize nut contest staged by our office last autumn resulted in the discovery of some very good black walnuts and a fine Japanese heartnut. Samples of these are shown in some of the plates on the table.
The Persian walnut was found to have a wider distribution and is more abundant in Ontario than was expected when our nut survey began. About 150 bearing trees have been located in that part of Ontario extending from Toronto on Lake Ontario to Goderich on Lake Huron. This number of course will seem insignificant in comparison to the numbers of trees in some sections of the northern United States, but it must not be forgotten that Ontario is on the northern margin of the Persian walnut territory, and therefore the results are rather encouraging.
Several fine Paragon chestnut trees have been located which bear good crops and which appear to be resistant to chestnut blight. This disease has unfortunately appeared at several places in Ontario and will undoubtedly destroy the majority of our chestnut trees.
The members of this association will be interested to learn that Gellatly Brothers of Gellatly, B. C., prepared and sent to the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley a large collection of nuts that has attracted a great deal of attention and favorable comment. This should do a great deal toward advertising the nut cultural possibilities of that province and of Canada generally.
The trial plantations on the experiment station grounds are doing very well indeed. The black walnuts are making a fine growth and one variety the McCoy, has a good crop of nuts at two years from planting. The Ten Eyck is making an extremely rapid growth, in some cases, producing new shoots over four feet in length.
The English walnuts are also making a good growth and two varieties, Mayette and Hall, have borne nuts in the third season.
I am pleased to state that we now have about 100 seedlings of the Chinese walnut growing on the station grounds and at various other points in Ontario. These little trees seem to be making a more rapid growth than our seedlings of the "Ontario," a Persian walnut which is a native of St. Catharines.
We also have about 60 seedlings of the Persian walnut from the Northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains in the Ukranian region of what used to be the old Austrian-Hungarian Empire. These nuts were obtained from Rev. Paul Crath, of Toronto, who informs me that the winter temperatures in that part of Europe often go lower than in Toronto. We hope for some interesting developments from the growth of these trees because of the rigorous climatic condition of their native land.
During the latter part of the past winter an experiment was conducted in propagating the walnut under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose 100 well grown one year black walnut seedlings were obtained from our forestry station at St. Williams in the late autumn and heeled in out of doors until about February 1st. These were then brought inside, planted in 8 inch pots and placed in the greenhouse where they were allowed to remain until a good leaf growth had been produced. The young trees were then side cleft grafted with scions of the best English walnuts in the district. While engaged in this work one of the trees was inadvertently cut off a few inches above the ground. The stub was then whip grafted and to my surprise it made a better growth than the others which had a part of the top left on. The results of our experiment were much better than I expected. About 40% of the scions grew which was quite satisfactory considering that I was a mere novice in the art of grafting nut trees and that my method was an experiment. I believe I could get 70 to 75% to grow with greater care in the selection and handling of scions. The object in doing the work in the greenhouse was to obtain better control conditions of moisture and temperature and thus reduce the mortality of scions due to these factors.
I also outlined an experiment in propagating nut trees by cuttings as a thesis subject for one of our fourth year horticultural students at the O. A. C. In this experiment ten cuttings each of English walnut, butternut, Japanese walnut, hickory, chestnut and black walnut were planted in sand and watered at intervals with a 1 to 10,000 solution of potassium permanganate. In the course of time the majority of cuttings came out in leaf, but none formed roots, and hence soon died. It is admitted that this experiment may have been improperly planned and conducted, but it showed at any rate that it is not an easy matter to propagate most nut plants by root or stem cuttings.
In 1923 I purchased with my own funds another lot, 1-1/2 bushels, of good heartnuts and sent them in lots of about two dozen to the secretaries of 125 horticultural societies, and to about 30 other parties for trial planting. I found that this little contribution was gratefully received and in many cases brought forth inquiries for the names of people from whom good trees might be purchased. I do not propose to carry on much more of this free distribution of nuts as that would not be fair to the individuals themselves or to those engaged in the propagation of nut trees. My chief reason for distributing these nuts was to stimulate interest, and now that my objective has been attained I will refer inquiring parties to reputable nut nurserymen.
Numerous requests for addresses on nut culture have been received from horticultural societies, women's institutes and other organizations. I have always endeavored to comply with these requests and have invariably found keen interest shown in the subject. American members of this association will likely be interested to learn that the Ontario Horticultural Society is the largest of its kind in the world, having a membership of over 60,000 while the Women's Institute is an almost equally large and influential organization.
These powerful and widespread organizations can be and are of great assistance in carrying on the propaganda for the planting of nut trees.
The Ontario Horticultural Association, the Ontario Horticultural Council and the Canadian Horticultural Council have each passed resolutions expressing approval of our work in nut culture and asking the Dominion Minister of Agriculture to appoint a man to fully investigate the nut cultural possibilities of Canada. I regret to state that no action has as yet been taken to meet the desires of these organizations. Because of many other urgent duties and lack of departmental support, I have not been able to devote as much of my time to nut culture as I would like, and therefore have had to make the very best use of the little time I have had at my disposal. I am looking forward to the time when those in authority will have a greater appreciation of the value of nut trees and will see their way clear to appoint someone to devote his whole time and energy toward increasing the productiveness and adding to the beauty of our country by means of more and better nut trees.
To sum up briefly, my objective is as follows:
1. To carry on the nut tree survey of Canada until we have located the very best natural and exotic species.
2. To propagate these best strains, provided they are as good or better than the best so far discovered.
3. To introduce the best hardy species from the northern United States and northeastern Asia, on a more extensive scale for test purposes and breeding work.
* * * * *
THE SECRETARY: Prof. Neilson has placed on the table in the hall, very modestly, a very interesting collection of nuts from Canada and I hope that you will all look at them.
THE PRESIDENT: Are there any present who would like to ask Prof. Neilson questions?
DR. MORRIS: It seems to me that the Ontario walnut is the best in quality of any I have tried. What did you think of them Mr. Jones?
MR. JONES: I do not think there is any better.
PROF. NEILSON: I am in favor of another one which I think you will agree is still better. It is larger and betterlooking and the flavor is just as good. (Displays walnut).
The interesting feature is that although the tree is a third generation tree, now about 15 years old, it has produced more nuts than the older trees.
DR. MORRIS: If I remember correctly the Ontario is a milder type.
PROF. NEILSON: I think that this is just as good as the Ontario. I have several trees of this.
THE PRESIDENT: From what I gathered from your remarks, Prof. Neilson, possibly some moral support would be of assistance to you in your work. Would it be out of order?
PROF. NEILSON: I think it would be a very good idea. The trouble I am having is perhaps very localized; it is with but one or two individuals. I think that a resolution by this association would have some effect. It would at least present to the authorities the fact that we were being recognized. I hope so at least. Our present Minister of Agriculture has openly expressed himself in sympathy with the idea of planting more nut trees; also Mr. Martin, our specialist in poultry keeping and I think if I can get them lined up it would be all right. The resolution might help to do this.
THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Morris the Chair appoints you to that committee; also Mr. Jones and Mr. Ellis. It wishes you to draw up a suitable resolution for that work.
PROF. NEILSON: I may say that the public in Canada is behind our work. About 97% of my time is spent on the road and I go long distances. The rest of my time I am writing letters, about 1,200 of them, and about 450 of these are on nut culture.
DR. MORRIS: I have the following resolution to offer: That a letter be written to the Dominion Department of Agriculture, along the following lines: "The Dominion Department of Agriculture has officially stated that the nut growing industry of British Columbia has become an important one. The Dominion nevertheless is importing $5,000,000 worth of nuts annually from other countries.
In view of these facts, the Northern Nut Growers' Association in assembly at its 15th Annual Meeting, in New York, commends the work of Prof. J. A. Neilson of the Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland, Ontario, and expresses the hope that the Canadian Government and private support will further his work in such a way as to make it a matter of large public service. Service of the sort relates not only to eastern Canada but to the commerce of this entire continent."
(Signed) ROBERT T. MORRIS, J. F. JONES Z. H. ELLIS.
THE PRESIDENT: The secretary will accordingly transmit this message to the Canadian Government.
NOTES BY PROFESSOR A. S. COLBY
Purdue University, Illinois
Friends: I believe an apology is due you. I was away on my vacation at the time the invitation came to me to make an address at this meeting and I have come here without one. But I shall be glad to give you some sort of an idea of the past, present and future of nut culture in Illinois.
I became actively interested in nut growing about a year ago. Our work started partly in response to public demand. We have been receiving an increasing number of letters of inquiry from people interested in the subject but who know little about it. We are attempting to secure such information as will be of value regarding the best species and varieties of nuts to plant, where to plant them, and how to care for them. There are a number of members of the N. N. G. A. in Illinois and they are very kindly helping me in this work. The Illinois State Horticultural Society, founded in 1856, has also been interested to some extent in nut growing.
Illinois has had three grand old men in the nut industry, Mr. George W. Endicott of Villa Ridge, Mr. E. A. Riehl of Alton, and Mr. Benjamin Buckman of Farmingdale. Mr. Riehl is eighty-seven years young now and is the only one of the three men living.
Mr. Endicott was interested, not only in the commercial side of horticulture but was a pioneer in scientific work. He originated the Endicott plum and other valuable fruits and, since he was interested in plant improvement, naturally turned to hybridization of the chestnut, a tree which grows readily in southern Illinois. In 1899 he crossed the Japanese chestnut (Castanea japonica) with pollen from the American Sweet (C. americana). He must have had some difficulty in crossing the species because they did not bloom at exactly the same time. He was, however, successful in securing five hybrid seeds, raising three trees from them, naming them the Blair, the Boone and the Riehl. Naturally there were differences in the characteristics of these trees though they were all vigorous and produced nuts of commercial value. The Blair and Riehl began to bear at four and five years respectively, while the Boone bore its first crop at seventeen months of age. The Boone is the most valuable since it matures fruit of good quality about two days earlier than the Blair and two weeks before the Riehl. It also retains the burr and drops the nuts free at the beginning of the season so that about half the nuts can be picked up before the burrs fall.
Mr. Endicott was so pleased with the results of the cross that he raised over 175 seedlings from the Boone tree. From these second generation hybrids he secured trees very uneven in growth and size with a great range in time of coming into bearing. The nuts differed widely in size, quality, and season of ripening. The character of the burr showed all gradations between the extremes of thickness, length, rigidity of spines, etc. These striking variations in the second generation trees show that many hereditary factors had been segregated and recombined and offer a most interesting opportunity for scientific study. I have visited the orchard several times.
Mr. Endicott died in 1914 but his son Robert has since cared for the trees which have brought him considerable revenue. He tells me that he secures about 160 pounds of nuts per year from each of the three original trees. At an average price of thirty-five cents a pound wholesale the crop from each tree is worth $56.05 per year. Since the chestnut blooms late it is pretty certain to escape spring frosts. The Blair, for example, has had a crop failure once only since beginning to bear.
(Displays photographs of the Japanese and American chestnuts and the Boone tree).
Mr. Endicott is top working some of the worthless second generation trees with wood from the Boone tree.
(Displays photographs showing method of grafting).
I have had the good fortune to visit Mr. Riehl several times and have secured many representative nuts from his collection. While he has grown a large number of nut species and varieties he believes that the chestnut pays the best in southern Illinois. He plants them on rough and hilly land, difficult to cultivate, pasturing with sheep, and has had very good success. He does not worry about the chestnut blight, since the chestnut is not native here and there is such a great distance between the blight ridden East and Illinois.
Mr. Buckman was an amateur horticulturist, in the work for the love of it. On his land he had nearly two thousand varieties of apples and hundreds of varieties of peaches, plums, pears, cherries, grapes, small fruits, and nuts collected from all over the world. I was much interested to study the fine pecan and chestnut trees growing and producing good crops as well as the persimmon and papaw trees, of which he had a number of rare varieties. I was able last spring to secure cuttings of a number of rather rare papaw varieties which I sent to Doctor Zimmerman for propagation at the request of Doctor Fairchild.
Mr. Buckman recently died and there is now a movement on foot to secure, either through the University or the Horticultural Society, as far as possible, all the valuable data which he had been collecting for years.
There are several other men interested in nuts as a commercial proposition in Illinois, such as O. H. Casper of Anna and Judge W. O. Potter of Marion. I recently visited these orchards. Mr. Casper has mostly pecans and walnuts growing in sod. They are from six to eight years old and would have borne this season if weather conditions had been favorable.
Judge Potter has over twenty acres of pecans interplanted with chestnuts and filberts. For part of the orchard this is the fifth growing season. The trees are growing vigorously and make a very impressive showing. I counted thirty-nine nuts on a representative Thomas black walnut tree. The filberts look especially promising. Although the weather at blooming time was unfavorable a fair crop of nearly a peck was gathered from four or five bushes of a late blooming imported variety. Judge Potter is also growing another orchard using apples as fillers between black walnut trees. This experiment will be watched with great interest since it will be of great value in showing future possibilities in nut growing in Illinois.
Now as to some of the things we are trying to do at the experiment station at Urbana. This will be necessarily a progress report. I am making a survey of the state to find promising individuals of the different species and varieties and marking them for future use. We have our state fair at Springfield next week and as I speak to the boys and girls attending the state fair school I hope to interest them to tell me of any trees in their neighborhoods of particular value.
Some of the agricultural leaders in the various counties, that is the farm advisers, are awake to the value of the nut industry and we have a number of these men co-operating with us. From Gallatin County, in the Wabash and Ohio river bottoms, around $100,000 worth of native pecans are sold in some seasons. In the southern counties and over north of St. Louis in the western part of Illinois there are also native pecan groves which are quite profitable. We hope to find valuable northern pecans, adaptable to our conditions. We, of course, know that the English walnut is very difficult to grow in Illinois and we are not recommending it as a commercial proposition. We believe that the black walnut, all things considered, has the most promise and we hope to have something worth while in a few years as propagating material. The Thomas, Stabler, and Miller are especially to be recommended for Illinois at this time.
We hope soon to have a complete collection of hardy nut trees on our experimental trial grounds. Here we shall study not only the varietal characteristics but try out new methods of propagating, pruning, fertilizing, etc. There is very likely some connection between winter injury and hardening up of the wood in autumn and we hope to learn something about that problem through the use of various cover crops, for example. We have at the station a complete experimental cold storage plant in operation where we may be able to learn more about the effects of extremes of temperature on the roots and trunks of certain species.
In such new but important work we must make haste slowly. We have some things to unlearn and many things to learn. We hope to be able in a few years to make a worthwhile contribution to such an interesting and important subject as nut growing in the middle west.
I shall be glad to have you ask me any questions which occur to you.
* * * * *
THE PRESIDENT: DO you happen to know Mr. Spencer?
PROF. COLBY: No, I wrote Mr. Spencer but I did not get any reply from him. I hope to visit him this fall.
MR. REED: DO you know anything about the top-working of black walnuts from Missouri at the university?
PROF. COLBY: No, I do not know about them.
MR. GREEN: In regard to those Gallatin County nuts; has any survey ever been made by the U. S. Department of Agriculture of the nut trees in Illinois?
Prof. Colby: Not that I know of.
Question: At what age are they planting those walnuts in Williamson County with apples and how far apart?
PROF. COLBY: The walnuts are from 50 to 80 feet apart interplanted with apples. The walnut trees are about two years old; the apples four and five.
A SPEAKER: I believe those apple trees will die.
PROF. COLBY: That's what I want to find out. There is a great difference of opinion as to the compatibility of walnuts and other fruit trees.
MR. BIXBY: You will see at Baldwin, this afternoon, peach trees planted between nut trees. It is too soon to say what will happen but so far, it is all right.
DR. SMITH: As a matter of very great importance, how will you "round up" the forces in Illinois?
PROF. COLBY: We have a number of interesting suggestions brought out in Professor Neilson's paper. He would use every way possible, including questionnaires sent out judiciously, as well as the boys' and girls' clubs, and the Boy Scouts, of which Dr. Morris speaks. The horticultural society can be of very great help. In Illinois where we have over one hundred counties, almost all of which are very efficiently covered by farm bureaus, the farm advisers are of considerable assistance. The local horticultural societies, as for instance the one with which Mr. Riehl has been so prominently connected in Alton, have helped very much in the past. The Smith-Hughes teachers in charge of agricultural teaching in the high schools can easily get in touch with promising native trees through their students. I know most of these teachers and know they will be glad to help me. I recently had a request from the Associated Press representative in Springfield to write an article on nut growing in Illinois. There is a wonderful field for development along such lines as this.
THE PRESIDENT: It seems to me that if the agricultural colleges were asked to hand in information that might bring results, and particularly the students' work in isolated sections which would not be reached by Boy Scouts.
PROF. NEILSON: For the benefit of those who did not hear my address in 1922, I may say that I have circularized the whole county and the college stations; I have sent about 125 circular letters to the horticultural society and to its officers, high school inspectors, and to anyone I thought might be glad to get the information. I wanted to carry this further but could not. I wanted to send letters to every school teacher in the Province of Ontario and ask them to bring the matter to the attention of the boys and girls, and to offer them a substantial prize for the location of the best tree in their locality. I will say, however, that I got a great deal of encouragement from the horticultural society, the public school and the high schools.
THE SECRETARY: I will read again a sentence from Mr. Howard Spence's letter:
"The Minister of Agriculture has agreed to instruct all their inspectors over the country to make a collection of all walnuts of merit and to forward them to me for classification and identification of varieties which may be worth perpetuating."
If we could do something of that kind in the United States to enlist the extension agents, we should get some valuable information.
MR. OLCOTT: I think that a very important thing would be to send that message not only to the state experiment stations, but also to the government authorities. Why should not the Department of Agriculture make a systematic survey of that kind? Why should it be left to the small societies like this one, when the federal Department of Agriculture is so thoroughly equipped to get this? The department at Washington has expressed interest; I wonder if it would not be appropriate for this association to take some formal action, suggesting federal government action in that matter, in co-operation with the extension service, Boy Scouts, etc.
THE PRESIDENT: Will you put that in a resolution?
MR. OLCOTT: I submit the following resolution:
WHEREAS, The investigational and experimental work of the Northern Nut Growers' Association during the last fourteen years has been signally successful in improving native nuts of the northern United States, based upon discovery and propagation of superior specimens; and
WHEREAS, This work could be greatly extended with the facilities at the command of the United States Department of Agriculture, as compared with the efforts of the small number of members of this association; therefore be it
RESOLVED: That it is the sense of the Northern Nut Growers' Association, in fifteenth annual convention in New York City this fourth day of September, 1924, that the U. S. Department of Agriculture be asked to take up systematically the work of discovery and investigation of promising native nuts in the northern states and of testing selected specimens at government stations in co-operation with the authorities of the state experiment stations; such discovery to be brought about by enlisting the aid of boy scouts, school children and others, in connection with the activities of county farm agents, inspectors and other attaches of the department.
THE PRESIDENT: Prof. MacDaniels, of Cornell University will now address us.
L. H. MacDaniels, Professor of Pomology, Cornell University
It gives me great pleasure to bring you greetings from the Agricultural College at Cornell University and to express my appreciation for your invitation to address this convention concerning what the college is doing along the line of nut growing. I have a very real interest in nut growing and in this association. I like to think of it as comparable with the American Pomological Society when it started more than one hundred years ago. All of you men who are spending your time and energy in finding new facts regarding the propagation and culture of nut trees are doing pioneer work, and your names will go down in the history of nut growing in the same way as those of Wilder, Downing, and Prince have come to us linked with the early development of fruit growing in the United States. I feel confident that the work of the association will stand the test of time.
Interest in nut growing at Cornell, as you probably know, was started by John Craig who died about a dozen years ago. He was greatly interested in northern nut growing and also in southern pecans. As a result of his work we are still receiving inquiries about southern pecans addressed to Professor Craig. While at Cornell he established a course of study in nut growing which was a part of the regular curriculum. At the time, however, the actual known facts about the growth of nuts in the northern states were so few, and reliable information so scarce, that after Professor Craig's death, when there was a general consolidation of courses in the department, nut growing was combined with another course in economic fruits. Since that time, as our knowledge of nut growing has increased, more and more attention has been given to the subject. Our aim is, in fact, to give all of the up-to-date information that we have regarding the propagation and culture of nut trees.
The nut tree plantings in the experimental orchards at Cornell have not been particularly successful. About ten years ago Professor Chandler set out about one-half acre of named varieties of pecans, Persian walnuts, black walnuts, hickories, hazel nuts, chestnuts and Japanese walnuts. These have received good care, both as to cultivation and fertilization but to date the only trees which have borne are the Japanese walnuts and these have not had good crops. Apple trees of the same age in adjacent land have been bearing commercial crops for a number of years, especially such varieties as the McIntosh, Wealthy and R. I. Greening. The climate at Ithaca is apparently rather too rigorous for most of the nut trees. Persian walnuts, hazel nuts and frequently Japanese walnuts suffer from winter injury. In the case of the chestnut, blight has practically killed all of the trees. The pecans are perfectly hardy but as yet have not borne, probably because our seasons are not sufficiently long or warm enough to grow this nut to advantage. Hickories have been very slow to become established and in fact have never made really good growth. This experience, of course, makes us feel that nut growing is really not as easy as some enthusiasts would have us believe.
In addition to this variety planting there are four or five acres of recently cleared woodland in which there are hundreds of hickory seedlings which can be top-worked. We are aiming also in this area to establish seedlings of all of the hardy nut trees to use as stocks and eventually to get a collection of all named varieties of nut trees. Grafting so far has not been particularly satisfactory due in some cases to failure of the grafts to set; in other cases to the winter killing of grafts which have made fairly good growth. Injury by bud moths and wind storms have also been detrimental factors. Our own experience together with observations upon the results of nut grafting elsewhere by experts lead us to believe that grafting of nut trees is a very difficult undertaking as compared with that of other fruit trees. It involves a knack which must be acquired by very considerable experience. I realize, of course, that new facts regarding nut grafting are being discovered almost daily and in the future we may look for better results.
The attitude of the Department of Pomology at the College with regard to nut growing is of necessity conservative. First of all, the men in the department are trained in scientific methods and have a somewhat critical attitude when it comes to statements regarding marked success in any line. The tendency is in each case to try to find the data or the experience upon which statements are based. Unfortunately, in nut growing there are very little data upon which statements can be based. Mr. Bixby's experiments with stocks are a very good start in the right direction, and it is upon such experiments as he is carrying out that real knowledge regarding nut growing will be gained.
We have heard enthusiastic statements as to the profits which may be derived from the planting of nuts in the northern states, but I must confess that I have looked in vain both for the facts upon which such statements might be based and also for orchards which actually are profitable. If such exist in New York state I have not been able to find them even after considerable travel.
In order to be profitable, an orchard must pay all the expenses involved, including interest on the initial cost of land; the cost of labor and materials and depreciation on tools, etc. We have cost accounts covering these items on many crops such as apples and wheat, but not on nuts. It seems to me we must recognize that nut culture is in its experimental stage only. This is in fact one thing that makes it particularly attractive for the amateur.
Another reason for our conservatism is that we feel it our duty to the growers to give out statements which are based upon facts only. If a man in a northern state wants to plant ten acres of nuts what shall we tell him? Shall we tell him to go ahead and assure him that if he takes care of his trees a profitable plantation is certain? On the basis of what we know I think surely not. A hundred and one unanswered questions come up. What kinds of nuts will succeed under his climatic and soil conditions? What stocks should be used? What varieties will succeed under his conditions? Will the meats of the nuts fill out in the average season? Are the seasons long enough, etc. The fact is in most cases we do not know. In most parts of New York state we are extending a natural range of many of the nut trees and they have not been grown long enough under the new conditions to make it possible to answer these questions with certainty. On the other hand, we can tell the prospective nut grower that nut growing is in its experimental stages and under certain conditions has great commercial promise. On the basis of our present knowledge we cannot recommend large plantations but would encourage the planting of nuts in an experimental way, especially for home use. It should be borne in mind that in the early days of fruit growing in America it was the amateur planting of varieties that laid the foundations for the present industry. If shade trees are to be planted let them be nut trees. Plant nut trees as a hobby but do not go into nut culture on a large scale for profit unless you can afford to lose.
I have great hopes for the future of nut growing in the northern states and also for this society. I am confident that new and better varieties of nuts will be found and better methods of propagation and transplanting originated so that in the future there may be a commercial industry in the north. For the present, however, I believe that conservatism is advisable, and that great harm may be done by misrepresentation. Sound growth of a northern nut industry will be built upon facts and honest experience and not on conjecture, hearsay, or even on enthusiasm, however necessary this may be. I believe that we should encourage people to plant nuts for pleasure, plant nuts as a hobby, plant them for shade and for posterity, but under present conditions not for financial profit.
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THE SECRETARY: We must adjourn at once to the lecture room, that we may hear Dr. J. Russell Smith's talk on "Nut Tree Crops as a Part of Permanent Agriculture without Plowing." He will have some interesting slides to show during his talk.
Dr. Britton has asked that we have lunch today at noon instead of one o'clock. Everyone present is invited to take luncheon at that time as a guest of the Botanical Society and of Dr. Britton, it makes no difference whether they be members or guests.
MR. REED: May I make the motion to extend a rising vote of thanks to Dr. Britton and his associates for the cordial and generous way in which they have entertained us?
(Motion seconded, passed, and acknowledged by rising vote).
THE PRESIDENT: Dr. Britton, you are officially notified.
DR. BRITTON: I would like to have that vote of thanks mentioned in the official record of this convention, and in the record of the Botanical Society.
THE SECRETARY: We will see to that.
DR. BRITTON: You will be interested in knowing that we have with us the very distinguished Curator of the British Botanical Herbarium of the Royal Society. Dr. Stapf has been traveling in Canada, attending the meetings of the Royal Society there.
THE PRESIDENT: We shall very much appreciate the opportunity of meeting him.
We will now adjourn to the lecture hall, to hear Dr. J. Russell Smith.
NUT TREE CROPS AS A PART OF PERMANENT AGRICULTURE WITHOUT PLOWING
Dr. J. Russell Smith, Professor of Economic Geography, Columbia University, New York
My first experience with nut culture was gained on the farm of a man I knew more than 30 years ago. It was a truck farm not far from Philadelphia near a boarding school which I infested and the farmer complained that I infested the farm. The farm had its fence rows and driveways lined with grafted chestnut trees bearing abundantly of large fine nuts of European origin. It was remarkable how quickly they filled my pockets. I usually succeeded in gathering them on the hundred per cent basis.
I am interested in this subject today because of an innate love of trees and because the development of a tree crop agriculture offers a way to stop soil erosion. To me the worst of all economic sins is the destruction of resources, and the worst of all resource destructions is the destruction of the soil, our one great and ultimate resource. "After man the desert" has been truly said too often of many old lands.
Soil cover is after all about the only thing that man has as a basis for the support of his life on earth. All of our food depends directly or indirectly upon plants.
In hilly countries there is usually but a thin layer of earth and rotton rock between the surface of the field and the bed rock. It is a very difficult problem to maintain this cover of earth and it is very easy to lose it. Sometimes it is lost through over-pasturing and destruction of turf; but more largely through plowing.
The nut tree is particularly effective as a part of a plowless agriculture which can use the soil permanently where annual crops ruin it quickly because the plow prepares the land for erosion.
The speed of soil destruction, with its erosion after plowing, is particularly noticeable with the great American crops, cotton, corn and tobacco, which require clean cultivation. Many orchards are also cultivated for the double purpose of keeping down rival plants and preserving moisture, but we pay high in soil loss for the moisture that we get by that means on hilly lands. The plow is one of the greatest enemies of the future. As a matter of fact we have already destroyed enough land in the United States to support many millions of people; and therefore the tree is the more important because it permits an agriculture that will keep the soil indefinitely, and in permanent production, without plowing.
I have aecidently discovered a better way of conserving moisture than by plowing, and I have found it going on in widely scattered places and in widely different climates.
Primitive peoples in many parts of the world have long since obtained the advantage of cultivation, mainly, increasing the available moisture for the tree or plant, without cultivation of the soil and the loss which follows the washing of cultivated soils. As an example I cite the Indians of Arizona, who have grown corn crops for centuries in a country with but from six to fifteen inches of rain. They do this by planting in little patches at the mouth of a gully where at the time of rain the flood water is led away into furrows and depressions so that it thoroughly soaks the ground in which the corn is planted.
My attention was first called to this practice by observing a good patch of barley in the edge of the Sahara in Southern Tunis, where the gulley flow resulting from a winter rain had spread itself out fan-*like and soaked the triangular alluvial area of sand, which bore a fine crop of barley in the midst of the desert.
For centuries the olive growers of parts of Tunis have led gulley water to the olive trees where it was retained, in areas that resembled a tennis court, with a 12 inch bank of dirt around it and two or three olive trees within this area thus watered by impounding.
A practice somewhat similar to this is shown in F. H. King's classic book on Chinese agriculture, "Farmers of Forty Centuries;" but the most extreme case that has come to my attention is furnished by the Berber tribe of the Matmatas, of Tunis. These people live on the edge of a hilly, limestone plateau, where the rainfall is less than 10 inches and in some years as low as five.
An important part of the food supply of these people is furnished by date and olive trees which they grow in the gulches of their limestone plateau. They built a dry rock dam behind which earth-wash lodges. In this the trees are planted and every rain sends more earth and soaks that which has collected. The plan can certainly not be called an experiment for the people have lived there for centuries. They have olive trees that are several centuries old and I have never seen such fine olive trees, not in California, or the plains of Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, or in Algeria or Tunis, and I have seen a good many olive trees in those countries. The olive tree is usually open, light and feathery. These in the Matmatas gulches are thick and black and rank.
For automatic cultivation and fertilization the plan of these primitive agriculturists is hard to beat. You put up your stone dam, and every time the gulley runs with water your crop is irrigated and fertilized. Can you beat it?
Three Americans of my acquaintance have independently experimented and discovered along similar lines.
The late Freeman Thorpe of Hubert, Minnesota, did it with much enthusiasm. So did the late Dr. Meyer, a friend of J. F. Jones, near Lancaster. He discovered it accidentally. He put a brush dam across a gully. Water stood behind it for days after every rain. The apple tree near it grew much more than the others. That started the Doctor. He began to dig small field reservoirs and collect water near trees and he found that it paid even with the very expensive process of hoe and shovel.
The idea has been modernized and brought to the machine stage which characterizes our present-day agriculture, by Mr. Lawrence Lee, a civil engineer-farmer of Leesburg, Va. Mr. Lee runs a level line across the face of the clay hills, and then with a Martin ditcher scoops out a terrace on this horizontal line. It makes the terrace so that the water will hold and will not run away. Mr. Lee is sure that nine-tenths of the heavy thunder shower runs off of the hills, in normal conditions of non-plowing, and that if he plows, most of the water and much of the soil go off together. He is also sure that the water pockets hold both water and soil.
Rows of apple trees planted below these waterholding terraces thrive without cultivation as well as do other trees across the row with cultivation, but with this difference, ordinary cultivation impoverishes the soil and this enriches it by keeping all mineral and organic matter in the field.
The combination of principles worked out by many primitive peoples and also by Messrs. Thorpe, Meyer and Lee makes it possible for the farmer to arrange his rough land in tree crops so that every rain will water his crops, even though the land may be rough and in sod. If he cannot run horizontal terraces he can dig holes near the trees and lead the water to these holes by two furrows with the turning plow. This is really an automatic kind of irrigation. By this means a farmer can use his odd time whenever he can work the ground, and thus do the cultivation for a whole year or two and at the same time preserve the soil and establish a permanent agriculture.
This gives the hill land the same chance as the level lands to grow fat sods. It offers a very interesting combination of blue grass pasture along with crops of black walnuts, Persian (English) walnuts, pecans, grafted hickories, mulberries (for pigs and chickens), persimmons (for pigs and sheep), oaks (which make more carbohydrate food than corn in many situations), honey locust (which has a bean as rich as bran and good for the same purpose) and many other crop trees that will be available if good brains keep developing the idea.
In this connection it may be pointed out that France exports millions of dollars worth of Persian walnuts and most of them are grown on isolated trees scattered about the fields and along roadsides.
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THE PRESIDENT: We will now adjourn to Sormani's for luncheon and then we will immediately start for Mr. Bixby's place on Long Island.
NOTES AT MR. BIXBY'S NUT ORCHARDS AND NURSERIES BALDWIN, NASSAU CO., N. Y.
September 4, 1924
Japan walnuts (seedlings) on street set out in 1918 or 1919. All except the tree on the south have borne, 1924 being the third year for one. One of them is a heartnut.
Chinkapins raised from seed outdoors.
Black walnuts grown in pots and transplanted with a ball of earth and the entire root. Set out without cutting back and sod and vines allowed to grow around them. While they grew rapidly before transplanting they have scarcely grown since.
Beaver Hickory seedlings. These illustrate well the information to be obtained frequently as to parentage by raising seedlings. The history of the Beaver tree was ascertained four or five years ago and from this and the appearance of the tree and its nuts, it was decided to be a shagbark x bitternut hybrid. The seedlings bear this out, for they vary from seemingly pure shagbark to pure bitternut with several in between looking somewhat like the parent tree. It may be that some of these will bear nuts that will be found valuable.
Japan walnut tree killed with butternut blight.
Chestnut trees killed with chestnut blight.
Main experimental orchard. This comprises about four acres and is laid out in rows running north and south, starting at an east and west road. There are 29 trees in each row running north and south, the trees being about 15 feet apart. A nut tree is put every 30 feet and a peach or apple or some other tree that is intended to be taken out later, is put in between.
Row 1 South—(1) Niblack Pecan (5) Warrick Pecan (7) Warrick Pecan (9) Greenriver Pecan (11) Greenriver Pecan (13) Mahan Hickory (15) Marquardt (?) Pecan (17) Siers Hickory (19) Wilkinson (?) Pecan (21) Kirtland Hickory (23) Greenbay Pecan (25) Weiker Hickory (27) Burlington Pecan (29) Kentucky Hickory. This Kentucky Hickory blossomed full and some two dozen nuts set which grew to about 5/8 inches long then they dropped off. Probably it will bear next year.
Row 2 South—(4) Moneymaker Pecan (10) Pleas Hickory (24) Dennis bitternut, bearing (26) Hatch Bitternut (?).
Row 3 South—(3) Stanley Hickory (5) Ridenhauer Almond (9) Burkett Pecan (11) Hales Hickory on shagbark (13) Hales Hickory on bitternut (21) Cedarapids Hickory on shagbark (23) Cedarapids Hickory on bitternut (25) Dennis Hickory (27) Fairbanks Hickory.
Row 3A South—Seedling Black Walnuts.
Row 3B South—Seedling Chinese Chestnuts.
Row 3C South—Seedling Chinese Chestnuts.
Row 4 South—(2) Rush Chinkapin (3) Miracle Chestnut (4) Chinkapin (7) Chinkapin (8) Chinkapin (9) Champion Chestnut (10) Paragon Chestnut (13) Riehl Chestnut (15) Paragon Chestnut (16) Paragon Chestnut (17) Miracle Chestnut (22) Champion Chestnut (29) Boone Chestnut. The above trees are all that remain of a row of 29 Chestnut and Chinkapin trees most of which were bearing two years ago, from which a good many quarts of Chestnuts were gathered. Some of them died in 1922 and more in 1923.
Row 5 South—(1) Beaver Hickory (2) Hacheye (?) Persimmon (3) McCallister Pecan (4) Hayakuma Persimmon (5) McCallister Pecan (6) Kawakami Persimmon (7) Busseron Pecan (9) Busseron Pecan (10) Lambert Persimmon (11) Butterick Pecan (12) Josephine Persimmon (13) Butterick Pecan (15) Kentucky Pecan (17) Kentucky Pecan (18) Golden Gem Persimmon (bearing) (19) Indiana Pecan (20) Rush Chinkapin (21) Indiana Pecan (23) Posey Pecan (25) Posey Pecan (27) Major Pecan (28) Parry Chestnut (29) Major Pecan.
Row 5A South—Pecan seedlings.
Row 5B South—Shellbark seedlings.
Row 6 South—(1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6),-(7), (8), (9), (10), (11), (12), (13), (14), (15), (17), (18), (19), (20), (21), (22), (23), (24) Hales Hickory, transplanted some years ago, brought from Monticello, Florida (25) Kentucky Hickory.
Row 6A North—Butternut seedlings.
Row 6B North—Butternut seedlings.
Row 7 South—Vest Hickory seedlings, Hales Hickory seedlings, Juglans cathayensis seedlings, Chinese Persian walnut seedlings, Papershell Chinese Persian walnut seedlings, Hybrid hazels (native Long Island x Italian Red 1923).
Row 7A South—Mockernut seedlings.
Row 7B South—Mockernut seedlings.
Row 7C South—Close bark pignut carya glabra seedlings. Loose bark pignut carya ovalis seedlings, Japan walnut seedlings, Adams Black Walnut seedlings.
Row 7D South—-Persian walnut seedlings, Stabler Black Walnut, perfect form seedlings, Stabler Black Walnut, one lobe seedlings.
Row 7A North—Japan Walnut seedlings.
Row 7B North—Japan Walnut seedlings.
Row 7C North—Japan Walnut seedlings.
Row 8 South—8A South—8B South—8C South—Seedling Japan Walnut x butternut hybrids.
Row 8A North—Japan Walnut seedlings.
Row 8B North—Japan Walnut seedlings.
Row 8C North—-Persimmon seedlings.
Row 9 South—(1) Miller Black Walnut (3) Thomas Black Walnut (4) Purple Hazel (5) Thomas Black Walnut (6) Fruhe Lange Hazel (7) Stabler Black Walnut (9) Kinder Black Walnut (11) Allen Black Walnut (13) Wasson Black Walnut (15) Peanut Black Walnut (17) Ten Eyck Black Walnut (19) Mattingly Black Walnut (21) McCoy Black Walnut (bearing) (23) Paradox Walnut (25) Ohio Black Walnut (bearing) (27) Herman Black Walnut (29) Stabler Black Walnut.
Row 10 South—-(2) Stranger Heartnut, bearing (4) California Black Walnut (6) Seedling Allen Black Walnut (8) Seedling Allen Black Walnut (10) Seedling Allen Black Walnut (12) Casper Hickory (14) Casper Hickory (16) Reike Hickory (18) Vest Hickory (20) Swaim Hickory (22) Swaim Hickory (23) Jordan Almond (24) Wampler Hickory (25) Jordan Almond (26) Wampler Hickory (27) Texas Prolific Almond (29) Texas Prolific Almond.
Row 10C North—Hickory Seedlings. Here may be seen the melancholy results of not planting hickory seedlings deep enough.
Row 11 South—(1) Aiken butternut, bearing (3) Stranger Heartnut, bearing, (5) Ritchie Heartnut, bearing (7), (9), (11), (13), (15), (17), (19), (21), (23), (25), (27), (29) Lancaster Heartnut bearing.
Row 11A South—Grafted and budded black walnuts.
Row 11B South—Grafted and budded black walnuts.
Row 11C—South—Grafted and budded butternuts and Japan Walnuts.
Row 11 North—(1), (2), (3), (4), Aiken butternut (6) Juglans mandshurica (8), (10) Deming butternut.
Row 11A North—Seedling Japan walnut x butternut hybrids.
Row 11B North—Seedling Japan Walnut x butternut hybrids.
Row 11C North—Seedling Japan Walnut x butternut hybrids.
Row 12—(2) Faust heartnut, bearing (4) Deming butternut, bearing (8) Burlington Pecan (10) Rockville Pecan (20) Snyder Hickory (27) Early Golden Persimmon (28) Rockville Pecan (29) Ruby Persimmon.
Row 12A South—Grafted and budded Black Walnuts, Stabler, Ohio, Thomas & Adams.
Row 12B South—Grafted and budded Black Walnuts, Wasson, McCoy, Ten Eyck, O'Connor hybrid Witte Persian Walnut.
Row 12C South—Grafted and budded butternut & Japan Walnut, Aiken butternut, Lancaster Heartnut.
Row 13 South—(1) Franquette Persian Walnut (3) Eureka Persian Walnut (4) Early Golden Persimmon (5) Holden Persian Walnut (7) Eureka Persian Walnut (8) Grosse Kugelnuss filbert, bearing (9) Holden Persian Walnut, bearing (10) White Lambert hazel (11) Alpine Persian Walnut, bearing (12) Italian Red Hazel (13) Lancaster Persian Walnut (14) McFarland Chestnut (15) Meylan Black Persian Walnut (16) Hale Persimmon (17) Rush Persian Walnut, bearing (18) Imperial Hazel (19) Cording Walnut, bearing (J cordiformis x regia) (20) Early Golden Persimmon (21) Hall Persian Walnut (22) Yemon Persimmon (23) Paradox walnut (24) Yemon Persimmon (25) Mayette Persian Walnut (26) Floreams Almond (27) Holden Persian Walnut (28) Floreams Almond (29) Mayette Persian Walnut.
Row 13 North—Chinese Almond so-called, 3 years old, really an apricot with edible kernels. Has proved perfectly hardy so far.
Row 14—Grafted and budded black walnuts, Boston Persian Walnut. O'Connor hybrid Walnut, Adams Black Walnut, Alley Black Walnut, Mosnat butternut.
Row 15—Grafted and budded Black Walnuts, O'Connor hybrid, Thomas, Stabler. Ohio Persian Walnut. Minnas Zeller Italian Red Hazel, bearing.
Row 16—American Hazels from West Virginia and Ohio.
Row 17—Landesberger Lange Zeller, Buettners Zeller, Hempels Zeller, Barnes No. 6, Hazel bearing hybrid nuts, Barnes No. 5 Hazel bearing hybrid nuts, Kentish Cob, Noce Lunghe filbert, Daviana Hazels, both bearing.
Row 18—Merveille de Bollwiller filbert bearing, Medium long filbert. Like Merveille de Bollwiller, Althaldestenbener Zeller.
Row 19—-Corylus californica, White Lambert filbert, Vest hazel, Grosse Kugelnuss, Hallersche Riesen filbert. Barcelona filbert, Italian Red filbert, Du Chilly filbert.
Row 20—-Long Island Hazel, bearing Blueberries. 8 plants of selected varieties, Jujube, Tree hazel, corylus colurna, Vest hazel bearing hybrid nuts, Daviana hazel bearing, White Aveline hazel, tree hazel, corylus colurna. Long Island hazel bearing, Red Aveline hazel bearing.
Row 21—Corylus californica, tree hazel corylus colurna. On the southern end of these rows will be found the grafted hickories.
Row 21—Grafted Shagbark hickories.
Row 22—Grafted Mockernut hickories.
Row 23—Grafted Mockernut hickories.
Row 24—Grafted Pignut hickories.
Row 25—Grafted Pignut hickories.
Row 27—Grafted Pecan hickories.
Row 28—Grafted Pecan hickories.
Row 30—Grafted Bitternut hickories.
Row 31—-Grafted Bitternut hickories.
Row 32—Grafted Bitternut hickories.
Row 33—Grafted Bitternut hickories.
Row 31—Grafted Bitternut hickory.
Additional Notes by Stenographer
This is a Royal Burbank walnut brought from California, in 1911. It stood in a yard in Brooklyn until 1917. It did not grow well there but since we have brought it out here it is growing and bearing, as you see. It is a hybrid of the California black and the Eastern black. The nut itself has not much value. The leaves are rather smaller than others. It would not compare with the propagated varieties. It is only considered as a rapid growing tree.
Here is a row of Beaver seedlings. This one is a typical shagbark. This one is like a bitternut. Every once in a while you will find a tall one with buds like the old tree. They are all Beaver seedlings from nuts gathered at the same time from the same tree.
Here are chinkapin seedlings grown out of doors. I simply threw them on the ground and covered them with leaves.
Here is a dead Japanese walnut tree. It died of a fungus, melanconium. You can see the fungus all the way down the trunk. It is a weak fungus and sometimes if the tree is nourished properly it will disappear.
This is a Lancaster heartnut. And so is this. One is much more prolific than the other. Both grafted on Japanese stock. It is bearing pretty well. It was put out in 1918.
Here is a Kentucky hickory. It had about 24 nuts, but they have fallen off.
This is a Moneymaker pecan. It is growing finely. I bought this tree from J. B. Wight, of Cairo, Ga. I also have a Burkett from Texas.
There is a Paragon chestnut which has escaped the blight. Fungus is beginning on the end of the branch, however.
Two years ago we had a whole row of these Boone chestnuts. This is the only one left. They were all in bearing then and a good many quarts of chestnuts were gathered. Some of them died in 1922 and more in 1923.
From here up, the trees are hickory (Hales) on pecans. They are ten years from the graft, and planted here from Monticello, Fla., two years ago. 23 out of the 24 trees living.
There are 12 varieties of Japanese persimmons, bought from Texas. This one shows winter-killing but will apparently live. (Hayakuma persimmon).
Here is a Jap. persimmon (Kawakami). It has not borne yet. Here is a McCallister pecan; originated from between the Wabash and Ohio Rivers.
Those are Thomas black walnuts; they have been out five years, and have not yet borne.
This is a Ten Eyck; it has made good growth this year and is a heavy bearer. This is a McCoy black walnut. This tree is bearing heavily this year, and bore one nut last year. It is about five or six years from the nursery. The parent tree is from near Rockport, Ind., and is a very large one.
Here is an Ohio; it came from Mr. Jones, I think. These trees are bearing heavily; they have been set out 5 or 6 years.
These trees are Lancaster heartnuts. They will probably bear heavily one year and less the next.
(Here catkins and nuts were found on the same branch, and a photograph was made).
MR. REED: There will probably not be any Lancaster here next spring; the late growth has devitalized the tree.
Here is a California black walnut but it has not grown very successfully.
Here is a Stranger heartnut from South Carolina, bearing.
Here is an O'Connor hybrid walnut on black walnut. The whole tree is 3-1/2 feet high; splendid growth for one year. The parent tree is in Maryland, about two miles from Mr. Littlepage's place.
Here is a Lancaster heartnut which has borne every year, without a stop; you see it is planted in a chicken yard.
EXHIBITS AT THE HOUSE OF WILLARD G. BIXBY, BALDWIN, N. Y.
September 4, 1924
BLACK WALNUTS Varieties: Adams Alley Herman McCoy Miller Ohio Stabler, Perfect Form One Lobe Ten Eyck Thomas Wasson Species: Juglans major, Arizona rupestris, Texas boliviensis, Bolivia insularis, Cuba The extremes of black walnut shape. Adams, long and narrow, Corsan, short and broad Varieties: Butternuts Aiken Deming
BUTTERNUTS AND JAPAN WALNUTS Varieties: Japan Walnuts Heartnuts Lancaster Ritchie Stranger Species: Juglans cinerea manshurica cathayensis sieboldiana cordiformis Rough shell Japan walnut Juglans sieboldiana x cinerea Juglans sieboldiana x nigra Cording, Juglans cordiformis x regia
Nuts from 4 trees on Grand Ave. Baldwin
CHESTNUTS Varieties: Boone Paragon Rochester Morris No. 2 Morris No. 3 Species: Chinkapin Castanopsis
HAZELS AND FILBERTS Varieties: Althaldensleben Barcelona Daviana Du Chilly Emperor Grosse Kugelnuss Imperial Italian Red Merveille de Bollwiller Montebello Noce Lunghe Red Aveline Red Lambert Rush (American) Vest (American) White Aveline White Lambert Species: Chinese tree Hazel (Corylus chinensis) Constantinople Hazel (tree corylus colurna) Thibet Hazel (Corylus tibetica) Hazel Blight (Specimen)
HICKORIES Varieties: Beaver Brooks Dennis Fairbanks, Parent tree Grafted tree Galloway Glover Griffin Hales Kirtland Laney Milford Pleas Siers, Parent tree Grafted tree Vest Weiker, Parent tree Grafted tree
It will be noticed that nuts from young grafted trees are generally larger than those from the parent trees Species and Hybrid: Arkansas Hickory, carya buckleyi Arkansana Bitternut, carya cordiformis, Dennis, Hatch Buckley Hickory, carya Buckleyi Chinese Hickory, carya cathayensis Pallid Hickory, carya pallida Shellbark, carya laciniosa, from 3 locations Water Hickory, carya aquatica Zorn, the largest hickory yet found, carya buckleyi Arkansana x alba
PECANS Northern Varieties: Burlington Busseron Butterick Campbell Greenriver Indiana Koontz Major McCallister Niblack Norton Posey Witte Species and curiosities: Seedling Pecan from Adams, Ill. The most northern native growing pecan yet seen by Willard G. Bixby Curtis Pecan, without inner shell partition Schley Pecan, one grown in Georgia, the other in southern Pennsylvania. This shows how the nuts are dwarfed by lack of sufficient summer heat
PERSIAN WALNUTS Varieties: Alpine Boston Colona Franquette Hall Holden Hutchinson Lancaster Mayette Milbank Ontario Pomeroy Rush Sayre Witte Seedlings and Hybrids Chinese Paper Shell Juglans regia x cinerea from 2 locations Allen, juglans regia x rupestris
MISCELLANEOUS Almond, Ridenhauer Chinese (edible apricot) Beechnuts, American (2 locations) European Queensland Nut Macadamia ternifolia Water Chestnuts: Nelumbium Luteum Nelumbium Speciosum
NOTES TAKEN AT MERRIBROOKE, DR. MORRIS' ESTATE NEAR STAMFORD, CONNECTICUT
Excursion of Friday, September 5, 1924
Arriving at Stamford, all guests and members were met at the station by cars from Dr. Morris' place. After coming together at the house, the members followed Dr. Morris to the main gateway, where the following program commenced:
DR. MORRIS: If you will all follow me here inside the gateway we will take the trees as they come in the order of the mimeographed sheet which you hold.
I will first say that the abnormalities at Merribrooke this year were three in number. First, a destructive invasion of the tent caterpillar which attacked nearly all kinds of trees during its traveling stage. Then came a canker worm invasion with partial or complete defoliation of even the forest trees. Almost all of the whole leaves on any tree represent the second set for the season. Then came a drought said to have been the most severe since 1871. As a result of these three influences most of the fruit trees and nut trees dropped their crops this year.
Among the many introduced and grafted trees at Merribrooke only about one hundred typical forms have been tagged for this occasion. The large tags on the trees represent types, the smaller tags represent different variations of the type. Numbers on the tags correspond to numbers on this list.
We will begin with No. 1—Original Taylor Shagbark hickory. Nut large, thin shelled, good cleavage and high quality. This is practically an annual bearer. The weevil likes it because it is very thin-shelled. Consequently we seldom get a good crop. Most of the trees were defoliated. This is the best all-around hickory that I have found. I gave prizes for years and got seedlings from all over the country, and this is the best one that I obtained growing right here at my gate. It is defoliated by both the tent caterpillar and the canker worm.
2. Buckley Hickory from Texas. Nut large, round, thick-shelled, peculiar flavor and fragrance. This hickory was first described in 1872 in Texas and then it was forgotten. Dr. Sargent was quite surprised when I told him that I had one for the variety really passed out of history among the botanists until the past two years. The bark is deeply ridged in the older trees. The tree has been crippled by the twig girdler this year.
3. Carolina Hickory Seedling (scaly bark hickory). Nut small, thin shelled, sweet. I think this is one of the most beautiful hickories we have. It has been crippled this year but not enough to hurt. It has a small, thin-shelled nut with sweet flavor. The older trees have the scale on the bark.
4. Carolina Hickory grafted upon other local wild stock, and I do not know whether it is macrocarpa or pignut.
5. Shagbark top-worked to Vest variety of shagbark from Virginia that Mr. Bixby described yesterday as having a shell so thin that it could be cracked with the hand.
6. Shagbark top-worked to Carolina and Kentucky varieties. Note the different foliage, and smaller leaves. Here is a graft of three hickories on one stock.
7. Shagbark top-worked to Vest shagbark above and to McCallister pecan below. The foliage of this McCallister would justify putting the tree in any grounds; but here on the shagbark stock the leaves are not so large. The foliage on Mr. Bixby's was large and beautiful.
8. Shagbark top-worked to Brooks shagbark. That tree prolongs the name of one of our audience into history.
9. Asiatic Winged Walnut (Pterocarya fraxinifolia). I think this would be valuable for hybridizing.
10. Grafted Woodall American (black) walnut. Nut small, thin shelled. Tree very prolific. This tree has not yet borne, but it should next year. I got that from a man near Milford, Del. The nut is thin-shelled and cracks very easily.
11. Grafted Lutz American Walnut from North Carolina. This tree is about six years from the graft. The nut is large.
QUESTION: When do you have frosts here at Stamford?
DR. MORRIS: The frosts are from about the middle of September until sometime in May. Sometimes we miss the September frosts.
12. Korean Nut Pine. Furnishes important food supply in northern Asia.
13. Grafted Papaw. Larger part Ketter variety. Prize fruits have weighed about one pound each. Smaller part Osborn variety No. 3, a choice kind.
14. Seedling Papaw.
15. Seedling Papaw, christened "Merribrooke prolific" with clusters of fruit of the first year's bearing. Five bunches on the tree and it is the first year out from the nursery. It is a very beautiful tree for the lawn.
The growing season of pawpaws is so long that a hard September frost may catch the fruit before it is ripe in this locality. Fruit will stand a light frost only.
16. Chinese Pistache seedling. Tree beautiful but nut too small for the market. May serve for hybridizing purposes. The autumn foliage of this tree is very wonderful.
17. Grafted Wolfe persimmon. Ripens fruit in July or August. This is an ordinary size fruit but the peculiarity is that it ripens before the others do.
18. Grafted Cannaday seedless persimmon. You see another member of our party has gone down to fame with this Cannaday seedless persimmon.
19. Stanley shellbark hickory grafted on shagbark stock.
20. Stock grafted to Kentucky shagbark.
21. Jeffrey Blue Bull Nut Pine. Nuts small, thin-shelled, rich. Eaten shell and all by the natives. This is one of the most beautiful of pines. In the top of the tree is placed one of the large gourds which I raise here on the place. I place these gourds in the tree-tops for bird-houses. All kinds of birds nest in them, from the chickadee to the barred duck. A squash may be used for this purpose as well as a gourd.
I raise the pines from seed.
22. Torrey nut pine from southern California. Nut is large, and has a fine flavor. I get my seeds from Bartner Brothers. Pines do not do so well near cities. The sulphites in the air are picked up by the pines and this kills them. This particular pine is a surprise to all botanists who have seen it; it is native in California and is one of the disappearing pines. I have had five of them and I raised them all from seed.
23. Chinese hazel. Grafted on common hazel and outgrowing it, The Chinese hazel makes a tree from 80 to 100 feet in height. This is the first year this tree has borne. It is grafted on common stock, and is beginning to bear earlier than it would have done on its own roots.
24. Butternut parthenogens. Some are large and some small but all are grown under the same conditions. That one was defoliated by the canker worm and then by the tent caterpillar and this is the fourth set of leaves it has put forth this year.
25. Hybrid walnut (Siebold x butternut) four years old.
26. Grafted American walnut. Peanut variety. Only one chubby half of kernel to each shell. The scions were sent here from Washington, D. C.
27. Mediate shagbark grafts (Cook variety). Grafted July 10 in midst of great drought. Compare this with the trees you will see farther on in the walk, grafted near the end of the drought. I do not have much trouble with the plain splice graft and I expect it to start ten days after I put it in.
Here is the way I treat a borer, although I have two or three ways of doing this. First I find a hole on the tree, like this one. Then I follow down to where the borers work. I cut that part away, inject chloroform and fill up the opening with common kitchen soap.
28. American Chestnut. Merribrooke variety, root-grafted on Japanese chestnut. I grafted that very low, below the ground. It is the best chestnut I have among several thousands that I planted. This tree was one of the first to go down with the blight, but I have grafted on other scions and have kept it going ever since.
29. Dresher chestnut (European origin) grafted on Japanese chestnut. The graft is about three years old. It has borne since the first year. There are several nuts on it now.
(Now we must be careful of the sharp stubs in the woods. These are newly cut brush paths, and all guests wearing low shoes should step carefully).
30. Stanley shellbark hickory, grafted on pignut hickory. Mr. Jones introduced this hickory.
31. Kentucky shagbark grafted on shagbark stock, with bark slot graft. I let another twig grow from the same lead for nourishment. I put in three grafts here two of which are dead. I do not quite approve of that method. I prefer now to go up to the small branches and then splice-graft on small branches.
32. Marquardt pecan grafted on stock of pignut. It does well on this hickory.
33. Hardy, hard-shell almond.
34. Woodall American walnut. This shows that the Woodall black walnut grows fairly well on butternut stock.
35. Shagbark hickory top-worked to Marquardt pecan.
36. Staminate persimmon trees.
37. Bony Bush filbert, grafted on common hazel. (Bush badly cut up by girdler beetle. Elaphidion. Five nuts on the bush).
38. Purple hazel. Look sharp to find the 20 nuts on this bush. This tree is about 5 years old.
39. Four large bitternut-hickory trees, top-worked to Beaver hybrid. Beaver branches distinguished by larger leaves and fewer leaflets. Stock shoots will be cut out gradually, allowing Beaver to have entire tree finally.
40. Bitternut hickory top-worked to Marquardt pecan.
41. Hybrid walnut. (Siebold x Persian). Tree riddled by walnut weevil every year hopelessly.
42. Taylor shagbark hickory grafted on shagbark stock. I fill the cavities with paraffin and turpentine. There are three or four nuts left in the top of the tree. The tree has borne nuts for three years.
43. Pinus edulis.
44. Marquardt pecan on bitternut.
45. Dead hybrid hickory, grafted to Beaver hybrid. Grafts made enormous growth in first year—10 feet for some grafts. All blew out in one minute of hurricane in advance of thunder storm.
46. Bartlett hazel grafted on common hazel. There are a number of dead ends, caused by a small worm you can hardly see.
47. Chinese chestnut. Blighted at foot of trunk but the tree continues to bear.
48. Garritson persimmon. Best of all varieties called seedless, but the large staminate tree nearby spoils that feature. It is about five years old, and bears very regularly and heavily. The stock came from Mr. Jones.
49. Early Golden persimmon. Carries one graft of Everhart seedless variety on lowest large branch.
50. Hybrid walnut. Juglans nigra. I do not remember which parent I used.
51. Pignolia nut pine. Pignolia pinea. It is a seedling. You can buy pignolia nuts in Europe for food everywhere.
52. Hardy soft-shelled almond. I do not know the variety as the label is lost; but the tree was put there about 3 or 4 years ago. It came from the Government.
58. Deming purple walnut. I think Dr. Deming can best tell you about this.
DR. DEMING: It grows on the side of the road between Norwalk and Danbury, where the very large black walnut tree is, 15 feet in circumference, said to be the largest in Connecticut. This purple variety has nuts with a brownish red involucre showing sharply against the green leaves. The young foliage is purplish red, and the cambium and the pellicle of the kernels are purple. It is a very fair nut and the tree is very striking when it starts in spring with the beautiful tufts of leaves.
DR. MORRIS: It may be a valuable wood for cabinet-makers. Every part of the wood is purple. There are two purple trees. The smaller tree is evidently a seedling of the larger.
54. Young Major pecan.
55. Webb Persian walnut on American walnut stock. The nuts are enormous and of Alpine type of good quality. You saw some of these yesterday among those brought in by Prof. Neilson. You sometimes see these in the French market where they are called "Argonne." I picked this up in Greenwood. It has many nuts this year and this is the second crop of leaves.
56. Busseron pecan. This had a full crop of flowers this year, both staminate and pistillate.
57. Appomattox pecan, from the James River in Virginia. This and four other kinds of pecans would have borne nuts this year excepting for defoliation. It is a handsome tree and will bear next year.
58. Seedling filbert. About six years old.
59. Daviana filbert from Europe. Many people call them "hazels," but I think we should call them "filberts."
60. Josephine persimmon. It has borne heavily every year except this year. It still has some leaves left. Some people are very fond of the fruit. I do not like that as well as the Garretson. It is a big persimmon and a very good one. The fruit stays on until late November and December. I think the Garretson is the best persimmon I have ever had.
61. Lambert persimmon. Largest fruited American kind.
62. Japanese persimmon, planted between the rocks for protection from wind in winter, and from heat in summer. Hardy now for two years but of slow growth.
63. Beaver grafted on bitternut.
64. Weiker hybrid hickory on shagbark stock.
65. European filbert grafted upon common hazel stock. The squirrels have lived on it. I can count 7 nuts left. I made grafts more than a foot long. It was planted three years ago. I could show you several hundred trees bearing heavily this year, and on all of them we lost the first crop of leaves.
66. Beaver grafted Nov. 5, 1922, on bitternut.
DR. ZIMMERMAN: Will they live when grafted at any time throughout the year?
DR. MORRIS: I would not be afraid to graft anything at any time of the year.
67. Taylor shagbark grafted July 21, 1924. Probably mockernut stock. Growth slow but sure.
68. Wild beak hazel. Nuts not so good as those of common hazel.
69. Bitternut top-worked to Beaver.
70. Hazel, patch-grafted here and there with Bony Bush filbert. The larger and darker leaves are Bony Bush.
71. Leonard shagbark grafted on stock probably shagbark. Nut very small, thin shelled, highest quality and keeps for four years without becoming rancid.
72. Shagbark top-worked to Taylor variety, but only a few grafts. Too much work for a tree of this size.
73. Pleas hybrid pecan on butternut stock.
74. Bitternut top-worked to Beaver.
75. Here is a very interesting object lesson. No. 74 is a bitternut top-worked to Beaver, and all doing well. The same day, with the same graft, I top-worked this pignut. The pignut refused the graft and died insulted. But another stock from the same root accepted Marquardt.
76. Bitternut stock accepting Marquardt pecan tardily.
77. Here is another form of borer. I treat them in this way: Cut away a little of the hole, pour in the chloroform and stop up the hole with soap. That will kill all of the borers in the tree.