The subjoined extracts of official documents are translated from a book published in Paris by Hachette et Cie., the full title of which is "The Germans, Destroyers of Cathedrals and of Treasures of the Past: Being a Compilation of Documents Belonging to the Ministry of Public Instruction and Fine Arts." The official documents are offered to "the literary and artistic associations of foreign countries." The editorial notes and comment are reproduced from the original text.
To the Artistic and Literary Associations of Foreign Countries and to all Friends of the Beautiful, in order that the System of Destruction of the German Armies be brought to their knowledge, the present Memorial is offered by:
Mme. JULIETTE ADAM. PAUL ADAM. M. ANQUETIN. ANDRE ANTOINE, Founder of the Theatre Libre. PAUL APPELL, Dean of the Faculty of Sciences, member of the Institute. MAURICE BARRES, Deputy, member of the Academie Francaise. ALBERT BARTHOLOME. JEAN BERAUD. TRISTAN BERNARD. ALBERT BESNARD, Director of the Academie de France at Rome, member of the Institute. PIERRE BONNARD. LEON BONNAT, member of the Institute, Director of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. EMILE-ANTOINE BOURDELLE. ELEMIR BOURGES, member of the Academie Goncourt. EMILE BOUTROUX, member of the Institute. ADOLPHE BRISSON, President of the Association de la Critique. ALFRED BRUNEAU. Dr. CAPITAN, Professor at the College de France, member of the Academie de Medecine. ALFRED CAPUS, member of the Academie Francaise. M. CAROLUS-DURAN, member of the Institute. GUSTAVE CHARPENTIER, member of the Institute. CAMILLE CHEVILLARD, Director of the Concerts-Lamoureux. PAUL CLAUDEL. GEORGES CLEMENCEAU, Senator, former President of the Council. ROMAIN COOLUS. ALFRED CORTOT. GEORGES COURTELINE. P.A.J. DAGNAN-BOUVERET, member of the Institute. CLAUDE DEBUSSY. Mme. VIRGINIE DEMONT-BRETON. JULES DESBOIS. LUCIEN DESCAVES, member of the Academie Goncourt. MAXIME DETHOMAS. AUGUSTE DORCHAIN. PAUL DUKAS. J. ERNEST-CHARLES, President of the Societe des Conferences Etrangeres. EMILE FABRE. EMILE FAGUET, member of the Academie Francaise. GABRIEL FAURE, member of the Institute, Director of the Conservatory of Music. CAMILLE FLAMMARION, President of the Societe Astronomique de France. ROBERT DE FLERS. ANDRE FONTAINAS. PAUL FORT. ANATOLE FRANCE, member of the Academie Francaise. A. DE LA GANDARA. FIRMIN GEMIER, Director of the Theatre-Antoine. ANDRE GIDE. CHARLES GIRAULT, member of the Institute. EDMOND GUIRAUD. LUCIEN GUITRY. EDMOND HARAUCOURT. LOUIS HAVET, member of the Institute. MAURICE HENNEQUIN, President of the Societe des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques. JACQUES HERMANT, President of the Societe des Architectes Diplomes par le Gouvernement. A.F. HEROLD. PAUL HERVIEU, member of the Academie Francaise. VINCENT D'INDY, Director of the Schola Cantorum. M. INGHELBREGHT. FRANCIS JAMMES. FRANTZ JOURDAIN, President of the Syndicat de la Presse Artistique, President of the Autumn Salon. GUSTAVE KAHN. VICTOR LALOUX, member of the Institute. HENRI LAVEDAN, member of the Academie Francaise. GEORGES LECOMTE, President of the Societe des Gens de Lettres. Mlle. MARIE LENERU. PIERRE LOTI, member of the Academie Francaise. MAURICE MAGRE. ARISTIDE MAILLOL. PAUL MARGUERITTE, member of the Academie Goncourt. HENRI MARTIN. M. MATISSE. MAX MAUREY. Mme. CATULLE MENDES. ANTONIN MERCIE, member of the Institute, President of the Societe des Artistes Francais. STUART MERRILL. ANDRE MESSAGER. OCTAVE MIRBEAU, member of the Academie Goncourt. CLAUDE MONET. Mme. DE NOAILLES. J.L. PASCAL, member of the Institute. EDMOND PERRIER, President of the Institute, Director of the Museum. GABRIEL PIERNE, Director of the Concerts-Colonne. M. PIOCH. CHARLES PLUMET. Mme. RACHILDE. J.F. RAFFAELLI. ODILON REDON. GEORGES RENARD, Professor at the College de France. JEAN RICHEPIN, member, of the Academie Francaise. AUGUSTS RODIN. ALFRED ROLL, President of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts. J.H. ROSNY, aine, member of the Academie Goncourt. EDMOND ROSTAND, member of the Academie Francaise. SAINT-GEORGES DE BOUHELIER. CAMILLE SAINT-SAENS, member of the Institute. GABRIEL SEAILLES. PAUL SIGNAC, President of the Societe des Artistes Independants. M. STEINLEN. FRANCIS VIELE-GRIFFIN. ADOLPHE WILLETTE.
* * * * *
To the Literary and Artistic Associations of Foreign Countries and to all Friends of the Beautiful:
"... It is not true that our troops brutally destroyed Louvain. It is not true that we make war in contempt of the rights of mankind. Our soldiers commit neither undisciplined nor cruel acts...."
MANIFESTO OF THE GERMAN INTELLECTUALS.
"If the savants make science what it is, science does not make the character of the savants what it is."
"... Scientific barbarism."
If we were able—at this hour, when, through the act of the Teutonic Empire, the world may witness unnamable deeds—if we were able to cite the most odious of them, we should say that, after the massacre of innocent people and all the assaults on the rights of mankind committed by the German armies, the worst has seemed to us the shameless manner in which the superior intellects beyond the Rhine have dared to cover up these crimes. It is not that we ever believed that from any corner of Germany there could come to us an appearance of fellow-feeling, in these circumstances wherein no one has any other right than that of giving himself body and soul to his native land. We know that, before speaking for the universe, men threatened by the enemy should be faithful to their flag, in the face of everything and against everything—and with resolution. At no hour, therefore, have we thought that German savants and artists could raise their voice to repudiate their armies, when the latter were going to war with the object of further extending their empire. But, at least, they should keep silence, and before the horror of crimes to be judged especially by the tribunal of the elite they should not have shown their miserable enthusiasm. "You see," as a clear-sighted Dutch professor has well written on this point, "if these intellectuals were not blinded they would rather have asked themselves if, in this war that stains Europe with blood, the Prussian military authorities were not losing for centuries the reputation of the great name of Germany." And suppose it were even a small matter if they had lost only the great name of Germany, that the epoch of Goethe, Kant, and Beethoven had covered with glory. But with it they have vilified as well the noble role of the philosopher, of the historian, of the savant, and of the artist. In truth they have betrayed their own gods, and the professions to which they belong can no longer be honored by them—so far as the question of conscience goes, at least. And as for the sacred thing called civilization, which is above our interests and our vanities of an hour, they may have served it usefully by their personal work in the past, but they were unequal to the task of remaining its protectors when their mere silence would perhaps have helped to save it. They have thus shown that, with their more or less sparkling black eagles and under the bedizenment of their Court costumes, they are for the most part narrow fanatics or paid scribes whose pen is only a tool in the hands of their master of a day. It is not even sure whether through their cult of this "militarism," to which they have given the most shameful blind-signature, they have not hopelessly condemned it, by testifying that under the rule of the German sabre human thought has no other course than to humiliate itself!... But on the score of what they are worth in professional morality and courage, agreement is certain today, everywhere.
[Footnote 5: Professor Dake.]
[Footnote 6: On the score of certain names important in Germany—names not found under the manifesto of the Intellectuals—a question arises: Were they not solicited as well to cover up these crimes, or did they refuse? If the question were one of a simple memorial, carrying with it no abdication of conscience, this point would be without importance, for it would simply mean that a list, however long, could not bring together all the men of renown of a country, and omissions would often have to be laid to chance. But here a venomous manifesto was to be signed, made up of violent lies and of arbitrary theories; and with this in mind one may see a meaning in certain abstentions. Without any possible doubt they are the act of courageous men, who, feeling deeply where the truth is, will not ally themselves against it; and by their resistance they do it honor.]
Their great affair—and that of every thinking German—is to object, when spoken to of their crimes, either that they were born of necessity or that they did not take place. As against these allegations, unsupported by any proof, the most formal denials have officially been given. But to the latter we shall now add the true description of the facts. And we think that, in spite of the power and the dogmatic authority of its elite, the activity of its emissaries in all parts of the world, and, finally, all its vast apparatus of conquest—military and civil—Germany cannot long make its stand against the humble little truth, which advances, noiselessly but also fearlessly, with the tenacious light in its hand that it received from Reality—from unquenchable and ardent Reality.
We come to you armed with the facts. It is only these unanswerable witnesses that we have wished to oppose to the gratuitous affirmations of our colleagues beyond the Rhine. We might have taken you into the mazes of twenty frightful dramas, for at every place where the German troops have advanced they have trodden under foot the rights of mankind and counted as nothing the civilization and the patrimony of nations. We have thought it wiser to limit ourselves to the relation of certain events bearing the seal of certainty.
Not all the cities which may have suffered have as yet opened their gates to our brothers. Not being able to collect authentic testimony there we prefer, then, not to speak of them—for the moment. But in all those evacuated by the enemy, commissions have hurried to ascertain the losses on the spot. It is from these legal examinations that we have written this report, which, in impartial fashion, makes you the judges.
[Footnote 7: Throughout this work we shall often have recourse to the reports of these commissions. At the end of the present volume will be found certain of these documents, unpublished till now.]
Unhappy cities have been tortured in body and soul, that is to say, in their population and in the works built by their hands, the immortal relics of the dead. Of the miseries the people have suffered it is not permitted us to speak. But as to those noble houses built with art which have been destroyed, as to those constructions erected by our ancestors for the edification of men of all classes, of all times, and all countries, which are today but ruins; as to those masterpieces in which all the elegant poetry of our race was realized and that belonged to the civilized world, of which they were a glory and an ornament, and which subsist as nothing but a mournful heap of debris—of these we are not bound to keep silent. But not one exaggerated word shall be uttered by us. The account we shall give is established by high testimony and by irrefutable documents.
But let us cease all this preparation and come to the events of Rheims.
(Page 59 of the book.)
M. Henry Jadart, Librarian of the City of Rheims and Curator of the Museum of that city, was present at the bombardments of the 4th and the 19th of September. He was well placed to enlighten us on the destruction accomplished at the time.
He was kind enough to send us the communication which we publish below. From the testimony of M. Jadart, it will appear how many monumental constructions at Rheims were mutilated or destroyed, and how these attest, not less than the ruins of the cathedral, the vandalism of the German armies:
Friday, Sept. 4.—The bombardment, which took place suddenly from half-past 9 till quarter-past 10 in the morning, caused some accidents to the cathedral, more or less notable from the point of view of art, (some stained glass more or less ancient, some slight scratches to the statues;) at the Church of Saint-Remi (ancient stained glass, tapestry of the sixteenth century, pictures of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, altar screen, statues, south portal, and vault of transept) and at the Museum of Fine Arts, Rue Chanzy, 8, (salle Henry Vasnier broken in by a shell, about twenty modern pictures damaged.) Besides, among the houses struck, the Gothic house, 57 Rue de Vesle, suffered mutilation in the sculpture of a fireplace—it was entirely demolished by the bombardment and fire of Sept. 19.
Saturday, Sept. 19.—This was the day of the great destruction by the bombs and the fires caused in the cathedral, the ancient residence of the Archbishop, in the houses of the Place Royale, and the Ceres quarter. On the afternoon of this day and during the night from Saturday to Sunday, flames consumed the most precious collections of the city, at the Archbishop's palace and in private houses, an inventory of which it will never be possible to prepare.
The top of the cathedral burned after the scaffolding of the northern tower of the great portal had taken fire, toward 3 o'clock in the afternoon. The statues and sculptures of this side of the same portal were licked by the flames and scorched through and through. The eight bells in this tower also were caught by the flames, and the whole thing fell down near the cross aisle of the transept. The spire of the Belfry of the Angel, at the apse, fell, and with it disappeared the leaden heads which decorated its base. In the interior the sculptures and the walls of the edifice were damaged by fire in the straw which had been strewn about for the German wounded; the great eighteenth century tympanums of the lateral doors, west side, were damaged likewise. The thirteenth century stained glass suffered shocks from the air and were perforated, in the rose windows as also in the high windows of the nave. The pictures in the transept were spared, but the choir stalls (eighteenth century work) were consumed—at the left on entering.
Of the adjacent palace all the buildings were attacked by the flames and are now nothing but ruined walls, save the chapel of the thirteenth century, of which the main part subsists intact, and the lower hall of the King's Lodge, under the Hall of Anointment, (of the end of the fifteenth century.) The anointment rooms on the ground floor, reconstructed in the seventeenth century, contained a great number of historical portraits and furniture of various periods, which were all a prey to the flames. It was the same in the apartments of the Archbishops, which also contained numerous pictures and different views of the city, transported from the Hotel de Ville and intended for the formation of a historical museum of Rheims. Precious furniture, bronzes of great value—like the foot of the candelabra of Saint Remi and the candelabra of the Abbaye d'Igny—were also in these apartments, of which nothing is left but the walls. The archaeological collections of the city were consumed in the upper apartments, as also a whole museum, organized and classified to represent the ethnography of la Champagne by a thousand objects tracing back the ancient industries, the trades, the arts, and usages of this province. Finally, the rich library founded by Cardinal Gousset, offering superb editions and assembled in a vast paneled hall, was totally burned up in the modern building constructed for it at the expense of the State.
After the disasters to the arts at the cathedral and the palace, we must note also the mansions and private houses, remarkable through their architecture and their decoration, that were demolished, burned, and annihilated. No. 1 Rue du Marc, Renaissance mansion—damage to the sculptured ceiling and the sculptures of the court. Two pavilions of the Place Royale, creations of the eighteenth century, are now only calcined walls. The same fate overtook the Gothic house, 57 Rue de Vesle, (of which mention was made above;) the house, 40 Rue de l'Universite, built in the eighteenth century; the house next to the Ecu de Rheims, of the same period; the mansion at 12 Rue la Grue, which was decorated with carved lintels and forged iron banisters; the mansion at 19 Rue Eugene-Destenque, in the style of the Henri IV. period, having a great stone fireplace and decorative paintings in one gallery. Finally, in the Rue des Trois-Raisinets, the remains of the monastery of the Franciscans, with a cloister, and the framework of a granary of the Middle Ages.
These notes are really only observations to be completed later with the aid of descriptions of ancient date, but they offer sure information of the lamentable losses suffered by our unfortunate city during the first month of its bombardment.
Paris, Jan. 20, 1915.
THE FIXED IDEA.
From M. Auguste Dorchain we receive this striking observation:
The idea of destroying the cathedral haunted them for a hundred years, at least. Three dates, three texts, three proofs:
April, 1814, Jean-Joseph Goerres, an illustrious professor, the pious author of a "Christian Mysticism," in four volumes, wrote, in the Rheinische Merkur:
"Reduce to ashes that basilica of Rheims where Klodovig was anointed, where that Empire of the Franks was born—the false brothers of the noble Teutons; burn that cathedral!..."
Sept. 5, 1914, we read in the Berliner Blatt:
"The western group of our armies in France has already passed the second line of defensive forts, except Rheims, whose royal splendor, which dates back to the time of the white lilies, will not fail to crumble to dust, soon, under the fire of our mortars."
Jan. 1, 1915. In the artistic and literary supplement of the Berlin Lokal-Anzeiger M. Rudolf Herzog sings an ode "in honor of the destruction of the Cathedral of Rheims":
"The bells sound no more in the cathedral with two towers. Finished is the benediction!... With lead, O Rheims, we have shut your house of idolatry!"
A lyric cry of the heart, when the national wish, a century old, is at last accomplished.
No comment on these three texts—it suffices to bring them together.
Feb. 20, 1915.
LETTER OF M. L'ABBE DOURLENT.
M. l'Abbe Dourlent, Curate Archpresbyter of the Cathedral of Senlis, was one of the principal witnesses of the drama. So he has had to speak of it several times. But up to now we had no written deposition from him over his signature. Here is the document which comes from this priest. It attests his courage and sincerity at the same time.
Diocese of Beauvais, Archpresbytery and Parish of Senlis, (Oise.)
SENLIS, Jan. 8, 1915.
Monsieur: You do me the honor to ask for my testimony as to the actions of the enemy at Senlis at the time of the occupation, on the 2d of September.
I beg to send you my attestation, and express my confusion and regret at not having been able to do so sooner.
On the 2d of September an engagement took place between the French and German troops on the plain of Senlis from 10 o'clock till about half-past 2, and it was ended by the bombardment of our beautiful cathedral and a part of the city. The enemy entered the city about half-past 3 and were received at the end of the Faubourg St. Martin by a fusillade directed against them by delayed soldiers and a company armed with machine guns, charged with arresting the pursuit of the French Army, which was bending back toward Paris.
Immediately the superior officer, who was conversing with M. Odent, the Mayor of Senlis, accused the civilians of having fired on the German Army, and rendered him responsible for it. Then began the burning of the whole Rue de la Republique. This untruth was immediately spread about, and two hours after the affray a General said at Villers-Saint-Frambourg what another General said next morning at Nanteuil-le-Haudouin: That Senlis was burned because the civilians had fired on the German Army. The thirty-seven hostages brought to Chamant heard the same statement.
To this testimony I will add my own, which will only confirm what is said above: As soon as the enemy arrived soldiers of the cyclist corps obliged me to conduct them to the top of the belfry of our cathedral, from which they pretended that they had been shot at. Their inspection revealed nothing of what they thought to find, for I alone had the key and I had confided it to no one. Some moments later I was consigned to the Hotel du Grand-Cerf as a hostage. The German General Staff had gone to Chamant. Some hours later I accosted a superior officer and asked him what I should do, seeing no one of whom I could inquire the reason for my arrest. "Remain here, where you will at least be in safety. Poor curate! Poor Senlis! But, then, why did you receive us as you did? The civilians shot at us, and we were fired at from the tower of your church. So Senlis is condemned. You see that street in flames? (and, in fact, the Rue de la Republique was burning everywhere, 114 houses in ruins) well, this night the city itself will be entirely burned down. We have the order to make of Senlis a French Louvain. At Louvain the Belgians shot at us from their houses, from their belfries—Louvain no longer exists. Tomorrow it will be the same with your place. We admit fighting among soldiers, that is war; but we are pitiless with civilians. Paris and the whole of France need a terrible example which shall remind them that warfare by civilians is a crime that cannot be too severely punished."
My energetic protest against the accusation concerning the cathedral and my other doubts formulated against the intervention of civilians (I did not know what was the nature of the engagement in the Faubourg) seemed to interest the officer, who promised to make a report to the General and to plead our cause. Thanks to God, the sentence was repealed; our poor Mayor and ten hostages were shot, but the city was spared.
Such are the facts, which I thought might be of interest in your researches. I am at your orders to complete them if you need more.
I beg you, Sir, to accept the expression of my most respectful sentiments.
(Signed.) DOURLENT. Curate Archpresbyter of Senlis.
THE LIBRARY OF LOUVAIN.
To close the series of depositions collected by us, here is that of M. Paul Delannoy, Librarian of the University of Louvain. The few lines he was kind enough to address to us will suffice to show the extent of the treasure formerly at Louvain and also of the disaster accomplished, which seems irreparable:
The library of the University of Louvain possessed 500 manuscripts, about 800 incunabulae, and 250,000 to 300,000 volumes. One noted especially the original of the bull of foundation of the university in 1425, an example on vellum of the famous work of Andre Vesale, De Humani Corporis Fabrica, an example given to the university by Charles V., a precious manuscript by Thomas a Kempis. The bibliographical curiosities were numerous; the collection of old Flemish bindings of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries contained some curious specimens. The souvenirs of the ancient university, seals, diplomas, medals, &c., were preciously guarded in cases. The old printed matters of the sixteenth century formed an extremely rare treasury; all the pieces, pamphlets, and placards on the reform of the Low Countries were kept together in a "varia" volume, thus constituting a unique ensemble. It was the same with a host of pieces relating to Jansenism.
The great halls of the books, with artistic woodwork, were jewels of eighteenth century architecture; the Salle des Pas-Perdus of the Halles Universitaires, with its vaults and capitals, has been reproduced in manuals of art and archaeology.
The reading room of the library contained a whole gallery of portraits of professors of the ancient university; this museum was a very precious source for the literary history of the Low Countries.
THE TESTIMONY OF M. PIERRE LOTI.
Finally, covering these various testimonies, and deriving from his illustrious signature a character of high distinction, here is what M. Pierre Loti writes us:
More or less, everywhere in the north and east of our dear France, I have seen with my eyes the German abominations, in which, without this experience, I could not have believed.
In indignation and horror I associate myself with the protestations above, as well as with all those, not yet formulated, which will come out later on and which will always be below the monstrous reality.
So we may say that the present memorial, tempered many a time, is less an excessive than a perfectly moderate picture.
NOTRE DAME DE PARIS.
It will be remembered that on the 11th of October a Taube, having managed to penetrate the zone of Paris, flew over the city, hovered just above Notre Dame, and dropped several bombs on the cathedral. Note that this was on Sunday and that at the hour when this Taube accomplished its disastrous mission there was in Notre Dame a very great crowd of worshippers. None of them was hurt, but the distinction was undeniably that of killing unarmed people and mutilating a marvel of French art.
Let us now read the first report, signed by M. Harancourt, who was able to proceed to interesting discoveries on the very day of the attempt:
Musee des Thermes et de l'Hotel de Cluny. Sunday, Oct. 11, 1914.
To the Under Secretary of State for the Fine Arts, Service of Historic Monuments.
As I reside in the arrondissement of Notre Dame, I got to the cathedral some moments after the explosion of the bombs. In the company of a Commissary of Police, of an architect of the city, of a Canon, and of two Sergeants of the Fire Department, I examined the damage caused in order to be able to advise the Service of Historical Monuments immediately if the case should be urgent.
The bomb exploded on the west slope of the roof of the north transept, a little above the gutter, near the clock. After having pierced the lead covering it seems to have exploded only after having struck the transverse beam, whose end is splintered. The explosion, having thus taken place under the covering, pushed the edges of the tear outward, making a hole in this covering through which a young person could pass; six small beams were split round about. The bomb was loaded like shrapnel, apparently with leaden bullets of different calibres, for the roof is riddled with circular holes to a distance of twenty meters from there. The holes are of various diameters, but none of the bullets could be found. The nearest turret was damaged—several ornaments were broken from it—the modern clockstand that incases the big clock was riddled by pieces of shell. The bomb thrown at the apse and which fell in the garden was not this time a shrapnel bomb, but an incendiary bomb, which only threw out a sheet of flame. The third having fallen into the Seine, toward the south side of the porch, it is difficult to say whether it was a shrapnel bomb or an incendiary.
To sum up, the damage from the artistic point of view is almost nil; it simply calls for some work by carpenters and roofers.
But the intention to harm the building is evident, and I have thought that perhaps it would be well to take certain precautions to protect, if possible, the fine fourteenth century statue of the Virgin that stands near the pillar, and that it is not impossible perhaps to transfer it to a safer place.
E. HARANCOURT, Member of the Commission on Historical Monuments.
A report from M. Paul Boeswillwald, Inspector General of Historical Monuments, confirms the first statements:
Historical Monuments, Cathedral of Paris.
PARIS, Oct. 12, 1914.
The Inspector General of Historical Monuments to the Under Secretary of State for the Fine Arts.
I have the honor to report that I went this morning to Notre Dame to examine the damage caused by the bomb thrown yesterday afternoon on to the cathedral by a German aviator. The bomb struck the lower part of the west slope of the top of the north transept, tearing the lead, breaking a piece of the wooden frame, and smashing by its explosion the crown of the pinnacle which cuts the balustrade at the right of the flying buttress intermediary in the sexpartite vault of the transept. Other effects of the explosion were the striking of some stones and the leads of the dormer window which carries the frame of a clock, as also some small windows. The fragments of the pinnacle fell on the roof of the lower slope, where they made a deep imprint on the lead cover without breaking it through.
The projectile was not an incendiary bomb, since the wood splintered by it bears no trace of fire.
To resume, the damage is, fortunately, quite unimportant.
The order has been given to set aside all the fragments of stone belonging to the decoration of the pinnacle, remains of crockets, ornaments, &c.
(Signed) PAUL BOESWILLWALD.
With all the friends of civilization and of art, we think that the question of the slightness of the damage caused by this Taube is not to be considered at all. But the fact of this Taube having accomplished such a raid with the sole design of bombarding a cathedral in a peaceful city, 100 kilometres off from the military operations—is it not the most patent and evident demonstration of the kind of Neronian dilettantism which, along with calculation, inspires the crimes of the barbarians?
WHAT OUR PROVINCIAL CITIES ARE.
Here is a page published by Anatole France apropos of the bombardment of Soissons:
I had just read in a newspaper that the Germans, who have been bombarding Soissons these four months, have dropped eighty shells on the cathedral. A moment later chance brought before me a book of M. Andre Hallays, where I find these lines, which I take pleasure in transcribing:
"Soissons is a white city, peaceful and smiling, that raises its tower and pointed spires at the edge of a lazy river, at the centre of a circle of green hills. The city and the landscape make one think of the little pictures that the illuminators of our old manuscripts lovingly painted.... Precious monuments show the whole history of the French Monarchy, from the Merovingian crypts of the Abbaye de Saint-Medard to the fine mansion erected on the eve of the Revolution for the Governors of the province. Amid narrow streets and little gardens a magnificent cathedral extends the two arms of its great transept; at the north is a straight wall, and an immense stained-glass window; at the south, that marvelous apse where the ogive and the full centre combine in so delicate a fashion." ("Around Paris," Page 207.)
That charming page from a writer who dearly loves the cities and monuments of France brought tears to my eyes. It charmed my sadness. I want to thank my colleague for it publicly.
The brutal and stupid destruction of monuments consecrated by art and the years is a crime that war does not excuse. May it be an eternal opprobrium for the Germans!
MARTYRDOM THAT ENNOBLES.
To illustrate this memorial, which is first addressed to the Friends of the Beautiful, and whose object is to touch the heart, we give a sonnet of M. Edmond Rostand. It is entitled, "The Cathedral," and will show that pride may be taken by the victim of violence, and that a crime against the beautiful diminishes only the brute who commits it:
Nought have they done but render it more immortal! The work does not perish that a scoundrel has struck. Ask Phidias, then, or ask of Rodin if before bits of his work men no longer say, "It is his!" The fortress dies when once dismantled, but the temple shattered lives but the more nobly; and our eyes, of a sudden, remember the roof with disdain and prefer to see the sky in the lace work of the stone. Let us give thanks, since till now we lacked what the Greeks possess on the hill of gold—the symbol of beauty consecrated by insult! Let us give thanks to the layers of the stupid cannon, since from their German skill there results for them—shame; for us—a Parthenon!
A SOLEMN PROTEST.
We mean the one issued on the 29th of October by the Academie Francaise at one of its sessions, meeting under the Presidency of M. Marcel Prevost, M. Etienne Lamy being Perpetual Secretary. The President of the Republic, M. Raymond Poincare, made it a point to be present at this session, and here is the document that, after long deliberation, was approved by the unanimous vote of the members present:
The Academie Francaise protests against all the affirmations by which Germany lyingly imputes to France or to its allies the responsibility for the war.
It protests against all the negations opposed to the evident authenticity of the abominable acts committed by the German armies.
In the name of French civilization and human civilization, it stigmatizes the violators of Belgian neutrality, the killers of women and children, the savage destroyers of noble monuments of the past, the incendiaries of the University of Louvain, of the Cathedral of Rheims, and those who wanted also to burn Notre Dame.
It expresses its enthusiasm for the armies that struggle against the coalition of Germany and Austria.
With profound emotion it salutes our soldiers who, animated by the virtues of our ancestors, are thus demonstrating the immortality of France.
When these words were published they may have appeared excessive to certain minds outside of the best-informed circles.... Since then diplomatic documents have appeared, followed by various official reports on German atrocities, and today the truth is known to all.
THE FRENCH POINT OF VIEW.
On the 9th of November the President of the Council, M. Rene Viviani, traveled to Rheims in order to deliver to the Mayor, M. Langlet, the Cross of the Legion of Honor that his courage had gained for him. On this occasion the President of the Council pronounced the discourse from which the following is cited as exhibiting French thought on the present war:
As if it were really necessary to accentuate the role of France, German militarism has raised its voice. It proclaims, through the organ of those whose mission it is to think for it, the cult of force and that history asks no accounts from the victor. We are not a chimerical people, nor dreamers, we do not despise force; only we put it in its place, which is at the service of the right. It is for the right that we are contending, for that Belgium is struggling by our side, she who sacrificed herself for honor; and for that, also, our English and Russian allies whose armies, while waiting till they can tread this unchained force under foot, oppose it with an invincible rampart. France is not a preying country; it does not stretch out rapacious hands to enslave the world. Since war has been forced upon her, she makes war. Soon the legitimate reparations will come which shall restore to the French hearth the souls that the brutality of arms separated from it. Associated in a work of human liberation we shall go on, allies and Frenchmen united in war and for peace, as long as we have not broken Prussian militarism and the sword of murder with the sword of freedom.
Chronology of the War
Showing Progress of Campaigns on All Fronts and Collateral Events from June 15, 1915, Up to and Including July 15, 1915.
CAMPAIGN IN EASTERN EUROPE
June 16—Austro-German drive toward Lemberg continues, although Russians are moving reinforcements to their retreating line; only section where Russians are checking the Teutonic allies is that between the Dniester marshes and Zurawna; Austrian official statement says that 108 Russian officers, 122,300 men, 53 cannon, and 187 machine guns were captured during the first fifteen days of June; Russians estimate that 2,800,000 men are operating against them.
June 17—Austro-German drive at Lemberg continues from the west and northwest; at one point Russians are retreating over their own frontier toward Tarnogrod, four miles from the Galician border; Austro-Germans have battered their way through Niemerow, thirty miles northwest of Lemberg, and are advancing toward Jaworow, twenty-five miles from Lemberg.
June 18—Austro-Germans are nearer Lemberg; the battle for the Galician capital is raging along a fortified line at Grodek, sixteen miles west of Lemberg; Austro-Germans drive Russians across the frontier of Poland near Tarnogrod, which falls into the hands of the Teutonic allies; Austrians penetrate ten miles into Bessarabia.
June 19—Austro-Germans make important gains in their drive on Lemberg; they take the strongly fortified town of Grodek, and cross the River Tanew; they take Komarno, twenty miles southwest of Lemberg.
June 20—Russians are in general retreat along their entire front west of Lemberg; Mackensen's men take Russian trenches along a front of nearly twenty-four miles northwest of Lemberg.
June 21—Austro-Germans take Rawa Ruska, and are now fighting east of that town, the investment of Lemberg being almost complete; advance forces of the Teutonic allies are within nine miles of the limits of Lemberg; north and south of Lemberg the Russians are falling back toward the city; on the Upper Dniester the Russians are beginning to evacuate their positions.
June 22—Austro-German forces take Lemberg, capital of Galicia, which has been held by the Russians since Sept. 3, and which they have called Lvov, the Second Austrian Army, under General von Boehm-Ermolli, entering first; Russians withdraw systematically and in good order, leaving behind few prisoners and removing the Russian documents from the city; Russians along practically the whole line in Galicia are abandoning as much territory as they can cover in the twenty-four hours each day, retreating in fairly good order.
June 23—Russians are retreating near Rawa Ruska and Zolkiew; Russians are also retreating between the San and Vistula Rivers and in the hill district of Kielce, Russian Poland; Montenegrins are marching against Scutari, Albania, in three columns.
June 24—Russians are still retreating in Galicia.
June 25—Russians throw part of General Linsingen's army back across the Dniester to the south bank; Petrograd reports that the Russian armies, despite their weeks of retreat in Galicia, are practically intact, and that they have inflicted vast losses on the Austro-Germans, having captured 130,000 men, 60 cannon, and nearly 300 machine guns; severe fighting in Bessarabia.
June 27—Russians retreat in Galicia, both north and south of Lemberg; Serbians capture Micharskaada, Austria, near Shabatz, taking much war material.
June 28—Austro-Germans take the Galician town of Halicz and cross the Dniester; Russians are falling back to the Gnila Lipa River; northeast of Lemberg the Austro-Germans are forcing back the Russians, who are forming along the Bug River; Montenegrins occupy the Albanian harbor of Giovanni Medua and are now marching on Alessio.
June 29—Austro-Germans drive Russians across the Russian frontier north of Lemberg, taking the town of Tomaszow, Poland; Austro-Germans reach the Gnila Lipa River and the Bug River, near Kamionka; Rome reports that the Montenegrins have entered Scutari, Albania.
June 30—To the north and northwest of Lemberg the Russians continue to retreat; the Austro-Germans take another Polish town, Zawichost, just over the frontier.
July 1—Austro-Germans continue their drive into Poland from Galicia, and take the fortress of Zamost, twenty-five miles north of the Galician frontier; east of Lemberg the Austrian troops are pressing forward; von Mackensen's troops advance between the Vistula and Bug Rivers; Austrian official statement says that during June the Teutonic allies in Galicia captured 521 officers, 194,000 men, 93 guns, 164 machine guns, 78 caisson, and 100 military railway carriages.
July 2—Austro-Germans continue to advance in Galicia and Poland.
July 3—Austro-Germans continue to advance as the Russians fall back in good order; west of Zamosc the Russians are repulsed beyond the Por River; east of Krasnik, the Austro-Germans capture Studzianki; it is unofficially estimated by Berlin experts that from May 2 until June 27 the Russians left in the hands of the Germans 1,630 officers and 520,000 men as prisoners, 300 field guns, 770 machine guns, and vast quantities of war material.
July 4—Linsingen's army is advancing toward the Zlota Lipa River, the Russians falling back; along the Bug River Mackensen's armies are attacking; Teutonic allies take the heights north of Krasnik; there is fierce fighting in the Russian Baltic provinces.
July 5—Russians are making a desperate stand between the Pruth and Dniester Rivers.
July 6—With the exception of certain sectors between the Vistula and the Bug Rivers, the Austro-German drive seems to be losing its momentum: the Russians are holding at most points along their line.
July 7—Russians, who have been strongly reinforced, check the Austro-German advance toward the Lublin Railway, which threatens to imperil Warsaw.
July 8—Russians hold up Austro-German attempt to outflank Warsaw from the southwest; Austrians are compelled to retire north of Krasnik; Austro-Germans are checked on the lower Zlota Lipa River.
July 10—Russians are delivering smashing blows against the Austrians, commanded by Archduke Ferdinand, in Southern Poland.
July 12—On the East Prussian front, near Suwalki, the Germans take 2-1/2 miles of Russian trenches; in the Lublin region, Southern Poland, the Russian troops, having completed their counter-offensive movement, occupy the positions assigned to them on the heights of the right bank of the River Urzendooka; Austrians repulse strong and repeated Montenegrin attacks on the Herzegovina frontier.
July 13—The Austrians in the Lublin region are retreating toward the Galician frontier and some of them have crossed the border into their own territory.
July 15—Germans renew their drive on Warsaw from the north, and take Przasnysz, a fortified town fifty miles north of Warsaw.
CAMPAIGN IN WESTERN EUROPE
June 16—British resume offensive near Ypres, north of Hooge, capturing trenches along a front of 1,000 yards; French make gains north of Arras, in the labyrinth, and near Souchez and Lorette; French make progress in the Vosges, on both banks of the Fecht River.
June 17—After severe fighting for two days, during which the Germans bring 220,000 men into action and the French fire 300,000 shells, French make important gains near Souchez and at other points in the sector north of Arras; French retain nearly all their gains, despite furious counter-attacks.
June 18—A strong and concerted attack is being made by the British and French upon the German front from east of Ypres to south of Arras; British retain a first line of German trenches won east of Ypres.
June 19—French carry by assault the position of Fond de Buval, a ravine west of the road between Souchez and Aix-Noulette, where fighting has been in progress since May 9; French advance northwest of the labyrinth; French advance farther on the Fecht River in Alsace, Germans evacuating Metzeral, after setting it on fire.
June 20—Germans make a strong attack on the French lines in the Western Argonne, the French stating that it was preceded by a bombardment with asphyxiating projectiles.
June 21—French take trenches on the heights of the Meuse; in Lorraine the French advance and take the works to the west of Gondrexon; in Alsace the French are advancing beyond Metzeral in the direction of Meyerhof.
June 22—It is officially announced that the French are in possession of the labyrinth, for which furious fighting has been in progress day and night since May 30; the labyrinth consists of a vast network of fortifications built by the Germans between Neuville-St. Vaast and Ecurie, north of Arras, forming a salient of the German line.
June 25—On the heights of the Meuse, at the Calonne trench, Germans make a violent night attack, with the aid of asphyxiating bombs and flaming liquids, and penetrate that portion of the former German second line of defense recently taken by the French, but the French retake the ground by a counter-attack.
June 26—Germans retake some of their trenches north of Souchez.
June 27—Violent artillery fighting occurs in Belgium and north of Arras.
June 28—Severe artillery duels are fought along the front from the Aisne to Flanders.
June 29—Heavy cannonading is in progress north of Arras, particularly near Souchez.
June 30—Artillery actions are fought north of Arras and on the banks of the Yser; in the Argonne the Germans gain a foothold at some points of the French line near Bagatelle.
July 1—North of Arras and along the Aisne heavy artillery engagements are being fought.
July 2—In the western part of the Argonne a German army under the Crown Prince takes the offensive, and northwest of Le Four-de-Paris German troops advance from one-eighth to one-fifth of a mile on a three-mile front, taking war material and prisoners.
July 3—German artillery carries on severe bombardments along practically the whole front; French repulse two German attacks in the region of Metzeral.
July 4—Spirited artillery actions are fought in the region of Nieuport and on the Steenstraete-Het Sase front.
July 5—Germans take trenches from the French at the Forest of Le Pretre; French repulse attacks north of Arras.
July 6—British gain near Ypres, expelling Germans from trenches near Pilkem won during the gas assaults in April.
July 8—French take 800 yards of trenches north of the Souchez railway station, Germans recapturing 100 yards; German counter-attacks on the trenches southwest of Pilkem, recently taken by the British, are repulsed by British and French artillery.
July 9—British press on north of Ypres, the Germans falling back after a two-days' bombardment; in the Vosges, near Fontenelle, the French advance.
July 10—French check the Germans north of Arras and the Belgians check them on the Yser.
July 11—Artillery actions are in progress at Nieuport, in the region of the Aisne, in Champagne, in the territory between the Upper Meuse and Moselle, and in the Vosges: Arras and Rheims are again shelled.
July 13—German Crown Prince's army, attacking in force, is thrown back by the French in the Argonne, the move being regarded by military observers as the beginning of a new offensive against Verdun.
July 14—The German Crown Prince's army in the Argonne advances two-thirds of a mile, the French then halting it.
July 15—Germans hold gains made in the Argonne.
June 16—Along the Isonzo River, on the line from Podgora to Montforton and to the intersection of the Monfalcone Canal, Austrians are holding Italians in check by elaborate defenses, which include intrenchments sometimes in several lines and often in masonry or concrete, reinforced by metallic sheeting and protected by a network of mines or batteries often placed below ground; Italians are attacking Austrian positions at Goritz.
June 17—After a two-days' fight, Italians take the heights near Plava, on the left bank of the Isonzo River; Italians operating in the Trentino occupy Mori, five miles from Rovereto.
June 18—Austrians are taking the offensive from Mori and Rovereto against the Italians at Brentonico, at Serravale, and in the Arsa Valley; Austrians repulse Italians near Plava; Italians are shelling Gradisca.
June 19—It is unofficially reported from Rome that the Italian army now occupies 10,000 square kilometers of "unredeemed" territory, or more than twice as much as Austria offered to Italy for remaining neutral.
June 20—In the Monte Nero region, Italians take further positions; Italians repulse two counter-attacks on the Isonzo.
June 21—Italians are making a general attack on Austrian positions; Austrians repulse Italians east of the Fassa Valley; Austrians repulse two attacks near Preva.
June 22—Italians have had heavy losses during the last four days in attempting to take by assault Austrian positions along the Isonzo River.
June 23—Italians gain possession of all the positions defending Malborgeth in Carnia, after hard fighting, and are bombarding the city.
June 24—Austrians take a general offensive, made possible by extensive reinforcements, but fail to make gains; heavy artillery fighting is in progress along the Isonzo.
June 25—Italians are advancing gradually along the Isonzo River and have taken Globna, north of Plava, and on the lower Isonzo have taken the edge of the plateau between Sagrado and Monfalcone.
June 27—West of the Monte Croce Pass the Italians occupy the summit of Zeillenkofel, 2,500 feet high; official Italian report states that at various points on the Isonzo River the Austrians are using shells containing asphyxiating gases.
June 28—Italians have entered Austrian territory south of Riva, on the western side of Lake Garda, through the Nota Vil passes about 5,000 feet high, and have descended the precipitous cliffs of Carone Mountain, over 8,000 feet high, and have entered the Ledro Valley, reaching the Ponale River.
June 29—Austrian artillery is active in the Tyrol and Trentino regions.
June 30—Italians on the Carnic front capture three passes in the Alps; Austrians repulse attacks in the Monfalcone and Sagrado district, and near Plava.
July 1—Austrians repulse Italians northeast of Monfalcone.
July 2—Italians take the village of Tolmino, on the Isonzo, north of Gorizia, but the Austrians hold the neighboring fortifications and are bombarding the village.
July 3—Italians make slight gains along the Isonzo; Austrians repulse repeated Italian attacks near Folazzo and Sagrado.
July 4—A battle is raging on the Isonzo River, between Caporetto and Gradisca; Italians are advancing on the east bank between Plava and Tolmino.
July 5—Italians are shelling the Austrian defensive works at Malborgeth and Predil.
July 6—Austrian attacks in the Tyrol and Trentino region are repulsed; Italians gain ground on the Carso plateau beyond the Isonzo.
July 7—Austrians repulse repeated and strong Italian attacks against the Doberdo Plateau; Austrians hold the bridgehead at Goritz, despite terrific bombardment by massed guns.
July 8—Italians repulse attacks in Carnia; Italians are slowly advancing on the Carnic Plateau.
July 9—In the upper Ansici Valley the Italian artillery bombards Platzwisce Fort; Italian artillery continues to bombard the defenses of Malborgeth and Predil Pass.
July 12—Austrians are making desperate attempts to penetrate Italy through the Carnic Alps, relying chiefly upon night attacks, but all attacks have thus far been repulsed.
July 13—Attempt to invade Italian territory at Kreusberg is repulsed with heavy loss.
July 14—Italians take two miles of Austrian trenches in the Carnic Alps; Italians take two forts south of Goritz.
June 16—Turkish artillery damages Allies' positions at Avi Burnu.
June 17—British repulse Turks who attempt to retake trenches lost by them a few days ago; a German officer leads the Turks.
June 20—Turks are undertaking offensive operations in the Caucasus; Turks defeat Russians near Olti, Transcaucasia, fifty-five miles west of Kars, capturing war material.
June 21—Turkish Asiatic batteries bombard allied columns on way to new positions.
June 22—French attack Turkish lines along two-thirds of the entire front on the Gallipoli Peninsula, infantry charges following a heavy bombardment; on the left the French carry two lines of the Turkish trenches and hold them against counter-attacks; to the right, after an all-day battle, the French also take Turkish works, most of which are wrecked by the French artillery; the French now hold the ground commanding the head of the ravine of Kereves Dere, which had been defended by the Turks for several months.
June 27—In the Caucasus region the Russians recently occupied the town of Gob, twenty-five miles north of Lake Van, and Russian forces are moving toward Biltis, Armenia, where Turkish forces are concentrated.
June 30—Allies take several lines of Turkish trenches near Krithia.
July 2—Recent gains made by the Allies on the Gallipoli Peninsula are held despite furious counter-attacks.
July 4—Turks deliver a general attack, preceded by a heavy bombardment, against the Allies' line on the southern part of the Gallipoli Peninsula, but are repulsed with severe losses.
July 7—In a furious fight on the southern part of the Gallipoli Peninsula, British and French advance their lines five-eighths of a mile, inflicting Turkish losses which they estimate at 21,000; the advance is part of the work of throwing forces around Atchi Baba, described as now being one of the strongest fortresses in the world.
July 9—Turkish forces, supported by Arabs, are threatening Aden.
July 13—Lively fighting between the Russians and Turks has occurred recently north and south of Van Lake, Turkish Armenia, and south of Olti, Transcaucasia, the Russians having the advantage.
CAMPAIGN IN AFRICA
June 19—French Minister of Colonies announces that on May 24, after heavy fighting, French colonial troops forced the Germans to capitulate at Monso, Kamerun, after taking position after position; the French captured many prisoners, including considerable numbers of white troops, and large amounts of stores; French troops continue an offensive movement toward Besam, southeast of Lomis.
June 25—By land and water the British attack the German fortified port of Bukoba, German East Africa, on Lake Victoria Nyanza, destroying the fort, putting the wireless station out of action, sinking many boats, and capturing and destroying guns.
July 8—All the German military forces in German Southwest Africa surrender unconditionally to General Botha, commander of the forces of the Union of South Africa.
June 18—Austrian squadron bombards Italian coast at the mouth of the Tagliamento River, but withdraws on being attacked by Italian destroyers; Austrian destroyer shells Monopoli; Austrian torpedo boat sinks Italian merchantman Maria Grecia; Italian squadron, supported by an Anglo-French contingent, bombards several islands of the Dalmatian Archipelago, doing considerable damage.
June 21—Allied ships bombard Turkish batteries on Asiatic side of the Dardanelles.
June 22—German warships in the Baltic Sea capture five Swedish steamers, lumber laden, bound for England; French battleship St. Louis bombards Turkish batteries on Asiatic side of the Dardanelles.
June 24—British torpedo gunboat Hussar bombards the ports of Chesmeh, Lidia, and Aglelia, opposite Chios, destroying small Turkish vessels and doing other damage.
June 26—Netherlands steamer Ceres is sunk by a mine in the Gulf of Bothnia, crew being saved.
June 30—British torpedo boat destroyer Lightning is damaged off the east coast of England by a mine or torpedo explosion, but makes harbor; fourteen of the crew missing.
July 2—A battle occurs between Russian and German squadrons in the Baltic, between the Island of Oeland and the Courland coast; after a brief engagement the German squadron, outnumbered and outmatched in strength, flees; the German mine layer Albatross is wrecked by Russian gunfire and is beached by her crew; the Russian squadron then sails northward, sighting another German squadron, which is also outmatched in strength; the German ships flee after a thirty-minute fight, a German torpedo boat being damaged; Dutch lugger Katwyk 147 is sunk by a mine in the North Sea, ten of crew being lost.
July 6—Italy closes the Adriatic Sea to navigation by merchant vessels of all countries.
June 16—German submarine sinks British steamer Strathnairn off Scilly Isles, twenty-two of the crew being drowned; German submarines sink British trawlers Petrel, Explorer, and Japonica.
June 17—Austrian submarine torpedoes and sinks Italian submarine Medusa, this being the first instance on record of the sinking of one undersea boat by another; German Admiralty announces the loss of the submarine U-14, her crew being captured by the British; Athens reports that a British submarine has torpedoed and sunk three Turkish transports, loaded with troops, in the Dardanelles above Nagara; German submarine sinks British steamer Trafford, crew being saved.
June 18—German submarine sinks British steamer Ailsa off Scotland, crew being saved.
June 19—German Admiralty states that the submarine U-29, commanded by Captain Weddigen, which was destroyed weeks ago, was rammed and sunk by a British tank steamer flying the Swedish flag, after the tanker had been ordered to stop; British Government makes an official statement that the U-29 was sunk by "one of His Majesty's ships"; German submarine sinks British steamer Dulcie, one of the crew being lost.
June 20—German submarine torpedoes British cruiser Roxburgh in the North Sea; the damage is not serious and the cruiser proceeds to port under her own steam.
June 21—German submarine sinks by gunfire the British steamer Carisbrook, crew being saved.
June 22—It is officially announced at Petrograd that Russian submarines have sunk a large Turkish steamer and two sailing vessels in the Black Sea.
June 23—German submarine torpedoes and then burns Norwegian steamer Truma, near the Shetland Islands, crew being saved.
June 26—Austrian submarine torpedoes and sinks an Italian torpedo boat in the Northern Adriatic.
June 27—German submarine sinks British schooner Edith, crew being saved.
June 28—German submarine U-38 sinks the British steamer Armenian, of the Leyland Line, off the Cornwall coast, twenty-nine men being lost and ten injured; among the dead are twenty Americans, employed as attendants for the horses and mules composing the chief portion of the Armenian's cargo; recital of one of the crew of the British submarine E-11—the vessel which entered the Sea of Marmora and the harbor of Constantinople, her commander being given the Victoria Cross and each of the crew the Distinguished Service Medal—shows that the E-11 sank one Turkish gunboat, one Turkish supply ship, one German transport, three Turkish steamers, and six Turkish transports.
June 29—German submarine sinks British steamer Scottish Monarch, fifteen of crew being lost; German submarines sink Norwegian steamers Cambuskenneth and Gjeso, and Norwegian sailing vessel Marna; the crews are saved.
June 30—British steamer Lomas is sunk by a German submarine, one man being killed; British bark Thistlebank is sunk by a German submarine; some of crew missing.
July 1—German submarines sink British steamers Caucasian and Inglemoor, crews being saved; German submarine sinks Italian ship Sardomene off Irish coast, two of crew being killed and several wounded.
July 2—German submarines sink steamer Welbury, bark Sardozne, and schooner L.C. Tower, all British, the crews being saved; captain of the Tower says that the submarine which sank his ship was disguised with rigging, two dummy canvas funnels, two masts, and a false bow and stern, having the appearance of a deeply laden steamer; at the entrance of Danzig Bay a Russian submarine blows up by two torpedoes a German battleship of the Deutschland class, which is steaming at the head of a German squadron, while a Russian destroyer rams a German submarine.
July 3—German submarines sink the steamships Larchmore, Renfrew, Gadsby, Richmond, and Craigard, all British, and the Belgian steamship Boduognat, the crews being saved; Russian submarine in the Black Sea sinks two Turkish steamers and one sailing ship.
July 4—German submarine sinks French steamer Carthage.
July 5—German submarines sink Norwegian bark Fiery Cross and British schooner Sunbeam.
July 7—Nearly 20,000 vessels have entered or left the Port of Liverpool since the German submarine blockade began, yet only 29 ships have been captured or destroyed; Austrian submarine sinks Italian armored cruiser Amalfi in Upper Adriatic, most of the officers and crew being saved.
July 10—British steamer Ellesmere, Norwegian steamer Nordaas, and Italian steamer Clio are sunk by German submarines; one of the crew of the Nordaas is killed.
June 16—Official British statement shows that sixteen persons were killed and forty injured by a Zeppelin raid on the northeast coast of England on June 15, and that twenty-four persons were killed and forty injured by a Zeppelin raid on the same coast on June 6; German aeroplanes drop bombs on Nancy, St. Die, and Belfort.
June 17—Sub-Lieutenant Warneford, who won the Victoria Cross for blowing a Zeppelin to pieces, is killed by the fall of his aeroplane at Buc, France; French air squadrons bombard German reserve forces at Givenchy and in the Forest of La Folie, dispersing troops about to attack the French; squadron of Italian dirigibles bombards Austrian positions at Monte Santo and intrenchments facing Gradisca, doing considerable damage; the squadron also damages the Ovoladeaga station on the railroad from Gorizia to Dornberg.
June 18—Italian dirigible bombards an ammunition factory near Trieste.
June 19—In a duel between a French and a German aeroplane near Thann, in Upper Alsace, fought at a height of 10,500 feet, the French aviator kills the German.
June 20—Germans shoot down one allied aeroplane near Iseghem, Flanders, and another near Vouziers, in Champagne.
June 21—Austrian naval planes bombard the railway stations at Bari and Brindisi, doing considerable damage; allied aeroplanes bombard Turkish batteries on Asiatic side of the Dardanelles.
June 22—British aeroplane drops three bombs on Smyrna, causing seventy casualties in the garrison.
June 25—French aviators drop twenty bombs on the station of Douai, fifteen miles northeast of Arras.
June 26—British aviators drop bombs near Roulers, Belgium, causing the explosion of a large ammunition depot and the killing of fifty German soldiers.
June 27—French aeroplane drops eight shells on the Zeppelin hangars at Friedrichshafen.
July 1—French aeroplanes drop bombs on Zeebrugge and Bruges, but slight damage is done.
July 2—Austrian aeroplane bombards the town of Cormons, Austria, now in Italian hands, killing a woman and boy, and wounding five other civilians.
July 3—German aeroplanes bombard a fort near Harwich, England, and bombard a British torpedo boat destroyer flotilla; German aeroplanes also bombard Nancy and the railroad station at Dombasle, southeast of Nancy, severing railroad communication with the fort at Remiremont; a German aeroplane forces a French aeroplane to alight near Schlucht; German air squadron drops bombs on Bruges, doing slight damage; French airmen bombard the railroad stations at Challerange, Zarren, and Langemarck, in Belgium, and German batteries at Vimy and Beauraing, doing considerable damage.
July 13—A French squadron of thirty-five aviators drops 171 bombs at and near the railroad station strategically established by the Germans at Vigneulles-les-Hattonchatel, where ammunition and other stores are concentrated; the bombs start several fires; all the aeroplanes return, though violently cannonaded; French squadron of twenty aeroplanes bombards with forty shells the station at Libercourt, between Douai and Lille; aeroplanes furnished with cannon, part of the squadron, bombard a train.
July 15—A Red Book issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs charges cruelty and breaches of international law against the Allies.
July 2—General von Bissing, German Governor-General, issues an order forbidding, under penalty of fine or imprisonment, the wearing or exhibiting of Belgian insignia in a provocative manner, and forbidding absolutely the wearing or exhibiting of the insignia of the nations warring against Germany and her allies.
June 23—The Victoria Cross is conferred on three Canadians for bravery near Ypres, while seventy other Canadians get the C.B., the C.M.G., or the D.S.O.
July 10—The Canadian casualties since the beginning of the war total 9,982, of which the killed number 1,709.
July 14—Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Canada, now in London, on invitation of Premier Asquith attends a meeting of the British Cabinet, this being the first time a colonial minister has joined British Cabinet deliberations.
June 21—Announcement is made in Paris that the French Postal Service is handling mail in ninety towns and villages of Alsace, all of which bear the names they had in 1870; the total amount of credits voted since the beginning of the war exceeds $3,123,000,000; at present France's war expenses are about $400,000,000 a month.
July 1—Ministry of War officially states that at no time during the war has the French artillery used any shells whatever manufactured in the United States, this statement being called forth by German declarations that much American ammunition is being used by France.
June 18—Unofficial statement from Berlin shows that the prisoners thus far taken by the German and Austro-Hungarian armies total 1,610,000, of whom 1,240,000 are Russians, and 255,000 French.
July 1—The Prussian losses alone to the end of June total 1,504,523.
June 22—House of Commons unanimously gives a first reading to a bill authorizing the raising by loan of $5,000,000,000, if that much be necessary.
June 23—Minister of Munitions Lloyd George announces in the House of Commons that he has given British labor seven days, beginning tomorrow, in which to make good the promise of its leaders that men will rally to the factories in sufficient numbers to produce a maximum supply of munitions of war; failure will mean compulsion, he states.
July 1—John E. Redmond, leader of the Irish Nationalist Party, in a speech at Dublin, states that up to June 16, 120,741 Irishmen from Ireland had joined the army.
July 2—The Munitions Bill is passed in all its stages by the House of Lords.
July 12—After more than a fortnight's work, the 600 labor bureaus opened when Minister of Munitions Lloyd George gave labor a chance voluntarily to enroll as munitions workers, closes with a total registration of 90,000.
July 13—The total subscription to the war loan is close to $3,000,000,000, subscribed by 1,097,000 persons, stated by Chancellor of the Exchequer McKenna to be by far the largest amount subscribed in the history of the world; Lord Lansdowne tells the House of Lords that there are now about 460,000 British soldiers at the front.
July 15—Two hundred thousand Welsh coal miners strike, defying the Ministry.
July 4—There are repeated and insistent reports in Europe, chiefly from German sources, that riots are occurring at various points in India; it is stated that recently the Indian cavalry at Lahore mutinied, killed their officers and British civilians, and pillaged and destroyed hotels and houses; two battalions of troops ready to be transported to Europe are also said to have mutinied and to have dispersed, after shooting their officers; there are declared to have been serious battles between police and mutinous troops in Madras.
July 7—The Austro-Hungarian Minister to Rumania presents to the Rumanian Prime Minister proposals offering Rumania certain concessions in exchange for definite neutrality and facilities for supplying Turkey with munitions of war; one month is given Rumania for decision.
June 21—General Christian de Wet, one of the leaders of the South African rebellion against the British Government, is found guilty of treason on eight counts at Bloemfontein, Union of South Africa; he is sentenced to six years' imprisonment and is fined $10,000.
June 16—A report is received by the State Department from Ambassador Page on the injury to the Nebraskan on May 25, when she was struck by either a torpedo or a mine; the report contains evidence tending to show that she was torpedoed by a German submarine.
June 28—Text of the American note to the German Government on the William P. Frye case, in reply to the last German note on this subject, which note has just been delivered by Ambassador Gerard, is made public in Washington.
June 29—Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs sends a note to the American Ambassador at Vienna protesting against the exports of arms from the United States.
July 2—A bomb wrecks the east reception room on the main floor of the Senate wing of the Capitol Building at Washington just before midnight, no one being injured.
July 3—J.P. Morgan is shot twice at his country estate on East Island, near Glen Cove, L.I., by Frank Holt, a former instructor in German at Cornell University, who, under arrest, states that he went to the Morgan home to induce the banker to use his influence to stop the exporting of munitions of war, the firm of J.P. Morgan & Co. being the fiscal agent of the Allies in the United States; both revolver bullets strike Mr. Morgan in the groin, the attending doctors stating that no vital organ is affected; by his own confession, Holt is the one who set the bomb that wrecked the Senate reception room in the Capitol at Washington last night, saying that he wanted to call the nation's attention to the export of munitions of war; extra precautions are being taken by Secret Service men to guard President Wilson, who is at Cornish, N.H.
July 6—Frank Holt kills himself in the Nassau County Jail at Mineola; identifications show that Holt was Erich Muenter, a former Harvard instructor, who murdered his wife by poison in Cambridge in 1906.
July 7—Government decides to take over the Sayville wireless plant at once, in the interests of neutrality.
July 10—The text is made public of the German reply to the last American note on submarine warfare and the sinking of the Lusitania; the reply evades the cardinal points of the American note; makes new proposals, and shows that the submarine war is to be continued; the American press generally regards the reply as unsatisfactory.
July 15—Germany expresses formal regrets for the torpedoing of the American steamship Nebraskan, stating it was due to a mistake, and offers to pay damages.