New Word-Analysis - Or, School Etymology of English Derivative Words
by William Swinton
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205. TRU'DERE: tru'do, tru'sum, to thrust.

TRUD: detrude', to thrust down; extrude'; intrude' (-er); obtrude'; protrude'.

TRUS: abstruse' (literally, thrust away: hence, difficult to be understood); intru'sion; intru'sive; obtru'sive; protru'sion.

206. TU'ERE: tu'eor, tu'itus or tu'tus, to watch.

TUIT: tui'tion, instruction; intui'tion, the act or power of the mind by which it at once perceives the truth of a thing without argument; intu'itive.

TUT: tu'tor; tuto'rial; tu'torage.

207. UN'DA, a wave.

UND: abun'dance, literally, condition of overflowing—(abunda're, to overflow); abun'dant; superabundant; inun'date (-ion); redun'dant (literally, running back or over: hence, exceeding what is necessary); redundance; redun'dancy.

Un'dulate (Lat. n. un'dula, a little wave); undula'tion; un'dulatory; abound'; superabound'; redound' (Old Fr. v. redonder = Lat. redunda're, to roll back as a wave or flood).

208. U'TI: u'tor, u'sus, to use.

UT: uten'sil (Lat. n. uten'sile, something that may be used); util'ity (Lat. n. util'itas, usefulness); u'tilize.

US: use (-able, -age, -ful, -less); us'ual (Lat. adj. usua'lis, of frequent use); u'sury, illegal interest paid for the use of money; u'surer; abuse' (-ive); disabuse'.

209. VAD'ERE: va'do, va'sum, to go.

VAD: evade'; invade'; pervade'.

VAS: eva'sion; inva'sion; perva'sive.

210. VALE'RE: valeo, vali'tum, to be strong, to be of value; Val'idus, strong; Va'le, farewell.

VAL: valedic'tory, bidding farewell; valetudina'rian (Lat. n. valetu'do, state of health), a person in ill-health; val'iant, brave, heroic; val'or (-ous); val'ue (-able, -ation, -ator); convales'cent, regaining health; equiv'alent (Lat. adj. e'quus, equal); prev'alent, very common or general; prevalence.

VAIL: (Fr. radical): avail' (-able); prevail'.

VALID: val'id; valid'ity; in'valid.

211. VENI'RE: ve'nio, ven'tum, to come, to go.

VENT: vent'ure, literally, something gone upon; vent'uresome; ad'vent; adventi'tious, accidental, casual; advent'ure (-ous); circumvent'; contraven'tion; con'vent, a monastery, a nunnery; conven'ticle, a place of assembly; conven'tion (-al); event'(-ful); event'ual; invent' (literally, to come upon), to find out, to contrive; inven'tion; invent'ive; invent'or; interven'tion; peradvent'ure; prevent' (-ion, -ive).

Av'enue (Fr. n. avenue, an approach to); contravene'; convene'; conven'ient (Lat. pres. part, conve'niens, convenien'tis, literally, coming together), suitable; conven'ience; cov'enant an agreement between two parties; intervene'; rev'enue; supervene', to come upon, to happen.

212. VER'BUM, a word.

VERB: verb (-al, -ally, -ose, -osity); ad'verb; prov'erb.

Verba'tim (Lat. adv. verba'tim, word for word); ver'biage (Fr. n. verbiage, wordiness).

213. VER'TERE: ver'to, ver'sum, to turn.

VERT: advert'; inadver'tent (literally, not turning the mind to), heedless; ad'vertise, to turn public attention to; adver'tisement; animadvert' (Lat. n. an'imus, the mind), to turn the mind to, to censure; avert'; controvert', to oppose; convert', to change into another form or state; divert'; invert', literally, to turn the outside in; pervert', to turn from the true purpose; retrovert'; revert'; subvert'.

VERS: adverse' (-ary, -ity); animadver'sion; anniver'sary, the yearly (Lat. n. an'nus, a year) celebration of an event; averse', having a dislike to; aver'sion; con'troversy; converse' (-ant, -ation); conver'sion; diverse' (-ify, -ion, -ity); ob'verse; perverse' (-ity); retrover'sion; reverse' (-al, -ion); subver'sion; subversive; tergiversa'tion (Lat. n. ter'gum, the back), a subterfuge; transverse', lying or being across; u'niverse (Lat. adj. u'nus, one), the system of created things; univer'sal (-ist); univer'sity, a universal school in which are taught all branches of learning.

Verse (Lat. n. ver'sus, a furrow), a line in poetry; ver'sify; versifica'tion; ver'sion, that which is turned from one language into another, a statement; ver'satile (Lat. adj. versat'ilis, turning with ease); vertex (pl. ver'tices), the summit; vertical; vertebra (pl. ver'tebrae); ver'tebrate; ver'tigo; vor'tex (Lat. n. vor'tex, a whirlpool); divorce' (Fr. n. divorce), a separation.

214. VE'RUS, true; Ve'rax, vera'cis, veracious.

VER: ver'dict (Lat. n. dic'tum, a saying), the decision of a jury; ver'ify, to prove to be true; verifica'tion; ver'ity (Lat. n. ver'itas, truth); ver'itable; verisim'ilar, truth-like; verisimil'itude; aver', to declare truer; aver'ment; ver'ily; ver'y.

VERAC: v'era'cious; verac'ity.

215. VI'A, a way.

VIA: vi'aduct (Lat. v. du'cere, duc'tum, to lead); viat'icum (Lat. n. viat'icum, literally, traveling money), the sacrament administered to a dying person; de'viate (-ion); de'vious; ob'viate, to meet in the way, to remove; ob'vious; per'vious, affording a passage through; imper'vious.

Voy'age (Fr. n. voyage); convoy', to escort; en'voy (Fr. v. envoyer, to send), one sent on a special mission; triv'ial (Lat. n. triv'ium, a cross road), trifling; trivial'ity.

216. VIDE'RE: vi'deo, vi'sum, to see.

VID: ev'ident, clearly seen; ev'idence; invid'ious, literally, looking against: hence, likely to provoke envy; provide', to look out for, to supply; prov'idence; prov'ident.

VIS: vis'ible; vis'ion (-ary); advise'; advis'able, expedient; im'provise, to compose and recite without premeditation; provis'ion; revise' (-al, -ion); supervis'ion; supervis'or.

View (Fr. v. voir, to see, vu, seen); review'; in'terview; vis'age (Fr. n. visage, the countenance); vis'it (-ant, -or, -ation); vis'or, part of a helmet perforated to see through; vis'ta (It. n. vista, sight), a prospect as seen through an avenue of trees ; advice'; en'vy (Fr. n. envie = Lat. invid'ia, from invide're, to see against); in'voice (It. n. avviso, notice), a priced list of goods; peruse' (Lat. v. pervide're, pervi'sum, to look through); provi'so, a stipulation; pru'dent (Lat. adj. pru'dens from prov'idens); pru'dence; purvey', to look out for in the way of buying provisions; purvey'or; survey' (-or).

217. VIN'CERE: vin'co, vic'tum, to conquer.

VINC: vin'cible; invin'cible; convince'; evince', to show clearly

VICT: vic'tor; vic'tory (-ous); convict', to prove guilty of crime; evict', to dispossess; evic'tion.

Vanquish (Fr. v. vaincre, vaincu = Lat. vin'cere); prov'ince (Fr. n. province = Lat. provin'cia, literally, a conquered country).

218. VOCA'RE: vo'co, voca'tum, to call; Vox, vo'cis, the voice.

VOCAT: voca'tion, literally, calling, occupation; voc'ative, the case of a noun in which the subject is called, or addressed; ad'vocate to plead for; convoca'tion, an assembly, a meeting; equivocate (Lat. adj. e'quus, equal), to use words of doubtful meaning; equivoca'tion; evoca'tion, act of calling forth; invoca'tion; provoca'tion; provo'cative; revoca'tion.

VOC: vo'cable (Lat. n. vocab'ulum, that which is sounded with the voice), a word; vocab'ulary; vo'cal (-ist, -ize); vociferate, to cry with a loud voice; ad'vocacy, a pleading for, a defense; irrev'ocable.

Voice (Fr. n. voix = Lat. vox), sound uttered by the mouth; vouch, to call out, or affirm strongly; vow'el (Fr. n. vouelle, a voice-sound); advow'son, right of perpetual calling to a benefice; convoke', to call together; evoke'; invoke'; revoke'.

219. VOL'VERE: vol'vo, volu'tum, to roll.

VOLV: circumvolve'; convolve', to roll together; devolve'; evolve'; involve'; revolve' (-ion, -ionist).

VOLUT: circumvolu'tion; evolu'tion; revolution (-ary, -ist, -ize).

Vol'ume (Lat. n. volu'men, a roll, or inscribed parchment sheet rolled up), a single book; volute', a kind of rolled or spiral scroll; vol'uble, literally, rolling easily: hence, having great fluency of speech; convol'vulus, a genus of twining plants; revolt'.

220. VUL'GUS, the common people.

VULG: vul'gar; vul'garism; vulgar'ity; vul'gate, a Latin version of the Scriptures.

Divulge', to make known something before kept secret; divulge'ment; promulgate (-ion).




a- = without; a-pathy state of being without an- not an-omalous feeling. not similar.

amphi- = around; amphi-theater place for seeing all both amphi-bious around. living in both land and water.

ana- = back, ana-logy reasoning back. throughout ana-lysis loosening throughout.

anti- = against; anti-pathy a feeling against. ant- opposite ant-arctic opposite the Arctic.

apo- = away; apo-stle one sent out. ap- out ap-helion away from the sun.

cata- = down or cata-ract a rushing down. cat- against cat-arrh a flowing down.

dia- = through or dia-meter measure through the across dia-logue center. speaking across (from one another).

dis- = two, dis-syllable word of two syllables. di- double di-lemma a double assumption.

dys- = ill dys-pepsia ill digestion.

ec- = out of ec-centric out of the center. ex- ex-odies an outgoing.

Note—EX- is used before a root beginning with a vowel.

en- = in or en-ergy power in one. em- on em-phasis stress on.

epi- = upon; epi-dermis skin upon skin. ep- for ep-hemeral lasting for a day.

Note—EP- is used before a root beginning with a vowel or a h aspirate

eu- = well or eu-phonic sounding well. ev- good ev-angel good news.

hemi- = half hemi-sphere half a sphere

hyper- = over or hyper-critical over-critical. beyond hyper-borean beyond the North.

hypo- = under hypo-thesis a placing under (= Lat. supposition.)

meta- = beyond; meta-physics science beyond physics. met- transference met-onymy transference of name.

para- = by the par-helion mock sun by the side of par- side of the real.

peri- = around peri-meter the measure around anything.

pro- = before pro-gramme something written before.

pros- = to pros-elyte one coming to a new religion.

syn- with syn-thesis placing together. sy- = or sy-stem part with part. syl- together syl-lable letters taken together. sym- sym-pathy feeling together.

NOTE.—The form SY- is used before s; SYL- before l, SYM- before b, p or m.


[Greek: A a] a Alpha. [Greek: B b *] b Beta. [Greek: G g] g Gamma. [Greek: D d] d Delta. [Greek: E e] e as in met Epsilon. [Greek: Z z] z Zeta. [Greek: E e] e as in me Eta. [Greek: Th th *] th Theta. [Greek: I i] i Iota [Greek: K k] k Kappa. [Greek: L l] l Lambda. [Greek: M m] m Mu. [Greek: N n] n Nu. [Greek: X x] x Xi. [Greek: O o] o as in not Omicron. [Greek: P p *] p Pi [Greek: R r] r Rho. [Greek: S s, s] final s Sigma. [Greek: T t] t Tau. [Greek: U u] u, or y Upsilon. [Greek: Ph ph] ph Phi. [Greek: Ch ch] ch Chi. [Greek: Ps ps] ps Psi. [Greek: O o] o as in no Omega.

Pronunciation of Greek Words.

Gamma has always the hard sound of g, as in give.

Kappa is represented by c in English words, although in Greek it has but one sound, that of our k.

Upsilon is represented by y in English words; in Greek it has always the sound of u in mute.

Chi is represented in English by ch having the sound of k; as in chronic.

In Greek words, as in Latin, there are always as many syllables as there are vowels and diphthongs.

An inverted comma placed over a letter denotes that the sound of our h precedes that letter.



1. A'ER, the air.

A'ERATE, to combine with air; to mix with carbonic acid.

A-E'RIAL, belonging to the air.

A'ERIFORM, having the form of air.

A'EROLITE (Gr. n. lith'os, a stone), a meteoric stone.

A'ERONAUT (Gr. n. nau'tes, a sailor), a balloonist.

AEROSTA'TION, aerial navigation.

AIR, the atmosphere; a melody; the bearing of a person.

AIR'Y, open to the air; gay, sprightly.

2. AG'EIN, to lead.

APAGO'GE, a leading away; an indirect argument

DEM'AGOGUE (Gr. n. de'mos, the people), a misleader of the people.

PARAGO'GE (literally, a leading or extension beyond), the addition of a letter or syllable to the end of a word.

PED'AGOGUE (Gr. n. pais, a child), a schoolmaster; a pedantic person..

SYN'AGOGUE, a Jewish place of worship.

3. A'GON, a contest.

AG'ONY, extreme pain.

AG'ONIZE, to be in agony.

ANTAG'ONISM, direct opposition.

ANTAG'ONIST, or ANTAGONIS'TIC, contending against.

4. ANG'ELLEIN, to bring tidings; ANG'ELLOS, a messenger.

AN'GEL, a spiritual messenger.

ANGEL'IC, relating to an angel.

ARCHAN'GEL (Gr. prefix archi-, chief), an angel of the highest order.

EVAN'GEL (Gr. prefix eu, well), good tidings; the gospel.

EVAN'GELIST, one of the writers of the four gospels.

5. AR'CHE, beginning, government, chief.

AN'ARCHY, want of government.

AR'CHITECT (Gr. n. tek'ton, workman), literally, a chief builder, one who devises plans for buildings.

AR'CHIVES, records.

HEP'TARCHY (Gr. hepta, seven), a sevenfold government.

HI'ERARCHY (Gr. adj. hi'eros, sacred), dominion in sacred things; a sacred body of rulers.

MON'ARCH (Gr. adj. mon'os, alone), one who rules alone, a sovereign.

MON'ARCHY, government by one person, a kingdom.

OLIGARCHY (Gr. adj. ol'igos, few), government by a few, an aristocracy.

PA'TRIARCH (Gr. n. pat'er, a father), the father and ruler of a family.

PATRIAR'CHAL, relating to patriarchs.

6. AS'TRON, a star.

AS'TERISK, a mark like a star (*) used to refer to a note, and sometimes to mark an omission of words.

AS'TEROID (Gr. adj. ei'dos, like), one of the numerous small planets between Mars and Jupiter.

AS'TRAL, belonging to the stars.

ASTROL'OGY, the pretended science of foretelling events by the stars.

ASTRON'OMY (Gr. n. nom'os, a law), the science that treats of the stars.

ASTRON'OMER, one skilled in astronomy.

DISAS'TER, calamity, misfortune.

DISAS'TROUS, unlucky; calamitous.

7. AU'TOS, one's self.

AUTOBIOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. bi'os, life, graph'ein, to write), the life of a person written by himself.

AU'TOCRAT (Gr. n. krat'os, power), an absolute ruler.

AUTOCRAT'IC, like an autocrat.

AU'TOGRAPH, one's own handwriting.

AUTOM'ATON (Gr. mema'otes, striving after), a self-acting machine.

AUTHEN'TIC, genuine, true.

AUTHENTIC'ITY, genuineness.

8. BAL'LEIN, to throw or cast.

EM'BLEM, a representation; a type.

EMBLEMAT'ICAL, containing an emblem.

HYPER'BOLE, a figure of speech which represents things greater or less than they are.

PAR'ABLE, a story which illustrates some fact or doctrine.

PARAB'OLA, one of the conic sections.

PROB'LEM, a question proposed for solution.

SYM'BOL, a sign; a representation.

SYMBOLICAL, representing by signs.

9. BAP'TEIN, to wash, to dip.

BAP'TISM, a Christian sacrament, in the observance of which the individual is sprinkled with or immersed in water.

BAPTIZE', to sprinkle with or immerse in water.

BAPTISMAL, pertaining to baptism: as baptismal vows.

BAP'TIST, one who approves only of baptism by immersion.

ANABAP'TIST, one who believes that only adults should be baptized.

CATABAP'TIST, one opposed to baptism.

PEDOBAP'TISM (Gr. pais, paidos, a child), infant baptism.

10. CHRON'OS, time.

CHRON'IC, lasting a long time; periodical.

CHRON'ICLE, a record of events in the order of time; a history recording facts in order of time.

CHRONOL'OGY, the science of computing the dates of past events.

CHRONOM'ETER (Gr. n. me'tron, a measure), an instrument for measuring time.

ANACH'RONISM, an error in computing time.

SYN'CHRONAL, SYN'CHRONOUS, existing at the same time.

11. GRAM'MA, a letter

GRAM'MAR, the science of language.

GRAMMA'RIAN, one skilled in or who teaches grammar.

GRAMMAT'ICAL, according to the rules of grammar.

AN'AGRAM, the change of one word into another by transposing the letters.

DI'AGRAM, a writing or drawing made for illustration.

EP'IGRAM, a short poem ending with a witty thought.

MON'OGRAM (Gr. adj. mon'os, alone), a character composed of several letters interwoven.

PRO'GRAMME, order of any entertainment.

TEL'EGRAM (Gr. te'le, at a distance), a message sent by telegraph.

12. GRAPH'EIN, to write.

GRAPH'IC, well delineated; giving vivid description.

AU'TOGRAPH. See au'tos.

BIOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. bi'os, life), the history of a life.

CALIG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. kal'os, beautiful), beautiful writing.

GEOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. ge, the earth), a description of the earth.

HISTORIOG'RAPHER (Gr. n. histo'ria, history), one appointed to write history.

HOL'OGRAPH (Gr. adj. hol'os, whole), a deed or will wholly written by the grantor or testator.

LEXICOG'RAPHER (Gr. n. lex'icon, a dictionary), the compiler of a dictionary.

LITH'OGRAPH (Gr. n. lith'os, a stone), an impression of a drawing made on stone.

LITHOG'RAPHY, the art of writing on and taking impressions from stone.

ORTHOG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. or'thos, correct), the correct spelling of words.

PHO'NOGRAPH (Gr. n. pho'ne, sound), an instrument for the mechanical registration and reproduction of audible sounds.

PHONOG'RAPHY, a system of short hand; the art of constructing or of using the phonograph.

PHOTOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. phos, phot'os, light), the art of producing pictures by light.

STENOG'RAPHY (Gr. adj. sten'os, narrow), the art of writing in short-hand.

TEL'EGRAPH (Gr. te'le, at a distance), an apparatus for conveying intelligence to a distance by means of electricity.

TOPOG'RAPHY (Gr. n. top'os, a place), the description of a particular place.

TYPOGRAPHY (Gr. n. tu'pos, a type), the art or operation of printing.

13. HOD'OS, a way.

EP'ISODE, an incidental story introduced into a poem or narrative.

EX'ODUS, departure from a place; the second book of the Old Testament.

METH'OD, order, system, way, manner.

METH'ODIST, the followers of John Wesley. (The name has reference to the strictness of the rules of this sect of Christians).

PE'RIOD (Gr. n. period'os, a passage round), the time in which anything is performed; a kind of sentence; a punctuation mark.

SYN'OD, a meeting of ecclesiastics.

14. HU'DOR, water.

HY'DRA, a water-snake; a fabulous monster serpent slain by Hercules.

HYDRAN'GEA, a genus of plants remarkable for their absorption of water.

HY'DRANT, a water-plug.

HYDRAU'LIC (Gr. n. au'los, a pipe), relating to the motion of water through pipes; worked by water.

HYDRAU'LICS, the science which treats of fluids in motion.

HYDROCEPH'ALUS (Gr. n. keph'ale, the head), dropsy of the head.

HY'DROGEN (Gr. v. gen'ein, to beget), a gas which with oxygen produces water.

HYDROG'RAPHY, the art of maritime surveying and mapping.

HYDROP'ATHY (Gr. n. path'os, feeling), the water-cure.

HYDROPHO'BIA (Gr. n. phob'os, fear), literally, dread of water; canine madness.

HY'DROPSY, a collection of water in the body. ("Dropsy" is a contraction of hydropsy).

HYDROSTAT'ICS, the science which treats of fluids at rest.

15. KRAT'OS, rule, government, strength.

ARISTOC'RACY (Gr. adj. aris'tos, best), government by nobles.

ARIS'TOCRAT, one who favors aristocracy.

AU'TOCRAT. See au'tos.

DEMOC'RACY (Gr. n. de'mos, the people), government by the people.

DEM'OCRAT, one who upholds democracy; in the United States, a member of the democratic party.

THEOC'RACY, government of a state by divine direction, as the ancient Jewish state.

16. LOG'OS, speech, ratio, description, science.

LOG'IC, the science and art of reasoning.

LOGI'CIAN, one skilled in logic.

LOG'ARITHMS (Gr. n. arith'mos, number), a class of numbers that abridge arithmetical calculations.

ANAL'OGY, a resemblance of ratios.

AP'OLOGUE, a moral fable.

APOL'OGY, a defense, an excuse.

CAT'ALOGUE, a list of names in order.

CHRONOL'OGY. (See chronos.)

CONCHOL'OGY (Gr. n. kon'chos, a shell), the science of shells.

DEC'ALOGUE (Gr. dek'a, ten), the ten commandments.

DOXOL'OGY (Gr. n. doxa, glory), a hymn expressing glory to God.

EC'LOGUE, a pastoral poem.

ENTOMOL'OGY (Gr. n. ento'ma, insects, and v. tem'nein, to cut), the natural history of insects.

EP'ILOGUE, a short poem or speech at the end of a play.

ETYMOL'OGY (Gr. et'umon, true source), a part of grammar; the science of the derivation of words.

EU'LOGY, praise, commendation.

GENEAL'OGY (Gr. n. gen'os, birth), history of the descent of families.

GEOL'OGY (Gr. n. ge, the earth), the science which treats of the internal structure of the earth.

MINERAL'OGY, the science of minerals.

MYTHOL'OGY (Gr. n. mu'thos, a fable), a system or science of fables.

ORNITHOL'OGY (Gr. n. or'nis, or'nithos, a bird), the natural history of birds.

PATHOL'OGY (Gr. n. path'os, suffering), that part of medicine which treats of the causes and nature of diseases.

PHILOL'OGY (Gr. phil'os, loving, fond of), the science which treats of languages.

PHRENOL'OGY (Gr. n. phren, the mind), the art of reading the mind from the form of the skull.

PHYSIOL'OGY (Gr. n. phu'sis, nature), the science which treats of the organism of plants and animals.

PRO'LOGUE, verses recited as introductory to a play.

PSYCHOL'OGY (Gr. n. psu'che, the soul), mental philosophy; doctrine of man's spiritual nature.

SYL'LOGISM, a form of reasoning consisting of three propositions.

TAUTOL'OGY (Gr. tau'to, the same), a repetition of the same idea in different words.

TECHNOL'OGY (Gr. n. tech'ne, art), a description of the arts.

THEOL'OGY. See theos.

TOXICOL'OGY (Gr. n. tox'icon, poison) the science which treats of poisons and their effects.

ZOOL'OGY (Gr. n. zo'on, an animal), that part of natural history which treats of animals.

17. MET'RON a measure.

ME'TER, arrangement of poetical feet; a measure of length.

MET'RIC, denoting measurement.

MET'RICAL, pertaining to meter.

ANEMOM'ETER (Gr. n. an'emos, the wind), an instrument measuring the force and velocity of the wind.

BAROM'ETER (Gr. n. ba'ros, weight), an instrument that indicates changes in the weather.

DIAM'ETER, measure through anything.

GEOM'ETRY (Gr. n. ge, the earth), a branch of mathematics.

HEXAM'ETER (Gr. hex, six), a line of six poetic feet.

HYDROM'ETER (Gr. n. hu'dor, water), an instrument for determining the specific gravities of liquids.

HYGROM'ETER (Gr. adj. hu'gros, wet), an instrument for measuring the degree of moisture of the atmosphere.

PENTAM'ETER (Gr. pen'te, five), a line of five poetic feet.

PERIM'ETER, the external boundary of a body or figure.

SYM'METRY, the proportion or harmony of parts.

THERMOM'ETER (Gr. adj. ther'mos, warm), an instrument for measuring the heat of bodies.

TRIGONOM'ETRY (Gr. n. trigo'non, a triangle), a branch of mathematics.

18. MON'OS, sole, alone.

MON'ACHISM, the condition of monks; a monastic life.

MON'AD, something ultimate and indivisible.

MON'ASTERY, a house of religious retirement.

MONK (Gr. n. mon'achos), a religious recluse.

MONOG'AMY (Gr. n. gam'os, MARRIAGE), the marriage of one wife only.

MON'OLOGUE (Gr. n. log'os), a speech uttered by a person alone.

MONOMA'NIA (Gr. n. ma'nia, madness), madness confined to one subject.

MONOP'OLY (Gr. v. pol'ein, to sell), the sole power of selling anything.

MONOSYL'LABLE, a word of one syllable.

MON'OTHEISM (Gr. n. the'os, God), the belief in the existence of only one God.

MON'OTONE, uniformity of tone.

MONOT'ONY, sameness of sound; want of variety.

19. O'DE, a song.

ODE, a lyric poem.

MEL'ODY (Gr. n. mel'os, a song), an agreeable succession of musical sounds.

PAR'ODY, the alteration of the works of an author to another subject.

PROS'ODY, the study of versification.

PSAL'MODY, the practice of singing psalms.

TRAG'EDY (Gr. n. trag'os, a goat[9]), a dramatic representation of a sad or calamitous event.


The periods of astronomy go far beyond any chronology. The phonograph and the telegraph are both American inventions. By the aid of a diagram the problem was readily solved. Dr. Holmes, the Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, has written many parodies. In the struggle between monarchy and democracy Mexico has often been in a state of anarchy. His antagonist suffered great agony from the disaster that occurred. The eulogy pronounced on the great zooelogist Agassiz was well deserved. What is the etymological distinction between geography and geology? The aeronaut took with him a barometer, a thermometer, and a chronometer. I owe you an apology for not better knowing your genealogy. Typography has been well called "the art preservative of all the arts." Who is called the great American lexicographer? Tautology is to be avoided by all who make any pretence to grammar. One may be a democrat without being a demagogue. You cannot be an architect without knowing geometry. Zoology shows that there is great symmetry in the structure of animals. The pretensions of astrology are now dissipated into thin air. Many persons skilled in physiology do not believe in hydropathy. Longfellow's "Evangeline" is written in hexameter, and Milton's "Paradise Lost" in pentameter.

20. ON'OMA, a name.

ANON'YMOUS, without a name.

METON'YMY, a rhetorical figure in which one word is put for another.

ON'OMATOPOE'IA, the forming of words whose sound suggests the sense.

PARON'YMOUS, of like derivation.

PATRONYM'IC (Gr. n. pat'er, a father), a name derived from a parent or ancestor.

PSEU'DONYM (Gr. adj. pseu'des, false), a fictitious name.

SYN'ONYM, a word having the same meaning as another in the same language.

21. PAN, PANTOS, all; whole.

PANACE'A (Gr. v. ak'eomai, I cure), a universal cure.

PAN'CREAS (Gr. n. kre'as, flesh), a fleshy gland situated at the bottom of the stomach.

PAN'DECT, a treatise which combines the whole of any science.

PANEGYR'IC (Gr. n. ag'ora, an assembly), an oration in praise of some person or event.

PAN'OPLY (Gr. n. hop'la, armor), a complete suit of armor.

PANORA'MA (Gr. n. hor'ama, a sight or view), a large picture gradually unrolled before an assembly.

PAN'THEISM (Gr. n. the'os, God), the doctrine that nature is God.

PAN'THEON, a temple dedicated to all the gods.

PAN'TOMIME, a scene or representation in dumb show.

22. PA'THOS, suffering, feeling.

PATHET'IC, affecting the emotions.

PATHOL'OGY, the science of diseases.

ALLOP'ATHY, a mode of medical practice.

ANTIP'ATHY, dislike, aversion.

AP'ATHY, want of feeling.

HOMEOP'ATHY, a mode of medical practice.

HYDROP'ATHY. See hudor.

SYM'PATHY, fellow-feeling.

23. PHIL'OS, a friend, a lover.

PHILADEL'PHIA (Gr. n. adel'phos, a brother), literally, the city of brotherly love.

PHILANTHROPY (Gr. n. anthro'pos, a man), love of mankind.

PHILHARMON'IC (Gr. n. harmo'nia, harmony), loving harmony or music.

PHILOS'OPHY (Gr. n. sophi'a, wisdom), the general laws or principles belonging to any department of knowledge.

PHILOS'OPHER, one versed in philosophy or science.

PHILOSOPH'IC, PHILOSOPH'ICAL, relating to philosophy.

24. PHA'NEIN, to cause to appear; PHANTA'SIA, an image, an idea.

DIAPH'ANOUS, translucent.

EPIPH'ANY, the festival commemorative of the manifestation of Christ by the star of Bethlehem.

FAN'CY, a pleasing image; a conceit or whim.

FAN'CIFUL, full of fancy; abounding in wild images.

FANTA'SIA, a musical composition avowedly not governed by the ordinary musical rules.

PHAN'TOM, a specter, an apparation.

PHASE, an appearance.

PHENOM'ENON, anything presented to the senses by experiment or observation; an unusual appearance.

SYC'OPHANT (Gr. n. sukon, a fig, and, literally, an informer against stealers of figs), a mean flatterer.

25. PHO'NE, a sound.

PHONET'IC, PHON'IC according to sound.

EU'PHONY, an agreeable sound of words.

SYM'PHONY, harmony of mingled sounds; a musical composition for a full band of instruments.

26. PHOS, PHOTOS, light.

PHOS'PHORUS (Gr. v. pherein, to bear), a substance resembling wax, highly inflammable, and luminous in the dark.

PHOS'PHATE, a salt of phosphoric acid.

PHOSPHORES'CENT, luminous in the dark.

PHOSPHOR'IC, relating to or obtained from phosphorus.

PHOTOG'RAPHY. See graphein.

27. PHU'SIS, nature.

PHYS'IC, medicines.

PHYS'ICAL, natural; material; relating to the body.

PHYSI'CIAN, one skilled in the art of healing.

PHYS'ICIST, a student of nature.

PHYS'ICS, natural philosophy.

PHYSIOG'NOMY (Gr. n. gno'mon, a judge), the art of discerning the character of the mind from the features of the face; the particular cast of features or countenance.

PHYSIOL'OGY. See logos.

METAPHYS'ICS, literally, after or beyond physics; hence, the science of mind.

METAPHYSI'CIAN, one versed in metaphysics.

28. POL'IS, a city.

POLICE', the body of officers employed to secure the good order of a city.

POL'ICY, the art or manner of governing a nation or conducting public affairs; prudence.

POL'ITIC, wise, expedient.

POLIT'ICAL, relating to politics.

POLITI'CIAN, one devoted to politics.

POL'ITICS, the art or science of government; struggle of parties.

POL'ITY, the constitution of civil government.

ACROP'OLIS (Gr. adj. ak'ros, high), a citadel.

COSMOP'OLITE (Gr. n. kos'mos, the world), a citizen of the world.

METROP'OLIS (Gr. n. me'ter, a mother), the chief city of a country.

NECROP'OLIS (Gr. adj. nek'ros, dead), a burial-place; a city of the dead.

29. RHE'O, I flow, I speak.

RHET'ORIC, the art of composition; the science of oratory.

RHETORI'CIAN, one skilled in rhetoric.

RHEU'MATISM, a disease of the limbs (so called because the ancients supposed it to arise from a deflection of the humors).

RES'IN, a gum which flows from certain trees.

CATARRH', a discharge of fluid from the nose caused by cold in the head.

DIARRHOE'A, purging.

HEM'ORRHAGE (Gr. n. haima, blood), a flowing of blood.

30. SKOP'EIN, to see, to watch.

SCOPE, space, aim, intention.

BISH'OP (Gr. n. epis'kopos, overseer), a clergyman who has charge of a diocese.

EPIS'COPACY, church government by bishops.

EPIS'COPAL, relating to episcopacy.

KALEI'DOSCOPE (Gr. adj. kal'os, beautiful), an optical instrument in which we see an endless variety of beautiful patterns by simple change of position.

MI'CROSCOPE (Gr. adj. mik'ros, small), an instrument for examining small objects.

MICROS'COPIST, one skilled in the use of the microscope.

STETH'OSCOPE (Gr. n. steth'os, the breast), an instrument for examining the state of the chest by sound.

TEL'ESCOPE (Gr. te'le, afar off), an instrument for viewing objects far off.

31. TAK'TOS, arranged; TAX'IS, arrangement.

TAC'TICS, the evolution, maneuvers, etc., of military and naval forces; the science or art which relates to these.

TACTI'CIAN, one skilled in tactics.

SYN'TAX, the arrangement of words into sentences.

SYNTAC'TICAL, relating to syntax.

TAX'IDERMY (Gr. n. der'ma, skin), the art of preparing and arranging the skins of animals in their natural appearance.

TAX'IDERMIST, one skilled in taxidermy.

32. TECH'NE, art.

TECH'NICAL, relating to an art or profession.

TECHNICAL'ITY, a technical expression; that which is technical.

TECHNOL'OGY, a treatise on or description of the arts.

TECHNOL'OGIST, one skilled in technology.

POLYTECH'NIC (Gr. adj. pol'us, many), comprising many arts.

PYR'OTECHNY (Gr. n. pur, fire), the art of making fireworks.

33. THE'OS, God.

THE'ISM, belief in the existence of a God.

THEO'CRACY. (See kratos.)

THEO'LOGY. (See logos.)

APOTHEO'SIS, glorification, deification.

A'THEISM, disbelief in the existence of God.

A'THEIST, one who does not believe in the existence of God.

ENTHU'SIASM, heat of imagination; ardent zeal.

PAN'THEISM. (See pan.)

POL'YTHEISM (Gr. adj. polus, many), the doctrine of a plurality of Gods.

34. TITH'ENI, to place, to set.

THEME, a subject set forth for discussion.

THE'SIS, a proposition set forth for discussion.

ANATH'EMA, an ecclesiastical curse.

ANTITHESIS, opposition or contrast in words or deeds.

HYPOTH'ESIS, a supposition.

PAREN'THESIS, something inserted in a sentence which is complete without it.

SYN'THESIS, a putting together, as opposed to analysis.

35. TON'OS, tension, tone.

TONE, tension, vigor, sound.

TON'IC, adj. increasing tension or vigor; n. a medicine which increases strength.

TUNE, a series of musical notes on a particular key.

ATTUNE', to make musical; to make one sound agree with another.

BAR'YTONE (Gr. adj. ba'rus, heavy), a male voice.

DIATON'IC, proceeding by tones and semitones.

IN'TONATE, to sound; to modulate the voice.

INTONE', to give forth a slow, protracted sound.

SEM'ITONE, half a tone.


1. Derivation of "antithesis"?—Compose an example of an antithesis.—Point out the antithesis in the following:—

"The prodigal robs his heir; the miser robs himself." "A wit with dunces and a dunce with wits." "Though deep, yet clear, though gentle, yet not dull, Strong without rage, without o'erflowing, full."

2. Derivation of "hypothesis."—Give an adjective formed from this noun.—What Latin derivative corresponds literally to "hypothesis"? Ans. Supposition.—Show this. Ans. Supposition is composed of sub = hypo (under), and position (from ponere, to place) = thesis, a placing—What adjective from "supposition" would correspond to "hypothetical"? Ans. Supposititious.

3. Derivation of "parenthesis"?—Compose a parenthetical sentence.

4. What is the opposite of "synthesis"?—Give the distinction Ans. Analysis is taking apart, synthesis is putting together—What adjective is derived from the noun "synthesis"?

5. What adjective is formed from "demagogue"? Ans. Demagogic or demagogical—Define it—Compose a sentence containing the word "demagogue". MODEL: "Aaron Burr, to gain popularity, practiced the arts of a demagogue."

6. What adjective is formed from "pedagogue"? Ans. Pedagogic—What would the "pedagogic art" mean?—Is "pedagogue" usually employed in a complimentary sense?—Give a synonym of "pedagogue" in its literal sense.

7. Derivation of "anarchy"?—Compose a sentence containing this word. MODEL: "Many of the South American States have long been cursed by anarchy."

8. What adjective is formed from "monarchy"? Ans. Monarchical—Define it.—Can you mention a country at present ruled by a monarchical government?—What is the ruler of a monarchy called?

9. Compose a sentence containing the word "oligarchy". MODEL: "During the Middle Ages some of the Italian republics, as Genoa and Venice, were under the rule of an oligarchy."

10. From what root is "democracy" derived?—What adjective is formed from "democracy"?—Is Russia at present a democracy?—Can you mention any ancient governments that for a time were democracies?

11. What adjective is formed fiom "aristocracy"?—What noun will denote one who believes in aristocracy? Ans. Aristocrat—What does "aristocrat" ordinarily mean? Ans. A proud or haughty person who holds himself above the common people.

12. What is the etymology of "thermometer"?

13. Illustrate the meaning of "chronometer" by using it in a sentence.

14. What adjective is formed from "diameter"? Ans. Diametrical—What adverb is formed from "diametrical"?—What is meant by the expression "diametrically opposed"?

15. What science was the forerunner of astronomy? Ans. Astrology—Give the derivative of this word.—What word denotes one who is skilled in astronomy?—Form an adjective from "astronomy."—Compose a sentence containing the word "astronomy." MODEL: "The three great founders of astronomy are Copernicus, Kepler, and Newton."

16. From what root is "telescope" derived?—Combine and define telescop + ic.—Compose a sentence using the word "telescope."

17. From what root is "microscope" derived?—Combine and define microscop + ic.—What single word denotes microscopic animals? Ans. Animalculae.—Compose a sentence containing the word "microscope." MODEL: "As the telescope reveals the infinitely distant, so the microscope reveals the infinitely little."

18. Compose a sentence containing the word "antipathy." MODEL: "That we sometimes have antipathies which we cannot explain is well illustrated in the lines:

'The reason why I cannot tell, I do not like you, Dr. Fell.'"

19. What adjective is formed from "apathy"?

20. Derivation of "sympathy"?—Give a synonym of this Greek derivative. Ans. Compassion.—Show why they are literal synonyms. Ans. Sym = con or com, and pathy = passion; hence, compassion = sympathy.—Give an English derivative expressing the same thing. Ans. Fellow-feeling.

21. From what two roots is "autocrat" derived?—Form an adjective from "autocrat."—Who is the present "autocrat of all the Russias"?—Could the Queen of England be called an autocrat?—Why not?

22. Compose a sentence containing the word "autograph." MODEL: "There are only two or three autographs of Shakespeare in existence."

23. Derivation of "automaton"?—Illustrate the signification of the word by a sentence.

24. What word would denote a remedy for "all the ills that flesh is heir to"?—Compose a sentence containing the word "panacea."

25. Derivation of "panoply"?—In the following sentence is "panoply" used in a literal or a figurative sense? "We had need to take the Christian panoply, to put on the whole armor of God."

26. From what two roots is "pantheism" derived?—What word is used to denote one who believes in pantheism?

27. Can you mention an ancient religion in which there were many gods?—Each divinity might have its own temple; but what name would designate a temple dedicated to all the gods?

28. Give an adjective formed from the word "panorama."—Compose a sentence using the word "panorama."

29. What is the derivative of "eulogy"?—Illustrate its meaning by a sentence.—Form an adjective from "eulogy."

30. What is the etymology of "pseudonym"?—Give an example of a pseudonym.


ACH'OS, pain—ache, headache. AINIG'MA, a riddle—enigma. AK'ME, a point—acme. AKOU'EIN, to hear—acoustics. AK'ROS, highacropolis (polis). ALLEL'ON, each other—parallel, parallelogram. AN'ER, a man—Andrew, Alexander. AN'THOS, a flower—anther, anthology, polyanthus. ANTHRO'POS, a man—anthropology, anthropophagi, misanthrope, philanthropist, philanthropy. ARK'TOS, a bear—arctic, antarctic. AR'GOS, idle—lethargy, lethargic. ARIS'TOS, best—aristocrat (kratos), aristocracy, aristocratic. ARITH'MOS, number—arithmetic, arithmetician, logarithm, logarithmic. ARO'MA, spice, odor—aromatic. ARTE'RIA, a bloodvessel—artery, arterial. ASK'EIN, to discipline—ascetic, asceticism. ASPHAL'TOS, pitch—asphalt. ATH'LOS, a contest—athlete, athletic. AT'MOS, vapor, smoke—atmosphere, atmospheric. AU'LOS, a pipe—hydraulic.

BAL'SAMON, balsam—balm, embalm. BA'ROS, weight—barometer, barytes. BA'SIS, the bottom—base, baseless, basement, basis. BIB'LION, a book—bible, biblical. BI'OS, life—biography, biology. BO'TANE, a plant—botanic, botanical, botanist, botany. BRON'CHOS, the throat—bronchial, bronchitis. BUS'SOS, bottom—abyss.

CHA'LUPS, steel—chalybeate. CHARAS'SEIN, to stamp—character, characterize, characteristic. CHA'RIS, grace—eucharist. CHEIR, the hand—surgeon (short for chirurgeon), surgical. CHLO'ROS, green—chloride, chlorine CHOL'E, bile—choler, cholera, choleraic, melancholy. CHOR'DE, a string—chord, cord, cordage. CHRIS'TOS, anointed—chrism, Christ, Christian, Christmas, Christendom, antichrist. CHRO'MA, color—chromatic, chrome, chromic, chromotype, achromatic. CHRU'SOS, gold—chrysalis, chrysolite. CHU'LOS, the milky juice formed by digestion—chyle, chylifaction. CHU'MOS, juice—chyme, chemist, chemistry, alchemy, alchemist.

DAI'MON, a spirit—demon, demoniac, demonology. DE'MOS, the people—demagogue, democracy, democrat, endemic, epidemic. DEN'DRON, a tree—dendrology, rhododendron. DER'MA, the skin—epidermis. DES'POTES, a ruler—despot, despotic, despotism. DIAI'TA, manner of life—diet, dietary, dietetic. DIDO'NI, to give—dose, antidote, anecdote. DOG'MA, an opinion—dogma, dogmatic, dogmatize, dogmatism. DOX'A, an opinion, glory—doxology, heterodox, orthodox, paradox. DRAM'A, a stage-play—drama, dramatic, dramatist. DROM'OS, a course—dromedary, hippodrome. DRUS, an oak—dryad. DUNA'THAI, to be able—dynamics, dynamical, dynasty. DUS, ill, wrong—dysentery (entera, the bowels), dyspepsia (peptein, to digest).

EKKLE'SIA, the church—ecclesiastes, ecclesiastic, ecclesiastical. E'CHEIN, to sound—echo, catechise, catechism, catechumen. EKLEI'PEIN, to fail—eclipse, ecliptic. ELEK'TRON, amber—electric, electricity, electrify, electrotype. EM'EIN, to vomit—emetic. EP'OS, a word—epic, orthoepy. ER'EMOS, desert, solitary—hermit, hermitage. ER'GON, a work—energy, energetic, surgeon (cheir, the hand). ETH'NOS, a nation—ethnic, ethnical, ethnography, ethnology. ETH'OS, custom, manner—ethics, ethical. EU, good, well—eulogy, eulogize, euphony, evangelical.

GAM'OS, marriage—bigamy, polygamy, misogamist. GAS'TER, the stomach—gastric, gastronomy. GE, the earth—geography, geology, geological, geometry, George, apogee, perigee. GEN'NAEIN, to produce—genealogy, genesis, heterogeneous, homogeneous, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. GIGNOS'KEIN, to know—diagnosis, diagnostic, prognosticate. GLOS'SA, GLOT'TA, the tongue—glossary, glottis, polyglot. GLU'PHEIN, to carve—hieroglyphics. GNO'MON, an indicator—gnomon, physiognomy (phusis). GO'NIA, a corner—diagonal, heptagon, hexagon, octagon, trigonometry. GUM'NOS, naked—gymnasium, gymnast, gymnastics.

HAI'REIN, to take or choose—heresy, heretic, heretical. HARMO'NIA, a fitting together—harmony, harmonious, harmonize, harmonium. HEK'ATON, a hundred—hecatomb. HE'LIOS, the sun—heliotrope, aphelion, perihelion. HE'MERA, a day—ephemeral. HEP'TA, seven—heptagon, heptarchy. HE'ROS, a hero—hero, heroic, heroine, heroism. HET'EROS, another, unlike—heterodox, heterodoxy, heterogeneous. HEX, six—hexagon, hexangular. HI'EROS, sacred—hierarchy, hieroglyphics (glyphein, to carve). HIP'POS, a horse—hippodrome, hippopotamus, Philip, philippic. HOL'OS, all—holocaust, holograph, catholic, catholicity. HOM'OS, like, the same—homogeneous (gennaein, to produce). HOR'OS, a boundary—horizon, aphorism. HU'MEN, the god of marriage—hymeneal. HUM'NOS, a song of praise—hymn, hymnal, hynmology.

ICH'THUS, a fish—ichthyology. ID'EA, a form or pattern—idea, ideal. ID'IOS, peculiar—idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot, idiotic. IS'OS, equal—isothermal.

KAI'EIN, to burn—caustic, cauterize, holocaust (holos, whole). KA'KOS, bad—cacophony. KA'LOS, beautiful—caligraphy, calotype, kaleidoscope (skopein). KAL'UPTEIN, to conceal—apocalypse. KAN'ON, a rule—canon, canonical, canonize. KAR'DIA, the heart—cardiac, pericardium. KEN'OS, empty—cenotaph. KEPH'ALE, the head—acephalous, hydrocephalus (hydor). KER'AS, a horn—rhinoceros. KLE'ROS, a portion—clergy, clerical, clerk, clerkship. KLI'MAX, a ladder—climax. KLI'NEIN, to bend—clinical, recline. KO'MOS, a merry feast—comedy, (ode), comedian, comic, encomium. KO'NEIN, to serve—deacon, deaconship, diaconal, diaconate. KO'NOS, Lat. CONUS, a cone—cone, conic, conical, coniferous, coniform. KOP'TEIN, to cut—coppice, copse, syncope. KOS'MOS, the world—cosmography, cosmopolitan. KRI'TES, a judge—crisis, criterion, critic, critical, criticism, hypocrite. KRUP'TEIN, to conceal—crypt, apocrypha. KRUSTAL'LOS, ice—crystal, crystallize. KUK'LOS, a circle—cycle, encyclical, cyclops, cyclades, encyclopedia. KULIN'DROS, a roller—cylinder.

LAM'BANEIN, to take—syllable, dissyllable, polysyllable. LAM'PEIN, to shine—lamp. LA'OS, the people—layman, laity. LATREI'A, worship—idolatry, heliolatry. LITH'OS, a stone—litharge, lithograph, aerolite. LU'EIN, to loosen—analysis, paralysis, paralytic, palsy.

MAN'IA, madness—mania, maniac. MAR'TUR, a witness—martyr, martyrdom, martyrology. MEL'AS, black—melancholy, Melanesia. ME'TER, a mother—metropolis. MIK'ROS, small—microcosm, microscope, microscopic. MI'MOS, an imitator—mimic, mimicry, pantomime. MOR'PHE, shape—amorphous, metamorphosis. MU'RIAS, ten thousand—myriad. MU'THOS, a fable—myth, mythology.

NAR'KE, torpor—narcissus, narcotic. NAUS, a ship—nausea, nauseate, nautical, nautilus, aeronaut. NEK'ROS, dead—necropolis. NE'SOS, an island—Polynesia. NOM'OS, a law—astronomy, Deuteronomy, economy (oikos, a house), economic.

OL'IGOS, few—oligarchy (arche). OR'PHANOS, deserted—orphan, orphanage. OR'THOS, right, straight—orthodox, orthoepy, orthography.

PAIDEI'A, instruction—cyclopaedia. PAIS, a child—pedagogue, pedant, pedantic, pedobaptist. PAP'AS, Lat. PAPA, a father—papacy, pope, popedom, popery. PARADEI'SOS, a pleasant garden—paradise. PAT'EIN, to walk—peripatetic. PEN'TE, five—pentagon, pentecost. PET'RA, a rock—Peter, petrescent, petrify, petroleum, saltpeter. PHOB'OS, fear—hydrophobia (hudor, water). PHRA'SIS, speech—phrase, phraseology, paraphrase. PHREN, the mind—phrenology, frantic, frenzy. PHU'TON, a plant—zoophyte. PLA'NAEIN, to wander—planet, planetary. PLAS'SEIN, to mould—plaster, plastic. PLEU'RA, the side—pleurisy. PNEU'MA, breath, spirit—pneumatic. PO'LEIN, to sell—bibliopolist, monopoly, monopolize. POL'US, many—polygamy, polyglot, polysyllable, polytechnic. POR'OS, a passage—pore, porosity, porous, emporium. POT'AMOS, a river—hippopotamus. POUS, the foot—antipodes, polypus, tripod. PRAS'SEIN, to do—practice, practical, practitioner, impracticable. PRESBU'TEROS, elder—presbytery, presbyterian, presbyterianism. PRO'TOS, first—protomartyr. PSAL'LEIN, to touch, to sing—psalm, psalmist, psalmody, psalter. PUR, fire—pyramid, pyrotechny.

RHIN, the nose—rhinoceros. RHOD'ON, a rose —rhododendron.

SARX, flesh—sarcasm, sarcastic, sarcophagus. SCHED'E, a sheet—schedule. SCHE'MA, a plan—scheme. SCHIS'MA, a division—schism, schismatic. SIT'OS, corn—parasite, parasitical. SKAN'DALON, disgrace—scandal, scandalous, scandalize, slander, slanderous. SKEPTES'THAI, to consider—sceptic, sceptical, scepticism. SKEP'TRON, an emblem of office—scepter. SOPH'IA, wisdom—sophist, sophistry, philosopher (philos), philosophy. SPHAI'RA, a globe—sphere, spherical, spheroid, hemisphere. STAL'AEIN, to drop—stalactite, stalagmite. STEL'LEIN, to send—apostle, apostolic, epistle, epistolary. STEN'OS, narrow—stenography. STHEN'OS, strength—calisthenics. STIG'MA, a mark—stigma, stigmatize. STRAT'OS, an army—stratagem, strategy, strategist. STROPH'E, a turning—apostrophe, catastrophe.

TA'PHOS, a tomb—epitaph, cenotaph. TAU'TO, the same—tautology. TEK'TON, a builder—architect. TE'LE, far off—telegraph, telescope. TEM'NEIN, to cut—atom, anatomy, anatomist. TET'RA, four—tetragon, tetrarch. THER'ME, heat—thermal. THRON'OS, a throne—throne, enthrone. TOP'OS, a place—topography. TREP'EIN, to turn—trope, tropic, tropical, heliotrope. TU'POS, a stamp—type, typography, prototype. TURAN'NOS, a ruler—tyrant, tyrannical, tyrannize, tyranny.

ZEIN, to boil—zeal, zealous. ZEPHU'ROS, the west wind—zephyr. ZO'ON, an animal—zodiac, zoology, zoological, zooephyte.



A—(corrupted from A.-S. on) signifies in, on, at: as abed, aboard, aside, aback; and gives the adverbial form to adjectives, as in aloud, aboard.

BE—gives a transitive signification, as in bespeak. It is sometimes intensive, as in bestir, and converts an adjective into a verb, as in bedim. Be, as a form of by, also denotes proximity, as in beside: as bystander.

FOR[10]—means privation, or opposition: as forbear, forbid, forget.

FORE—before: as foretell, forebode.

MIS—error, wrongness: as mistake, misstate, misinform.

N—has a negative signification, as in many languages: thus, never, neither, none.

OFF—from offspring.

OUT—beyond: as outdo, outlaw.

OVER—above: as overhang, overflow, overturn.

TO—in to-day, to-morrow.

UN—not, the reverse: as, unskilled, unlearned.

UNDER—beneath: as undermine.

WITH—against (German wider): as withstand.


AR, ARD, ER, YER, STER[11]—signifying agent or doer; as in beggar, drunkard, beginner, lawyer, spinster. Er forms verbs of adjectives, as lower, from low, and also forms the comparatives of adjectives.

ESS, as in songstress, is borrowed from the French.

DOM, SHIP, RIC, WIC—from dom, judgment; ship, shape or condition; ric, rice, power; wic, a dwelling—signify state, condition, quality, etc., as in kingdom, friendship, bishopric, Berwick.

EL, KIN (= chen, German), LET (from French), LING, OCK—have a diminutive effect, as in manikin, streamlet, youngling, hillock, cockerel.

EN—adjective termination, as wooden, from wood; it also converts adjectives into verbs, as deepen from deep.

FOLD—from fealdan, to fold; a numeral termination, like ple, from the Latin plico, I fold.

FUL—full; truthful.

HOOD, NESS—of uncertain derivation, signify state, etc., as in priesthood, righteousness.

ISH—isc (Saxon), isch (German), denotes a quality; like rakish, knavish, churlish, Danish. Ish is also employed as a diminutive—blackish.

LESS—loss: as penniless, hopeless.

LIKE and LY—like; lic (A.-S.): as warlike, manly.

SOME—sum (A.-S.), sam (German), lonesome, handsome.

TEEN—ten, as in fourteen.

TY—from tig (A.-S ), ten; zig (German), as in six-ty. Teen adds ten—ty multiplies by ten.

WARD—weard, waerts (German), versus (Latin), against, direction, towards; downward, eastward.

WISE—wisa, manner; likewise.

Y—ig, an adjective termination; dreorig (A.-S.), dreary.


The pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon is much nearer to that of modern German or the Continental pronunciation of Latin than of modern English.

The letters of the alphabet wanting in Anglo-Saxon are: j, k, q, v, and z. K is commonly represented by c; thus, cyning (king) is pronounced kining; cyrtel, kirtle; qu is represented by cw, as cwic, quick; cwen, queen; cwellan, to quell; th is represented by two peculiar characters, one of which in its reduced form resembles y, as in ye olden times, where ye should be pronounced the, and not ye, as is often ignorantly done.

Long vowels should be carefully distinguished from short vowels. Long vowels are a as far, ae as in fare, e as in they, i as in pique, o as in bone, u as in rule, y as in i (nearly). Short vowels are a as in fast, ae as in man, e as in men, i as in pin, o as in God, u as in full, y as in i (nearly).

In the diphthongs ea, eo, and ie, the first element receives the stress; the second is pronounced very lightly.

There are no silent letters in Anglo-Saxon as in modern English. The vowel of every syllable is pronounced, and in difficult combinations of consonants, as in hlud, loud, cniht, knight, cnif, knife, each consonant has its distinct sound.

E before a and o has the sound of y as a consonant; i before e and u has the same sound: thus, Earl = yarl; eow = you; iett = yett; and iugoth = yugoth, youth.

AC, an oak—oak, oaken. ACSIAN, to inquire—ask. AECER, a field—acre, acreage. AER, before—early, ere, erelong, erst. AFT, hind-part—after, abaft. AGAN, to have—owe, own, owner, ought, disown. ARISAN, to arise—raise, rise, rouse.

BACAN, to bake—baker, bakery, bakehouse, batch. BAEC, back—backbite, backslide, backward, aback. BAELG, a bag. BALD, bold, brave—bold, boldness. BANA, death—bane, baneful, henbane. BANC, a bank or raised place—bank, banker, bankrupt, bankruptcy, bench, embankment. BEACNIAN, to beckon—beck, beckon, beacon. BELLAN, to roar—bawl, bellow. BEORGAN, to protect—borough, borrow, burgh, burglar, burrow, harbinger, harbor, berth. BEORHT, bright—bright. BERAN, to bear, to bring forth—barrow, bear, bier, birth. BIDAN, to wait—abide. BIDDAN, to pray, to bid—bid, bidding, bead, beadsman, beadle, forbid, unbidden. BINDAN, to bind—band, bond, bondage, bundle. BLAEC, pale—bleach, bleacher, bleak, bleakness. BLAWAN, to blow—blade, bladder, blast, blaze, blazon, blister, blossom, blow, blush, bluster. BLETSIAN, to bless—bless, blessing. BRAD, broad—broad, breadth, board, aboard. BRECAN, to break—bray (to pound), breach, breaker, breakfast, brink, broken. BREOST, the breast—breast, breastplate, breastwork, abreast. BREOWAN, to brew—brew, brewer, brewery. BRUCAN, to use—broker, brokerage, brook (to endure). BUAN, to cultivate—boor, boorish, neighbor, neighborhood. BUGAN, to bow or bend—bay, bight, bough, bow, buxom, elbow. BYLDAN, to design, to make—build, builder, building. BYRNAN, to burn—brand, brandish, brandy, brimstone, brown, brunt, auburn, firebrand.

CAELAN, to cool—chill, chilblain. CEAPIAN, to buy—cheap, cheapen, cheapness, chaffer, chapman. CENNAN, to produce—kin, kind, kindness, kindred, akin, mankind. CEORL, a churl—carle, churlish. CLAENE, clean—clean, cleanly, cleanliness, cleanse, unclean. CLATH, cloth—clothe, clothier, clothing, clad, unclad. CLEOFAN, to cleave; CLIFIAN, to adhere—cleaver, cliff, clover, club. CNAFA, a boy—knave, knavery. CNAWAN, to know—knowledge, acknowledge, foreknow, unknown. CNYLL, a loud noise—knell. CNYTTAN, to knit—knitting, knot, knotty, net, network. CRACIAN, to crack; CEARCIAN, to creak—crack, crackle, creak, cricket, croak, screech, shriek. CUMAN, to come—comely, comeliness, become, overcome, welcome. CUNNAN, to know, to be powerful—can, con, cunning, keen. CWELLAN, to slay—kill, quell.

DAEG, a day—dawn, daylight, day-star, daisy = day's eye. DAEL, a part—deal, dole, ordeal. DEMAN, to think—deem. DEOR, a wild animal—deer. DEORE, dusky or black—dark, darken, darkly, darkness. DIC, a dyke—dig, ditch, ditcher. DISC, a plate—desk, disc, dish. DOM, judgment—doom, doomsday. DON, to do—doer, deed, undo. DRAGAN, to draw—drag, draggle, drain, draught, draughtsman, draw, dray. DRIFAN, to drive—drift, driver, drove. DRIGAN, to dry—drysalter, drought, drug (originally dried plants), druggist. DRINCAN, to suck in—drench, drink, drunk, drunkard, drunken. DRYPAN, to drip or drop—drip, drop, droop, dribble, drivel. DWINAN, to pine—dwindle, dwine. DYN, a noise—din, dun.

EAGE, the eye—eye, eyeball, eye-bright, eyelid. EALD, old—alderman, earl. EFEN, just—even, evenness. ERIAN, to plough, to ear—earth, earthy, earthquake.

FAEGER, bright—fair, fairness. FAER, fear—fearful, fearless. FARAN, to go—fare, farewell, ferry, ford, seafaring, wayfarer. FEDAN, to feed—feed, feeder, fodder, food, father, fatherly. FEOND, an enemy—fiend, fiendish. FLEOGAN, to fly—flag, flake, fledge, flee, flicker, flight. FLEOTAN, to float—float, fleet. FLOWAN, to flow—flood, flow. FOLGIAN, to go after—follow. FON, to seize —fang, finger. FOT, the foot—foot, fetter, fetlock. FREON, to love—free, freedom, friend, friendship. FRETAN, to gnaw—fret, fretful. FUGEL, a bird—fowl, fowler, fowling-piece. FUL, unclean—filth, filthy, foul, fulsome. FULLIAN, to whiten—full (to scour and thicken cloth in a mill), fuller, fuller's-earth. FYR, fire—fiery, fireworks, bonfire.

GABBAN, to mock—gabble, gibe, gibberish, jabber. GALAN, to sing—nightingale. GANGAN, to go—gang, gangway. GAST, a ghost—gas, ghastly, ghost, ghostly, aghast. GEARD, an enclosure —garden, orchard, yard. GEOTAN, to pour—gush, gut. GEREFA, a governor—grieve (an overseer), sheriff, sheriffdom. GETAN, to get—get, beget, begotten, forget, forgetful. GIFAN, to give—give, gift, forgive, forgiveness, misgive, unforgiven. GLOWAN, to glow—glow, glowing. GOD, good—gospel, gossip. GRAES, grass—grass, graze, grazier. GRAFAN, to dig—grave, graver, graft, groove, grove, grub, engrave. GRAPIAN, to grapple; GRIPAN, to gripe; GROPIAN, to grope—grapple, grapnel, gripe, grope, group, grovel. GREOT, dust—gritty, groats. GROWAN, to grow—grow, growth. GRUND, the ground—ground, groundless, groundsel, groundwork.

HABBAN, to have—have, haft, behave, behavior, misbehave. HAEGE, a hedge—haw, hawthorn. HAEL, sound, whole—hail, hale, heal, health, healthful, healthy, holy, holiness, whole, wholesome. HAM, a dwelling—hamlet, home, homely, homeliness. HANGIAN, to hang—hang, hanger, hinge, unhinge, overhang. HAT, heat—heat, heater, hot. HEALDAN, to hold—halt, halter, hilt, hold, behold, uphold, upholsterer, withhold. HEARD, hard—harden, hardihood, hardship, hardware, hardy. HEBBAN, to lift—heap, heave, heaven, heavy, upheaval. HEDAN, to heed—heed, heedful, heedfulness, heedless, heedlessness. HEORTE, the heart—hearten, heartless, hearty, heartburn, heart's-ease, dishearten. HLAF, bread—loaf. HLEAPAN, to leap—leap, overleap, elope, elopement. HOL, a hole—hole, hold (of a ship), hollow, hollowness. HRISTLAN, to make quick sounds—rustle, rustling. HUNTIAN, to rush—hunt, hunter, huntsman. HUS, house—housewife, husband, hustings. HWEORFAN, to turn—swerve, wharf. HYRAN, to hear—hear, hearer, hearsay.

LAEDAN, to lead—lead, leader, loadstar, loadstone, mislead. LAEFAN, to leave—left, eleven, twelve. LAERAN, to teach—learn, learner, learning, lore, unlearned. LANG, long—long, length, lengthen, lengthy, linger. LECGAN, to lay—lay, layer, lair, law, lawful, lawless, lea, ledge, ledger, lie, low, lowly, outlaw. LEOFIAN, LYBBAN, to live—live, lively, livelihood, livelong, alive, outlive. LEOHT, light—lighten, lightsome, lighthouse, enlighten. LIC, like—like, likely, likelihood, likeness, likewise, unlike. LOCIAN, to stretch forward—look. LOMA, utensils, furniture—loom, hand-loom, power-loom. LOSIAN, to lose—lose, loser, loss. LUF, love; LUFIAN, to love—lover, lovely, loveliness, lief, beloved, unlovely. LYFAN, to permit—leave (permission), belief, believe, believer, misbelieve. LYFT, the air—loft, lofty, aloft.

MACIAN, to make—make, maker, match, matchless, mate, inmate. MAENGAN, to mix—among, mingle, commingle, intermingle, mongrel. MAGAN, to be able—may, might, mighty, main, mainland, dismay. MEARC, a boundary—mark, marksman, marches, remark. METAN, to measure—meet, meeting, meet (fit), meetness. MUND, a defence—mound. MURNAN, to murmur—mourn, mourner, mournful. MYND, the mind—mind, mindful, mindfulness, remind.

NAES, a nose—naze, ness. NAMA, a name—name, nameless, namesake, misname. NEAD, need—need, needful, needless, needs, needy. NEAH, nigh—near, next, neighbor. NIHT, night—night, nightfall, nightless, nightmare, nightshade.

OGA, dread—ugly, ugliness.

PAETH, a path—pathless, pathway, footpath. PLEGAN, to exercise, to sport—play, player, playful, playmate.

RAECAN, to reach—reach, overreach, rack, rack-rent. RAEDAN, to read—read, readable, reader, reading, riddle. READ, red—red, redden, ruddy. REAFIAN, to seize—bereave, bereavement, raven, ravenous, rive, rob, robber, robbery, rove, rover. RECAN, to heed—reck, reckless, recklessness, reckon, reckoning. RIDAN, to ride—ride, rider, road, roadster, roadstead. RINNAN, to run—run, runner, runaway, outrun. RIPAN, to reap—reap, reaper, ripe, ripen, ripeness, unripe. RUH, rough—rough, roughness.

SAEGAN, to say—say, saying, hearsay, unsay. SAR, painful—sore, soreness, sorrow, sorrowful, sorry. SCACAN, to shake—shake, shaky, shock, shocking. SCEADAN, to shade—shade, shady, shadow, shed (a covered enclosure). SCEDAN, to scatter, to shed—shed (to spill), watershed. SCEOFAN, to push—shove, shovel, scuffle, shuffle, sheaf. SCEOTAN, to shoot—shoot, shot, sheet, shut, shutter, shuttle, overshoot, undershot, upshot. SCERAN, to cut—scar, scarf, score, share, sharp, shear, sheriff, shire. SCINAN, to shine—sheen, outshine, moonshine, sunshine. SCREOPAN, to creak—scrape, scraper, swap, scrap-book. SCROB, a bush—shrub, shrubbery. SCYPPAN, to form—shape, shapeless, landscape. SELLAN, to give—sale, sell, sold. SEON, to see—see, seer, sight, foresee, oversee, unsightly, gaze. SETTAN, to set; SITTAN, to sit—set, setter, settle, settler, settlement, set, beset, onset, outset, upset. SIDE, side—side, sideboard, aside, beside, inside, outside, upside. SINGAN, to sing—sing, singer, song. SLAEC, slack—slack, slackness, slow, sloth, slothful, sluggard, sluggish. SLEAN, to slay—slay, slaughter, sledge (a heavy hammer). SLIDAN, to slide—slide, sled, sledge. SLIPAN, to glide—slip, slipper, slippery, slipshod. SMITAN, to smite—smite, smiter, smith, smithy. SNICAN, to creep—snake, sneak. SOCC, a shoe—sock, socket. SOFT, soft—soften, softly, softness. SOTH, true—sooth, soothsayer. SPECAN, to speak—speak, speaker, speech, bespeak. SPELL, a message—spell (discourse), gospel. SPINNAN, to spin—spinner, spider. STAN, a stone—stony, stoneware. STANDAN, to stand—standard, understand, understanding, withstand. STEALL, a place—stall, forestall, install, pedestal. STEORFAN, to die—starve, starvation, starveling. STICIAN, to stick—stake, stick, stickle, stickleback, sting, stitch, stock, stockade, stocking. STIGAN, to ascend—stair, staircase, stile, stirrup, sty. STRECCAN, to stretch—stretch, stretcher, straight, straighten, straightness, outstretch, overstretch. STYRAN, to steer—steer, steerage, steersman, stern (the hind part of a ship), astern. STYRIAN, to stir—stir, bestir. SUR, sour—sour, sourish, sourness, sorrel, surly, surliness. SWERIAN, to swear—swear, swearer, forswear, answer, unanswered. SWET, sweet—sweet, sweetbread, sweeten, sweetmeat, sweetness.

TAECAN, to show, to teach—teach, teachable, teacher. TELLAN, to count—tell, teller, tale, talk, talkative, foretell. THINCAN, to seem; pret. thuh-te, methinks, methought. THRINGAN, to press—throng. THYR, dry—thirst, thirsty. TREOWE, true—true, truth, truthful, truism, trust, trustee, trustworthy, trusty. TWA, two—twice, twine, twist, between, entwine. TYRNAN, to turn—turn, turner, turncoat, turnkey, turnpike, overturn, return, upturn.

WACAN, to awake—wake, wakeful, waken, wait, watch, watchful, watchfulness, watchman. WARNIAN, to defend, to beware—warn, warning, warrant, wary, weir, aware, beware. WEARM, glowing—warm, warmth. WEGAN, to move—wag, waggle, wain, wave, way, wayfarer, weigh, weight, weighty. WEORDH, worth—worth, worthy, worship, worshipper, unworthy. WERIAN, to cover—wear, wearable, weary, wearisome. WINNAN, to labor—win, won. WITAN, to know—wise, wisdom, wizard, wit, witness, witty. WRINGAN, to twist—wrangle, wrench, wriggle, wring, wrinkle. WRITHAN, to twist—wrath, wrathful, wroth, wreath, wreathe, wry, wryneck, wrong. WUNIAN, to dwell—wont, wonted. WYRM, a worm, a serpent—worm.

Specimens of Anglo-Saxon, and the same literally translated into Modern English.


Caedmon: died about 680.

Nu we sceolan herian Now we shall praise heofon-rices weard, the guardian of heaven, metodes mihte, the might of the creator, and his mod-ge-thonc, and his mind's thought, wera wuldor-faeder! the glory-father of men! swa he wundra ge-hwaes, how he of all wonders, ece dryhten, the eternal lord, oord onstealde. formed the beginning. He aerest ge-sceop He first created ylda bearnum for the children of men heofon to hrofe, heaven as a roof, halig scyppend! the holy creator! tha middan-geard them the world mon-cynnes weard, the guardian of mankind ece dryhten, the eternal lord, aefter teode, produced afterwards, firum foldan, the earth for men, frea aelmihtig! the almighty master!


Bede: died 735.

For tham ned-fere Before the necessary journey neni wirtheth no one becomes thances suotera more prudent in thought thonne him thearf sy, than is needful to him, to ge-hicgeune to search out er his heonon-gange before his going hence hwet his gaste what to his spirit godes othe yveles of good or of evil efter deathe heonon after his death hence demed weorthe. will be judged.


Tha feng AElfred AEthelwulfing to Then took Alfred, son of Ethelwulf West-Seaxna rice; and thaes ymb aenne to the West Saxon's kingdom; and monath gefeaht AElfred cyning with that after one month fought Alfred ealne thone here lytle werode aet king against all the army with a Wiltoune, and hine lange on daeg little band at Wilton, and them long geflymde, and tha Deniscan ahton during the day routed and then the wael-stowe geweald. And thaes geares Danes obtained of the battle-field wurdon nigon folcgefeoht gefohten possession. And this year were nine with thone here on tham cyne-rice be great battles fought with the army suthan Temese, butan tham the him in the kingdom to the south of the AElfred, and ealdormen, and cyninges Thames, besides those in which thegnas oft rada onridon the man na Alfred, and the alder-men, and the ne rimde. And thaes geares waeron king's thanes oft inrode against of-slegene nigon eorlas, and an which one nothing accounted. And cyning; and thy geare namon this year were slain nine earls and West-Seaxan frith with thone here. one king; and this year made the West-Saxons peace with the army.


LUCAE, Cap. I. v. 5-10. LUKE, Chap. I. v. 5-10. 5. On Herodes dagum Iudea cyninges, 5. In the days of Herod the king of waes sum sacerd on naman Zacharias, of Judea, there was a certain priest by Abian tune: and his wif waes of name Zacharias, of the course of Aarones dohtrum, and hyre nama waes Abia: and his wife was of the Elizabeth. daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth.

6. Sothlice hig waeron butu rihtwise 6. And they were both righteous beforan Gode, gangende on eallum his before God, walking in all the bebodum and rihtwisnessum, butan commandments and ordinances of the wrohte. Lord without blame.

7. And hig naefdon nan bearn, fortham 7. And they had no child, because the Elizabeth waes unberende; and hig that Elizabeth was barren; and they on heora dagum butu forth-eodon. in her days were both of great age.

8. Sothlice waes geworden tha 8. And it befell that when Zacharias Zacharias hys sacerdhades breac on should do the office of the his gewrixles endebyrdnesse beforan priesthood in the order of his Gode, course before God,

9. AEfter gewunan thaes sacerdhades 9. After the custom of the hlotes, he eode that he his offrunge priesthood he went forth by lot, to sette, tha he on Godes tempel eode. burn incense when he into God's temple went.

10. Eall werod thaes folces waes ute 10. And all the multitude of the gebiddende on thaere offrunge timan. people were without praying at the time of incense.


Faeder ure, thu the eart on heofenum; Father our, thou who art in heaven; si thin nama gehalgod; to-becume thin be thine name hallowed; let come rice; geweordhe thin willa on thine kingdom; let be done thine eorthan, swa swa on heofenum. Urne ge will on earth, so as in the heavens. daeghwamlican hlaf syle us to-daeg; and Our also daily bread give thou us forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we to-day; and forgive thou to us our forgidfadh urum gyltendum; and ne debts, so as we forgive our debtors; gelaede thu us on costnunge, ac alys and not lead thou us into us of yfle, etc. temptations, but deliver thou us from evil, etc.



He nom tha Englisca boc He took the English book Tha makede Seint Beda; That Saint Bede made; An other he nom on Latin, Another he took in Latin, Tha makede Seinte Albin, That Saint Albin made, And the feire Austin, And the fair Austin, The fulluht broute hider in. That baptism brought hither in. Boc he nom the thridde, The third book he took, Leide ther amidden, And laid there in midst, Tha makede a Frenchis clerc, That made a French clerk, Wace was ihoten, Wace was he called, The wel couthe writen, That well could write, And he hoc yef thare aethelen And he it gave to the noble Allienor, the wes Henries quene, Eleanor, that was Henry's Queen, Thes heyes kinges. The high king's.


Henry, thurg Gode's fultome, King on Henry, through God's support, King Engleneloande, Lhoaverd on Yrloand, of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Duk on Norman, on Acquitain, Earl on Normandy, of Acquitain, Earl of Anjou, send I greting, to alle hise Anjou, sends greeting to all his holde, ilaerde and ilewede on subjects, learned and unlearned, of Huntindonnschiere. Thaet witen ge wel Huntingdonshire. This know ye well alle, haet we willen and unnen thaet all, that we will and grant what our ure raedesmen alle, other the moare counsellors all, or the more part of del of heom, thaet beoth ichosen thurg them, that be chosen through us and us and thurg thaet loandes-folk on ure through the landfolk of our kingdom, kineriche, habbith idon, and schullen have done, and shall do, to the don in the worthnes of God, and ure honor of God, and our allegiance, treowthe, for the freme of the for the good of the land, etc. loande, etc.

Anglo-Saxon Element in Modern English.

That the young student may be made aware of the extent of the employment of Anglo-Saxon in our present language, and that he may have some clue to direct him to a knowledge of the Saxon words, the following extracts, embracing a great proportion of these words, are submitted to his attention. The words not Teutonic are marked in Italics.


Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste Brought death into the world, and all our woe, With loss of Eden, till one greater man Restore us and regain the blissful seat— Sing, heavenly Muse.

With thee conversing, I forget all time, All seasons, and their change; all please alike. Sweet is the breath of morn, her rising sweet, With charm of earliest birds; pleasant the sun When first on this delightful land he spreads His orient beams on herb, tree, fruit, and flower, Glistering with dew; fragrant the fertile earth, After soft showers; and sweet the coming on Of grateful evening mild; then silent night With this her solemn bird, and this fair moon, And these the gems of heaven, her starry train.


To be, or not to be, that is the question; Whether 't is nobler in the mind to suffer The stings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And, by opposing, end them? To die, to sleep; No more;—and by a sleep to say we end The heartache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to! 't were a consummation Devoutly to be wished. To die; to sleep; To sleep?—perchance to dream!

All the world's a stage, And all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances, And one man in his time plays many parts; His acts being seven ages. At first the infant, Mewling and puking in his nurse's arms. And then the whining school-boy, with his satchel And shining morning face, creeping like snail Unwillingly to school. And then the lover, Sighing like furnace, with a woeful ballad Made to his mistress' eyebrow. Then a soldier, Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard, Jealous in honour, sudden and quick in quarrel; Seeking the bubble reputation Even in the cannon's mouth.


In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep: and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light; and there was light. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.—Genesis i. 1-6.

And it came to pass, that when Isaac was old, and his eyes were dim, so that he could not see, he called Esau, his eldest son, and said unto him, My son. And he said unto him, Behold, here am I. And he said, Behold now, I am old, I know not the day of my death. Now therefore take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and take me some venison; and make me savoury meat, such as I love, and bring it to me, that I may eat; that my soul may bless thee before I die. And Rebekah heard when Isaac spake to Esau his son. And Esau went to the field to hunt for venison, and to bring it. And Rebekah spake unto Jacob her son, saying, Behold, I heard thy father speak unto Esau thy brother, saying, Bring me venison, and make me savoury meat, that I may eat, and bless thee before the Lord before my death.—Genesis xxvii. 1-7.


These as they change, Almighty Father! these Are but the varied God. The rolling year Is full of thee. Forth in the pleasing spring Thy beauty walks, thy tenderness and love. Wide flush the fields; the softening air is balm; Echo the mountains round; the forest smiles; And every sense and every heart is joy. Then comes thy glory in the summer months, With light and heat refulgent. Then thy sun Shoots full perfection through the swelling year.


I was yesterday, about sunset, walking in the open fields, till the night insensibly fell upon me. I at first amused myself with all the richness and variety of colours which appeared in the western parts of heaven. In proportion as they faded away and went out, several stars and planets appeared, one after another, till the whole firmament was in a glow. The blueness of the ether was exceedingly heightened and enlivened by the season of the year.


Let Indians, and the gay, like Indians, fond Of feathered fopperies, the sun adore: Darkness has more divinity for me; It strikes thought inward; it drives back the soul To settle on herself, our point supreme. There lies our theater: there sits our judge. Darkness the curtain drops o'er life's dull scene: 'T is the kind hand of Providence stretched out 'Twixt man and vanity; 't is reason's reign, And virtue's too; these tutelary shades Are man's asylum from the tainted throng. Night is the good man's friend, and guardian too. It no less rescues virtue, than inspires.


Wisdom is a fox, who, after long hunting, will at last cost you the pains to dig out. 'T is a cheese, which by how much the richer has the thicker, homelier, and the coarser coat; and whereof, to a judicious palate, the maggots are the best. 'Tis a sack posset, wherein the deeper you go on you will find it sweeter. But then, lastly, 'tis a nut, which, unless you choose with judgment, may cost you a tooth, and pay you with nothing but a worm.


The beauties of her person and graces of her air combined to make her the most amiable of women; and the charms of her address and conversation aided the impression which her lovely figure made on the heart of all beholders. Ambitious and active in her temper, yet inclined to cheerfulness and society; of a lofty spirit, constant and even vehement in her purpose, yet politic, gentle, and affable, in her demeanor, she seemed to partake only so much of the male virtues as to render her estimable, without relinquishing those soft graces which compose the proper ornament of her sex.


In the second century of the Christian era, the empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth, and the most civilized portion of mankind. The frontiers of that extensive monarchy were guarded by ancient renown, and disciplined valour. The gentle but powerful influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. Their peaceful inhabitants enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth and luxury. The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence.


Of genius, that power which constitutes a poet; that quality without which judgment is cold, and knowledge is inert; that energy which collects, combines, amplifies, and animates; the superiority must, with some hesitation, be allowed to Dryden. It is not to be inferred that of this poetical vigor Pope had only a little, because Dryden had more; for every other writer since Milton must give place to Pope; and even of Dryden it must be said, that if he has brighter paragraphs, he has not better poems.


Ancient of days! august Athena! where, Where are thy men of might—thy grand in soul? Gone—glimmering through the dream of things that were. First in the race that led to Glory's goal, They won, and passed away. Is this the whole? A school-boy's tale—the wonder of an hour! The warrior's-weapon and the sophist's stole Are sought in vain, and o'er each mouldering tower, Dim with the mist of years, gray flits the shade of power.


The way was long, the wind was cold, The Minstrel was infirm and old; His withered cheek and tresses gray Seemed to have known a better day; The harp, his sole remaining joy, Was carried by an orphan boy. The last of all the bards was he Who sung of border chivalry; For, well-a-day! their dale was fled; His tuneful brethren all were dead; And he, neglected and oppressed, Wished to be with them and at rest.


Ah! little doth the young one dream, When full of play and childish cares, What power is in his wildest scream, Heard by his mother unawares! He knows it not, he cannot guess; Years to a mother bring distress; But do not make her love the less.

My son, if thou be humbled, poor, Hopeless of honor and of gain, Oh! do not dread thy mother's door; Think not of me with grief and pain. I now can see with better eyes; And worldly grandeur I despise, And Fortune with her gifts and lies.


Not wholly in the busy world, nor quite Beyond it, blooms the garden that I love. News from the humming city comes to it In sound of funeral or of marriage bells; And sitting muffled in dark leaves you hear The windy clanging of the winter clock; Although between it and the garden lies A league of grass, washed by a slow broad stream, That, stirred with languid pulses of the oar, Waves all its lazy lilies, and creeps on, Barge laden, to three arches of a bridge, Crowned with the minster-towers.




AT'LAS, a collection of maps bound together: "Atlas," a fabled giant who, according to the Greek notion bore the earth upon his shoulders.

ACAD'EMY, a superior grade school, a society of learned men: "Academus," a Greek in whose garden near Athens Plato taught.

AMMO'NIA, the pungent matter of smelling salts: "Jupiter Ammon," near whose temple in Libya it was originally obtained.

BAC'CHANAL, one who indulges in drunken revels: "Bacchus," the god of wine.

BOW'IE KNIFE, an American weapon: Colonel "Bowie," the inventor.

BRAGGADO'CIO, a vain boaster: "Braggadochio," a boastful character in Spenser's Faery Queen.

BUD'DHISM, a wide-spread Asiatic religion: "Buddha," a Hindoo sage who lived about 1000 B.C.

CAL'VINISM, the doctrines of Calvin: "Calvin," a Swiss theologian of the 16th century.

CAMEL'LIA, a genus of evergreen shrubs: "Camelli," a Spaniard who brought them from Asia.

CICERO'NE (sis e-ro'ne or chi che-ro'-ne), a guide: "Cicero," the Roman orator.

CINCHO'NA, Peruvian bark: Countess "Cinchona," wife of a Spanish governor of Peru (17th century). By means of this medicine she was cured of an intermittent fever, and after her return to Spain she aided in the diffusion of the remedy.

DAGUERRE'OTYPE, a picture produced on a metal plate: "Daguerre," the inventor (1789-1851).

DAHL'IA, a garden plant: "Dahl," a Swedish botanist.

DUNCE, a dull, slow-witted person: "Duns Scotus," a subtle philosopher of the 13th century. His method of reasoning was very popular in the schools during the Middle Ages, and a very skillful hair-splitter was called a Dunse; but at last, through the influence of the antagonists of the philosopher, the word passed into a term of reproach.

EP'ICURE, one fond of good living: "Epicurus," a Greek philosopher who was said to teach that pleasure is the chief good.

FAH'RENHEIT, a thermometer that marks the freezing-point of water at 32 deg. (which is different from both the centigrade and the Reaumur thermometer): "Fahrenheit," the inventor.

FUCHSIA (fu'si-a), a genus of flowering plants: "Leonard Fuchs," a German botanist of the 16th century.

GAL'VANISM, a branch of the science of electricity: "Galvani," an Italian physician, its discoverer.

GEN'TIAN, a medicinal root: "Gentian," king of Illyria, who is said to have first experienced the virtues of the plant.

GOB'ELIN, a rich tapestry: "Jehan Gobeelen," a Flemish dyer.

GUILLOTINE', an instrument for beheading: "Guillotin," who invented and brought it into use at the time of the French Revolution, last century.

HY'GIENE, the principles and rules of health: "Hygeia," the goddess of health in classical mythology.

JES'UIT, a member of the Society of Jesus, formed by Ignatius Loyola in 1534: "Jesus."

LYNCH, to punish without the usual forms of law: said to be from "Lynch," a Virginia farmer, who took the law into his own hands.

MACAD'AMIZE, to cover a road with small broken stones: "Macadam," the inventor.

MAGNO'LIA, a species of trees found in the southern parts of the United States: "Magnol," a French botanist.

MEN'TOR, a faithful monitor: "Mentor," the counselor of Telemachus.

MOR'PHIA, the narcotic principle of opium: "Morpheus," the god of sleep.

NE'GUS, a mixture of wine, water, and sugar: Colonel "Negus," who introduced its use in the time of Queen Anne.

OR'RERY, an apparatus for showing the motions, etc., of the heavenly bodies: the Earl of "Orrery," for whom one of the first was made.

PALLA'DIUM, something that affords effectual defense, protection, and safety: Greek "palla'dion," an image of "Pallas Athene," which was kept hidden and secret, and was revered as a pledge of the safety of the town where it was lodged.

PAN'IC, a sudden fright: "Pan," the god of shepherds, who is said to have caused alarm by his wild screams and appearance.

PE'ONY, a plant of the genus PAEONIA, having beautiful showy flowers: "Paeon," its discoverer.

PET'REL, an ocean bird: diminutive of Peter, probably so called in allusion to "St. Peter's" walking on the sea.

PHA'ETON, an open carriage: "Phaethon," the fabled son of Phoebus or the Sun, whose chariot he attempted to drive.

PINCH'BECK, an alloy of copper and zinc resembling gold: said to be from one "Pinchbeck," the inventor.

QUAS'SIA, a bitter wood used as a tonic: "Quassy," a negro who discovered its qualities.

RODOMONTADE', vainbluster: "Rodomonte," a boasting hero who figures in Ariosto's poem of the Orlando Furioso.

SILHOUETTE (sil oo et'), the outline of an object filled in with black color: "Silhouette" (see Webster).

TAN'TALIZE, to torment or tease: "Tantalus," according to the poets, an ancient king of Phrygia, who was made to stand up to the chin in water with fruit hanging over his head, but from whom both receded when he wished to partake.

TYPHOON', a violent hurricane which occurs in the Chinese seas: "Typhon," a fabled giant who was taught to produce them.

VOLCA'NO, a burning mountain: "Vulcan," the god of fire.


AMER'ICAN, relating to America: from "Amerigo (Latin, Americus) Vespucci"—contemporary of Columbus.

A'RIAN, relating to Arius: a theologian of the 4th century who denied the divinity of Christ.

ARISTOTE'LIAN, relating to the deductive method of reasoning set forth by Aristotle: a Greek philosopher of the 4th century B.C.

ARMIN'IAN, relating to Arminius: a Dutch theologian of the 16th century, who opposed the doctrines of Calvin.

BACO'NIAN, relating to the inductive method of reasoning set forth by Bacon: an English philosopher of the 17th century.

CARTE'SIAN, relating to the philosophy of Descartes: a French philosopher of the 17th century.

CE'REAL, relating to grain: from "Ceres"—the Roman goddess of corn and tillage.

COPER'NICAN, relating to Copernicus: a German philosopher of the 16th century, who taught the theory of the solar system now received, and called the Copernican system.

ELIZ'ABETHAN, relating to the times of Queen Elizabeth of England: (1558-1603).

EO'LIAN, relating to the wind: from "AEolus"—the god of the winds in classic mythology.

ERAS'TIAN, relating to Erastus:—a German theologian of the 16th century, who maintained that the Church is wholly dependent on the State for support or authority.

ESCULA'PIAN, relating to the healing art: from "Esculapius"—the god of the healing art among the Greeks.

GOR'DIAN, intricate, complicated, difficult: from "Gordius"—king of Phrygia who tied a knot which could not be untied.

HERCULE'AN, very large and strong: from "Hercules"—a hero of antiquity celebrated for his strength.

HERMET'IC, relating to Hermes—the fabled inventor of alchemy; adv., HERMETICALLY, in a perfectly close manner.

HUDIBRAS'TIC, in the manner of the satirical poem called Hudibras, by Samuel Butler (1612-1680).

JO'VIAL, gay, merry: from "Jupiter" (Jovis),—the planet of that name having in the Middle Ages been supposed to make those who were born under it of a joyous temper.

LINNAE'AN, relating to Linnaeus—the celebrated Swedish botanist.

LU'THERAN, relating to the doctrines of Luther—a German religious teacher of the 16th century.

MACHIAVEL'IAN, cunning and sinister in politics: from "Machiaveli"—an Italian writer of the 15th century.

MERCU'RIAL, active, sprightly—having the qualities fabled to belong to the god "Mercury."

MOSA'IC, relating to Moses, his writings or his time.

NEWTO'NIAN, relating to Sir Isaac Newton and his philosophy.

PINDAR'IC, after the style and manner of Pindar—a lyric poet of Greece.

PLATON'IC, relating to the opinions or the school of Plato,—a philosopher of Greece, in the 4th century B.C.

PLUTON'IC, relating to the interior of the earth, or to the Plutonic theory in geology of the formation of certain rocks by fire: from "Pluto"—in classic mythology, the god of the infernal regions.

PROCRUS'TEAN, relating to or resembling the mode of torture employed by Procrustes—a celebrated highwayman of ancient Attica, who tied his victims upon an iron bed, and, as the case required, either stretched out or cut off their legs to adapt them to its length.

PROME'THEAN, relating to Prometheus—a god fabled by the ancient poets to have formed men from clay and to have given them life by means of fire stolen from heaven, at which Jupiter, being angry, sent Mercury to bind him to Mount Caucasus, and place a vulture to prey upon his liver.

QUIXOT'IC, absolutely romantic, like Don Quixote—described by Cervantes, a Spanish writer of the 16th century.

SATUR'NIAN, distinguished for purity, integrity, and simplicity; golden, happy: from "Saturn"—one of the gods of antiquity whose age or reign, from the mildness and wisdom of his government, was called the golden age.

SOCRAT'IC, relating to the philosophy or the method of teaching of Socrates—the celebrated philosopher of Greece (468-399 B.C.).

STENTO'RIAN, very loud or powerful, resembling the voice of Stentor—a Greek herald, spoken of by Homer, having a very loud voice.

THES'PIAN, relating to tragic action: from "Thespis"—the founder of the Greek drama.

TITAN'IC, enormous in size and strength: from the "Titans"—fabled giants in classic mythology.

UTO'PIAN, ideal, fanciful, chimerical: from "Utopia"—an imaginary island, represented by Sir Thomas More, in a work called "Utopia," as enjoying the greatest perfection in politics laws, and society.

VOLTA'IC, relating to voltaism or voltaic electricity: from "Volta"—who first devised apparatus for developing electric currents by chemical action.


AG'ATE, a precious stone: "Achates," a river in Sicily where it is found.

AL'ABASTER, a variety of soft marble: "Alabastrum," in Egypt, where it is found.

AR'RAS, tapestry: "Arras," in France, where it is manufactured.

ARTE'SIAN, applied to wells made by boring into the earth till the instrument reaches water which flows from internal pressure: "Artois" (anciently called Artesium), in France, where many of such wells have been made.

AT'TIC, marked by such qualities as characterized the Athenians, as delicate wit, purity of style, elegance, etc.: "Attica," the country of the Athenians.

BAN'TAM, a small domestic fowl: "Bantam," in Java, whence it was brought.

BARB, a Barbary horse: "Barbary," in Africa.

BAY'ONET, a dagger fixed on the end of a musket: "Bayonne," in France, where it was invented, in 1679.

BEDLAM, a lunatic asylum: "Bethlehem," a monastery in London, afterwards used as an asylum for lunatics.

BUR'GUNDY, a French wine: "Burgundy," where it is made.

CAL'ICO, a kind of cotton cloth: "Calicut," in India, where it was first manufactured.

CANA'RY, a wine and a bird: the "Canary" Islands.

CAN'TER, an easy gallop: "Canterbury," in allusion to the easy pace at which the pilgrims used to ride thither.

CAR'RONADE, a short cannon: "Carron," in Scotland, where it was first made.

CASH'MERE, a rich shawl, from the wool of the Thibet goat: "Cashmere," the country where first made.

CHALCED'ONY, a variety of uncrystalized quartz: "Chalcedon," in Asia Minor, where obtained.

CHAMPAGNE', a wine: "Champagne," in France, where produced.

CHER'RY, a red stoned fruit: "Cerasus" (now Kheresoun), in Pontus, Asia Minor, whence the tree was imported into Italy.

CHEST'NUT, a fruit: "Castanea," in Macedonia, whence it was introduced into Europe.

COG'NAC, a kind of French brandy: "Cognac," in France, where extensively made.

COP'PER, a metal: "Cyprus," once celebrated for its rich mines of the metal.

CORD'WAINER, a worker in cordwain, or cordovan, a Spanish leather: "Cordova," in Spain.

CURACOA', a liquor or cordial flavored with orange peel: the island of "Curacoa," where it was first made.

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