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Natural History of the Mammalia of India and Ceylon
by Robert A. Sterndale
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"Orissa, April 15th, 1882. "CHAMPSE.

"P.S.—Do any of the Eastern Bengal races call this mithun gayal?"

I think Hodgson's name Bibos cavifrons is a sufficient proof that Gavaeus gaurus is applicable to the animal with the high frontal crest, which is the species inhabiting the Himalayan Terai, and is locally known as the gaur, or gauri-gai. It is known as gayal in some parts of India, but, where the people are familiar with the mithun, the gaur is called asl'gayal, from whence Horsfield's name Bibos asseel. Probably the mithun was called frontalis, under ignorance of a species with a still greater frontal development.

Gavaeus frontalis interbreeds freely with domesticated cattle of all kinds. In the Society's Gardens are several hybrids between this and Bos Indicus, one of which hybrids again interbred with American bison (Bison Americanus), the progeny being one-half bison, and one-quarter each frontalis and Indicus.



APPENDIX D.

As many specimens are spoilt by either insufficient curing, or curing by wrong methods, I have asked Mr. Geo. F. Butt, F.Z.S., who was for many years manager to Edwin Ward, whom he has now succeeded, to give me a page or two of useful hints on the preservation of skins. The following notes are what he has kindly placed at my disposal. I know of no one I can more strongly recommend for good work than Mr. Butt. Some of his groups are works of art, with most lifelike finish. I have just seen a bear set up by him which seems almost to breathe.

NOTES ON SKINNING THE MAMMALIA AND THE PRESERVATION OF SKINS. By GEO. F. BUTT, F.Z.S., Naturalist to the Royal Family, 49, Wigmore Street, London, W.

The quadruped killed, the first and important step is to plug up the nostrils and throat with cotton-wool or tow, as also any wound from which blood may escape. Place the animal on its back, make a longitudinal incision with the knife at the lower part of the belly (the vent), and thence in as straight a line as possible extending to the chin bone, taking particular care that during the operation the hair is carefully divided and not cut. Vertical incisions may then be made extending down the inside of each leg to the claws. The skin can then be turned back in every direction as far as the extent of the incisions will admit of—the legs may now be freed from the skin. Next make a straight incision down the under part of the tail to the tip, turn the skin back until it is free. Having executed this, there remains only to remove the skin from the back and head; to do this place the carcase on its side, and with the scalpel carefully separate the skin by drawing it towards the head, in skinning which care being taken to cut the ears as close to the skull as possible, leaving the cartilage in the skin; the eyelids, also nose and lips, should be carefully skinned without injury. The skin is now free from the carcase. Turn the ears inside out, the nostrils, lips, and feet, removing all cartilage and flesh.

Place the skin open on the ground with the fur side down, and remove the flesh and pieces of fat adhering; scrape the skin well, so as to get away all the loose particles of under-skin or pelt. When this has been thoroughly done, take powdered alum plentifully, and, with a very small quantity of common salt, rub well into the skin, especially into the ears, nostrils, lips, and feet, so that every portion of the skin is powerfully impregnated. Allow the skin to lie in this condition for an hour or so, then place it on a line or branch to dry. The operation should be carried on in the shade, if possible.

If the specimen is not for stuffing it may be pegged out to dry on the ground, but in no one instance should a skin be unduly strained out of shape, which is often done in order to make it appear larger than it really is, a mistake which is very common.

When this operation is completed, and the skin dry, it is ready for packing, and should be folded, with the fur or hair inside, and placed in a sound box or case well protected against the visits of ants, beetles, or moth.

Where it is intended that the animal should be ultimately stuffed whole, it is necessary to preserve the leg bones. These should be separated from the trunk at the os humeri or shoulder-joint, and at the os femoris or thigh bones; these bones cleanse from flesh.

The skull in every instance should be preserved: remove the flesh and brain; to do this place the skull in boiling water for five or ten minutes—in the case of small skulls for five minutes only, care being taken that the teeth are not lost. In packing skulls each one should be tied up in paper, marked with a corresponding number to the skin to which it belongs, and packed firmly, to prevent rolling about, the result of which is often broken teeth and disappointment.

Another excellent method for the preservation of skins of mammalia, where convenience will permit, and which can be followed with confidence, is as follows: After the skin has been treated according to the directions given—viz. thoroughly scraped and cleansed of all adherent particles of flesh, &c.—place it entirely in a tub or cask in which a solution or pickle has been previously prepared, as follows: to every gallon of cold water add 1 lb. powdered alum, 1/2 oz. saltpetre, 2 oz. common salt; well mix. Allow the skin to remain about a couple of days, after which hang it up to dry and for packing.



INDEX.

A.

Acanthion longicauda, 405

Ailuropus melanoleucos, 168

Ailurus fulgens, 169

Alactaga Indica, 401

Antelope bezoartica, 461

Anurosorex Assamensis, 149

Aonyx leptonyx, 199

Arctictis binturong, 235

Arctomys aureus, 313

" bobac, 310

" caudatus, 311

" dichrous, 314

" Hemachalanus, 312

" robustus, 315

Arctonyx collaris, 170

" taxoides, 171

Arvicola Blanfordi, 391

" Blythii, 392

" mandarinus, 393

" melanogaster, 395

" Roylei, 390

" Sikimensis, 394

" Stoliczkanus, 387

" Stracheyi, 388

" Wynnei, 389

Atherura fasciculata, 402

Axis maculatus, 472

" porcinus, 473

B.

Balaenoptera Indica, 271

Barbastellus communis, 120

Bubalus arni, 468

Budorcas taxicolor, 455

C.

Canis aureus, 248

" laniger, 246

" lupus, 247

" pallipes, 245

" rutilans, 249

Capra aegagrus, 448

" hylocrius, 450

" Jemlaicus, 449

" megaceros, 446

" Sibirica, 447

Cervulus muntjac vel aureus, 470

Cervus affinis vel Wallichii, 477

" Cashmirianus, 476

" maral, 477

Coelops Frithii, 68

Corsira Alpina, 148

Cricetus fulvus, 331

" phaeus, 330

Cuon rutilans, 249

Cynonycteris amplexicaudata, 32

Cynopterus marginatus, 33

D.

Delphinus fusiformis, 265

" gadamu, 262

" lentiginosus, 263

" longirostris, 267

" maculiventer, 264

" perniger, 260

" plumbeus, 261

" pomeegra, 266

" velox, 268

Dipus lagopus, 400

E.

Elephas Indicus, 425

Eonycteris spelaea, 35

Equus hemionus, 427

" onager, 426

Erinaceus Blanfordi, 154

" collaris, 150

" Grayi, 153

" Jerdoni, 155

" megalotis, 156

" micropus, 151

" pictus, 152

Euphysetes simus, 270

F.

Felis aurata, 210

" Bengalensis, 208

" caracal, 218

" chaus, 216

" Diardii vel macrocelis, 205

" isabellina, 217

" Jerdoni, 209

" jubata, 219

" leo, 200

" manul, 213

" marmorata, 207

" panthera, 203

" pardus, 202

" rubiginosa, 211

" scripta, 214

" Shawiana, 215

" tigris, 201

" torquata, 212

" uncia, 204

" viverrina, 206

Feroculus macropus, 138

G.

Galaeopithecus volans, 30

Gavaeus frontalis, 465

" gaurus, 464

" Sondaicus, 466

Gazella Bennetti, 456

" fuscifrons, 457

" picticaudata, 459

" subgutterosa, 458

Gerbillus cryptorhinus, 319

" erythrurus, 320

" Hurrianae, 318

" Indicus, 317

" nanus, 321

Globicephalus Indicus, 269

Golunda Ellioti, 378

" meltada, 379

Gymnura Rafflesii, 162

H.

Halicore dugong, 272

Hapalomys longicaudatus, 380

Harpiocephalus auratus, 101

" cyclotis, 104

" griseus, 102

" harpia, 99

" leucogaster, 103

" suillus, 100

Helarctos gedrosianus, 165

" Malayanus, 166

" Tibetanus, 164

Helictis moschata, 176

" Nipalensis, 175

Hemitragus hylocrius, 450

" Jemlaicus, 449

Herpestes auropunctatus, 239

" ferrugineus, 242

" fuscus, 240

" Jerdoni vel monticolus, 237

" Maccarthiae, 241

" pallidus vel griseus, 236

" Smithii, 238

" vitticollis, 243

Hipposideros armiger, 54

" Blythii, 60

" cineraceus, 57

" diadema, 61

" larvatus, 58

" murinus, 56

" speoris, 55

" vulgaris, 59

Hyaena striata, 220

Hylobates hooluck, 1

" lar, 2

" syndactylus, 3

Hystrix Bengalensis, 404

" leucura, 403

" longicauda, 405

" Yunnanensis, 406

I.

Inuus arctoides, 22

" leoninus, 21

" nemestrinus, 20

" pelops, 19

" rhesus, 18

" silenus, 17

" Thibetanus, 23

K.

Kerivoula Hardwickii, 107

" pallida, 105-106

" papillosa, 106

" picta, 105

L.

Lagomys auritus, 421

" Curzoniae, 419

" griseus, 423

" Ladacensis, 420

" macrotis, 422

" Roylei, 418

" rufescens, 424

Lasiurus Pearsonii, 99

Leggada Jerdoni, 376

" lepida, 377

" platythrix, 374

" spinulosa, 375

Lepus craspedotis, 416

" hispidus, 417

" hypsibius, 410

" nigricollis, 408

" pallipes, 411

" Pamirensis, 414

" Peguensis, 409

" ruficaudatus, 407

" Stoliczkanus, 415

" Tibetanus, 412

" Yarkandensis, 413

Loris gracilis, 29

Lutra aurobrunnea, 198

" Ellioti, 197

" monticola vel simung, 196

" nair, 195

M.

Macacus arctoides, 22

" carbonarius, 27

" cynomolgus, 26

" leoninus, 21

" nemestrinus, 20

" pelops, 19

" pileatus, 25

" radiatus, 24

" rhesus, 18

" silenus, 17

" Thibetanus, 23

Macroglossus minimus, 34

Manis aurita, 481

" Javanica, 482

" pentadactyla vel brachyura, 480

Martes abietum, 178

" flavigula, 177

" toufoeus, 179

Megaderma lyra, 36

" spasma, 38

" spectrum, 37

Meles albogularis, 173

" leucurus, 172

Mellivora Indica, 174

Melursus labiatus, 167

Meminna Indica, 479

Miniopterus Schreibersii, 119

Moschus moschiferus, 469

Mus aequicaudalis, 349

" Andamanensis, 334

" bactrianus, 359

" badius, 352

" Beaveni, 368

" brunneus, 340

" caudatior, 344

" cervicolor, 364

" Ceylonus, 347

" Chevrieri, 385

" concolor, 345

" Confucianus, 384

" crassipes, 360

" cunicularis, 369

" Darjeelingensis, 357

" decumanus, 333

" Elliotanus, 328

" erythronotus, 363

" erythrotis, 370

" flavipectus, 382

" fulvidiventris, 371

" giganteus, 329

" gliroides, 353

" griseipectus, 383

" homourus, 356

" infralineatus, 339

" Khakhyenensis, 372

" Nilagiricus, 351

" nitidulus, 367

" nitidus, 343

" niveiventer, 342

" oleraceus, 350

" ouang-thomae, 381

" pachycercus, 362

" palmarum, 346

" Peguensis, 354; ibid. 366 (By oversight this species has been twice described.)

" plurimammis, 348

" pygmaeus, 386

" rattus, 332

" robustulus, 335

" rubricosa, 337

" rufescens, 341

" Sladeni, 336

" sublimis, 361

" terricolor, 365

" Tytleri, 358

" urbanus, 355

" viculorum, 373

" Yunnanensis, 338

Mustela alpina, 187

" canigula, 184

" erminea, 183

" Hodgsoni, 188

" Horsfieldi, 189

" kathiah, 181

" Sibirica, 186

" Stoliczkana, 185

" strigidorsa, 182

Myotis murinus, 108

" parvipes, 110

" Theobaldi, 109

Myoxus, Appendix A

N.

Nemorhoedus bubalina, 451

" Edwardsii, 453

" goral, 454

" rubida vel Sumatrensis, 452

Nesokia Barclayiana, 327

" Blythiana, 326

" Elliotanus, 328

" giganteus, 329

" Hardwickii, 322

" Huttoni, 323

" providens, 325

" Scullyi, 324

Noctulinia noctula, 97-98

Nycticebus tardigradus, 28

Nycticejus atratus, 97-98

" canus, 97-98

" castaneus, 97-98

" Heathii, 97-98

" luteus, 97-98

" nivicolus, 97-98

" ornatus, 97-98

" Temminckii, 97-98

Nyctogale elegans, 147

Nyctophilus Geoffroyi, 121

O.

Orcella brevirostris, 258

" fluminalis, 259

Ovis Blanfordii, 444

" Brookei, 441

" cycloceros, 443

" Hodgsoni, 439

" Karelini, 440

" nahura vel burhel, 445

" Polii, 438

" Vignei, 442

P.

Panolia Eldii, 475

Pantholops Hodgsonii, 460

Paradoxurus bondar, 230

" Grayii, 229

" laniger, 234

" leucotis, 232

" musanga, 228

" trivirgatus, 231

" zeylanicus, 233

Phyllorhina armigera, 64

" bicolor, 67

" diadema, 61

" galerita, 66

" leptophylla, 65

" Masoni, 62

" Nicobarensis, 63

Physeter simus, 270

Platacanthomys lasiurus, 316

Platanista Gangetica, 257

Plecotus auritus vel homochrous, 77

Poephagus grunniens, 467

Porcula Salvania, 437

Portax pictus vel tragocamelus, 462

Presbytes albinus, 16

" Barbei, 10

" cephalopterus, 13

" entellus, 4

" Johnii, 7

" jubatus, 8

" obscurus, 12

" Phayrei, 11

" pileatus, 9

" priamus, 6

" schistaceus, 5

" thersites, 15

" ursinus, 14

Prionodon gracilis, 227

" maculosus, 226

" pardicolor, 225

Pteromys albiventer, 303

" alboniger, 308

" alborufus, 301

" caniceps, 304

" cineraceus, 298

" fimbriatus, 307

" magnificus, 302

" melanopterus, 300

" oral, 297

" Pearsonii, 305

" spadiceus, 309

" Yunnanensis, 299

Pteropus Edwardsii vel medius, 31

" Leschenaultii, 32

" minimus, 34

Putorius astutus, 193

" Davidianus, 192

" larvatus vel Tibetanus, 191

" Moupinensis, 194

R.

Rhinoceros Indicus, 429

" lasiotis, 431

" Sondaicus, 430

" Sumatrensis, 432

Rhinolophus affinis, 43

" Andamanensis, 48

" coelophyllus, 50

" Garoensis, 51

" macrotis, 45

" minor, 49

" mitratus, 40

" Pearsonii, 42

" perniger vel luctus, 39

" Petersii, 52

" rammanika, 47

" rouxi, 44

" sub-badius, 46

" tragatus vel ferrum-equinum, 41

" trifoliatus, 53

Rhinopoma Hardwickii, 69

Rhinosciurus tupaoides, 296

Rhizomys badius, 396

" erythrogenys, 397

" minor, 399

" pruinosus, 398

Rucervus Duvaucelli, 474

" Eldii, 475

Rusa Aristotelis, 471

S.

Sciurus atrodorsalis, 283

" Berdmorei, 294

" Blanfordii, 282

" caniceps, 280

" erythraeus, 284

" ferrugineus, 288

" giganteus, 276

" Gordoni, 285

" hippurus, 286

" Indicus, 273

" Layardi, 291

" lokriah, 277

" lokroides, 278

" macrourus, 275

" maximus, 274

" palmarum, 289

" Phayrei, 281

" pygerythrus, 279

" quinquestriatus, 295

" Sladeni, 287

" sublineatus, 292

" tristriatus, 290

" tupaoides, 296

Scotophilus emarginatus, 95

" fuliginosus, 92

" Heathii, 94

" ornatus, 96

" pallidus, 97

" Temminckii, 93

Semnopithecus albinus, 16

" Barbei, 10

" cephalopterus, 13

" entellus, 4

" Johnii, 7

" jubatus, 8

" obscurus, 12

" Phayrei, 11

" pileatus, 9

" priamus, 6

" schistaceus, 5

" thersites, 15

" ursinus, 14

Sorex atratus, 144

" caerulescens, 125

" ferrugineus, 135

" Griffithi, 136

" heterodon, 137

" Hodgsoni, 139

" leucops, 132

T.

Taphozous longimanus, 70

" melanopogon, 71

" Kachhensis, 74

" saccolaimus, 72

" Theobaldi, 73

Tapirus Malayanus, 428

Taxidia leucurus, 172

Tetraceros quadricornis, 463

Tragulus napu, 478

Tupaia Chinensis, 160

" Ellioti, 158

" Nicobarica, 161

" Peguana vel Belangeri, 159

U.

Ursus gedrosianus, 165

" Isabellinus, 163

" labiatus, 167

" Malayanus, 166

" torquatus vel Tibetanus, 164

Urva cancrivora, 244

V.

Vespertilio Coromandelicus, 90

" emarginatus, 118

" formosus, 116

" longipes, 111

" montivagus, 114

" muricola, 113

" murinoides, 115

" murinus, 108

" mystacinus, 112

" Nepalensis, 117

Vesperugo Abramus, 90

" affinis, 81

" annectans, 86

" atratus, 83

" Coromandelianus, 90

" dormeri, 87

" Leisleri, 89

" leucotis, 79

" lobatus, 91

" maurus, 80

" noctula, 78

" pachyomus, 89-90

" pachyotis, 82

" pachypus, 85

" serotinus, 88

" Tickelli, 84

Viverra civettina, 222

" Malaccensis, 224

" megaspila, 223

" zibetha, 221

Vulpes Bengalensis, 250

" ferrilatus, 252

" flavescens, 255

" Griffithii, 256

" leucopus, 251

" montanus, 253

" pusillus, 254



LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

THE END

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