THE ANATOMY OF THE NOSE.—The nose is divided by a middle partition (septum) into two cavities (nasal chambers or fossae) each being a wedge-shaped cavity, distinct by itself and extending from the nostril or anterior nares in front to the posterior openings behind and from the base of the skull to the hard palate below. Where the posterior opening or nares ends is called the nose-pharynx, The pharynx joins there with the cavities and hence called nose-pharynx. The partition (septum) is thin, one-tenth to one-eighth of an inch in thickness and is composed in front of cartilage (gristle) and behind of bone. In its normal state this partition (septum) should be perfectly straight, thin and in the middle line, The cartilaginous (gristle) portion is seldom found in this condition as, owing to its prominent location and frequent exposure to injury, blows and falling on the nose, the partition (septum) is often bent or turned to one side or the other so far in some cases as to close the nostril. The posterior part is composed of bone, and being well protected, is seldom found out of position or displaced, even when the cartilaginous portion is often badly deformed, The floor of the nose is formed by the upper jaw bone (maxillary) and the palate bone. The outer wall of the nose or nose cavity is the most complicated, for it presents three prominences, the turbinated bones, which extend from before backwards and partially divide the nose cavity into incomplete spaces called meatus passages. The turbinated bones are three in number, the inferior, middle and superior. They vary in size and shape, and owing to the relations they hear to the surrounding parts, and to the influence they exert on the general condition of the nose and throat, are of great importance. The inferior or lower turbinate bone is the largest and in a way is the only independent bone. The middle and superior are small. They are all concave in shape and extend from before backwards, and beneath the concave surface of each one of the corresponding passages or openings (meatus) is formed. The inferior or lower (meatus) opening or passage is that part of the nasal (nose) passage which lies beneath the inferior turbinate bone and extends from the nostrils in front to the passage behind the nose (post-nasal) (posterior nares) toward the pharynx. The middle opening (meatus) lies above the inferior turbinate bone and below the middle turbinate bone. The superior opening (meatus) is situated above the middle turbinate bone.
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The mucous membrane lining the nasal passages is similar to other mucous membranes. It is here called the Schneiderian membrane after the name of a German anatomist named Schneider. It is continuous through the ducts with the mucous membrane of all the various accessory cavities of the nose. It is quite thin, in the upper part over the superior turbinate bone and partition (septum) while it is quite thick over the lower turbinate bone, the floor of the nose cavity and the lower part of the partition. It is well supplied with blood vessels, veins, and glands for producing the necessary secretion.
The nose is an organ of breathing (respiration) and it warms and moistens the air we breathe and arrests particles of dust in the air before they enter the lungs. If the air we breathe is of an uneven temperature, or of marked degree of dryness, or if it is saturated with impurities, it always acts as a source of irritation to the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract, like the larynx. By the time the air reaches the pharynx, through the nose, it has become almost as warm as the blood, and also is well saturated with moisture. The mucous membrane that lines the nose cavity and especially that part over the lower turbinate bone, secretes from sixteen to twenty ounces of fluid daily. This fluid cleanses and lubricates the nose and moistens the air we breathe. Conditions may arise which interfere with this natural secretion. This may be due to the fact that some of the glands have shrunk or wasted (atrophied) and the secretion has become thick. This collects in the nose, decomposes and forms scabs and crusts in the nostrils. In this condition there will be dropping of mucus into the throat. This condition is usually only a collection of secretions from the nose,—which are too thick to flow away,—collect in the space behind the nose, and when some have accumulated, drop into the pharynx.
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In order to be in good health it is necessary to breath through the nose, and to do this there must be nothing in the nose or upper part of the pharynx to interfere with the free circulation of the air through these cavities. The cavities of the nose may be partly closed by polpi (tumors) on the upper and middle turbinate bone, a spur on the (septum) partition, deviation of the partition or enlarged turbinate bones, or adenoids in the upper part of the pharynx. These troubles almost close up the nose sometimes and the person is compelled to breathe through his mouth. He not only looks foolish, talks thick, but is laying up for himself future trouble. By correcting the trouble in the nose and removing the adenoids in the upper part of the pharynx the patient can breathe through the nasal passages. If you take a tube you can pass it straight back through the lower channel (meatus) into the pharynx. It will touch the upper back wall of the pharynx. If the tube has a downward bend you can see it behind the soft palate and by attaching a string to that end you can draw it back out through the nostrils. In that way we plug the posterior openings (nares). The upper part of the pharynx reaches higher up behind than a line drawn horizontally above the tip of the nose to the pharynx. It reaches forward above the soft palate on its front surface. Its front surface is almost directly on a vertical line with tonsil, above the soft palate. On its upper part and on the side near the nose cavity is the opening of the eustachian tube.
The name naso-pharynx means the junction of the nose and pharynx. Sometimes the upper posterior wall of the pharynx, called the vault of the pharynx, especially the part behind each eustachian tube, is filled almost full with adenoids. These are overgrowths or thickenings of the glandular tissue in the upper posterior wall of the pharynx (vault of the pharynx).
ADENOIDS. (Pharyngeal Tonsil, Lursehkas Tonsil, Adenoid Vegetation, Post- nasal Growth.)—Adenoids are overgrowths or thickenings of the glandular tissue in the vault (top) of the pharynx. They are on the upper posterior wall of the pharynx, often filling the whole space, especially the part behind the ear-tube—eustachian tube.
They are a soft pliable mass, well supplied with blood vessels, especially in children. Some are firmer and these are the kind seen in adults. The color varies from pale pink to dark red. The structure is similar to enlarged tonsils.
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Symptoms.—Children breathe chiefly or wholly through the mouth. They are apt to breathe noisily, especially when they eat and drink. They sleep with their mouth open, breathe hard and snore. They have attacks of slight suffocation sometimes, especially seen in young children. There may be difficulty in nursing in infants; they sleep poorly, toss about in bed, moan, talk, and night terrors are common. They may also sweat very much during sleep. A constant hacking or barking cough is a common symptom and this cough is often troublesome for some hours before going to bed. Troubles with the larynx and pharynx are common and spasmodic laryngitis appears to be often dependent upon adenoids. Bronchial asthma and sneezing in paroxysms are sometimes connected with them. The chest becomes deformed. The prolonged mouth-breathing imparts to adenoid patients a characteristic look in the face. The lower jaw is dropped and the lips are kept constantly apart. In many cases the upper lip is short, showing some part of the upper teeth. The dropping of the jaw draws upon the soft parts and tends to obliterate the natural folds of the face about the nose, lips, and cheeks. The face has an elongated appearance and the expression is vacant, listless, or even stupid. The nose is narrow and pinched, from long continued inaction of the wings of the nose (alae nasi). The root of the nose may be flat and broad. When the disease sets in during early childhood, the palate may become high arched. If the disease continues beyond second teething, the arch of the palate becomes higher and the top of the arch more pointed. The upper jaw elongates and this often causes the front teeth to project far beyond the corresponding teeth in the lower jaw. The high arched palate is often observed to be associated with a deflected partition (septum) in the nose.
The speech is affected in a characteristic way; it acquires a dead character. There is inability to pronounce the nasal consonant sounds; m, n, and ng and the l, r, and th sounds are changed. Some backwardness in learning to articulate is often noticed.
Deafness is frequently present, varying in degree, transient and persistent. Attacks of earache are common and also running of the ears. The ear troubles often arise from the extension of catarrh from the nose-pharynx through the eustachian tubes to the middle ear. Sometimes the adenoids block the entrance to the tubes. The ventilation of the middle ear may be impeded. Dr. Ball, of London, England, says: "Ear troubles in children are undoubtedly, in the vast majority of cases, dependent upon the presence of adenoid vegetation" (growths).
Children with adenoids are very liable to colds in the head, which aggravate all the symptoms, and in the slighter forms of the disease the symptoms may hardly be noticeable, except when the child is suffering from a cold.
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Chronic catarrh is often caused by adenoids. A chronic pus discharge often develops, especially in children. There is often a half-pus discharge trickling over the posterior wall of the pharynx from the nose-pharynx. And yet some children with adenoids never have any discharge from the nose. There may be more or less dribbling of saliva from the mouth, especially in young children, and this is usually worse during sleep. Headache is not uncommon when these growths persist into adult life: they continue to give rise to most of the symptoms just described, although these symptoms may be less marked because of the relatively larger size of the nose-pharynx. The older patients seek relief, usually, from nasal catarrh symptoms. They complain of a dry throat on waking and they hawk and cough, In order to clear the sticky secretion from the throat. The adenoids have often undergone a considerable amount of shrinking, but they frequently give rise to a troublesome inflammation of the nose and pharynx. Rounded or irregular red elevations will often be seen on the posterior wall of the pharynx, outgrowths of adenoid tissue in this region. Similar elevations are sometimes seen on the posterior pillars of the fauces. The tonsils are often enlarged. A good deal of thick discharge will sometimes be seen in the posterior wall of the pharynx proceeding from the nose-pharynx.
Although adenoids, like the normal tonsil, usually tend to diminish and disappear with the approach of youth, they constitute during childhood a constant source of danger and trouble and not infrequently inflict permanent mischief. Also children afflicted with adenoids are less able to cope with diphtheria, scarlet fever, measles, whooping-cough, etc.
Deafness, mouth-breathing habit, and imperfect resonance of the voice, as well as the characteristic expression of the face, will often remain as permanent effects of the impairment of function due to these growths in childhood, even though they have more or less completely disappeared. The collapsed state of the wings of the nose, and wasted condition of their muscles, resulting from long disease, often contributes to the perpetuation of the mouth-breathing habit. On the other hand the rapid improvement, after a timely removal of the growths, is usually very striking.
Treatment.—The only thing to do is to remove them soon, no matter how young the patient may be. An anaesthetic is usually given to children. The operation does not take long and the patient soon recovers from its effects. The result of an operation, especially in young children, is usually very satisfactory. Breathing through the nose is re-established, the face expression is changed for the better. The symptoms as before described disappear to a great extent.
COLDS. (Coryza. Acute Nasal Catarrh. Acute Rhinitis).—This is an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose.
Causes.—Exposure to cold or wet when the body is overheated; sudden or extreme changes in the atmosphere; inhaling irritating fumes or dust.
Symptoms.—A chilly feeling, limbs ache, tendency to sneeze, severe headache above the nose, eyes are dry, stopped-up feeling in the nostrils. Then there is a thin watery discharge, usually of an irritating character, very thin at first, but it soon becomes thicker; sometimes the ears ring (tinnitus). The nose and lining is red and swollen.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES.—1. Colds. Borax for Cold Settled in Throat. "For a cold in the throat, dissolve a piece of borax, the size of a pea, in the mouth and don't talk. It will work like a charm." This is an old and well tried remedy and is very good for colds or sore throat. It acts by contracting the tissues and in that way there is less congestion in the parts.
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2. Colds, Valuable Caution and Treatment for.—Mrs. Maxwell, of Cleveland, writes in the Cleveland Press as follows: "If you intend to treat the cold yourself, take it up at the outset. Don't wait for it to develop. To break it up, nothing is better than the full hot bath at bed time, or the foot bath with mustard, followed by a hot drink. It is old-fashioned, but scientific, for nine colds out of ten are due to clogged pores. Benjamin Franklin said a hundred years ago that all colds come from impure air, lack of exercise, and over-eating, and nobody has ever bettered his conclusion. Even contagious colds will not be taken if the bodily resistance is kept at par. More fresh air, less grip. Avoid people who have colds, and keep out of badly ventilated rooms. Stuffy street cars are responsible for half the hard colds, not because people get chilled, but because the air is foul. And when you have a cold keep away from the baby. If the baby takes a cold, let it have medical attention at once. Don't experiment upon it with remedies intended for grown-ups."
3. Colds, Molasses-Vinegar Syrup for.—"One-half cup of molasses, butter the size of a hickory nut, one tablespoon vinegar, boil together. Dose: One teaspoonful or less as the case requires. Take often until relieved." This is an old remedy and a good one.
4. Colds, Quinine and Ginger for.—"Give plenty of quinine and drink hot water with ginger in it." Quinine, as we all know, is an old remedy for colds and therefore we all know how it acts. The ginger warms up the system and produces sweating. Care should be taken when using this remedy not to take cold, as the pores are all opened by the quinine.
5. Colds, Boneset for.—"Boneset tea steeped and drank cold cures a cold." Boneset simply acts by causing a better circulation in the system and in that way sweating is produced and we all know that a good sweat will usually cure a cold if taken in time.
6. Severe Cold or Threatened Consumption.—"One pint of molasses; one pint of vinegar; three tablespoonfuls of white pine tar; let this boil not quite half down; remove from the stove and let stand until next day; then take and skim tar off from the top, throwing tar away. Jar up and take as often as necessary. Spoonful every half to two hours."
7. Colds, Rock Candy Syrup for.—"Ten cents worth of rock candy; one pint of whisky; one pint of water; fifteen cents worth of glycerine; mix all together; this will syrup itself." Take one teaspoonful as often as necessary. This is excellent.
8. Colds, Skunk's Oil for.—"Skunk's oil has cured colds quickly by rubbing on chest and throat." The oil penetrates quickly and relieves the congestion. This remedy can always be relied upon.
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9. Colds, Lemons and Mustard for.—"A hot lemonade taken on going to bed and put the feet in a hot mustard bath; taken in time will break up a cold." The idea of the foot bath is to equalize the circulation, as so many of our colds begin in the head and by drawing the blood from the head the congested parts of the head are relieved.
10. Colds and Cough, Hops or Catnip Poultice for.—"Hops or catnip put in little bags and steamed until hot, then placed on lungs and throat." This is a very good remedy, as the hot bags act as a poultice and draw the congestion from the diseased parts. It produces not only local, but general perspiration.
11. Colds, Honey for.—"Eat honey. I have tried this many times and it is very good." The honey is very soothing, but if a little hoarhound or lemon is added it would make it much more effective. This is a good remedy for children, as they most all like honey.
12. Colds, to Break Up at the Outset.—"To break up a cold soak the feet in hot water and drink all the cold water you can." This has been known to cure many severe colds if taken at the beginning.
13. Cold in the Chest, Mutton Tallow and Red Pepper for.—"If cold is in the chest, render enough mutton tallow for one cupful and add one teaspoonful of red pepper and rub on chest and apply a flannel to keep out the cold. This is an old-time remedy and a good one."
14. Colds, Lard and Turpentine for.—"Melt a half cupful of lard and add one and one-half teaspoonfuls of turpentine, rub on chest and apply flannel cloth."
15. Cold, Milk and Cayenne as a Preventive.—"Drink a glass of milk with a pinch of cayenne in it. This will warm the stomach and prevent headache."
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Colds.—Preventive. Avoid the known causes of the trouble. A daily cold bath, if well borne, is held to be an effectual prevention against taking cold. Have the adenoids removed if your physician so recommends it. If seen early it can frequently be aborted. Bathe the feet in hot mustard water, a small handful of mustard to a pail half full of hot water. At the same time, drink hot teas, like hoarhound, ginger, lemonade, etc. Then put the patient to bed and place hot water fruit jars around him. This treatment will produce a good sweat. After the sweating has continued for some time and the patient feels uncomfortable because of the sweat, bathe him with a towel dipped in warm water, and dry the parts as you go along. Of course, all of this is done under cover. After you have bathed and dried the patient, put on a clean and well-aired night shirt and clean sheets, also well aired. This simple treatment will abort most colds. The patient should keep in bed for at least twelve hours after such a sweating. Plenty of cold water and lemonade can be given, especially after the patient has become cooler. Plenty of water is good for any cold; hot outside and cool for the inside. The bowels should be opened with salts. A Dover's powder (ten grains) will produce sweating, but why use it when sweating can be produced by the means first mentioned.
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1. Camphor and Vaseline Mixed, or Camphor and Cream, rubbed in the nose is good to stop the cold and soreness.
2. A few drops (two or three) of camphor taken internally every three hours will abort some colds, especially if the nose is all the time pouring out drops of water.
3. Aconite in small doses, one-tenth of a drop, every two hours is a splendid remedy at the beginning. My experience has shown me that aconite does better work in these small doses. Put one drop in ten teaspoonfuls of water and give one teaspoonful at a dose.
4. The following is good for a thick discharge: in oil spray.
Menthol 6 grains Chloroform 5 drops Camphor 5 grains Liquid Alboline 2 ounces
Mix and make into a solution. Use in an atomizer, every two hours.
To cleanse the nostrils wash out each nostril gently with a solution made of one teaspoonful of listerine, or glyco-thymoline, or borolyptol, or one-quarter teaspoonful of common salt in a half glass of warm water. You can use a vaporizer and this solution:
Menthol 5 grains Camphor 5 grains Compound tincture benzoin 1 dram Liquid Alboline 1 ounce
Mix and make solution and use frequently in a nebulizer.
Never snuff a solution into the nose, and do not blow the nose hard after using. Some of the solution or nasal discharge may be forced into the eustachian tube.
5. Lard or camphorated oil rubbed on the nose and throat twice a day is good.
6. To Restore the Loss of the Voice.—
Oil of wintergreen 2 drams Lanolin or vaseline 1 ounce
Mix and rub on the throat at night and put on flannel until morning. This will relieve the loss of voice very promptly.
7. Put a quart of boiling water in a pitcher; add from two to four drams of the compound tincture of benzoin and inhale the hot vapor. Wrap both head and pitcher in a towel. This is very good for sore throat also.
8. Herb Teas for.—Ginger tea, catnip, hoarhound, pennyroyal, etc.; hot, are all good to produce sweating and thus relieve cold.
9. From Dr. Ball, a London, England, Specialist.—
Menthol 30 grains Eucalyptol 30 drops Carbolic acid 2 drams Rectified spirits of wine 1 dram
Mix thoroughly; a teaspoonful to be put into a pint (or less) of hot water and the steam to be inhaled through the nose for four or five minutes. This is useful in acute colds, especially in the later stages, and in chronic catarrh, etc.
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10. When the stage is rather marked or prolonged spray or syringe out the nose with tepid solution once or twice a day using the following:
Bicarbonate of soda 3 to 5 grains Borax 3 to 5 grains Tepid water 1 ounce
Use a spray, douche, or gargle in chronic catarrh and chronic pharyngitis. When you wish to use a large quantity, mix an equal quantity each of soda and borax and put a couple teaspoonfuls to each pint of warm water and use.
CATARRH. (Chronic Inflammation of the Nose, Chronic Rhinitis). Causes.— Frequent attacks of colds, irritating gases and dust, adenoids, enlarged tonsils, spurs on the septum (partition bone) or foreign bodies in the nose, like corn, beans, stone, etc.
Symptoms and Course.—There are alterations of the secretions: the amount varies in the same case at different times. Sometimes it is thin and watery, or thick, sticky mucus or this may alternate with more watery discharges. It may be mucus and pus or entirely pus. Frequently the secretions discharge into the throat and cause efforts to clear it by hawking and spitting. The secretion sometimes dries and forms crusts in the fore part of the turbinated bones and partition. Patients frequently pick the nose for this crust and ulceration may result at that point from its doing. Bleeding often occurs from picking the scales from the ulcers, and perforation of the partition may take place from extension of the ulceration. There is a feeling of stuffiness. There is some obstruction to breathing. If there is much thickness of the structures, nasal obstruction is a persistent symptom. Changed voice, mouth-breathing, etc., are noticed. A sensation of pain or weight across the bridge of the nose is sometimes complained of and this symptom is especially found associated with enlargement of the middle turbinated body on one or both sides, etc.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Catarrh, Successful remedy for.—- "Dissolve in one-half ounce olive oil as much camphor gum as it will take up. Moisten a little finger with the oil, rub into the nostrils and snuff well up into the head." The olive oil is very soothing to the diseased parts and the camphor contracts the swollen mucous membranes, thereby relieving the catarrh. This is an excellent remedy.
2. Catarrh, Cleansing Antiseptic Remedy for.—"Snuff about one teaspoonful of salt in cup of warm water every morning in nostrils. I have found this remedy simple but fine for catarrh and also having sleeping room well ventilated summer and winter will help in curing disease." This remedy will be found very effective in catarrh because it loosens up the secretions and cleanses the nose of the foul secretions and also has an antiseptic action. This can be used twice daily. Snuffing should be done very gently so as not to draw the water too far back.
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3. Catarrh, Witch-Hazel for.—"Pond's extract applied with nose spray." Pond's extract is simply witch-hazel water and everyone knows that witch-hazel water is healing and soothing to the membranes of the nose. This may be used regularly twice a day.
4. Catarrh, Cure for.—
Menthol 10 grains Camphor Gum 10 grains Chloroform 10 drops Fluid Alboline 8 ounces
Mix. Apply in the nasal cavities with alboline atomizer.
5. Catarrh of head, Mullein Leaves. Treatment, etc., for.—"Smoke dried mullein leaves and blow the smoke through the nose, and in addition to this, put a heaping tablespoonful of powdered borax in a quart of soft water; syringe this up in the nose, and in addition to both of the above, frequently inhale a mixture of two drams of spirits of ammonia, half a dram tincture of iodine and fifteen drops of carbolic acid; smoke the mullein, syringe the borax water and inhale the last mixture all as frequently as convenient and it frequently will cure if kept up faithfully."
6. Catarrh, Milk and Salt Wash for.—"Mix together one teaspoonful common salt, a teacupful milk, and half pint of warm water. Inject this into the nostrils three times a day. You may use the same quantity of borax in place of the salt, if you choose to do so."
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Catarrh.—If the patient is run down, give tonics, plenty of fresh air and sunshine in the sleeping room, change of climate to a dry, unchangeable climate is sometimes necessary.
Local.—Attend to any disturbing cause, such as adenoids, spurs on the partition, turbinate bone, etc. It is first necessary to render the parts clean, through the use of some mild antiseptic solution, such as glyco-thymoline, listerine, borolyptol, salt, etc. Salt should not be used stronger than one-quarter teaspoonful in a glass half full of water. The others can be used in one to two teaspoonfuls, to same amount of warm water. The solution should always be mild and warm. To use any solution pour it gently through the nose, tilting the head backward, with the mouth open; then as the solution flows through the head should be put forward and downward. The solution flows out of the mouth, and also out of the other nostril. A nasal douche cup made purposely should be used if possible.
1. Spray for.—After cleansing the nostrils with the solution the following soothing mild spray will be found of great benefit.
Menthol 5 grains Camphor 5 grains Liquid Alboline 2 ounces
Mix and make a solution. Use in an atomizer or nebulizer.
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2. Powders for.—Antiseptic powders are also very useful in some cases, such as, compound stearate of zinc and boric acid, or compound stearate of zinc and alum or compound stearate of zinc and menthol. One or two drams is enough to buy at once as it is very light; always use it in a powder in the following way:
First take a long breath and while holding the breath, puff some of the powder into each nostril; then gently puff the breath out through each nostril. Do not snuff powder up the nose or use the powder-blower while breathing. If this is done, some will get into the pharynx and larynx and cause annoying coughing.
3. Solution for.—
Bicarbonate of soda 1/2 ounce Borax 1/2 ounce Salt 1/2 ounce White sugar 1 ounce
Mix all. Half a teaspoonful to be dissolved in one-half tumbler of warm water; used with spray producer or a syringe.
4. Spray, for.—
Bicarbonate of soda 1-1/2 drams Listerine 6 drams Water 1 ounce
Use as a spray.
OZENA.—(Foul odor from nose, not breath, due to catarrh of the nose). The membrane is dry and shrunken. It is a very offensive odor, thus called "ozena."
Causes.—It is usually seen in people who are very much debilitated, in young factory girls, and sometimes in healthy boys. Retained secretions in the nose, usually cause the odor. These decompose and ferment. The nose is large and roomy, the nostrils are filled with scabby secretions; hard masses are formed which sometimes fill the nostril.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.—The first few weeks, cleansing the nose with peroxide of hydrogen will stop the odor. First, remove the scabs with forceps and then wash and cleanse the nose with the peroxide solution. It can be used from one-quarter strength to full strength, but warm. This will leave the nose in a foamy, soapy condition and this can be cleansed with a mild solution of glyco-thymoline or salt water.
HOME TREATMENT.—This is very important. The patient should use a douche three or four times a day. In the solution glyco-thymoline or borolyptol one or two teaspoonfuls to one-half cup of warm water, and follow by a nebulizer or atomizer in which the following solution can be used:
1. Lysol 10 drops Oil of Pine 15 drops Liquid Alboline 2 ounces
Mix and make a solution, spray into the nose after douching.
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2. The following ointment can be used if there is no atomizer or nebulizer at hand:
Iodol 5 grains Boric Acid 10 grains Cold cream 2 ounces
Mix and make into an ointment, and rub a little into each nostril before retiring.
3. Dr. Ferguson of New York uses the following: A new antiseptic enzymol. This is used as follows.—Use one part of enzymol, three parts of warm water. Rub and cleanse the nose thoroughly with the solution, saturate a piece of absorbent cotton with this solution, place it in the nostril and leave it there fifteen to twenty minutes.
HAY FEVER. (Rose Cold, June Cold or Hay Asthma).—This inflammation of the nose occurs in August and September. It is really a nervous affection of the nose membrane.
Causes.—A predisposition: A peculiar sensitive area in the mucous membrane of the nose. An exciting cause circulating in the air, the dust or pollen of certain plants, such as rag-weed, hay and barley; the odor of certain flowers, such as roses and golden rod; dust of some drugs as ipecac and benzoic acid; the odor of some animals. It usually comes about the same date each year, growing worse each year and, in time, affects the bronchial tubes.
Symptoms.—The earliest symptoms are, usually, an itching sensation in the roof of the mouth and the palate, or itching and burning at the inner corner of the eyes. Irritation within the nose is also experienced and very soon spells of sneezing set in. The nose soon feels stuffy and obstructed, and there is a clear water discharge from the nose, which is especially copious after sneezing. The eyes look red and watery and the eyeballs pain and there is also pain in the forehead above the nose. It may take several days to develop these symptoms. They are usually worse in the morning. After some days these symptoms become more persistent and severe. The nostrils are completely closed, and the patient must breathe through the mouth, and the spells of sneezing are very violent. The conjunctiva becomes congested and red, a profuse watery discharge runs from the eyes and the lids are swollen. In severe cases the face looks red and swollen. The mucous membrane of the mouth, pharynx and tonsils is more or less reddened and irritated, smell and taste are impaired and sometimes the patient is slightly deaf. The patient feels tired, weak, and it is hard to study or do manual labor. Slight feelings of chillness are common.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Hay fever, Quick Relief from.—"For hay fever and other slight forms of diseases which produce sneezing, there is no remedy more quickly effective, and often curative, than a vapor of heated salt and alcohol. Heat it very hot and breathe the vapor for ten minutes at a time, four or five times a day."
2. Hay fever, Remedy Worth Trying for.—"A mixture composed of ten grains of sulphate of zinc, half teaspoonful of borax, and about four ounces of rose water. This is very good to inject into the nostrils if there is much irritation of eyes and nostrils."
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3. Hay fever, Our Canadian Remedy for.—"Inhale smoke from ground coffee (sprinkle over coals). This relieved a case for me of five years standing."
4. Hay Fever, Medicine That Helps.—"Use phenol sodique as directed on the bottles. This was recommended to me by Mrs. Levi Weller, who said her husband had found more relief from this remedy than any other he had tried."
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Hay Fever.—1. The following gives relief from the distressing symptoms. (But first the nose should be examined, for often there is local trouble there.). Then give suprarenal extract tablets, each five grains. Take one every four or five hours.
2. Pill Blennostasin.—Each pill contains five grains. Take one every four hours.
3. The following solution gives temporary relief:—
Dionin 10 grains Adrenalin (1 to 1000) 5 drams Water 2 ounces
Mix solution and spray into the nose every two hours.
4. After using the above spray which will shrink the mucous membrane apply the following oil spray:—
Thymol 5 grains Menthol 5 grains Camphor 5 grains Liquid Alboline 1 ounce
Mix and make a solution and spray into the nose three or four times a day.
5. In some cases a drying powder does well, such as compound stearate of zinc and alum one dram; puff it into the nose with a powder-blower every hour.
6. Dr. Ball of London, England, gives the following.—A spray of a four per cent of cocaine, or direct application of cotton-wool soaked in a stronger solution will be found to afford immediate relief. But the after effect is likely to be bad. Hence menthol is a better application.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 19]
7. Another from Dr. Ball.—A one to five per cent solution of menthol in liquid paraffin may be painted or sprayed on the mucous membrane, or a little cotton-wool soaked in an oily solution may be inserted in the nostrils. We must confess our weakness as physicians, when we treat this disease. There are local measures, such as give relief for the time being, but they must be carefully used. Diseases of the nose, tumors or "spurs" frequently cause in the first place; bad tonsils, and adenoids are likely to aggravate the trouble. A change of climate is the only real help. Tone the general health. If the patient is very nervous fifteen grains of bromide of sodium three or four time a day gives relief. People subjected to hay fever should be treated between the attacks to make them strong and to remove any local nose trouble and just before the time of year arrives for the attack it is well to take five grains three times a day of the suprarenal tablets or blennostasin the same way, and also spray the nose twice daily with a mild adrenalin solution as the following:- Adrenalin (1 to 1000) 1 dram Water 2 ounces Change of climate is frequently quite beneficial. Some are relieved in the dry mountain air, while others are more benefited by the seashore or an ocean trip.
TUMOR OF THE NOSE. (Nasal Polypus).—This tumor consists of a soft jelly- like whitish growth, usually found in the upper front part of the nostril. It may extend to the bottom (floor) of the nose, is quite soft and moveable, being easy to push aside with a probe. The air passing through the nostril will move it backward and forward. There may be one or several and they may completely fill the nostril. They sometimes grow from the back end of the middle turbinate bone, and gradually extend backward filling up the back part of the nostril and even extending into the space behind the nose and, if large, they may be seen below the soft palate.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.—The only thing to do is to remove them. This is usually done by a wire placed around the polypus and by the thumb-screw in the instrument, tighten the wire until it has cut through the base.
DEVIATION OF THE SEPTUM (Partition).—Deviation is the bending or curving of the partition (septum) to one side or the other, leaving one nostril very large and roomy and closing the other nostril wholly or partly. Causes.—Blows, falls, etc., high-arch palate. It is seldom seen under seven years of age.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT.—The treatment is to replace if possible, the part in the proper position. This requires an operation.
NOSEBLEED. Mothers' Remedies.—1. Nosebleed; remedy sent us by a Public School Teacher.—"Make a compress of paper soaked in cold water; put it under the upper lip and have the patient press the lip with the fingers. Remarks.—Tried with success in many cases by a school teacher." By putting under the lip and pressing on it, you press on an artery and stop bleeding. Be careful to use nothing but white paper, as ink or colors would come out when wet.
2. Nosebleed, Alum as a cure for.—"Apply cold water to face and back of neck; snuff powdered alum." The powdered alum contracts the blood vessels, thereby shutting off the supply of blood. The cold water applied to the back of the neck affects the nervous system in such a manner that the blood vessels are contracted and so the blood supply is diminished.
[20 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
3. Nosebleed; Remedy that succeeded in a severe case.—"Put pieces of ice in cloth. Lay a piece each side of the nose and on the back of the neck. Remarks.—My neighbor's daughter had nosebleed which refused to stop until they were much frightened but this treatment soon stopped it, after which she rested quietly for a time,"
4. Nosebleed, Simple Remedy for.—"Place the finger on the side of the nose tight for ten or fifteen minutes. My mother has stopped her nose from bleeding when other remedies failed." This shuts off the circulation and helps to form a clot.
5. Nosebleed, Another Home Remedy for.—"Hold the head back as far as possible, press up the end of the nose with the end of the finger." Best to lie on the side so blood will not run down the throat and choke the patient.
6. Nosebleed, Puff-Ball for.—"Find an old brown puff-ball from the ground, pick out the soft inside part and put it in nose and let remain for some time."
7. Nosebleed, Vinegar and Water for.—"Wet a cloth in very cold water or strong cold water and vinegar and apply to back of neck, renewing as it gets warm. Have seen this tried and know it to be good."
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Nosebleed.—Place the patient on his side half lying, head and shoulders raised and apply a cold compress to the forehead, nose, and to the back of the neck. Press the end of the nose firmly against the partition between the nostrils, for some minutes. This presses directly upon the bleeding point, as a rule. Also, when lying in this position, the blood does not flow into the throat so readily. Raise the arms above the head, apply cold to the spine or to the scrotum of men and breasts of women. Mustard foot baths are good, injection of cold water, or the injection of hot water, 120 F., into the nostril will often help: Cold water, Or salt water, can be gently snuffed. Alum solution on a cloth put in the nostril often helps. A piece of bacon cut to bits and placed in the nostril often stops it. Vinegar injected into the nostril is good, or you can use a cloth saturated with vinegar and placed in the nostril. White oak bark tea, strong, is effective; juice of lemon applied same way or injected is helpful.
How to plug the nostrils; (front or anterior nares).—Do this with narrow strips of sterilized gauze, by placing the first piece as far back as possible, then with a narrow pair of forceps pushing in a little at a time until the nostril is filled. The gauze should be only one-half inch wide. If the bleeding still continues the posterior opening (nares) should be plugged. This can be known by seeing the blood flowing down the throat (pharynx).
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 21]
How this is done? Pass a soft rubber catheter, along the floor (bottom) of the nose until its end is seen passing down behind the soft palate into the throat. Grasp this with a pair of forceps and pull it forward into the mouth. Tie a stout string to the end of the catheter (about 1-1/2 feet long) and tie the other end of the string around the centre of a plug of lint or gauze, 1-1/2 inches long and three-quarters of an inch wide. Then pull the catheter back through the nostril, very gently. This will pull the plug into the posterior opening of the nose, and plug it. . Hold this same end firmly and with a pair of forceps fill the anterior nostril with strips (1/2 inch wide) of gauze, pushing them back to the posterior plug. The end of the string in the mouth may be fastened to a tooth or to the side of the cheek (if long enough) with a piece of adhesive plaster. The plug should not be left in position more than forty-eight hours, and it should be thoroughly softened with oil or vaselin before it is removed. Remove the anterior part first, gently and carefully and then with cocaine (if necessary) and more oil, the posterior plug is softened and removed by pulling the end of the string which is in the mouth gently and slowly.
SORE THROAT (Acute Pharyngitis—Acute Pharyngeal Catarrh—- Inflammation of the Pharynx—Simple Angina).—This is a common complaint especially among some adults. A predisposition to it is often due to chronic pharyngitis, chronic enlargement of the tonsils and adenoids of the wall of the pharynx as well as chronic nasal obstruction. Rheumatic persons are especially subject to it and acute articular rheumatism is often observed to be preceded by an attack of pharyngitis. Tonsilitis is said to have the same influence also.
Symptoms.—The throat is dry and feels stiff. There may be tenderness at the angle of the jaw and outside of the neck. Pains some to swallow. In a day or two there is a mucous secretion, making the patient inclined to clear the throat by hawking or coughing. The throat looks red and in the early stage this is more noticeable on the anterior pillars of the fauces, the soft palate and uvula. On the back wall you see bright red spots, the inflamed lymph follicles. It usually gets well in two to seven days. It may become chronic after repeated acute attacks.
Chronic.—This is very common in persons who smoke or drink to excess, also people who use their voice in public speaking as preachers do, or in calling loudly as hucksters, railroad brakemen, stationmen, etc.
Prevention of chronic kind.—Ascertain the cause and remove it. Too hot food or too much spiced food cause the chronic kind. Rest the voice. Remove any existing catarrh.
Prevention of acute kind.—Avoid undue exposure to cold and wet, wear warm comfortable flannel underwear. Bath the neck and chest daily with cold water. This is good cold preventive. The wearing of handkerchiefs, mufflers, around the neck is injurious unless you are driving. Accustom your neck to the cold from the beginning in the fall and winter months. Wearing a full beard is said to be a good preventive.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES.—1. Sore throat, Used for Years Successfully.—"Salt pork dipped in hot water then covered thick with black pepper. Heat in the oven and lay or bind on the throat or lungs. This has been a favorite remedy with us for years." Sew the pork to a piece of cotton cloth and bind over the sore parts after you have sprinkled the pork with salt and pepper. Leave this on as long as the patient can endure it. When the pork is removed, rub the affected parts with cold cream or vaselin and put a clean muslin cloth on to keep person from taking cold.
[22 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
2. Sore throat, Splendid Liniment for.—
"Olive oil 1/2 pint Ammonia 1/2 pint Turpentine 1/2 pint One egg.
Shake till it forms emulsion. This can be used as a blister."
This is a very effective remedy, but you must watch the throat very carefully as this will blister quickly. After removing the liniment, grease the parts with oil or cold cream.
3. Sore throat, Simple Gargle for.—
"Soda 1 teaspoonful Salt 1 teaspoonful Borax 1 teaspoonful
Dissolve in pint of warm water; use as a gargle frequently."
This is a very good gargle. It contracts the parts and acts as an antiseptic and thoroughly cleanses the parts.
4. Sore throat, Home Made salve for.-
"Beeswax 1 ounce Rosin 1 ounce Camphor gum 1 ounce Lard about the size of an egg."
Mix the above ingredients together and apply to the outside of the throat. This causes the skin to become red thus drawing the inflammation out of the throat and relieving the trouble.
5. Sore Throat, Cold Packs, Sure Cure for.—"Put cold packs on the throat. Remarks: Was in Washington once and my little girl had a very sore throat. I put cold packs on the throat the first half of the night and the next day she was out seeing the sights as well as ever." Gargle with very hot water and a little soda. This makes it very effective.
6. Sore Throat, Ointment for.—
"Oil Turpentine 1/2 ounce Oil of Hemlock 1/2 ounce Oil of Peppermint 1/2 ounce Oil of Encaliptus 1/2 ounce
Mix with one cup warm lard, apply warm to the throat."
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 23]
7. Sore Throat, Remedy from a mother in Johnson City, Tenn.—"Fat meat stewed in vinegar and bound to the neck. Kind friends:—After waiting so long I will help you what I can, and where is the mother that won't want the book? I am truly glad you have such an interest in the welfare of suffering humanity. I hope this book will soon be out on its good mission. Kind friends, I think it a wonderful kindness to the rich as well as the poor to have a friend in time of need. I think a good honest book of home remedies tried by our good mothers and grandmothers will be accepted and looked to by all mothers, for we all think mother knows best. I certainly want this book completed and in my home."
8. Sore Throat, Gargle and Local Application for.—
"Common salt 2 tablespoonfuls Strained honey 2 tablespoonfuls Vinegar 3 tablespoonfuls Camphor 1/2 teaspoonful"
Use as a gargle. External applications, wring a cloth out of salt and cold water and keep it quite wet, bind tightly about the neck and cover with a dry cloth. It is best to use this at night."
9. Mild Sore Throat, Vinegar Gargle for.—"Gargle with vinegar and hot water. This will help to sooth the irritation and in a mild sore throat is a sure cure."
10. Sore Throat, Alum and Vinegar for.—"One glass of warm water; one tablespoonful of vinegar; one teaspoonful of sugar; one-half teaspoonful of alum; dissolve well and gargle throat several times daily."
11. Sore Throat, Kerosene for.—"Dip a flannel cloth in coal oil, (kerosene) and bind on the throat. I have tried this; in fact it is what I always use. It is almost sure to cure."
12. Sore Throat and Cough, Remedy always at hand.—"Equal parts of alcohol and glycerin make a good gargle, or use three tablespoonfuls of vinegar and one of salt to a tumbler of water. Or simply hot water and salt when nothing else is to be had. The hot water alone is very good."
13. Tickling in Throat, Simple Remedy for.—"Take bread crumbs and swallow them."
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Sore Throat.—1. Inhalation of steam either with or without medicine is good. (See treatment of tonsilitis-Inhaling steam) I treated a man once who had a terrific pharyngitis, All the parts were so terribly swollen, that he was unable to swallow or talk. I induced him to inhale steam from a teakettle. He was able to put his mouth over the spout of the kettle and he was relived in a few minutes. I think it saved his life. I put no medicine in the water for that case. Very few persons can inhale the steam directly from the kettle. Other method is given under tonsilitis. A dose of salts at first is good. Remain in the house for a few days.
2. Sulphur and Cream for.—Mix some sulphur with cream and put some of it on the sore membrane.
3. Good Old Mother's Remedy.—"Steep a medium sized red pepper in one-half pint of water, strain and add one-fourth pint of good vinegar and a heaping teaspoonful each of salt and powdered alum and gargle with it as often as needed. This is a very good remedy."
[24 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
1. Physicians' Local Treatment.—A wet compress on the neck is useful at the onset. Sucking ice or gargling with ice or cold water, or applying an ice bag to the throat will be found useful.
Later on, warm gargles and steam inhalation are more grateful. If there is great pain in swallowing, cocaine painted on the throat or sucking a cocaine lozenge before taking food will be found very useful.
2. When the attack is mild medicine may not be needed. When there is fever and the throat is real sore, you can use one drop doses of tincture of aconite every hour. This will frequently check it.
3. I like the following at the beginning. Give tincture of aconite and mercury biniodide, called the pink tablet, alternately. Put ten drops of the aconite in one-half glass of water and give from one-half to two teaspoonfuls everyone or two hours, alternating with one or two tablets of one-hundred grain tablet of mercury biniodide. After the first twenty-four hours stop the acoite and give the mercury biniodide every three hours.
4. For Chronic Catarrh remaining after, lozenges containing rhatany or tannin are useful.
5. Other gargles.—
Menthol 3 to 5 grains Camphor 2 to 4 grains Liquid paraffine 1 ounce
For irritable and catarrhal conditions of nasal membrane use a spray.
Hydrochloride of Cocaine 1 grains Menthol 1 grain Sugar of Milk 2 drams
Mix very thoroughly.
When using the Menthol preparation do not use the preparation very hot.
HOARSENESS. Inflammation of the Larynx. (Acute Laryngitis) Causes.—Due to taking cold or over using the voice; hot liquids, poisons. It may occur in influenza and measles; from irritating gases; some are subject to it.
Symptoms.—Tickling in the larynx; cold air irritates, and breathing may cause some pain; dry cough; the voice may be altered. At first it may be only husky. In children breathing may be very difficult, after a day or two there may be a light expectoration and finally there may be a loose cough and a slight fever. The trouble is in the region of "Adam's Apple." There is little or no danger in these attacks if proper care is taken. The attack generally lasts two to four days.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Hoarseness, Borax for.—"For hoarseness dissolve a piece of borax the size of a pea in the mouth and don't talk. It will work like a charm." The borax does away with the inflammation of the inflamed parts and gives relief very quickly.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 25]
2. Hoarseness, Egg and Lemon for.—"Beaten white of one egg, juice of one lemon, with sugar enough to thicken, then add one teaspoonful olive oil." Take one teaspoonful every hour until relieved.
3. Hoarseness, Horseradish for.—"Horseradish root; eat plenty of it. This has been tried and proved successful."
4. Hoarseness, Successful Remedy for Adults.—"Take two ounces of fresh scraped horseradish root, infuse in a close vessel in one-half pint of cold water for two or three hours; then add four ounces of acid tincture of lobelia and one-half pound of honey. Boil altogether for one-half hour, strain and take a teaspoonful four times a day. This is a very good remedy, especially for adults."
5. Hoarseness, Lemon and Sugar for Children.—"Take the juice of one lemon and saturate with sugar, take a teaspoonful several times a day. It is sure to give relief. This is very pleasant to give to children, as they most all like it."
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Hoarseness.—1. Rest of the voice and if the case is severe keep in bed in a room with an even temperature and the air saturated with moisture from a steaming teakettle, etc.
2. An ice bag on the throat or cold water cloths to the front of the throat often give relief.
3. Tincture of Aconite.—This is given in the beginning when there is fever. The dose depends upon the age, and the amount of fever. You can give it to a child by putting one drop of aconite in twelve teaspoonfuls of water and then give one teaspoonful every one to three hours according to the case. For an adult you can put ten drops of aconite in ten teaspoonfuls of water and give one teaspoonful every hour or two.
4. Citrate of Potash is given every four to five hours in adults.
5. Full dose of five grains of Dover's powders at night for the irritating cough.
6. For a cough, for a child one year old you can give one-half teaspoonful, every two hours, of the following:—
Syrup of Dover's powder 1 fluid dram Tincture of Aconite 10 drops Simple syrup Enough to make two ounces
Shake before using.
TICKLING IN THROAT. Mothers' Remedies. Mullein Leaf Smoke Beneficial for.—"Smoke dried mullein leaves, just a few puffs are needed, and should be drawn into the throat. Myron H. Grinnel of Albion, Mich., says his grandmother always gathers mullein leaves for this purpose and finds them an excellent remedy. Too much would cause dizziness." Mullein leaves are good for inflamed membranes like the ear and throat. If a person does not wish to gather the leaves themselves they may buy them at a drug store.
2. Tickling in Throat, Good Northern Canada Remedy for.—"Chew some of the bark of slippery elm and gargle the throat with saliva. This stops tickling in a few minutes."
[26 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
3. Tickling in Throat, Tested Gargle for.—"Gargle from four to six times daily with following:—
Strong Sage Tea 1 pint Salt 2 tablespoonfuls Cayenne Pepper 2 tablespoonfuls Vinegar 2 tablespoonfuls Honey 2 tablespoonfuls
Mix thoroughly and bottle for use."
The above ingredients are all excellent for sore throat and it is an old tried remedy and can easily be obtained. If it is too strong dilute with warm water to the desired strength.
SWELLING OF THE GLOTTIS. (Oedematous Laryngitis. Oedma of the Glottis).—Swelling or oedma of the glottis or more correctly of the structure which forms the glottis, is a very serious affection. It may follow acute laryngitis or may be met with in chronic diseases of the larynx and from other diseases. It is dangerous.
Symptoms.—Difficulty of breathing which increases in intensity so that the condition becomes very serious in a short time. There is whistling breathing, the voice is husky and disappears.
Acute Laryngitis.—Inhalations and sprays.
Menthol 10 grains Oil of pine 1 dram Tincture of benzion 1 dram Liquid alboline 2 ounces
Make a solution. Use one teaspoonful in a pint of boiling water; inhale with a cone placed over the dish or put a shawl over the head and dish and inhale the steam. Or this one to inhale same way:
Tincture of benzoin 1 dram Oil of tar 1 drain Liquid alboline 2 ounces
Make a solution and use one teaspoonful to a pint of boiling water as above.
It may be necessary in order to save life, to have a physician make an opening by incision into the windpipe for the admission of air into the lungs. This process is called Tracheotomy.
Diet in Laryngitis.—Hard and dry toasts should be avoided, for they give pain on being swallowed, same reason applies to highly seasoned foods. Milk, custards, eggs, scraped beef may be taken. Difficulty in swallowing may be overcome by allowing the patient to lie flat on the bed, etc., with his face over the edge. Food can be sucked through the tube from a vessel placed below; or the patient can lean forward while eating.
"CHILD CROWING" (Spasm of the Glottis.)—This is usually peculiar to children.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 27]
Cause.—It is purely a nervous affection and it occurs between six months and three years, and is most commonly seen in children with rickets.
Symptoms.—It may come in the night or day; or when the child awakes. The breathing is arrested, the child struggles for breath, the face is flushed, and then with a sudden relaxation of the spasm, the air is drawn into the lungs with a high pitched crowing sound. Convulsions may occur. Death rarely occurs. There may be many attacks during the day.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT of Child Crowing. Preventive.—The gums should be carefully examined and if they are swollen and hot they should be lanced. The bowels should be carefully regulated, and as these children are usually of a delicate nature and afflicted with rickets, nourishing food and the treatment in diet and medicine should be given for rickets. Cod liver oil is a good general remedy. (See rickets).
Cold Sponging.—In severe cases, the child should be placed in a warm bath tub and the back and chest thoroughly sponged for a minute or two with cold water. This plan may be used even when a child is in a paroxysm, though the attack is severe and the child looks blue, it is much better than to dash cold water in the face. Sometimes the attack can be stopped by introducing the finger far back into the throat.
CROUP, Spasmodic.—This disease gives the parents a terrible shock if they have never seen any attacks of the kind. The symptoms which attend the attack are out of all proportion to the real danger. It is generally the result of exposure to cold or to the cold wind. Irritating, undigested food, often causes it.
Symptoms.—Usually the child goes to bed perfectly well, or has a slight cold and wakes up an hour or two later, coughing and gasping for breath, due to a spasm in the wind pipe. The cough is shrill, more like a bark; the cough is repeated at intervals and soon the patient breathes quickly and laboriously. It must sit up for it can breathe easier sitting. The voice is oftentimes nearly or quite lost, or at least only a hoarse whisper; the face is bluish or perspiring. The spasm lasts for a variable period, but rarely exceeds one-half hour, sometimes only a few minutes. The croupy cough and oppressed breathing may last longer than this, but these too subside after a time, after which the child drops to sleep and usually rests quietly for the rest of the night. There is a tendency to recurrence on succeeding night unless obviated by treatment.
Treatment. Preventive.—Guard against such children's exposure to cold winds and dampness, dress them warmly. The living and sleeping rooms should not be too warm. Do not give them food hard to digest at any time, especially before bedtime. Foods hard to digest frequently cause the attack.
[28 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Croup, Cold Application for.—"Apply to throat a flannel wrung out of cold water, lay a dry cloth over it." This is an excellent remedy for a mother to try in case of an emergency when no other medicine can be obtained. This very often will relieve a child until other remedies can be secured and has been known to save many children's lives: The cold water helps to draw the blood away from the larynx and air passages and also dilates the tubes and gives relief. Take great care not to wet the child, as this will cause it to take more cold and may prove fatal.
2. Croup, Sure Cure for.—"Give child anything that will make it vomit, soak feet in hot water, apply onion drafts to bottom of feet, roast onions and put on the chest, keep warm. My mother has cured me at least one hundred times with the above remedy. She generally gave me pig's foot oil, or oil from the feet of a chicken, sometimes melted lard. Croup has to be attended to at once or it is fatal with the child." This is a very good remedy.
3. Croup, Immediate Relief from Steaming.—"Put a small shawl over the child's head to retain steam, then put a small chunk of unslaked lime in a bowl of water under shawl. The steam affords immediate relief, usually, if child inhales it." This is very good; shawl should cover the child's head and bowl in which lime is dissolved.
4. Croup, for Baby or Older Child.—"Take a teaspoonful alum, pulverize it and sprinkle it on the whites of two fresh eggs in a cup or glass, let it stand for a few minutes, until the combination has turned to water, or water is produced; then give one-half teaspoonful to a child six months old or less and increase the dose to one teaspoonful for older children, and repeat the dose in fifteen or thirty minutes as the case may require. Remarks: From personal experience in my own and neighbors' families, I have never known a case where it did not bring relief and cure. The dose must produce vomiting."
5. Croup, Remedy that Never Fails.—"Two tablespoonfuls of liquor or brandy and one-quarter teaspoonful of glycerin, one teaspoonful of sugar, one tablespoonful of water; stir up well and give one teaspoonful every hour or oftener if necessary. Then at same time take a flannel and soak well in cold water, wring it gently and put around neck with a heavy, dry flannel over the damp one. If damp flannel becomes hot take it off, dampen it in more cold water and apply again, and so on until relieved. Do not allow the patient to get chilled. Better results are obtained if patient will go to bed. Remarks: I have used this in my family, and have always found it to be the best croup cure I have ever seen, and it will be found to give immediate relief. The external application is extremely good."
6. Croup, Coal Oil (kerosene) and Sugar for.—"Coal oil and sugar; put a few drops on a teaspoonful of sugar." The coal oil produces vomiting, relieving the trouble. If the first dose does not have this effect upon the child, repeat it.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 29]
7. Croup, Pork and Onion Poultice for.—"Put pork and onions on the throat. Drink plenty of hot water." Bind the pork and onions on the throat, acting as a poultice. The virtue of this can be increased by cooking the onions and pork together. Onion syrup may be given internally to produce vomiting, even in very small babies.
8. Croup, Bloodroot for.—"One teaspoonful powdered bloodroot mixed with molasses or sugar. Have taken this myself and it relieved at once. If one dose does not seem enough it may be repeated." This is a very effective remedy, but is very weakening. Care should be taken not to repeat dose any oftener than absolutely necessary.
9. Croup, Time Honored Remedy for.—"Pulverized alum and sugar or honey or molasses; mix together and give half teaspoonful doses or less. For infants use only in emergency cases." This is one of the good old-fashioned remedies that nearly every mother has used. It acts simply by producing vomiting and causing the air tubes to relax. Repeat in five to twenty minutes until it causes vomiting.
10. Croup, Ipecac for.—"One-third teaspoonful of powdered ipecac dissolved in one teaspoonful of water, one tablespoonful of sugar; pour on one teacupful of boiling water and let boil down to a half cup, Dose: One teaspoonful for adults; children in proportion every two hours; or, if needed to vomit children give again in ten or fifteen minutes." If you cannot secure the powdered ipecac, the syrup can be bought at any drug store, and is already prepared, Dose: Ten to fifteen drops as the case may need.
11. Croup, Vaselin for.—"Vaselin rubbed on the chest, cover with a hot flannel, and take 1/4 teaspoonful of vaselin internally occasionally." Dissolve vaselin and repeat dose if necessary to produce vomiting.
12. Croup, Ice Application for.—"Ice applied to the throat is almost instant relief." It is best to break the ice up fine and sprinkle salt on same, putting it in a cheese cloth bag, binding on the throat with a flannel, and change as soon as it shows signs of wetting.
13. Croup, Salt for.—"Parched salt put on the throat hot." The parched salt acts the same as mustard plaster, by producing a redness on the throat. Salt is something that we can always have on hand and by using this remedy we are always prepared for an emergency in case of croup.
14. Croup, Castor Oil Breaks up.—"Castor oil, given before bedtime, is good. Dose.—From one-half to one teaspoonful. I have taken this when I was small." Castor oil is good when the bowels are constipated or the stomach is full.
15. Croup, Coal Oil, Turpentine and Snuff, a Canadian Remedy for.—"A little coal oil and a few drops of turpentine soaked up by snuff, and used as plaster. Makes the child sneeze after a few minutes. The poultice loosens the phlegm and the sneezing throws it off."
[30 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Croup.—Active. 1. Dr. Douglas says wring cloths out of cold water and apply very freely to the throat, and recommends the following syrup:
Syrup of Ipecac 3 fluid drams Hive Syrup 4 fluid drams Water 1-1/2 ounces
Mix, and give one teaspoonful every half hour until the child vomits, then repeat the dose every two hours as needed.
2. Place the child in a hot bath, wrap hot or cold cloths about the throat and put one teaspoonful of common soda in a glass of water and give one teaspoonful every fifteen minutes until relieved.
3. Dr. Holt of New York, says.—The room should be very warm, hot cloths or poultices should be applied over the throat (Adam's apple and below) and either a croup kettle or ordinary teakettle kept boiling in the room. This is more efficacious if the child is placed in a tent made by a raised umbrella or some like method with a sheet thrown over it, and the steam introduced beneath the tent. If the symptoms' are urgent ten drops of the syrup of ipecac should be given every fifteen minutes until free vomiting occurs.
Whenever the symptoms reach a point where the breathing becomes difficult, a doctor should be summoned without delay. It might be some other disease.
4. Home Treatment.—One-half teaspoonful of alum mixed with molasses or honey will produce vomiting and help. This is very good when the croup is due to indigestion. At the same time, fry onions in lard and put them on the neck in front, or hot wet cloths may do. The alum can be given once or twice if necessary, half an hour apart, about in one-fourth or one-half the first dose.
5. Goose grease, or lard dissolved, and enough given to produce vomiting will do good. This idea is not only to cause vomiting but to cause a sick feeling after and at that time, which will cause the spasms to relax. A very good thing to do in addition is to put the child's feet in hot water, while local applications are put on the throat. These things tend to relax the muscles and this relieves the spasm.
6. Steam is Very Useful. It relaxes the spasm by local contact and by producing general sweating. Cover the child's head and a pitcher with a shawl and inhale the steam from the boiling water in pitcher. You can put in the pitcher one teaspoonful of oil of tar or one to two teaspoonfuls of tincture of benzoin. This can be kept up for some time.
COLD IN THE CHEST. (Acute Bronchitis. Inflammation of Bronchial Tubes).— This is an acute inflammation of the larger and medium sized bronchial tubes.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 31]
Causes.—Youth and old age are more predisposed to it. Lack of fresh air and exercise, dusty work, poor general health, dampness and changeable weather in winter and early spring. It may be secondary to cold, pharyngitis, measles, typhoid fever, malaria, asthma, and heart disease.
Symptoms.—There is a feeling of oppression with chilliness and pain in the back, a dry, tight feeling beneath the breastbone with a dry harsh cough. This may cause headache and pain, and a raw feeling in the chest, chiefly in front. There may be a temperature of one hundred or one hundred three or less. After a few days there is a thick, sticky secretion; it is profuse. The other symptoms, except the cough, subside. This generally stops in ten days in a favorable case, or it may become chronic. In infants or old people it may extend to the smaller tubes causing broncho-pneumonia. There is more danger in infants than in older people.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Bronchitis, Camphor and Lard for.—1. "Grease a cloth well with lard to which has been added some camphor gum, then sprinkle on some dry baking soda and lay it on the chest. The camphor and lard should be made into a salve, then put on the soda. The lard and camphor gum penetrates the affected parts, relieving the inflammation and tightness in the chest. It is well in children to put a layer of cotton cloth over the chest keeping them warm and getting better results from the remedy."
2. Bronchitis, Grandmother's Remedy for.—
"Hoarhound 5 cents worth Hops 5 cents worth Wild cherry bark 5 cents worth Licorice root 5 cents worth
"Boil and simmer altogether in two quarts of water long enough to get the strength out of the ingredients, strain, add three cups sugar, then add enough good whisky to keep from souring, say a half pint." This combination is not only good for bronchitis, but for the cough left from the effects of bronchitis. The hoarhound, wild cherry bark and licorice root have a very soothing effect on the bronchial tubes, and the hops quiets the nervous system. This is also good for a common cough.
[32 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
3. Bronchitis, Antiphlogistine Plaster for.—"Antiphlogistine is fine for bronchitis, where there is any inflammation, pleurisy, any kind of a scratch, especially rusty nails; pneumonia, Set can in water long enough to heat, but not hot, spread on with case knife as thick as a silver dollar, spread cotton batting over it, keep on twenty-four hours, before changing. This is a very useful remedy to keep on hand." Antiphlogistine is very good to apply to the body wherever inflammation is present, as it withdraws the blood from the organ or part of the body that is affected. It does this by drawing the blood into the external circulation. It has the same effect upon the diseased parts as the old-fashioned mustard, but does not blister. In using the mustard plaster you are in fear of blistering, and then having the outward blister and inward inflammation to contend with. The antiphlogistine can be purchased at drug stores. Set the can in warm water until it is warm, then spread on a piece of cotton cloth and apply to the affected parts, where it may remain for twenty-four hours, then repeat if necessary. Should always be put on warm, but not hot. It usually drops off when dry and no longer effective.
4. Bronchial, or any Severe Cough. One of the best Home Remedies.—
"Hoarhound (herb form) 1 ounce Irish moss 1 ounce Flax Seed (the seed not pulverized) 1 ounce Boneset 1 ounce Licorice Root (cut up fine) 1 ounce
Place the above in some suitable pan or dish for such purpose in a gallon of cold water, and put it on the back of the stove, so that it will simmer slowly until reduced to one-half gallon, which may require one day or more, then strain and place in a bottle, or bottles. Dose.—One wineglassful three times a day. Add a little sugar if desired." This is a very fine cough remedy, as the hoarhound loosens the cough, the flax seed soothes the membrane, and the boneset by its general action on the system produces sweating. The Irish moss is a sort of food for the whole system and helps to build a person up.
5. Bronchitis, Camphorated Oil and Steaming for.—"Bathe the chest and throat up around the head with camphorated oil; drink water and steam the throat and mouth over hot water. Have tried this recipe and found it effectual. Have a bronchial cough now and am treating it myself." The camphorated oil seems to have a very soothing effect upon the chest, in fact it acts about the same as camphor and lard, only is more pleasant to use, and can be bought already prepared. Drinking plenty of water cleanses the system by acting upon the stomach, bowels and kidneys, carrying off the impurities. The breathing of steam is very soothing and healing to the throat and air passages.
6. Bronchitis, General Relief for.—"Dose of castor oil every night; one teaspoonful for child. Grease well with camphorated oil or any good oil." The castor oil is very good for carrying off the phlegm from the stomach and bowels that children always swallow instead of coughing up like an older person. It is well in addition to the above remedy to give a little licorice or onion syrup to relieve the bronchial cough.
7. Bronchitis, Lard Poultice for.—"Take a piece of cotton batting large enough to cover chest and fit up close to the neck; wring out of melted lard as hot as the patient can stand it, and apply. Change as often as it gets cold. Also give dose of castor oil."
8. Bronchitis, Mustard Plaster for.—"Mustard plasters are very good." This acts as a counter-irritant, as it draws the blood to the surface and relieves the inflamed bronchial tubes.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 33]
9. Bronchitis, Well-Known Remedy for.—
"Cod Liver Oil 2 ounces Ginger Syrup 2 ounces Mucilage of Gum Arabic 2 ounces Oil of Cloves 6 drops
Dose :-Teaspoonful before meals and at bedtime."
This is a very good remedy, as the cod liver oil by its general action tones up the whole system. The ginger tones and stimulates the stomach and takes away the sickening effect of the cod liver oil.
10. Bronchitis Remedy and General Tonic.—"Take small doses of glycerin and one teaspoonful three times a day of codfish oil." This remedy, though simple, is very effective. The glycerin and codfish oil are both soothing to the affected parts, and the codfish oil is a very good tonic to tone up the general system.
1. PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Bronchitis. Sweating Remedy for.—Take a hot bath and then go to bed, and take hot drinks after. See that the bowels are open. Nourishment is especially important in infants and old age. You can sweat them as directed under la grippe. Drink hot drinks, such as hoarhound, ginger, flaxseed, hot lemonade or slippery elm. These will produce sweating and will give much relief. An onion poultice applied over the breastbone where the pain and tightness are, will do good.
2. Steaming Remedy.—Inhaling steam from plain boiling water is good, or you can add one to two teaspoonfuls of compound tincture of benzoin or turpentine. The steaming will be more effective if you make a tent, by fastening four sticks to the cradle or bed and cover with a sheet, introducing the steam underneath this at the foot of the bed, etc. A rubber tube can be fastened to the kettle. In this same way you can produce, if you wish, sweating by putting the end of the tube under the clothes elevated a little above the patient. Be careful not to scald the patient.
3. Steaming With Pitcher.—If the soreness of the bronchial tubes is not relieved by this means, inhalations of steam arising from boiling water may be practiced, either through a cone, one end of which covers the top of a pitcher, and the other end of which covers the mouth and nose of the patient, or by covering the head and pitcher with a towel. The usefulness of this method may be much increased by the addition of from two teaspoonfuls to one tablespoonful of compound tincture of benzoin to each pint of water in a pitcher. This latter method can also be used in tonsilitis, pharyngitis and quinsy.
4. Rub the chest with a camphor liniment and give the following:
Tincture of Aconite 10 drops Sweet Spirits of Nitre 2 drams Distilled water to make 4 ounces
Mix—One-half teaspoonful to a child, or dessert spoonful to an adult in water every hour.
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5. For Adults.—Compound licorice mixture one to two drams every three to four hours; or five grains of Dover's powders every three to four hours.
Diet in Bronchitis (similar to Laryngitis).—Drinks are useful in the dryer forms, such as hot flaxseed tea sweetened and flavored with lemon juice. It should be taken in large quantities. Hot milk and lemonade are also useful.
CHRONIC BRONCHITIS. Causes.—People over middle age are more liable to it. It comes chiefly in winter, in changeable, cold and damp climates. It may follow repeated acute attacks.
Symptoms.—These are variable and are present chiefly in winter and damp weather. The cough is worse at night, and in the morning, expectoration is usually great. There may be slight fever at times. Often the patients are entirely free from the trouble during the summer.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Chronic Bronchitis. Preventive.—Warm equable climate, such as southern California, Florida, or the south of France, especially in the colder months; warm clothing, avoid exposure and fatigue.
1. First you can take three grains of ammonium chloride three to four times a day.
2. Ammonium Chloride 2 drams Fluid Extract of Licorice 2 drams Distilled water brought to 3 ounces
Mix and take one teaspoonful every three hours.
3. If the cough is troublesome the following is good:
Ammonium Chloride 2 drams Hive Syrup 4 drams Fluid Extract Licorice 1 ounce Paregoric 6 drams Distilled water enough to make 2 ounces
Mix. Teaspoonful every three to four hours.
COUGHS. Causes.—There are many causes; inflammation of the larynx, bronchial tubes, lungs, also stomach and liver; and a nervous cough is present in our day. Remove the cause when possible. There are many good cough medicines now put up, and they can be bought at any drug-store. Cough lozenges of all kinds are plenty, and a sure cure is claimed by each.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. Dry Cough and Tickling.—l. "Raspberry Tincture. Take one-half pound of honey, one cup water; let these boil; take off scum; pour boiling hot upon one-half ounce lobelia herb and one-half ounce cloves; mix well, then strain and add one gill of raspberry vinegar. Take from one teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful four times a day. Pleasant to take,"
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 35]
2. Cough, Honey and Vinegar for.—"Honey and vinegar." This is an old and tried remedy and a good one. The vinegar cuts the phlegm in the throat and bronchial tubes, and the honey is very soothing.
3. Cough of Long Standing, Excellent Syrup for.—
"Carbonate Ammonia 40 grains Syrup Senega 6 drams Paregoric 4 drams Syrup Wild Cherry 6 drams Syrup Tolu 4 ounces"
This is a very good syrup, and is especially good for chronic cough or chronic bronchitis. Dose.—One teaspoonful every three hours.
4. Cough, Reliable Mixture in Severe Cases.—
"Oil of Anise 1/2 ounce Syrup of Balsam of Tolu 1/2 ounce Black Stick Licorice 1/2 ounce Best Rye Whisky 1 pint
Shake well before using. Dose:—One teaspoonful at intervals of one hour or oftener; if cough is very bad."
5. Cough, Mullein Leaf Tea for—"Mullein leaves steeped with loaf sugar cures a cough." Take four ounces of mullein leaves and boil for ten minutes in water: then add the loaf sugar. This is very soothing to the sore parts and also helps to loosen up the secretion so it can be raised easily.
6. Cough, Lemon Juice and Sugar for.—"Lemon juice and sugar is a good remedy for coughs." It is surprising to see how quickly the lemon juice will cut the phlegm in throat, and sugar is always good for cold.
7. Cough, Standard Remedy for.—
"Hoarhound Five cents worth Hops Five cents worth Wild cherry bark Five cents worth Licorice root Five cents worth
Boil or simmer altogether in two quarts of water long enough to get the strength out of the ingredients; strain, add three cups sugar. Add enough good whiskey to keep from souring, say one-half pint. This will cure a stubborn cough."
8. Cough, Ipecac Syrup for.—"One-third teaspoonful of ipecac dissolved in one teaspoonful of water; one tablespoonful of sugar; pour on one teacupful of boiling water and let it boil down to half cup. Dose.—One teaspoonful for adults, and children in proportion, every two hours, or, if needed to vomit children give again in ten or fifteen minutes."
[36 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
9. Cough Remedy for Adults (not for children).—
"Laudanum Three cents worth Anise Three cents worth Essence of Peppermint Three cents worth Licorice (liquid) Three cents worth Brown Sugar 1 cup Molasses 1 cup Boiling water 2 cups
Let this come to a little more than a boil. Take a teaspoonful of it as often as necessary." This is for adults. Do not use for children.
10. Coughs, Very Simple Remedy for.—"Take one-half tablespoonful hogs' lard or salt pork grease, heat it hot, fill spoon with coal oil and swallow while hot. Have used this, will stop and cure the worst cough." Not to be given to children.
11. Coughs, Glycerin, Brandy and Paregoric with Lemon, Good for.—"Glycerin, one ounce; brandy, one ounce; paregoric, one ounce; lemon juice, one ounce. Mix well; one teaspoonful every hour." This makes a very effective cough syrup. The glycerin and brandy cut the phlegm, and the paregoric is soothing and quieting. The lemon juice is healing to the membranes of the throat.
PHYSICIANS'TREATMENT. For Coughs.—
1. Flaxseed (unground) 3 teaspoonfuls Extract of Licorice 30 grains Boiling water 10 ounces
"Allow the mixture to stand one to four hours in a warm place. Then add a little lemon juice and sugar and place one to two teaspoonfuls of gum arabic in the pitcher containing the mixture." A little paregoric (ten drops to the dose for adults) can be taken with it if the cough is very bad. Dose.—Drink freely every two to three hours.
2. A good combination is the following:
Chloride of Ammonia 2 drams Fluid Extract of Licorice 2 drams Distilled water 20 ounces
Mix. Teaspoonful every two hours or longer.
3. Ammonium Carbonate 1/2 dram Syrup Senega 4 drams Wine of Ipecac 3 drams Syrup Totu 1 ounce Spirits of Chloroform 3 drams Syrup of Wild Cherry enough to make 4 ounces
Mix. Take one to two teaspoonfuls every hour or two until better.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 37]
4. Ammonia Chloride 2 drams Hive Syrup 5 drams Paregoric 6 drams Syrup of Wild Cherry 4 ounces
Mix. Teaspoonful every three hours until cough is better.
5. Many other combinations could be given. Hoarhound tea. Sugar enough to sweeten makes a good cough remedy.
6. Onion syrup is good for children. The bowels should always be kept open.
BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. (Spasmodic Asthma.) Causes.—It occurs in all ages, but usually begins in the young, particularly males. It often follows whooping-cough. It may come from diseases of the mouth such as adenoids, polypi. Exciting causes are change of climate and residence, dust, smoke, odors, errors in diet, emotion, and cold.
Symptoms.—The onset is often sudden, often during the night. Difficulty of breathing is intense. The patient cannot lie down, but often sits at an open window, resting the elbows on a table. The face is pale and the expression is anxious. There is a feeling of great oppression in the chest and often dread of suffocation. Respiration (breathing) though labored, is not unusually frequent, as expiration (out breathing) is much prolonged. In severe or prolonged attacks there are blueness, sweating, coldness of the extremities, with small and frequent pulse and great drowsiness. The attack lasts a few minutes to many hours, and may pass off suddenly, perhaps to recur soon, or on several successive nights, with slight cough and difficulty in breathing in the intervals. The cough is nearly dry at first and the sputum is very tenacious.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Asthma, Raspberry Tincture for Adults.—"Take a half pound of honey, one cup water; let these boil, take off the scum; pour boiling hot upon one-half ounce lobelia herb and one-half ounce cloves; mix well, then strain and add one gill of raspberry vinegar. Take from one teaspoonful to a dessertspoonful four times a day. Pleasant to take." The above remedy is very effective, as the honey has a soothing effect upon the inflamed parts, and the lobelia causes the bronchial tubes to dilate, relieving the patient. The raspberry tincture makes it more pleasant to take. In severe cases it will be necessary to give enough of the above remedy to cause vomiting which relieves the phlegm.
2. Asthma, Simple but Effective Remedy for.—"Take pieces of ordinary blotting paper and saturate it with a strong solution of saltpetre, then dry the paper. When a paroxysm is felt ignite a piece of the paper and inhale the smoke. This remedy is very good and acts quickly, doing away almost entirely with the distressing symptoms and shortens the paroxysm."
[38 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
3. Asthma, Lobelia Tea for.—"There is no medicine that is half so effective as lobelia in removing the tough, hard ropy phlegm from the asthmatic persons." This remedy is very good, but care should be taken not to give it to consumptives, because it is too weakening. To obtain the best results, enough of the remedy should be given to produce relaxation of the bronchial tubes. Dose.—For adults should be from fifteen to sixty drops according to the strength of the patient. This will cause a little sickness of the stomach and vomiting, thus relaxing the muscles and relieving the asthma.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Asthma.—1. Inhale chloroform, or break a pearl of amyl nitrite in a handkerchief and inhale the fumes; or smoke saltpetre paper; or cigarettes containing stramonium (thornapple). Sometimes hot coffee fumes are good.
To Prevent Recurrence.—Take five to twenty grains of iodide of potash three times a day. Do not eat much at night. Do not eat foods that cause gas or that are hard to digest. A change of climate is often good. Hot foot baths and hot drinks are helpful. Tincture of lobelia can be given in severe cases, fifteen drops repeated every half hour until the patient feels sick at the stomach.
2. Vapo-Cresolene burned in a room is very good. This can be bought in twenty-five cent bottles in any drug store, with directions around the bottle.
3. Tartar Emetic in one-hundredth grain, two given every half hour until there is a little sickening is a very good remedy. These can be bought at a drug store or from a homeopathic doctor or pharmacist.
BLEEDING FROM THE WIND-PIPE AND LUNGS. (Haemoptysis).—This is a spitting of blood. It may come from the small bronchial tubes and less frequently from the blood vessels in the lung cavities or their walls.
Symptoms.—In incipient consumption of the lungs, bleeding develops suddenly as a rule, a warm salty taste, lasting but a few moments, generally preceded by the spitting up of blood. The blood is coughed up and the bleeding may last only a few minutes or it may continue for days, the sputum being apt to remain blood-stained for a longer time. The immediate effect of the bleeding is to alarm the patient and family, no matter how slight it may be, inducing heart palpitation and other nervous symptoms. A small bleeding is not attended with any bad result, but large ones give rise to the symptoms of shock (sometimes immediate death) combined with anemia following the loss of blood. When the bleeding is large, blood by the mouthful may be ejected with each cough, and in these instances of such profuse bleeding is shown by dizziness, faintness, cold extremities, excessive pallor, sweating and rapid, small feeble pulse. This is followed, if the attack does not prove speedily fatal, by restlessness, and later by mild delirium and some fever. In few cases does the patient have a single bleeding; more frequently there are several at shorter or longer intervals. Large or small bleedings may precede by weeks, months, or even years any rational symptoms of consumption.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 39]
Quantity.—This varies greatly. There may be less than an ounce or it might amount to a pint or more before the bleeding stops. In advanced cases, in which large cavities have formed, large blood vessels may be eaten through and this followed by copious and alarming bleeding.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES.—1. Bleeding from the Lungs. Salt Water for.—"Give the patient half a teaspoonful of common salt every hour or two until hemorrhage abates."
2. Bleeding from the Lungs. Herb Tea for.—"Two ounces each of bistory root, tormentil root, oak bark, and comfrey root, boil in three quarts of water down to one pint, strain and add one tablespoonful of ground ginger. Give a wine glass full every half hour until relieved. Place the feet in hot mustard water, keep the bowels open with a little senna and ginger tea and if necessary give a vapor bath,"
3. Bleeding from the Lungs, Effective Remedy for.—
"Powdered Sugar 3 ounces Powdered Rosin 3 ounces
Mix. Dose one teaspoonful three times a day."
4. Bleeding from the Lungs, Tannin and Sugar for.-
"Tannin 30 grains Powdered Sugar 1 dram
Mix. Make ten powders and give one every ten minutes until relieved."
Either one of the above remedies is excellent for this trouble, as the tannin and rosin contract the arteries and acts as an astringent.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Bleeding of the Wind-pipe and Lungs.—In many cases the bleeding is slight and no more need be done than to keep the patient quiet and absolute rest. If the bleeding is free, the patient should be placed in bed, not allowed to speak above a whisper nor to change his position.
1. First Thing to Do.—Eating ice, and using ice drinks are useful measures. The drinking of a little salt water at a time with one tablespoonful of salt in a glassful of water is good. In most cases more can be done by assuring the patient he will not die and keeping him quiet and at rest. Medicines should be given to satisfy the patient and family. The most cases stop of themselves.
2. If Caused by Coughing.—If cough causes the bleeding one-half grain of opium should be given to control it, hypodermically, or even morphine one-eighth grain.
3. Alum for.—Alum solution six grains to three ounces of water in fine spray is good. This goes right to the wind-pipe and contracts the vessels; use a vaporizer.
4. White Oak Bark Tea can be used as a spray in a vaporizer. If these produce coughing, they should be discontinued.
[40 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
5. Hot Water and Salt for.—A teaspoonful of salt in a pint of hot water is good also, used as a spray, or to inhale. But the patient must lie down.
6. Other Easily Obtained Remedies.—Ergot in dose of one-half to one teaspoonful is very good; this contracts the vessels. Bromide of potash in a dose of five to fifteen grains; or chloral hydrate in dose of five to seven grains, if there is not heart trouble. If there is, chloral hydrate cannot be used. These quiet the nervous system and do much good. Strong hop tea will do the same thing if taken freely. Witch-hazel water thirty drops at a dose is good.
Cautions.—Quiet the patient; keep quiet yourself. If the bleeding is bad the extremities should be bandaged, beginning at the toes and fingers.
Thirst.—Give small quantities at a time of ice-water.
Diet.—Peptonized or plain milk, liquid beef peptonoids, fresh beef juice, bouillon, should be given in small quantities, two or three ounces every two or three hours. If there is a tendency to constipation give rectal enemata. Return to the regular diet as soon as possible. Alcohol in any form is best avoided. If given as a stimulant it should be given in small quantities.
BRONCHO-PNEUMONIA. (Acute Inflammation of the Smaller Tubes and Lungs).—
Causes.—Most common under two years and in old people. Taking cold, whooping cough and measles.
Symptoms.—A primary case begins suddenly with a convulsion or chill, vomiting and rapid rise of temperature. Breathing is frequent and brain symptoms are marked.
Secondary Cases.—After an ordinary case of whooping-cough, measles, bronchitis, etc., there is more fever. The pulse is more frequent, and also the respiration, difficulty in breathing and severe and often painful cough. Temperature rises to 102 to 104; respirations are very fast, up to 60 to 80; the breathing (inspiration) is hard, labored, while the wings of the nose dilate; expiration may be grunting. Face looks anxious and bluish. This color may increase, other symptoms decreasing as suffocation deepens, rattling in chest and death from heart weakness.
Prevention.—Avoid exposure to sudden changes of temperature. For the attack, jacket of oil silk or flannel to prevent sudden exposure, keep the temperature warmed up to 68 to 70 degrees night and day; the air must be fresh and pure and changed regularly.
[RESPIRATORY DISEASES 41]
Children should be given ample room and not hampered by extra clothing, as they like change of position, to get relief. The hot bath must be used often to redden the skin and relieve the pressure on the lungs, till they can be given relief. If you wish to use a poultice the following is a nice way to make it. Take a piece of muslin or linen, or cheese-cloth, wide enough when doubled to reach from the lower margin of the ribs to well up under the arm pits, and long enough to go a little more than around the chest, open the double fold and spread the hot mass of poultice on one-half of the cloth and fold the other over it. It should be applied as hot as it can be comfortably borne and covered with oil silk or paraffin paper, so as to the longer retain the heat and moisture. The poultice should be renewed as often as it gets cold, and a fresh poultice should be all ready to put on when the old one is taken off. Place the end of the poultice uppermost, so that the contents will not fall out.
MOTHERS' REMEDIES. 1. Pneumonia, Herb Tea and Poultice for.—"Congestion of the lungs. One ounce of each of the following, slippery elm bark, crushed thyme, coltsfoot flowers, hyssop or marshmallow. Simmer in two quarts of water down to three pints; strain and add one teaspoonful of cayenne. Dose:—Wineglassful every half hour. Apply hot bran poultices or chamomile scalded in vinegar, changing often until the violence of the symptoms abate. If the bowels are confined, give an injection of half pint of hot water in which one-half teaspoonful each of gum myrrh, turkey rhubarb and ginger powder have been well mixed. If possible give vapor bath. Apply hot stones or bottles to the feet."
2. Pneumonia, Home Remedy for.—"This can easily be relieved by the use of cayenne and vapor bath. This promotes the circulation in every part of the body, diminishing the pressure upon the lungs. These baths produce a regular circulation throughout the whole body, thus relieving the pressure upon the lungs by decreasing the amount of blood in the lungs. These baths should be taken but once a day, as they are weakening."
3. Pneumonia, Hot Vinegar Applications for.—Congestion of Lungs.—"Over the lungs lay cloths wet in clear hot vinegar. They should be five or six inches square and several thicknesses. Over the cloths lay a hot plate or hot water bottle; change as often as necessary to keep them hot. This treatment will soon give relief, after which rub as much oil into the lungs as possible."
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Pneumonia.—A doctor must be called. For high fever, one to one and a half drops of aconite, for adults every hour; for children, about one-twelfth to one-eighth of a drop. For cough, chloride of ammonium, one to two grain doses. For pain, hot applications.
Diet.—Milk, broth and egg albumen and plenty of water to drink. (See laryngitis for diet.)
ACUTE PLEURISY (Inflammation of the Pleura).—The pleura covers the wall of the chest cavity and infolds or surrounds the lungs. Pleurisy means the inflammation of this pleura or covering.
[42 MOTHERS' REMEDIES]
Causes.—Exposure to cold, etc. Onset may be gradual or sudden, with chills fever and sharp stitches in the side near the arm pit or breast. The patient lies on the affected side during the attack, the pain is made worse by breathing, coughing or motion. The cough is dry and painful, with difficult breathing. The temperature 102 to 103. Sometimes there is fluid accumulated in the cavity. In about seven to ten days the fever and other symptoms disappear. The fluid is absorbed quickly if it is scanty, often very slowly if abundant. This fluid is contained in the cavity of the pleura. The pleura covers the lungs. Its outer layer is attached to the ribs and costal cartilages in front and ribs behind, goes around the foot of the lungs underneath, then turns around under the side of the lungs and comes in front, making a sac. The two layers in health touch each other, but are separated when there is fluid in the cavity. The inner layer covers the lungs and drops into the grooves of the lungs. You can thus readily understand how easy it is for the pleura to be attacked. Also when the lung is inflamed we have what we call pleura-pneumonia. Pleurisy is a very painful disease. It hurts to move, breathe, or cough. The patient holds his chest when he coughs. The fluid that forms is poured out from the inflamed membrane, sometimes it is so great in quantity it must be drawn off,—tapped; we then call this hydrothorax,—water in the chest.
Diet and Nursing—The patient should be kept quiet and in the easiest position.
Milk diet is the best to use. There should not be much liquid diet, except milk. The milk may be diluted with lime water if necessary. Malted milk, Mellin's food, imperial granum, can be used when the milk cannot be taken.
PHYSICIANS' TREATMENT for Pleurisy.—1. Home Remedy.—The patient must go to bed and remain there. It is a good thing to get the patient in a sweat. For this purpose you can use the corn sweat described under treatment of la grippe. This will ease the patient and may shorten the attack.
I have great faith in this remedy in most inflammatory diseases. I had a patient sick with pleurisy; she did not get along fast enough to suit me, her color was a yellow-green. I advised the corn sweat and she improved fast from that time. Her night dress was green in color after the sweat. I have saved pneumonia cases in the same way. Of course, some cases may be too weak to stand it.