Near the Mexican Border
Location on the San Pedro River
Much historical value attaches to the settlement of the Saints upon the San Pedro River, even though prosperity there has not yet come in as large a degree as has been known elsewhere within the State. It is not improbable that within the next few years an advance in material riches will be known in large degree, through water storage, saving both water and the cutting away of lands through flood, and that permanent diversion works will save the heart-breaking tasks of frequent rebuilding of the temporary dams heretofore washed out in almost every freshet.
Elsewhere has been told the story of the Daniel W. Jones party that settled at Lehi and of the dissension that followed objections on the part of the majority to the rulings of the stout old elder, whose mind especially dwelt upon the welfare of red-skinned brethren.
There had been general authorization to the Jones-Merrill expedition to go as far southward as it wished. Under this, though not till there had been consultation with the Church Presidency, the greater number of the Lehi settlers left Salt River early in August, 1877. There was expectation that they were to settle on the headwaters of the Gila or on the San Pedro. There must have been a deal of faith within the company, for the departure from camp was with provisions only enough to last two days and there was appreciation that much wild country would need to be passed. But there was loan of the wages of A.O. Williams, a member of the party who had been employed by C.T. Hayden at Tempe, and with this money added provisions were secured.
Necessarily, the journey was indirect. At Tucson employment was offered for men and teams by Thomas Gardner, who owned a sawmill in the Santa Rita Mountains. Much of the money thus earned was saved, for the party lived under the rules of the United Order, and very economically. So, in the fall, with the large joint capital of $400 in cash, added to teams and wagons and to industry and health, there was fresh start, from the Santa Ritas, for the San Pedro, 45 miles distant. The river was reached November 29, 1877.
These first settlers comprised Philemon C., Dudley T., Thomas, Seth and Orrin D. Merrill, George E. Steele, Joseph McRae and A.O. Williams. All but Williams and O.D. Merrill had families.
Ground was broken at a point on the west side of the river, on land that had been visited and located October 14, by P.C. Merrill on an exploring trip. The first camp was about a half mile south of the present St. David and soon was given permanency by the erection of a small stone fort of eight rooms. That winter, for the common interest, was planting of 75 acres of wheat and barley, irrigated from springs and realizing very well.
Malaria Overcomes a Community
As was usual in early settlement of Arizona valleys, malarial fever appeared very soon. At one time, in the fall of 1878, nearly all the settlers were prostrated with the malady, probably carried by mosquitoes from stagnant water. That year also it was soberly told that fever and ague even spread to the domestic animals. At times, the sick had to wait on the sick and there was none to greet Apostle Erastus Snow when he made visitation October 6, 1878. His first address was to an assembly of 38 individuals, of whom many had been carried to the meeting on their beds. It is chronicled by Elder McRae that, "notwithstanding these conditions, the Apostle blessed the place, prophesying that the day would come when the San Pedro Valley would be settled from one end to the other with Saints and that we had experienced the worst of our sickness. When he left, all felt better in body and in spirit." It was a decidedly hot season. "Vegetation grew so rank that a horseman mounted on a tall horse could hardly be seen at a distance of a quarter of a mile. Hay could be cut a stone's throw from our door."
The first death was on October 2, 1878, of the same A.O. Williams whose money had brought the people to the new land.
Possibly the settlement needed the mental and spiritual encouragement of Apostle Snow, for more than a year had passed of hardships and of labor, and, including the Lehi experience, there had been no recompense, unless it might have been in the way of mental and moral discipline.
The early malaria of the Arizona valleys nearly all has disappeared, with the draining of swampy places, the eradication of beaver dams and mosquitoes and the knowledge of better living conditions. Elsewhere has been told of the abandonment of Obed and other early Little Colorado settlements, because of chills and fever. Something of the same sort was known on the upper Gila, from 1882 to 1890, around Pima, Curtis and Bryce. In this same upper Gila Valley, Fort Goodwin had to be abandoned on account of malarial conditions. The same is true of old Fort Grant, across the divide, on the lower San Pedro. The upper Verde, the Santa Cruz and nearly all similar valleys knew malaria at the time of settlement.
According to Merrill, on March 26, 1879, the sick and sorry settlers went into the Huachuca Mountains to summer, but, "the wind blew so much that we moved back to the river, near where Hereford now is, rented some land and put in some crops." This location is just about where the members of the Mormon Battalion, in 1846, had their memorable fight with the wild bulls. A Merrill report, rendered March 16, 1881, was far from hopeful and asked that the writer be relieved of his responsibilities.
On the Route of the Mormon Battalion
This office has been unable to find any reference connecting Merrill's later experiences in the San Pedro Valley with the time when he was an officer of the Mormon Battalion, though it can be imagined that his later associates had the benefit of many reminiscences of that period of the march just prior to the taking of Tucson.
The San Pedro Valley is a historic locality. Down it passed Friar Marco de Niza, in 1539, and the Coronado expedition of the following year. The waters of the stream were a joyous sight to the Mormon Battalion, when it passed that way during the Mexican War. The country then had been occupied to some extent by Spaniards or Mexicans, who had established large ranches, with many cattle, from which they had been driven by the Apaches, years before the Battalion came. The country once had been the ranging ground of the friendly Sobaipuri Indians, but they too had been driven away by the hillmen and had established a village on the Santa Cruz, near their kinsmen, the Papago, almost on the site where Tucson was founded as a Spanish presidio in 1776.
The river, when the Merrill party came, was found usually in a deep gully, in places twenty feet below the surface of the silty ground. Naturally, difficulty has attended the attempts to dam the stream.
Chronicles of a Quiet Neighborhood
St. David was named by Alexander F. Macdonald in honor of David W. Patten, a martyr of the Church, who died at the hands of the same mob that killed Joseph Smith. Its first mail was received at Tres Alamos, sixteen miles down the river. A postoffice was established in 1882, Joseph McRae in charge. When the Southern Pacific came through, Benson was established, nine miles to the northward. Tombstone lies sixteen miles to the southeast.
In May, 1880, the present St. David townsite was laid out. John Smith Merrill built the first house. The following year an adobe schoolhouse was built, this used for public gatherings until shaken down by an earthquake, May 3, 1887, happily while the children were at recess. Much damage was done in the town.
The settlement had little or no trouble with Indians, though for nine years Apache bands scouted and murdered in the nearby mountains and committed depredations within the San Pedro Valley, both to the northward and southward.
Early in 1879 John Campbell, a new member, from Texas, built a sawmill, in the Huachuca Mountains, that furnished a diversity of industry, from it much lumber being shipped to Tombstone.
Macdonald was a southern extension of the St. David community on the San Pedro, established in 1882 by Henry J. Horne, Jonathan Hoopes and others, and named in honor of Alexander F. Macdonald, then president of the Maricopa Stake. It was of slow growth, owing to claims upon the lands as constituting a part of the San Juan de las Boquillas y Nogales grant, later rejected. In 1913, nine miles west of St. David, was established the community of Miramonte.
Looking Toward Homes in Mexico
While the Saints were establishing themselves upon the San Pedro and Gila, the Church authorities by no means had lost sight of the primary object of the southern migration. January 4, 1883, Apostle Moses Thatcher, with Elders D. P. Kimball, Teeples, Fuller, Curtis, Trejo and Martineau, left St. David for an exploring trip into Mexico.
September 13, 1884, another party left St. David to explore the country lying south of the line, along the Babispe River, returning October 7, by way of the San Bernardino ranch, though without finding any locations considered favorable.
In November, 1884, Apostles Brigham Young, Jr., and Heber J. Grant, with a company from St. Joseph Stake, with thirty wagons, went into Sonora, where they were given a hearty welcome by the Yaqui Indians, who expressed hope of a settlement among them.
St. David was the scene of one of the most notable councils of the Church, held in January, 1885, and presided over by none other than President John Taylor, who left Salt Lake City, January 3, and whose party at St. David included also Apostles Joseph F. Smith, Erastus Snow, Brigham Young, Jr., Moses Thatcher and Francis M. Lyman, with other dignitaries of the Church. At St. David were met Jesse N. Smith, Christopher Layton, Alex. F. Macdonald and Lot Smith, presidents of the four Stakes of Arizona. The discussion at this conference appeared to have been mainly upon the Church prosecution, then in full sway, a matter not included within the purview of this work. There was determination to extend the Church settlements farther to the southward. According to Orson F. Whitney:
"In order to provide a place of refuge for such as were being hunted and hounded, President Taylor sent parties into Mexico to arrange for the purchase of land in that country, upon which the fugitive Saints might settle. One of the first sites selected for this purpose was just across the line in the State of Sonora. Elder Christopher Layton made choice of this locality. Other lands were secured in the State of Chihuahua. President Taylor and his party called upon Governor Torres at Hermosillo, the capital of Sonora, and were received by that official with marked courtesy."
Historian Whitney states that the Taylor party then went westward by way of the Salt River Valley settlements to the Pacific Coast. And this office has a record to the effect that, in January, President Taylor visited also the settlements of the Little Colorado section and counseled concerning the disposition of several of the early towns of that locality.
Of Arizona interest is the fact that for two and a half years thereafter, the President of the Mormon Church was in exile, till the date of his death, July 25, 1887, in Kaysville, Utah. Much of the intervening time was spent in Arizona and a part of it in Mexico, in the settlements that had been established as places of refuge. His declining months, however, were spent in Utah, even entire communities guarding well the secret of the presence of their spiritual head.
Arizona's First Artesian Well
Possibly the first artesian well known in Arizona was developed in the St. David settlement. In 1885 a bounty of $1500 was offered for the development of artesian water. The reward was claimed by the McRae brothers, who developed a flow of about thirty gallons a minute, but who failed to receive any reward. Five years ago, J.S. Merrill of St. David reported that within the San Pedro Valley were about 200 flowing wells, furnishing from five to 150 gallons a minute. The deepest valley well was about 600 feet. At that time about 2000 acres were irrigated by the St. David canal and by the wells, sustaining a population of about 600 souls.
Development of a Market at Tombstone
It happened on the San Pedro, just as in many other places, that the Mormons were just a little ahead of some great development. September 3, 1877, at Tucson, Ed. Schieffelin recorded the first of his mining claims in Tombstone District, which then lay in Pima County.
Schieffelin's first discovery was several miles from the later site of Tombstone and about four miles from the San Pedro. Later, with Dick Gird and Al Schieffelin, the original discoverer located the lower group of mines in the camp of Tombstone, then established. A number of other settlements sprang up, including the nearby Richmond, Watervale and the mill towns of Charleston and Contention City, both on the San Pedro, where water could be secured.
Several miles west of Tombstone, just where Ed Schieffelin camped at the time of the discovery of his Tombstone claim, is a large monument of cemented rock, under which lie his remains, brought back from the Northwest for interment in the land he loved. His death was on May 12, 1897.
The Tombstone Gold & Silver Milling & Mining Company, of which former Gov. A.P.K. Safford was president, in 1880 owned the original group of Schieffelin claims, of which the Tough Nut was the main property. A stamp mill was built on the San Pedro and a contract entered into with the Mormons to build a dam and ditch, from which it was hoped to secure motive power. Concerning this job, estimated to cost $6000, Merrill later wrote that the contractors found themselves fined $300 for six days' overtime on completion of the job. Joseph McRae's record tells that, in 1879, some of the brethren went up the river, twenty miles above St. David, and put in a rip-rap dam and a mile and a half of ditch at Charleston for the Boston Mining Company. This may have been the Boston & Arizona Smelting & Reduction Company, a Massachusetts corporation which had a twenty-stamp mill and a roasting furnace on the San Pedro, between Charleston and Contention, ten miles from Tombstone. This job returned $6000 in cash.
The mines brought a relative degree of prosperity to the San Pedro settlement, furnishing a ready and profitable market for agricultural products, but especially calling upon all transportation facilities that could be afforded. Teams were busy hauling from the terminus of the railroad at Tucson and at Benson, until, in October, 1882, there was completion of the New Mexico and Arizona railroad, then a Santa Fe corporation, from Benson to Nogales, much of the way through the San Pedro Valley, past St. David and the milling towns. The mines paid $30 a cord for fuel wood and even $40 a ton for hay.
Lean days descended upon the community, however, in the early summer of 1886, when the great pumps of the Grand Central mine were stopped by fire. The following year Tombstone practically was abandoned and the market it had afforded was lost. Not till 1901 did the camp revive. It closed again in June, 1903, by the drowning of the pumps. Latterly the old mines, consolidated, have been worked to some extent by the Phelps-Dodge Corporation, but again have been closed, early in April, 1921.
On the Upper Gila
Ancient Dwellers and Military Travelers
Possibly as representative a region as is known in the settlement area of the Mormon people lies for about 25 miles along the Gila River in eastern Arizona, in Graham County, and within St. Joseph Stake. Over a dozen communities are contained within this section and all are distinctly Mormon in settlement and local operation, save Solomonville, at the upper end, and Safford, the county seat and principal town. Most of the land is owned by the Saints, who control, as well, a dozen small canals. Within the Stake have been included Mormon settlements of the San Pedro Valley and those upon the upper Gila, in Greenlee County, extending over into New Mexico and El Paso.
The settlement of the Graham County section of the Gila Valley did not start with the Mormons. Far from it. In the upper end of the cultivated region is one of the most notable groups of ruins in the Southwest. This group, since the coming of the Spaniard, appears to have borne the name of Pueblo Viejo (Sp., "Old Town"). Somewhere farther down the stream is assumed to have been "Chichilticalli," the "red house" mentioned in the chronicles of Marco de Niza and the Coronado expedition.
The valley was traversed, from east to west, by Gen. S.W. Kearny, on his way, with a dragoon escort, in 1846, to take California from the Mexicans, this command, from the Pima villages westward, forming the advance guard for the Mormon Battalion. Much interesting data of the Gila Valley trip was written by Lieutenant Emory, who later was chief of the Boundary Survey. It is notable that in 1846 Mount Graham already was known by that name.
Early Days Around Safford
A few Mexicans were in the valley as early as 1871, farming in the vicinity of Pueblo Viejo, immediately below which later arose the town of Solomonville. In 1872 was the first Anglo-Saxon settlement, a group of farmers coming from Gila Bend, upon the Gila River, where they had attempted farming and had failed because the wandering river had washed away their dams and headgates. These farmers, financed in Tucson for the building of the Montezuma canal, settled in the vicinity of Safford, where about that time, was established a townsite, named in honor of Gov. A.P.K. Safford who, from Tucson, then was making a tour of that part of Arizona Territory.
One of the very earliest valley residents was D.W. Wickersham, who wrote the Author lately, covering his early experiences. To later serve as the first teacher, he arrived in Safford the summer of 1876, there finding Joshua E. Bailey and Hiram Kennedy, who had come from Gila Bend. Bailey he considers the founder of Safford and believes it was he who named the settlement. Both Bailey and Kennedy came with California troops during the Civil War. The former died in Michigan and Kennedy was murdered in Safford in 1877. Others of the early settlers were Wm. A. Gillespie, John Glasby, John Conley, A.F. Perigo, Edw. E. Tuttle and E.T. Ijams.
In 1876 appeared Isador E. Solomon, who for many years occupied a leading position. He came primarily to burn charcoal for the rude adobe furnaces that had been erected by the Lesynzskys to smelt the free ores of the famous Longfellow mine in Chase Creek Canyon, a few miles above Clifton. For charcoal Solomon found abundant material in an almost unbroken mesquite forest that stretched for many miles along the river. Solomon purchased a road house and small store that had been established near Pueblo Viejo by one Munson, and the place soon became a trading post for a large extent of country, its importance increasing with the development of the great mining region around Globe. I.E. Solomon still is living, an honored resident of Tucson, his children prominent in the business affairs of the State. Solomonville was so named, in 1878, by none other than Bill Kirkland, who raised the American flag in Tucson in 1856 and who, for a while, carried mail from Fort Thomas to Clifton.
Apostle Erastus Snow appears to have been the first of the Mormon faith to cross this Gila Valley region. His party arrived on the San Pedro River, October 6, 1878. The most easterly point reached in the Gila Valley was at old Camp Goodwin, not far from the present railroad station of Fort Thomas and at the extreme western or lower end of the present farmed area. It would require a separate volume to follow Apostle Erastus Snow on his journeyings through the Southwest, where he appears to have served as a veritable inspector-general for his Church.
On the 1878 trip, L. John Nuttall of Snow's company, writes of passing into the Gila Valley through a rocky canyon, "a terrible place, almost impassable, the dread of all who travel this way." The same road is very little better to this day.
At one point was passed a ridge known as Postoffice Hill, where was found the grave of a white man, killed several years before by Apaches. Every time an Apache passed, he put a rock on the grave mound, at that time about twenty feet square at the base and four feet high. The travelers added another rock, on the principle of, "When in Rome, do as the Romans do."
Mormon Location at Smithville
The Mormon settlement of the Gila Valley was one of the few made without particular and direct instruction from the general Church authorities. It was caused, primarily, by trouble over the land tenure at Forest Dale, in the mountains to the northward, where settlers, at first permitted, even encouraged by the reservation authorities, finally were advised that they were on Indian land and would have to move. The first question before the colonists immediately became where they should find a new abiding place. All of them had come from the northward, seeking a better location than afforded along the Little Colorado River or in the mountain settlements. So there was determination to see what could be found in the way of farming land on the Gila, to the southward.
In February, 1879, an expedition started over the hills to view the valley of the Gila. It included W.R. Teeples, John Wm. Tanner, Ben Pierce and Hyrum Weech. The last-named told that the party looked over the country and finally selected a location for a town. He wrote, "We traveled from one end of the valley to the other on both sides of the river, looking for the best place to take out a ditch, because we had very little means and could not go to large expense. This (near the location of Smithville, later known as Pima) seemed to be about the easiest place on the river to take out water, so we decided on making the location here."
The Smithville ditch was on the basis of prior location by Gillespie and was extended to cover the Mormon land in 1880. Somewhat higher was the Central ditch, which had been built several years before as far down as the later site of Thatcher and which was extended above Pima in 1882.
Somewhat of a Samaritan was found on the ground in one Markham, from Oregon, from whom were hired a team and wagon and who refused to take any pay. With a pocket compass, Smithville was laid out. The settlement could not be scattered, because Indians and outlaws threatened. Foundations were laid on sixteen corners, each under the name of one of the families expected to come from the north.
The pioneer party then made close investigation of the valley, traveling up the Gila into New Mexico, and viewed the country around Clifton and along the Blue and Black Rivers. The whole trip took about a month.
The report was, "that the country looked good for stock raising and farming." On March 16, at Moses Cluff's camp, the proposed migration was approved by Stake President Jesse N. Smith, who appointed Jos. K. Rogers to lead it. In the first company were Rogers, Teeples, Weech, Henry D. Dall, William Thompson and the families of all except Weech and Dall. To these were added John and Thomas Sessions and Earlton Haws, making 28 in all. Arrival was on April 8, 1879. The Cluffs (three families) came very soon after the first party. In a later migration came Samuel Curtis, Heber Reed, Edgar Sessions and William Asay.
E.G. Curtis, one of the earliest of the settlers, told that in passing Fort Thomas in March, "the country is found entirely covered with poppies, one of the most beautiful sights I ever expect to see. The grass was high and when the wind would blow it down in great waves, you could see great bunches of antelope."
A Second Party Locates at Graham
In the Church history of Graham Ward is found additional data concerning the early Gila Valley settlement. It is told that, "the settlers of Brigham City on the Little Colorado, getting discouraged because of frequent failures of crops and poor prospects, sent explorers out to look for new locations. Two went to the San Juan country in Utah, two to the Salt River Valley and three, George Lake, Andrew Anderson and George Skinner, to the Gila River." The journey was via Fort Apache, the arrival at Smithville being in the latter part of November, 1880. At the Graham settlement there was purchase of a water ditch and a quit-claim deed to four quarter-sections of land that had been farmed by non-Mormons. The record recites, "it was merely a rustlers' ranch, possessed by horsethieves and speculators who had a small house on it, for which the brethren paid about $1800, in cows valued at $35 per head."
Lake remained in the valley. Anderson and Skinner returned in December to Brigham City, where the authorities of the United Order accepted the purchase. Anderson and Skinner started again for the Gila, accompanied by their families, by Moses M. Curtis and William Hawkins and their families and a number of unmarried men, taking with them seed grain, farming implements, cows, sheep and other animals. Transportation was by ox teams. Christmas Day was spent at St. Joseph on the Little Colorado and New Year at Showlow, arrival on the Gila being in January. Lake, in the meantime, had been joined by Jorgen Jorgensen and Jerome J. Adams, the two who had been sent to the Salt River Valley.
The new arrivals at once set at work, clearing their lands and putting in grain, raising good crops. The manual labor, of the hardest sort, was performed under the conditions of the United Order and on a diet principally of bread and beans. The sheep band was turned over to the Church, as profits of the Order, and the wheat and other products were divided according to the number of families and the number of persons. A stockade fort was built, but the homes for months consisted of sheds or tents and even of the wagons. In 1884, on the newly-surveyed townsite of Graham, was built a meeting house, called the "factory house," with mesquite posts and dirt roof and with walls only of heavy unbleached muslin, which appears to have been called "factory."
One of the early settlements of the Gila Valley is Matthews (successively Matthewsville, Fairview and Glenbar), founded in December, 1880, by Joseph Matthews and family, from Round Valley, and Wm. R. Waddill. In 1881 they built a stockade and though no local Indian depredations were known, in that year the Matthews settlers moved to Pima for better protection. A townsite was selected by the Stake President September 17, 1886, but was not occupied. A resident of note was the first district school teacher, John F. Nash, who came with his father to Arizona in 1874, first settling in Williamson Valley near Prescott. He arrived in the valley in 1881, the progress of the family toward Texas stopped on the Gila by the stealing of a band of Nash horses by "rustlers."
Vicissitudes of Pioneering
Eden, first known as Curtis, lies on the northern side of the Gila, nine miles northwest of Pima. It dates from early in 1881, when there was arrival from Brigham City, Arizona, of a party of United Order settlers, headed by Moses M. Curtis. Though other immigrants occupied holdings nearby, M.M. Curtis and Wm. R. Hawkins were the only residents of the present Eden townsite in 1881. The men first turned their attention toward the construction of a ditch from the river, this completed the following year. For a while the young community was on very short rations. At times there could be only one meal a day, that a meager one of beans, served at noon to the workers, who scarcely could summon strength for more than a half day's labor.
Some of the early settlers built boweries of brush under which they rolled their covered wagons, to secure better protection from the pitiless Arizona summer sun, and with no other home for weeks. There were Indian "scares," as elsewhere told, and life was far from comfortable, with occasional crossing of the Gila at flood to secure protection at the more populous Pima. In January, 1882, was a moving back to five log houses that had been built on the Curtis townsite, but even after that was flight to Pima when word came of an Indian raid. In the fall of 1882 eight families were living in a little stockade fort that enclosed a half acre of ground, near the river. The present townsite was located May 10, 1883.
Gila Communities of the Faith
Thatcher, present Stake headquarters, derives its name from Apostle Moses Thatcher, who was a Christmas visitor in 1882, in company with Apostle Erastus Snow. The first settler was John M. Moody, who came with his family from Utah, arriving when Nature had warm welcome indeed, on July 4, 1881. In 1882 he was joined by the Cluff and Zufelt families and by James Pace of the Mormon Battalion, who built a stockade, and a little later by Hyrum Brinkerhoff and wife Margaret, "Aunt Maggie," who bought and occupied the Moody place. They were prominent among the Southern Utah and Muddy pioneers.
The Thatcher townsite was selected by President Layton May 13, 1883, a school district being established the following month. Among the arrivals of the following year was Samuel Claridge, one of the pioneers of the Muddy section. October 19, 1885, the presidency located a new townsite about one-half mile to the southward and on higher land. Much of the old Moody ranch since the Brinkerhoff purchase has disappeared, from the encroachments of the Gila River.
Bryce, across the river from Pima, dates from January, 1883, when Ebenezer Bryce, Sr., and sons commenced construction of a ditch, completed the next year. The first house was that of Ebenezer P. Bryce, occupied in December, 1884.
Central, between Thatcher and Pima, took its name from the Central canal, which irrigates part of the settlement. Its first settlers were Orson and Joseph Cluff of Forest Dale, from which they came southward in the spring of 1882.
The Hubbard settlement is an outgrowth of the Graham and Bryce wards and is of comparatively late occupation. It is named after Elisha F. Hubbard, Sr., the first ward bishop.
The Layton settlement, named for the first stake president, is one of the most prosperous, and is the third in order of population of the St. Joseph Stake wards. The first settler was Hyrum H. Tippets, who came January 13, 1883, direct from Brigham City, Utah.
The Franklin settlement, above Duncan on the Gila, is about seven miles in length, most of it in Arizona, though lapping over into New Mexico. Its first Mormon settler was Thomas J. Nations, in 1895. He joined, with others of the brethren, in taking out a canal. Thomas A. McGrath is understood to have been the first settler of the locality. The name was given in 1898, at the time of the visit of Apostles John Henry Smith and John W. Taylor, and is in honor of Franklin D. Richards, an apostle of the Church, who in no wise had been associated with Arizona affairs. In the same vicinity, wholly in New Mexico, is the settlement of Virden, mainly populated by refugees from Mexico. In these upper Gila communities the Mormons have created a veritable garden, where careless cultivation had been known.
Graham County was created by the Arizona Legislature in the spring of 1881, the settlement south of the Gila theretofore having been in Pima County. The first county seat was Safford, but county government was transferred to Solomonville by an act of the Legislature in 1883. In 1915, after the setting off of Greenlee County, the court-house went back to Safford.
Considering the Lamanites
In the entertaining flood of reminiscence that comes from almost any of the devout pioneers, there often is found expression of abiding belief of personal protection extended by Omnipotence. Possibly, save in the development of character by trials and by tribulation, the average pioneer of the faith, from a present viewpoint, would appear to have been little favored, yet thankful devotion ever was present.
One story that indicated celestial intervention in time of danger, has been told by Orson Cluff. He and several brothers and their families were on the road south from Forest Dale to the Gila, and had camped at a point twenty miles south of Fort Apache. In the morning there was the usual prayer, from which the company arose, refreshed in spirit, for another hard day's journey. A short time later, an Indian told how he was a member of a band of redskins that lay in ambush about the Mormon camp that very morning. The work of massacre was about to begin when the intended victims were seen to drop upon their knees and to lift their hands aloft in supplication. The startled Indians were overcome by some mysterious power and stole away. Possibly they feared that potent "medicine" was being made against them, but the Cluffs are sure that the Holy Spirit had descended to save them for further earthly experience.
The Gila Valley saw much of Indian rapine in its earlier days. The section considered in this chapter lies just east of the San Carlos Apache reservation and is flanked on the northward by the White Mountain reservation. When the California Column, under General Carleton, was established in Arizona in 1863, after beating the Confederates back beyond the Rio Grande, it was found necessary to establish military stations in that locality. Camp Goodwin, named after the first Governor of the Territory, was at the lower end of the valley. A number of years after its abandonment, there was established, five miles to the eastward, Camp Thomas, maintained until after the final subjugation of the hostile Indians. Thomas was a veritable guard post for the Mormon settlers. To the southwest was Camp Grant, in the northern extension of the Sulphur Springs Valley, this post a successor to old Camp Grant, which was at the mouth of Aravaipa Creek, at the junction of that stream with the San Pedro River. To the northward was Fort Apache and to the southward Fort Bowie.
The Hostile Chiricahuas
The native Pinaleno Indians of the San Carlos region, while inclined toward spasmodic outbreaks, were not as hostile as their western neighbors, the Mohave and Yuma Apaches. A very dangerous element was added when, in 1876, under direction of the army, Agent John P. Clum moved to San Carlos 325 Indians of the Chiricahua-Apache strain from a reservation in southeastern Arizona. Within a few years, 4500 Indians were concentrated at San Carlos. The Chiricahuas, unsettled and forever yearning to get back to the scene of their marauding along the emigrant road to the southward and in Mexico, constantly were slipping away from the reservation by individuals and by bands, and their highway usually was up the river. In the early eighties the settlers along the Gila lived forever in terror of the savage foe. The military was efficient. Hardriding troopers would dash forth from one or all of the guardian posts whenever danger threatened, and to these same troops undoubtedly is due the fact that general massacres were not known in and around the Gila Valley towns.
Often the Author finds in the manuscripts of personal experiences that have been accumulated by the score in his office, a note indicating the conditions under which the land was settled. There have been attempts in other parts of this work to make clear the fact that the Mormons always tried to be friendly with the Indians and suffered without protest treatment from the aborigines that would have led to the shedding of blood by others. One interesting little item of this sort is in a record contributed by Mrs. W.R. Teeples. She found the Indians on the Gila Hirer in 1879 were friendly, possibly too much so. She wrote, "When I was cooking pancakes over the fire in our camp, the Indians would sit around watching, and they would grab the cakes out of the pan before they were done, so I had to cover the pancakes up to keep them for ourselves."
Mrs. J.N. Stratton wrote of the same period:
"Besides the fear of getting out of food was the greater fear of the Indians. They were on the San Carlos reservation and were supposed to be peaceful, but bands often went out on the warpath and spread terror throughout the country, so the people never knew what to expect from them. The mesquite and sage brush were so thick where Safford's streets and houses are now, that one could only see a little distance, and it was no uncommon occurrence for an Indian to slip out from behind the brush and come walking in at the cabin door, or put his face up against the window and peer in, if the door happened to be closed. One settler who had two doors had her husband nail one up so that when the Indians did come to call on them, she could stand in the other door and keep them from coming in. The mothers never let their children get out of their sight, for fear they would be stolen."
I.E. Solomon and his family had many experiences with the Indians, and in several cases narrowly escaped death. A number of Solomon's employees were killed in the open country toward Clifton.
An interesting chronicle is from Mrs. Elizabeth Hanks Curtis, who came with her family in April, 1881. Incidentally, she is a descendant of the Hanks family, tracing relationship to Abraham Lincoln. A mile above Eden they built a log fort. In September this had to be abandoned, word brought by a friendly Indian of the coming of a large band of Indians and of imminent danger. Will Ransom from Pima provided a raft to cross the river upon and the settlers concentrated at Pima. The settlers were driven into Pima again in April of the following year, after huddling for days in Moses Curtis' cabin. Protection came from Fort Thomas.
Murders by Indian Raiders
July 19, 1882, Jacob S. Ferrin of Pima was killed under circumstances of treachery. A freighting camp, of which he was a member, was entered by a number of Apaches, led by "Dutchy," escaped from custody at San Carlos. Pretending amity, they seized the teamsters' guns and fired upon their hosts. Ferrin was shot down, one man was wounded and the others escaped.
On the morning of December 1, 1885, Lorenzo and Seth Wright were killed by Indians who had been combing the valley for horses. The Wrights had started, with members of a posse, from Layton, and were joined at Solomonville by Sheriff Stevens and two other men, after there had been recovered a number of the stolen horses, for the pursuers rode harder and faster than the fleeing thieves. There had been assumption that the thieves were Mexicans and so there was an element of recklessness in the pursuit that would have been missing had the truth been known, that they were Apaches. The four leading men of the posse were ambushed by the redskins, who had halted by the roadside. Seth Wright was shot from his horse. His brother immediately dismounted and opened fire upon the Indians. Lorenzo's right arm was broken by a bullet, and then, while he was running, he was shot in the back.
This same band had killed a man and a boy at Black Rock and a herdsman at Bear Springs Flat.
May 23, 1886, Frank Thurston of Pima, while starting a lime kiln, six miles from the town, was surprised by eight Apaches and killed. This band passed by the Curtis settlement, driving off a number of horses.
Concerning the Indian situation, James H. Martineau, on June 1, 1886, wrote that the Apaches then were riding in many small bands, but were kept on the move constantly by the vigorous measures of General Miles, and he assumes that the Apache question would have been settled had his predecessor, General Crook, been less dilatory. The writer expressed his conclusion that in military skill, strategy and ability the Indians far excelled their opponents, and details that fifty or sixty Apaches the year before had killed more than 75 white settlers, all the while pursued by seventeen companies of United States troops, without losing a single Indian.
Outlawry Along the Gila
The Mormons of the Gila Valley maintained most amicable relations with their neighbors, but occasionally had to participate in some of the ordinary frontier episodes. James R. Welker, an arrival in Safford in 1883, tells that, "The cowboys had things about their own way for a few years. They would ride right into a town, go straight to the saloon and commence shooting the place up. They were expert with the pistol too. I have seen some very wonderful shots among those cowboys. They did not do much killing around here, but they were pretty wild and did about as they pleased." W.T. Barney wrote, "The rustlers gave us quite a bit of trouble, perhaps even more than the Indians."
The peaceful Saints in the Gila Valley undoubtedly found much that was foreign to their habits of life. A tale of the frolicsome cowboy is told by Isaac P. Robinson of Thatcher, who was in Safford in 1884:
"There were but very few houses in Safford then. About the only business house was the Glasby building, which had a saloon and also a store. The cowboys had things about their own way. They would come into the store and take possession. Mr. Glasby would go out and leave it to them. They would shoot up the store, help themselves to what they wanted, pay for everything they had taken, shoot up the town and go on. But I don't want to see any more of it. You haven't the remotest idea what a lot of trouble they made. This was the main route from the north into Mexico and the principal rendezvous for a lot of those rough characters."
In the way of outlawry, the valley had unwelcome notoriety, when from its rougher element was constituted a band which, May 11, 1889, ambushed Paymaster J.W. Wham of the United States army, on the road between Fort Grant and Fort Thomas, and stole about $28,000 in gold and silver, intended for the pay of the troops at the latter post. An escort of eleven colored infantrymen, led by a sergeant, apparently deserted by the Major, fought well, but was driven away after five of the soldiers had been wounded. Thirteen bandits were understood to have been implicated. Eight individuals were arrested. There was trial at Tucson, where Wham and the soldiers were notably poor witnesses and where the defendants were acquitted.
A Gray Highway of Danger
Just as the Mormon settlements on the Little Colorado providentially were given assistance by the building of the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, just so the struggling pioneers on the Gila found benefit in the opening of the silver and copper mines at Globe. Freight teams were in demand for hauling coke and supplies from the railroad at Willcox and Bowie and for hauling back from the mines the copper bullion. Much of this freighting was done with great teams of mules and horses, veritable caravans, owned by firms such as Tully & Ochoa or M.G. Samaniego of Tucson, but enough was left for the two and four-horse teams of the Mormons, who thus were enabled from the hauling of a few tons of coke to provide provisions for their families and implements for the tilling of their fields.
The road from the railroad to Globe ofttimes was a gray highway of danger. After leaving the Gila towns, it led through the length of the Apache Indian reservation. Usually the teams went in sort of military order. The larger "outfits" had strict rules for defense, each driver with his pistol and rifle and each "swamper" similarly armed. Every night the wagons were drawn into a circle, within which the horses were corralled or tied to the wagon poles, where they were fed. Pickets were kept out and care was incessant day and night.
But, sometimes, a freighter, eager to earn extra pay for a quick trip, or wishing to drive ahead of the cloud of dust that enveloped each large convoy, would push along by himself. Possibly the next day, the train would come to the embers of what had been wagons and their contents. Nearby would be the bodies of the tortured and murdered teamsters. So the careful ones united, remaining at the railroad until at least a score of wagons had accumulated, and then made their way northward, relatively safe through united vigilance.
In 1899 the Gila Valley, Globe & Northern railroad was completed from Bowie, through the Gila Valley towns, to Globe, a distance of 124 miles, though the loss to the freighters was more than balanced by the general good to the community of bettered transportation facilities. Right-of-way through the reservation was accorded by the Indians after a diplomatic distribution to them by a railroad agent of $8000, all in silver coin.
Civic and Church Features
Troublesome River Conditions
In the memory of Americans still living, the Gila River through the Safford region, was a relatively narrow stream, over which in places a stone could be tossed. There were occasional lagoons, some of them created by beaver dams—picturesque, but breeding places for mosquitoes and sources of malaria. Camp Goodwin was abandoned because of malarial conditions in 1869-70, troops being transferred to the new post of Camp Ord (Apache).
The river situation of later years has been very different indeed from that known to the pioneers. The lagoons drained and the underbrush, grass and trees cut away, the river floods have had full sweep and, as a result, there has been tremendous loss in the washing away of the lower lying land. The farms have been pushed back toward the mesas. Now under consideration is a comprehensive irrigation system that will cost several millions of dollars, with a great concrete diversion dam above Solomonville and with two head canals that economically will serve both sides of the river.
But in the early days the colonists did what they could, not what economically was advisable. They did not have such trouble as was known along the Little Colorado and their water supply was much larger and somewhat more regular. They took out little canals at different points, with headworks that were easily replaced when washed away.
For a few years around 1910, there appeared a prospect that the Gila Valley farms would have to be abandoned unless something could be done to stop the flow of tailings from the concentrating mills of the Clifton-Morenci country, on the San Francisco River, a tributary of the Gila. The finely pulverized rock was brought down in the irrigation water and spread out upon the fields in a thick layer, almost impervious to the growth of vegetation. Mit Simms, then a farmer near Safford, tells that the dried tailings upon his farm spread out in a smooth sheet, that could be broken like glass, with a blow from a hammer. The mining companies refused to heed demand to impound their tailings flow, and so the matter was taken into the courts. Decisions uniformly were with the settlers, the matter finally being disposed of in their favor in the United States Supreme Court. Then the companies, using the tailings material for the making of dams, created great tailings reservoirs in the hills near their plants, and filled up valley after valley with the rejected material. Incidentally, they spent in this work enormous sums, believed to have been sufficient to have bought all the farms of the Gila Valley, at the price put upon them ten years ago. This expended money, however, may yet be returned, for plans have been set afoot for leaching copper treasure out of the tailings banks.
Artesian water was struck in the Gila Valley in 1887, according to John A. Lee, understood to have been the first well borer in the artesian district, within which are the present towns of Algodon (otherwise Lebanon) and Artesia. The first water was struck at a depth of 330 feet and better flows were secured with deeper borings down to 1000 feet.
The first few years of the Gila Valley settlement, every alternate section was assumed to be the property of the Texas Pacific Railroad Company, a land grant claimed by the Southern Pacific. This claim was decided against by the United States authorities early in 1885, and the lands thus were thrown open to entry by the settlers. Pima was on railroad land and filing of its townsite formally was accomplished by Mayor W.W. Crockett.
Basic Law in a Mormon Community
Interest attaches to the Church commission, dated February 20, 1883, received by Christopher Layton on his appointment as head of the San Pedro and Gila Valley settlers. It was signed by John Taylor and Jos. F. Smith of the First Presidency and contains instructions and admonitions that might well have served as a basic law of any God-fearing community.
President Layton was instructed to see that the settlers did not scatter themselves promiscuously throughout the land, that surveys be made for townsites, that the people settle in these localities, with facilities for public schools and meeting houses, and that due provision be made to protect the settlers against depredations of the lawless and unprincipled combinations of brigands and other hostile marauders.
A notably interesting paragraph recites, "You will understand that our object in the organization of the Stake of St. Joseph is to introduce the Gospel into the Mexican nation, or that part of it which lies contiguous to your present settlement, and also, when prudence shall dictate and proper arrangements are entered into, that a settlement may commence to be made in that country."
It was recommended, in forming cities either in Arizona or Mexico, "care should be had to place them in proper localities, convenient to land and water, with careful examination of the sanitary conditions. It is the general opinion that it is more healthy and salubrious on the plateaus or mesas than on the low land, the latter of which in your district of country are more or less subject to malarial diseases, which ought, always, when practicable, to be avoided."
The streets should be wide and commodious, with public squares for church, county, school and ornamental purposes.
School and church affairs should be kept separate. There was warning against favoritism in the allotment of town lands and a recommendation that the principles of the United Order be approached, without the placing of the communities under rigid rules.
Another interesting paragraph recites, "The order of Zion when carried out, will be that all men should act in the interest of and for the welfare of Zion, and individualism, private speculation and covetousness will be avoided, and that all act in the interest of all and for the welfare of the whole community. We may not, at present, be able to carry out these ideas in full, but without any special formality or rule, we may be approaching these principles as fast as circumstances will admit of it. We profess to be acting and operating for God, and for His Kingdom, and we are desirous that our acts should be in consonance with our professions."
In the selection of elders, care was enjoined that all such persons should be honorable, free from any pernicious or degrading habits, "for if men cannot control themselves, they are not fit to be rulers or leaders in the Kingdom of God."
There was special injunction that the Lamanites, the Indians, be treated with all consideration and shown that the Mormons do not teach one thing and practice another. The Indians should be taught to be "friendly with the government of the United States or Mexico and to live at peace with one another, to be chaste, sober and honest and subject to the law of God."
Tithing of one-tenth was stipulated as in the interest of the people. The new leader was advised that, "God has placed you as a watchman on the walls of Zion and He will hold you accountable for your acts," and he was directed to see that the laws of God were carried out in his community, irrespective of persons or families.
Layton Soldier and Pioneer
Christopher Layton was a rough diamond, almost illiterate, yet possessed of much energy and a keen, practical judgment that served him and his people well through the course of a long life. He was an Englishman, born in Bedfordshire, March 8, 1821. His first practical experience was at 7 years of age, when he kept crows from the wheatfields for the large salary of 56 cents a week, boarding himself. In 1843 he crossed the ocean. Elsewhere is noted his experience with the Mormon Battalion. Following discharge, for a few years he lived in California, finally taking ship from San Francisco back to Liverpool, where he arrived in March, 1850. On the same ship's return, James Pennell led 250 converts to America, landing at New Orleans proceeding by river to St. Louis, and then Utah.
In September, 1852, Layton first saw Salt Lake, arriving at the head of an expedition of 52 wagons, including the first threshing outfit in Utah. In 1856 he was in the Carson Valley of Nevada, where he proceeded toward the very notable undertaking of building a wagon road across the Sierra Nevadas to Hangtown, early Placerville. With the rest of the Utah Saints, he was recalled to Salt Lake in the fall of 1857.
Layton arrived at St. David February 24, 1883. In May he organized wards on the Gila, at Pima, Thatcher, Graham and Curtis, under Jos. K. Rogers, John M. Moody, Jorgen Jorgensen and Moses Curtis. In March of the next year, he organized Layton branch near Safford.
President Layton's own story of his advent in the Gila Valley includes:
"The Saints were wanting to settle close together, so I bought a 600-acre tract of land of a syndicate living in Tucson. Then I bought out the squatters' rights and improvements by taking quit-claim deeds of them. Thus I was in a position to help the Saints to get homes. In July I bought 320 acres of Peter Anderson (adjoining the other tract) and laid it out in a townsite which we named Thatcher. I built a three-roomed adobe house in Thatcher ward (it being the second house built on the townsite) and we moved into it. I gave a lot for a schoolhouse and the few Saints who were settling here then built an adobe building on it. The mesquite was so thick that when we tried to go any place we were very fortunate if we did not get lost. I gave the Seventies a lot, but they never made any use of it; also gave the bishop a lot for tithing purposes. The Academy was afterward built on it."
Layton, aided by his many sons, was active in business, as well as in the faith, operating stores, a flour mill, an ice factory and a number of stage lines, one of which stretched all the way from Bowie Station through the Gila Valley, to Globe, and, through the Tonto Basin, to Pine and Fort Verde, the longest stage mail line in the Southwest at the time.
The transfer of headquarters of St. Joseph Stake appears to have been determined upon very soon after the arrival of Layton at St. David. One of his counselors, David P. Kimball, visited Smithville March 10, 1883, and in May Layton himself was on the ground, visiting Smithville (Pima) and Safford. There was approval of the new settlement of Curtis on May 10 and on the 13th was location of the townsite of Thatcher.
At this time there appears to have been determination to move headquarters of the Stake from St. David to Smithville, where the first formal quarterly conference of the Stake was held June 3. No record can be found of this transfer nor of the subsequent change to Thatcher.
A New Leader on the Gila
In 1897 President Layton's health declined and on January 27, 1898, he was released from his spiritual office, to which was appointed Andrew Kimball, this with a letter from President Wilford Woodruff, expressing the highest appreciation of Layton's labors. Christopher Layton left Arizona June 13, 1898, for his old home in Kaysville, Utah, where he died August 7. At a reunion, about six years ago, of the Layton descendants and their families, were present 594 individuals.
Andrew Kimball, successor to the presidency of St. Joseph Stake, had formal installation January 30, 1898, at the hands of Apostles John Henry Smith and John W. Taylor, at the same time there being general reorganization of the Church subdivision. President Kimball, who still most actively is in office, is a son of the noted Apostle Heber C. Kimball, First Counselor to President Brigham Young. President Kimball from the very first showed keen enthusiasm in the work of upbuilding his community. In October of the year of his installation he returned to Utah, like the spies returned from the land of Canaan, bringing equally large stories of the fertility of the new land. Instead of bearing a huge bunch of grapes, he had to take with him photographs, in order to secure reception of his stories of corn that was sixteen feet tall, Johnson grass eight feet high, a sweet potato that weighed 36 pounds, of peaches too big to go into the mouth of a preserving jar, sunflower stalks that were used for fence poles, weeds that had to be cut with an ax and sugar cane that grew four years from one planting. On the strength of his enthusiasm, very material additions were made to the population of the Gila Valley, and the President even yet keeps busy in missionary work, not only of his Church, but work calculated to assist in the upbuilding of the Southwest along irrigated agricultural lines.
Church Academies of Learning
Every Mormon community gives especial attention to its schools, for education in the regard of the people follows closely after their consideration of spiritual affairs. The normal schools of the State always have had a very large percentage of the youth of the faith, training to be teachers.
Three of the four Arizona Stakes maintain academies, wherein the curriculum also carries religious instruction. The largest of the three Church schools, at Thatcher, lately was renamed the Gila Normal College. It was established in January, 1891, under instruction that had been received over two years before from the general Church Board of Education. Its first sessions were in the meetinghouse at Central, with Joy Dunion as principal. The second year's work was at Thatcher, where the old adobe meetinghouse was occupied. Thereafter a tithing house was used and was expanded for the growing necessities of the school, which has been in continuous operation ever since, with the exception of two years following 1896, when the finances of the Stake were at low ebb. The academy was revived on assumption of Andrew Kimball to the Stake Presidency, under Principal Emil Maeser, he a son of one of Utah's most noted educators. Andrew C. Peterson has been in charge of the school most of the time since 1906. In 1909 was occupied a new building, erected and furnished at a cost of about $35,000. Leland H. Creer now is principal.
At St. Johns the St. Johns Stake Academy was founded January 14, 1889, with John W. Brown as its first principal. The present building was dedicated December 16, 1900. Howard Blazzard now is in active charge, while Stake President David K. Udall, first president of the Academy's Board, still occupies the same position, after 27 years of service.
The Snowflake Stake Academy was founded, with E.M. Webb in charge, only a week later than that of St. Johns. The two institutions for many years were the only means provided for local education, beyond the grammar grades. At Snowflake industrial and agricultural courses are given prominence in the curriculum. Thanksgiving Day, 1910, fire destroyed the large school building, which was replaced by a more modern structure, that cost $35,000 and that was dedicated Thanksgiving Day, 1913. For years the school was directed by Joseph Peterson.
At Mesa, Chandler and Gilbert are maintained seminaries, mainly for advanced instruction in Church doctrine.
Movement Into Mexico
Looking Over the Land
The Mormon settlement of Mexico, as elsewhere told, was a cherished plan of Brigham Young, who saw to the southward a land wherein his Church, its doctrines and influence could find room for expansion. He died while the southern migration started by him still was far short of a Mexican destination, though that country had been explored to an extent by several missionary parties.
The first Mormons to enter Mexico were the soldiers of the Mormon Battalion who, in 1846, passed south of the Gila in Mexican territory, and then entered the present Mexico by a swing of the column southward from the San Bernardino ranch around to the valley of the San Pedro. The D.W. Jones party was the first missionary expedition into Mexico, crossing the Rio Grande at Paso del Norte, the present Juarez, January 7, 1876. The Pratt-Stewart party, including Meliton G. Trejo, was in northern Mexico early in '77, and small missionary parties followed thereafter from time to time.
November 15, 1879, Apostle Moses Thatcher was in Mexico City with J.Z. Stewart and Trejo, there founding the first organization of the Church within the Republic.
Decided impetus was given the southward movement when it became evident that the national prosecution against plural marriage was to be pushed to the extreme. January 4, 1883, with the idea of finding an asylum for the Saints in Mexico, Apostle Thatcher traveled from St. David on the San Pedro, to the southeast as far as Corralitos, where some arrangement was made for lands. In the following September, another party from St. David explored the country along the Babispe River. Still more important, November 2, 1884, Apostles Brigham Young, Jr., and Heber J. Grant investigated the Yaqui River section of Sonora, this with three companies of prospective settlers from the Salt River, Gila and San Pedro Valleys, together with some additions from Salt Lake.
In January, 1885, migration was under personal charge of President John Taylor, who, after a notable conference at St. David, as noted in the history of that section, led a party southward into Sonora and held a satisfactory conference with Governor Torres, yet made no settlement. In the same month, however, notation has been found that Alexander F. Macdonald was at Corralitos, Chihuahua, from Mesa. A few parties were in that locality in February, 1885, one expedition of seventy having come from Arizona, under Captain Noble. Something of a setback was known when, on April 9, 1885, the Governor of Chihuahua ordered departure of all Mormon settlers within his State. Apostles Young and Thatcher, May 18, visited the City of Mexico and secured from the federal government permission for the immigrants to remain.
Colonization in Chihuahua
It was in 1886 that the main Mormon exodus traveled across the border. The way had been prepared by the organization of a Colorado corporation, the Mexican Colonization & Agricultural Company, this under the management of Anthony W. Ivins, a northern Arizona pioneer. This company had been granted the usual colonists' privileges, including the introduction, without duty, of livestock, agricultural implements and household effects, but had no special concessions. It was given the usual exemption from taxation for ten years. Through this company, land was acquired at Colonia Juarez and Colonia Diaz, by purchase from Ignacio Gomez del Campo and others. Payment was made with money that had been donated in Utah and from Church funds.
Colonies were established, in which were consolidated the Mormons already south of the line and the newcomers. Diaz was on the Janos River, near the Mexican town of Ascension, and Colonia Juarez was 75 miles upstream on a branch of the Janos river, the Piedras Verdes. At the former place about 100,000 acres were acquired and at the latter 25,000. A prior settlement at Corralitos had been established in the fall of 1884. Juarez had the first meeting-house, built January 31, 1886, but the town had to be moved two miles, in January, 1887, on discovery that the site was outside of the lands that had been purchased.
Largely from data secured from Mr. Ivins is found much of detail concerning northern Mexican settlement. One important step was the acquirement in 1886, of 100,000 acres of Mexican government timber land in the Sierra Madre Mountains, near Colonia Juarez, and on this tract was established Colonia Pacheco, wherein the main industry was lumbering. Then two other mountain tracts were acquired, of 6000 acres each, upon which were established Colonia Garcia and Colonia Chuichupa, sixteen miles to the southwest of Colonia Juarez. In 1889 was established Colonia Dublan, upon a 60,000-acre tract that was most valuable of all, considered agriculturally. Naturally this became the strongest of all the settlements of the colonist company.
There had been exploration, however, to the westward, in the State of Sonora, and in 1896, a tract of 110,000 acres was acquired on the Babispe River. There was established Colonia Oaxaca. The land was mainly valuable for grazing, but some good farming land was along the river. Twenty-five miles below Oaxaca, three years later was acquired a tract of 25,000 acres, whereon Colonia Morelos was established, to be the center of an agricultural section, with attached grazing land.
Prosperity in an Alien Land
As colonization generally was directed from a central agency, each of the colonies had somewhat the same method of establishment and of operation, this founded upon the experience of the people in Utah and Arizona. There would be laid out a townsite, near which would be small tracts of garden land, and farther away larger tracts of agricultural and grazing land, sold to the colonists at cost with ample time for payment, title remaining in the company until all the purchase price had been paid. In each colony one of the very first public works was erection of a schoolhouse, used as a house of worship and for public hall, as well. Graduates from the colony grammar schools could be sent to an academy at Colonia Juarez, where four years' high school work was given. Skilled teachers were secured wherever possible. Instruction was free, both to the children of the colonists and to the Mexicans. Wherever sufficient school maintenance could not be provided, the deficiency was made up by the Church.
In each colony the rough homes of adobe or rock later were replaced by houses of lumber or brick, until, it is told, these Mexican towns were among the best built known in the Southwest.
Agriculture was notably successful. There were fine orchards, vegetables were abundant and good crops of grain and potatoes were known. The best breeds of cattle and horses were imported and improved agricultural machinery was brought in. Hundreds of miles of roads were constructed by the colonists, turned over to the government without cost, and taxation was cheerfully paid on the same basis as known by neighboring Mexican settlements.
Wherever water could be developed were well-surveyed ditches, heading on the Casas Grandes, Janos and Babispe Rivers and their tributaries, though, without reservoirs, there often was shortage of water. Water power was used for the operation of grist and lumber mills and even for electric lighting. By 1912 there were five lumber and shingle mills, three grist mills, three tanneries, a shoe factory and other manufacturing industries and there was added a telephone system, reaching all Chihuahua colonies.
In general, relations with the Mexican government and with the neighboring Mexicans appear to have been cordial. Possibly the best instance of this lies in an anecdote concerning the visit to the Chihuahua State Fair of President Porfirio Diaz. There he saw a remarkable exhibit of industry and frugality presented by the Mormon colonies, including saddles and harness, fruit, fresh and preserved, and examples of the work of the schools. Then it was the General fervently exclaimed, "What could I not do with my beloved Mexico if I only had more citizens and settlers like the Mormons."
The colonists took no part in the politics of the country. Only a few became Mexican citizens. Junius S. Romney stated that in each settlement pride was taken in maintaining the best ideals of American government. Occasionally there was irritation, mainly founded upon the difference between the American and Mexican judicial systems. According to Ammon M. Tenney, in all the years of Mormon occupation, not a single colonist was convicted of a crime of any sort whatever. In 1912 the colonists numbered 4225.
Abandonment of the Mountain Colonies
At the break-up of the Diaz government, May 25, 1911, fear and disorder succeeded peaceful conditions that had been known in the mountain settlements. Sections of Chihuahua were dominated by Villa, Salazar, Lopez, Gomez and other revolutionary leaders. A volume might be written upon the experiences of the colonists on the eastern side of the mountains. There would appear to have been little prejudice against them and little actual antagonism, but they had amassed a wealth that was needed by the revolutionary forces, and there were recurring demands upon them for horses, wagons, supplies, ammunition and finally for all weapons. Patience and diplomacy were needed in the largest degree in the conferences with the Mexican military leaders. Soon it was evident, however, that nothing remained but flight to the United States. July 29, 1912, most of the settlers were hurried aboard a train, almost without time in which to change their clothing. The stores and public buildings were closed. The colonists were huddled, with small personal property, into boxcars or cattle cars and hauled from Colonia Dublan to El Paso. There, there was immediate assistance by the City of El Paso and the United States government, soon reinforced by friends and relatives in Arizona and Utah. At one time 1500 Mormon refugees were encamped in El Paso.
A. W. Ivins tells:
"As soon as the colonists were gone, a campaign of looting and destruction was commenced by the Mexican revolutionist and local Mexicans near the colonies. The stores were broken into and looted of hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of merchandise. Private homes were treated in the same manner. Livestock was appropriated, until almost every available thing was carried away or destroyed. There was little wanton destruction of property except at Colonia Diaz, where the better part of the residences and public buildings was burned. The homes and farm buildings were not destroyed."
Some of the colonists returned as soon as a degree of safety was assured, to check up the property remaining and to plan for the eventual return of their people. But again there had to be an exodus, this late in December, 1915. At that time it is told that Villa was only a few miles away, preparing to march upon the Mormon settlements, with all orders given to that end. But in the morning the plans were changed, apparently by celestial intervention, and he marched his men in another direction, into the Galiana Valley.
On one of the flights, after all but the most vigorous of the men had departed, there came peremptory demand for surrender of all arms and ammunition. Some guns were surrendered, but the best had been deposited at a mountain rendezvous. To that point the men hurried and, well-armed and well-mounted, made their way by mountain trails to the border, avoiding conflict with Mexican bands that sought to bar the way.
Sad Days for the Sonora Colonists
In 1905 was known a disastrous flood, which at Oaxaca swept away forty brick houses, though without loss of life. At Morelos a number of houses were swept away and about 1000 acres of choice farming land was rendered worthless. Then Morelos and Oaxaca colonists in the Batepito Valley, nine miles north of Morelos, founded Colonia San Jose, with new canals, in addition to those of the Babispe. In 1912, Colonia Morelos had in granary over 50,000 bushels of wheat, while the orchards, gardens and alfalfa fields had produced an abundance. These Sonora colonists had 4000 acres of cultivated and fenced lands.
A flour mill was operated, succeeding one that had been destroyed by fire of incendiary origin. The Morelos canal had cost $12,000. Many local industries had been established, a good schoolhouse was in each settlement and no saloons were tolerated. In general, there was good treatment from the national Mexican government, though "local authorities had demands called very oppressive and overbearing."
War came to the western colonies in November, 1911, on the arrival of a band of seventy men under Isidro Escobosa, repulsed at El Tigre and fleeing to Morelos, followed by federal cavalry, who are reported to have been at least as destructive as the bandits. Thereafter was continuous grief for the colonists. In June, 1500 federals were quartered on the streets and in the school buildings at Morelos, with open depredations upon the settlers' personal property, and scandalous conditions from which no appeal was effective. There then was demand for wagons and teamsters to accompany the federals. The settlers sent their horses into secret places in the mountains and thus saved most of them. Much the same conditions were known at Oaxaca.
When it became evident that Mexican conditions were unendurable, the sick and the older people were sent into the United States. August 30, 1912, following news that the rebel Salazar, was marching into Sonora, a large number of women and children were sent northward. Sixty wagons constituted the expedition, carrying 450 people. The journey was through a rough country, in which there was one fatal accident, and in the rainy season, with attendant hardship. At Douglas was cordial reception, with assistance by the United States and by citizens. September 3, still more of the women and children went northward, leaving about 25 men in the colonies, as guards.
Occasional parties kept up connection between the border and the colonies for some time thereafter. A few of the expeditions were captured by the Mexicans and robbed.
The colonies had been entirely abandoned for some time when a Mormon party from Douglas returned on a scouting trip. According to a chronicler of the period:
"On arriving at the colonies they found that every house had been looted and everything of value taken, sewing machines and furniture ruthlessly smashed up and lying around as debris, while house organs, which were to be found in nearly every Mormon home, were heaps of kindling wood. The carcasses of dead animals lay about the streets, doors and windows were smashed in, stores gutted and the contents strewn everywhere about, while here and there a cash register or some other modern appliance gave evidence of the hand of prejudice-destroying ignorance."
In October, Consul Dye of Douglas made a formal inspection.
Some of the colonists returned when conditions apparently had bettered, and there is at hand a record of what may be considered to have been the final abandonment. In the first days of May, 1914, at Douglas, 92 Americans from the three Sonora colonies, arrived in 21 wagons, being the last of the colonists. They practically had been ordered out, after having been notified by the American Secretary of State that the protection of their country would not be extended to them. Most of their property was left behind, at the mercy of the Mexican authorities.
In September, 1912, at El Paso, was an investigation under the terms of a Senate resolution, which sought to find whether the Mexican troubles had been incited by American citizens or corporations. Senator Smith of Michigan was chairman of the committee. At the hearings there was repeated inquiry apparently seeking to demonstrate that the Standard Oil Company, to a degree, was responsible for the Madera revolution. There also was considerable inquiry, apparently hostile, seeking to define ulterior reasons why the Mormons should have chosen Mexico as an abiding place. The investigation covered all parts of Mexico where American interests had suffered, and only incidentally touched the Mormon settlements. There was ample evidence to the effect that the Mormons retained their American citizenship and American customs, that they had lived in amity with the former stable Mexican government, that any troubles they may have had were not due to any actions of their own, but to the desire for loot on the part of the roaming national and revolutionary soldiery and that their departure was forced and necessary. No especial definition seems to have been given to the exact amount of the loss suffered, but there was agreement that the damage done to these American citizens was very large. At the outbreak of the revolution, according to evidence presented, guarantees had been received by the Mormons from both of the major Mexican factions, but, when these guarantees were referred to, General Salazar sententiously observed, "They are but words."
Repopulation of the Mexican Colonies
A few valiant souls returned to the colonies and remained as best they could, forming nuclei for others who have drifted back from time to time, though neither their going nor coming was under direct Church instruction.
Early in 1920, President J.C. Bentley of the Juarez Stake told of the revival of the Mexican missions, and in the latter part of the same year, A.W. Ivins, returning from the Chihuahua colonies, told that 779 colonists were found, approximately one-fifth of the total number of refugees. To a degree their property had been maintained and their orchards kept alive by the few who had remained over the troublous period. The academy at Colonia Juarez had been running some time, with 100 students. He told of the great work of reconstruction that would have to be done, in restoration of fences and homes, and expressed confidence that all now would be well under the more stable government that has been provided in the southern republic.
There was restoration of order in Mexico in 1920 and assumption of an apparently stable political government under President Alvaro Obregon, a Sonora citizen, with whom is associated P. Elias Calles, who had somewhat to do with the Morelos-Oaxaca troubles. Assurances have been given that protection will be extended to all immigrants, the Mormon land titles have been accepted and a fresh movement southward has been started across the border. But there are many, possibly a half of those who fled, who will not return. They have established themselves, mainly in Arizona, under conditions they do not care to leave. So, it is probable, further extension southward of the Church plans of agricultural settlement will be a task that will lie upon the shoulders of a younger generation.
Oases Have Grown in the Desert
The Mormons of Arizona today are not to be considered in the same manner as have been their forebears. The older generation came in pilgrimages, wholly within the faith, sent to break the wilderness for generations to come. These pioneers must be considered in connection with their faith, for through that faith and its supporting Church were they sent on their southward journeyings. Thus it happens that "Mormon settlement" was something apart and distinctive in the general development of Arizona and of the other southwestern sections into which Mormon influences were taken. It has not been sought in this work even to infer that Mormons in anywise had loftier aspirations than were possessed by any other pioneer people of religious and law-abiding sort. However, there must be statement that the Mormons were alone in their idea of extension in concrete agricultural communities. Such communities were founded on well-developed ideals, that had nothing in common with the usual frontier spirit. They contained no drinking places or disorderly resorts and in them rarely were breaches of the peace. Without argument, this could have been accomplished by any other religious organization. Something of the sort has been done by other churches elsewhere in America. But in the Southwest such work of development on a basis of religion was done only by the Mormons.
There was need for the sustaining power of Celestial Grace upon the average desert homestead, where the fervent sun lighted an expanse of dry and unpromising land. The task of reclamation in the earlier days would have been beyond the ability and resources of any colonists not welded into some sort of mutual organization. This welding had been accomplished among the Mormons even before the wagon trains started southward. Thereafter all that was needed was industry, as directed by American intelligence.
Prosperity Has Succeeded Privation
Today the Mormon population of Arizona does not exceed 25,000, within a total population of over 300,000. The relative percentage of strength, however, is larger than the figures indicate, this due, somewhat, to the fact that the trend of Mormon progress still is by way of cultivation of the soil. Of a verity, a family head upon a farm, productive and independent, is of larger value to the community and of more importance therein than is the average city dweller.
The immigrant from Utah who came between 1876 and 1886 no longer has the old ox-bowed wagon. His travel nowadays is by automobile. His log or adobe hut has been replaced by a handsome modern home. His children have had education and have been reared in comfort that never knew lack of food. Most of the Mormon settlements no longer are exclusively Mormon. There has come a time when immigration, by rail, has surrounded and enveloped the foundations established by the pioneers.
To the newer generation this work is addressed especially, though its dedication, of right, is to the men and women who broke the trails and whose vision of the future has been proven true. Many of the pioneers remain and share with their children in the benefits of the civilization that here they helped to plant. The desert wilderness has been broken and in its stead oases are expanding, oases filled with a population proud of its Americanism, prosperous through varied industry and blessed with consideration for the rights of the neighbor.
Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of Arizona and New Mexico, History of Nevada, History of California: San Francisco, 1889. Bartlett, John R., Personal Narrative: Appleton, 1854. Beadle, S.H., Western Wilds: Jones Bros., Cincinnati, 1878. Church Chronology, Deseret News, Salt Lake. Church Historian's Office, Mss. data of Arizona Stakes and Wards. Cooke, Col. P. St. George, Conquest of New Mexico and California: Putnam's Sons, New York, 1878. Dellenbaugh, F.S., Breaking the Wilderness: Putnam's Sons, 1908. The Romance of the Colorado River: 1909. A Canyon Voyage, New York, 1908. Donaldson, Thomas, Moqui Pueblo Indians: Census Bureau, 1893. Englehardt, Rev. Zephyrin, Missions of California: 4 vols., Barry Co., San Francisco, 1905-15. Farish, Thos. E., History of Arizona: 8 vols., Filmer Co., San Francisco, 1915-18. Fish, Joseph, Mss. History of Arizona. Gregory, Herbert, The Navajo Country: Interior Dept., 1916. Hamblin, Jacob, Personal Narrative, by Little: Deseret News, 1909. Hinton, R.J., Handbook to Arizona: Payot-Upham, San Francisco, 1878. Hodge, F.W., Handbook of the American Indians: Bureau of American Ethnology. James, Dr. Geo. Wharton, In and Around the Grand Canyon: Little-Brown Co., Boston, 1900. Jenson, Andrew, Biographical Encyclopedia: 3 vols. Deseret News, 1900, 1910, 1920. Jones, D.W., Forty Years Among the Indians: Salt Lake, 1890. Layton, Christopher, Autobiography (Mrs. Selina L. Phillips, John Q. Cannon): Deseret News, 1911. McClintock, Jas. H., History of Arizona: 2 vols., Clarke Co., Chicago, 1916. Munk, Dr. J.A., Arizona Sketches: Grafton Press, N.Y., 1905 Powell, J.W., Canyons of the Colorado: Flood-Vincent, Meadville, Penn., 1895. Roberts, B.H., History of the Mormon Church: Salt Lake. Standage, Henry, Mss. Story of Mormon Battalion. Twitchell, Ralph W., Leading facts of New Mexican History: Torch Press, Cedar Rapids, IA., 1911. Tyler, Daniel, Mormon Battalion: Salt Lake, 1881. Whitney, Orson F., History of Utah: 3 vols., Geo. Q. Cannon Co., Salt Lake, 1892.
MORMON SETTLEMENT PLACE NAMES
(Capital letters indicate present settlement names) See map of Arizona
ADAIR, Fools Hollow—2 1/2 m. w. of Showlow ALGODON, Lebanon—7 m. se. of Thatcher ALMA, Stringtown—about 1 m. w. of Mesa Allen City, Allen Camp, Cumorah, ST. JOSEPH—Little Colorado settlement ALPINE, Frisco, Bush Valley—60 m. se. of St. Johns Apache Springs—at Forest Dale Apache Springs—sw. of Pinetop, Cooley's last ranch Amity and Omer, Union, EAGAR—upper Round Valley Arivaipa Canyon—western route Gila Valley to San Pedro ARTESIA—in Gila Valley, about 18 m. se. of Thatcher ASHURST, Redlands, Cork—about 15 m. nw. of Thatcher
Badger Creek—on Mormon wagon road 10 m. w. of Lee's Ferry Bagley, Walker, TAYLOR—3 m. s. of Snowflake Ballenger, Brigham City—was Little Colorado town Beaver Dams, LITTLEFIELD, Millersburg—nw. corner of State Beaver Ranch, Woolf Ranch, Lone Pine Crossing, Reidhead—12 m. s. of Snowflake Berardo, Horsehead Crossing, HOLBROOK—on Little Colorado Binghampton—6 m. n. of Tucson; near Ft. Lowell Bisbee—in se. Arizona, near Mexican border Bitter Springs—on Mormon road, 18 m. s. of Lee's Ferry Black Falls—on Little Colorado, 56 m. s. of Moen Copie BLUEWATER—in New Mexico on rr. 107 m. w. of Albuquerque Bonelli's, STONE'S FERRY—near mouth of Virgin r. Brigham City, Ballenger—was Little Colorado r. settlement Buckskin Mountains—between Kanab and Colorado r. BUNKERVILLE—Muddy settlement, 45 m. sw. of St. George Burke Tanks—On road Pleasant Valley to Grand Falls BRYCE—in Gila Valley, 2 m. n. of Pima Bush Valley, Frisco, ALPINE—60 m. se. of St. Johns
CALLVILLE, Call's Landing—16 m. w. of mouth of Virgin r. CEDAR RIDGE—on Mormon road, 33 m. s. of Lee's Ferry Cedar Ridge—10 m. ne. of Pleasant Valley Cedar Springs—Barney & Norton Double "N" ranch, 30 m. sw. of Thatcher CENTRAL—3 m. w. of Thatcher, in Gila Valley CHANDLER—8 m. s. of Mesa Clark's Ranch—Just off Ft. Apache road, near Showlow Clay Springs—Snowflake Stake Cluffs Cienega—6 m. e. of Pinetop, embraces new town of Cooley COLTER—17 m. se. of Springerville Columbine—near top of Mt. Graham, Graham Co. COOLEY—at lumber camp near Pinetop, rr. terminus Cooley's ranch—At Showlow—C.E. Cooley's first ranch Cooley's ranch—where C.E. Cooley died, sw. of Pinetop Cumorah, Allen's Camp, ST. JOSEPH—Little Colorado settlement CONCHO, Erastus—about half way between Snowflake and St. Johns Cork, Redlands, ASHURST—15 m. nw. of Thatcher Crossing of the Fathers, Vado de los Padres, El Vado, Ute Crossing, Ute Ford—Colorado river crossing just n. of Utah line Curtis, EDEN—about 15 m. nw. of Thatcher, in Gila Valley
DOUGLAS—near Mexican border, se. Arizona
EAGAR, Round Valley—2 m. s. of Springerville Eagle Valley—upper end of Muddy Valley Eastern Arizona Stake—1878. Included wards e. of Holbrook in ne. Arizona East Pinedale, PINEDALE—15 m. sw. of Snowflake East Verde—Mazatzal City—was near Payson, in n. Tonto Basin EDEN, Curtis—about 15 m. nw. of Thatcher in Gila Valley Ellsworth—was 1-3/4 m. s. of Showlow Emery—w. of Fort Thomas in Gila Valley Enterprise—was near San Jose, 15 m. e. of Thatcher Erastus, CONCHO—about half way between Snowflake and St. Johns Eureka Springs—in Arivaipa Valley about 25 m. sw. of Thatcher
Fairview, LAKESIDE, Woodland—about 30 m. s. of Snowflake Fairview, Matthews, GLENBAR—10 m. nw. of Thatcher in Gila Valley Fools Hollow, ADAIR—in ravine 2-1/2 m. w. of Showlow Forest Dale—8 m. sw. of Showlow FORT DEFIANCE—near N.M. line 30 m. n. of Santa Fe rr. Fort Milligan—was 1 m. w. of present Eagar Fort Moroni, Fort Rickerson—7 m. nw. of Flagstaff in LeRoux Flat Fort Thomas—in Gila Valley, 22 m. nw. of Thatcher Fort Utah, Utahville, Jonesville, LEHI—3 m. ne. of Mesa FRANKLIN—near N.M. line 50 m. e. of Thatcher FREDONIA, Hardscrabble—3 m. s. of Utah line, 8 m. s. of Kanab Frisco, ALPINE, Bush Valley—near N.M. line 60 m. se. of St. Johns
Gila Valley—in Graham Co., in se. Arizona GILBERT—6 m. se. of Mesa GLENBAR, Fairview, Matthews—10 m. w. of Thatcher in Gila Valley GLOBE—80 m. nw. of Thatcher GRAHAM—across the Gila river n. of Thatcher Grand Falls—on Little Colorado, 5 m. below ford and 47 m. below Winslow Grand Wash—leads s. of St. George into Colorado r. Grant, Heber, LUNA—across N.M. line, 40 m. se. of Springerville GREER—15 m. sw. of Eagar
HARDYVILLE—landing on Colorado, about 90 m. s. of Callville Hayden, Zenos, Mesaville, MESA—Headquarters of Maricopa Stake, 16 m. e. of Phoenix HAYDEN—35 m. s. of Globe Hayden's Ferry, San Pablo, TEMPE—9 m. e. of Phoenix Heber, Grant, LUNA—across N. M. line, 40 m. se. of Springerville HEBER—near Wilford, 50 m. sw. of Holbrook HEREFORD—on San Pedro, 33 m. s. of St. David HOLBROOK, Horsehead Crossing, Berardo—on Little Colorado Horsehead Crossing, Berardo, HOLBROOK—on Little Colorado House Rock Springs—on Mormon road, 38 m. sw. of Lee's Ferry HUBBARD—6 m. nw. of Thatcher HUNT—on Little Colorado, 17 m. nw. of St. Johns
Jacob's Pools—on Mormon road, 27 m. sw. of Lee's Ferry JOHNSON'S—on Mormon road, 14 m. ne. of Kanab, n. of Utah line Johnsonville, Nephi—was successor of Tempe ward, 3 m. w. of Mesa Jonesville, Utahville, Ft. Utah, LEHI—3 m. ne. of Mesa Joppa—in Snowflake Stake Junction (City), RIOVILLE—at junction of Muddy r. with Virgin r. Juniper, LINDEN—8 m. w. of Showlow
KANAB—just n. of Utah line, about 65 m. e. of St. George
LAKESIDE, Fairview, Woodland—ward 30 m. s. of Snowflake LAVEEN—on Salt River, 12 m. sw. of Phoenix LAYTON—3 m. e. of Thatcher Lebanon, ALGODON—in cotton district, 7 m. se. of Thatcher Lee Valley—15 m. sw. of Eagar LEE'S FERRY, Lonely Dell—on Colorado r., 18 m. s. of Utah line LEHI, Jonesville, Utahville, Ft. Utah—ward 3 m. ne. of Mesa LeRoux Springs and Flat—about 7 m. nw. of Flagstaff, location of Ft. Moroni Limestone Tanks—on Mormon road, 27 m. s. of Lee's Ferry LINDEN, Juniper—8 m. w. of Showlow Little Colorado Stake—first Arizona Stake, embraced Little Colorado settlements LITTLEFIELD, Beaver Dams, Millersburg—on Virgin r., 3 m. e. of Nevada line LOGAN, West Point—s. of Muddy r., 15 m. w. of St. Joseph Lonely Dell, LEE'S FERRY—crossing on Colorado r., 18 m. s. of Utah line Lone Pine, Beaver ranch, Woolf ranch, Reidhead—12 m. s. of Snowflake LUNA (Valley), Grant, Heber—across N.M. line, 40 m. se. of Springerville
Macdonald—on San Pedro, 5 m. s. of St. David MARICOPA STAKE—Headquarters at Mesa Matthews, Fairview, GLENBAR—10 m. nw. of Thatcher in Gila Valley Mazatzal City—in Tonto Basin, on East Verde r. McClellan Tanks—on Mormon road, about 35 m. s. of Lee's Ferry Meadows—on Little Colorado r., 8 m. nw. of St. Johns MESA, Hayden, Zenos, Mesaville—Maricopa Stake Headquarters, 16 m. e. of Phoenix MESQUITE—on n. side of Virgin r., 1 m. w. of Nevada line MIAMI—6 m. w. of Globe, 86 m. nw. of Thatcher Milligan Fort—was 1 m. w. of present Eagar Millersburg, Beaver Dams, LITTLEFIELD—on Virgin r., nw. corner of Arizona Millville—was on Mogollon plateau, 35 m. s. of Flagstaff Mill Point—6 m. nw. of St. Thomas on Muddy r. Miramonte—9 m. w. of Benson Moaby, Moa Ave, Moen Abi, Moanabby—7 m. sw. of Tuba, 60 m. s. of Lee's Ferry MOCCASIN SPRINGS—3 m. n. of Pipe Springs MOEN COPIE—was mission headquarters, 2 m. s. of Tuba Mohave Spring—in Moen Copie wash, s. of Tuba Mormon Dairy—near Mormon Lake, belonged to Sunset and Brigham City Mormon Lake—about 28 m. se. of Flagstaff, 50 m. w. of Sunset Mormon Road—west extension of Spanish Trail, St. George to Los Angeles Mormon Road—wagon road from Lee's Ferry to Little Colorado r. Mormon Range—at head of Muddy Valley, now se. Nevada Mormon Flat—on Apache Trail, Phoenix to Globe, 20 m. ne. of Mesa Mormon Fort—n. of Las Vegas, in Nevada Mortensen, Percheron, East Pinedale—Just e. of Pinedale settlement Mt. Carmel, Winsor—United Order ward in Long Valley n. of Kanab, Utah Mt. Trumbull—in Uinkarat Mnts., 30 m. w. of mouth of Kanab Wash Mt. Turnbull—37 m. nw. of Thatcher Muddy, river and valley, in present Nevada, near nw. corner of Arizona Musha Springs—just s. of Tuba, townsite of Tuba City, n. of Moen Copie