One pint of flour, measured before sifting; one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, four of butter, one tea-cupful of milk. Mix the other dry ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Rub the butter into the mixture, and add the milk. Butter two tin squash-pie plates. Spread the mixture in them, and bake in a quick oven from eighteen to twenty minutes. Mash one quart of strawberries with three-fourths of a cupful of sugar. When the cakes are taken from the oven, split and butter them, and put half of the strawberries and sugar in each cake. Serve immediately.
Sweet Strawberry Short-Cake.
Three eggs, one cupful of sugar, two of flour, one table-spoonful of butter, one scant teaspoonful of cream of tartar, a small half teaspoonful of soda. Beat the butter and sugar together. Add the eggs, well beaten. Mix the soda and cream of tartar with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Stir into the beaten egg and sugar. Bake in deep tin plates. Four can be filled with the quantities given. Have three pints of strawberries mixed with a cupful of sugar. Spread a layer of strawberries on one of the cakes, lay a second cake over this, and cover with berries. Or, a meringue, made with the white of an egg and a table-spoonful of powdered sugar, may be spread over the top layer of strawberries,
MUFFINS AND CAKES.
One quart of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, one-third of a cake of compressed yeast, or one-third of a cupful of liquid yeast; one cupful and a half of water. Have the water blood warm. Dissolve the yeast in one-third of a cupful of cold water. Add it and the salt to the warm water, and gradually stir into the flour. Beat the dough thoroughly; cover, and let it rise in a warm place until it is spongy (about five hours). Sprinkle the bread board with flour. Shape the dough into balls about twice the size of an egg, and drop them on the floured board. When all the dough has been shaped, roll the balls into cakes about one-third of an inch thick. Lay these on a warm griddle, which has been lightly greased, and put the griddle on the back of the stove, where there is not much heat. When the cakes have risen a little, draw the griddle forward and cook them slowly, turning often, to keep the flat shape. It will take about twenty minutes for them to rise on the griddle, and fifteen to cook. Tear them apart, butter them, and serve.
Muffins, No. 1.
One quart of flour, two cupfuls of milk, half a cupful of sugar, two eggs, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, one of soda, half a teaspoonful of salt, butter the size of an egg. Mix the other dry ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Melt the butter with four table-spoonfuls of boiling water. Beat the eggs light, and add the milk. Stir into the flour, and add the butter. Beat thoroughly. Bake in buttered muffin pans from twenty-five to thirty minutes, in a quick oven.
Muffins, No. 2.
One cupful of milk, one of flour, one teaspoonful of sugar, a scant half teaspoonful of salt, two eggs. Beat the eggs light, and add the milk, salt and sugar. Pour gradually on the flour. Beat till light and smooth. Pour into buttered muffin pans and bake in a hot oven for twenty minutes.
One pint of warm milk, half a cake of compressed yeast, or half a cupful of liquid yeast; one quart of flour, one table-spoonful of butter. Beat two eggs well, and add them and the salt, butter and yeast to the milk. Stir gradually into the flour. Beat until the batter is light and smooth. Let it rise four hours in a warm place. Fill buttered muffin pans two-thirds to the top with the batter, and let them stand until the batter has risen to the brim. Bake half an hour.
Into a bowl put one and a half pints of Graham, half a cupful of sugar, and a teaspoonful of salt. Into a sieve put half a pint of flour, a teaspoonful of saleratus and two of cream of tartar. Mix thoroughly with the flour, and sift on to the material in the bowl. Mix all thoroughly while dry, and add two well-beaten eggs and a pint of milk. Fill muffin cups about two-thirds to the top, and bake in a quick oven.
Raised Graham Muffins.
These are made the same as Graham bread. Fill tin muffin pans two- thirds to the brim and let the mixture rise to the top. This will take an hour. Bake in a rather quick oven for twenty minutes.
One pint of flour, one of Indian meal, one-third of a cupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of soda, two of cream of tartar, two eggs, a pint of milk, one table-spoonful of melted butter. Mix the dry ingredients together, and sift them. Beat the eggs light, add the milk to them, and stir into the dry ingredients. Bake twenty minutes in buttered muffin pans. Two dozen muffins can be made with the quantities given.
Fried Indian Muffins.
One pint of Indian meal, one pint of boiling water, two eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, one table-spoonful of sugar, one heaping table-spoonful of flour. Pour the boiling water gradually on the meal, salt and sugar. Beat thoroughly, and set away in a cool place. In the morning add the eggs, well beaten, and the flour. Dip a table-spoon in cold milk, fill it with batter, and drop this into boiling fat Cook ten minutes.
One quart of milk, one pint of Indian meal, two eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, butter the size of an English walnut. Let the milk come to a boil, and gradually pour it on the meal Add the butter and salt, and beat well, and set away in a cool place. Do this at night. In the morning beat thoroughly. Beat the eggs well, and add them. Pour the mixture into buttered deep earthen plates. Bake from twenty to thirty minutes. Success depends upon a good, beating of the cake in the morning.
Corn Cake, No. 2.
Two tea-cupfuls of corn meal, one of flour, three of sour milk, two eggs, one table-spoonful of sugar, or of molasses, if you prefer; one teaspoonful of soda, one of salt. Mix together the sugar, salt, meal and flour. Beat the eggs light. Dissolve the soda in two table- spoonfuls of boiling water, and pour into the sour milk. Stir well, and add to the other mixed ingredients. Add the eggs, and mix thoroughly. Pour into buttered tins to the depth of about an inch and a half. Bake twenty-five minutes in a quick oven.
Raised Corn Cake.
One pint of Indian meal, one pint and a half of boiling milk or water, one table-spoonful of sugar, two of butter, an egg, one teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth of a cake of compressed yeast or one-fourth of a cupful of liquid yeast. Pour the boiling milk, gradually, on the meal; then add the salt, sugar and butter, and beat well. Set away to cool. When blood warm, add the compressed yeast, dissolved in two table- spoonfuls of cold water, or the liquid yeast, and the egg, well beaten. Let the batter rise five hours. Turn into buttered pans to the depth of about two niches. Let it stand in a warm place for half an hour, and then bake it from thirty-five to forty-five minutes.
Thin Corn Cake.
One cupful of Indian meal, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt, butter the size of an egg, one cupful and a half of boiling water, one teaspoonful of sugar. Pour the boiling water on the meal, sugar and salt. Beat thoroughly. Add the butter, and, when well mixed, spread very thin on buttered tin sheets. Bake slowly for about twenty minutes.
One pint of rye meal, not flour; one pint of wheat flour, one pint of milk, half a cupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one of soda, two of cream of tartar and two eggs. Put the meal in a mixing bowl. Put the flour and other ingredients in a sieve, and mix thoroughly, and sift. Beat the eggs light. Add the milk to them and pour on the dry ingredients. Beat well. Butter the muffin tins and bake twenty minutes is a quick oven. The quantities given will make twenty-four muffins. To make a less quantity, divide the dry mixture after it is prepared (it can be used whenever it may be wanted if it is kept dry); then halve the other ingredients.
Fried Rye Muffin.
One cupful and a half of rye meal, one cupful and a half of flour, one cupful of milk, two eggs, one teaspoonful of soda, two of cream of tartar, two generous table-spoonfuls of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt. Put the meal in a large bowl. Put the flour, cream of tartar, soda, sugar and salt in the sieve, and rub through on to the meal. Beat the eggs well, add the milk to them, and stir into the dry ingredients. Fry the same as Indian muffins.
One pint of milk, one quart of flour, one pint of boiled rice, three eggs, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one of soda, two of cream of tartar. Mix the sugar, salt, soda and cream of tartar with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs and add to the milk. Stir gradually into the flour. When a smooth, light paste, add the rice. Beat thoroughly. Bake thirty-five minutes in buttered pans. Three dozen muffins can be made from the quantities given.
Raised Rice Muffins.
One pint of warm milk, two cupfuls of warm boiled rice, one quart of bread flour, one teaspoonful of salt, two table-spoonfuls of butter, one-third of a cake of compressed yeast. Mix the butter, rice and milk together. Pour the mixture on the flour, and beat till a light batter is formed. Mix the yeast with four table-spoonfuls of cold water, and add it and the salt to the batter, which let rise over night in a cool place. In the morning fill buttered muffin pans two-thirds to the top, and set them in a warm place till the batter has so risen as to fill the tins. Bake thirty-five minutes. One-third of a cupful of liquid yeast may be substituted for the compressed yeast.
A pint of milk, a quart of Haxall flour, one teaspoonful of salt, two table-spoonfuls of butter, one-third of a cake of compressed yeast, or one-third of a cupful of liquid yeast; half a cupful of hominy, measured before cooking. Wash the hominy, and add a pint of boiling water. Boil one hour, stirring often. Then add the milk, salt, yeast and butter. Pour this, gradually, on the flour, beating well. Let it rise over night In the morning put in buttered muffin pans and let rise from half to three-quarters of an hour. Bake thirty-five minutes. The muffins may be put to rise in the morning for tea.
One pint of flour, one of milk, an egg, half a teaspoonful of salt. Beat the egg until light, add the milk and salt to it, and beat, gradually, into the flour. Bake twenty minutes in hot gem pans. A dozen cakes can be made with the quantities given.
One pint of fresh boiled hominy (or, cold hominy may be used; if the latter, break into grains, as lightly as possible, with a fork, and heat in a farina kettle without adding water), one table-spoonful of water, two eggs—whites and yolks beaten separately. Stir the yolks into the hominy first, then the whites, and a teaspoonful of salt, if the hominy has not been salted in cooking; or, if it has, use half a teaspoonful. Drop, in table-spoonfuls, on well-buttered tin sheets, and bake to a good brown in a quick oven.
One cupful and a half of sifted squash, half a cupful of sugar, half a cake of compressed yeast, or half a cupful of liquid yeast; one cupful of milk, half a teaspoonful of salt, four table-spoonfuls of butter, five cupfuls of flour. Dissolve the yeast in a scant half cupful of cold water. Mix it and the milk, butter, sugar, salt and squash together, and stir into the flour. Knead well, and let it rise over night In the morning shape into biscuit. Let these rise an hour and a half, and bake them half an hour.
One quart of flour, one generous pint of milk, two table-spoonfuls of sugar, two eggs, three table-spoonfuls of butter, one teaspoonful of salt, half a cake of compressed yeast. Have the milk blood warm, and add the butter, melted; the eggs, well beaten; and the yeast, dissolved in three table-spoonfuls of cold water. Pour, gradually, on the flour, and beat into a smooth batter; then add the salt and sugar. Butter baking pans, and pour in the batter to the depth of about two inches. Let it rise two hours in a warm place. Bake half an hour.
Half a pint of milk, an egg, an apple, pared, quartered, and chopped very fine; a cupful and a half of flour, one-fourth of a teaspoonful of salt, a bowl of snow. Beat the egg light, and add the milk to it. Pour gradually on the flour, and beat until smooth and light Add the apple and salt, and at the last moment the snow. Drop by spoonfuls into boiling fat, and cook until a rich brown.
One pint of sifted flour, milk enough to make a thin batter (about two-thirds of a pint), two eggs, beaten very light; a table-spoonful of melted butter, and a little salt. Gradually mix the milk with the flour until there is a smooth paste; then add the salt and butter, and lastly the eggs. Have waffle irons about as hot as a griddle for cakes, and butter them well, or grease with pork as you would a griddle. Pour in enough of the batter to cover an iron, and put the other side gently down upon it. Keep over the fire about half a minute; then turn over, and let the other side remain to the fire the same time. Remove, and place the waffles where they will keep warm until enough are cooked to serve.
Many people butter the waffles as they place them on the dish, and others add sugar. This is very well if known to be to the taste of the family, but it is always safe to let each suit himself at the table.
Waffles, No. 2.
One pint of milk, two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of butter, one teaspoonful of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, one scant pint and a half of flour. Mix the other dry ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs very light. Add the milk and the butter, which should be melted with two table-spoonfuls of boiling water. Stir into the flour.
One pint of milk, one pint and a half of flour, an egg, a teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth of a yeast cake, or one-fourth of a cupful of liquid yeast. Dissolve the yeast in two table-spoonfuls of cold water. Have the milk blood warm, and add to it the yeast, salt and the egg, well beaten. Stir gradually into the flour. Cover, and let it rise four hours. Cook as usual.
Half a cupful of Indian meal, two cupfuls of boiling milk, two eggs, one generous cupful of flour, one table-spoonful of butter, half a teaspoonful of baking powder, half a teaspoonful of salt. Pour the boiling milk on the meal and butter. Beat well, and set away to cool. Mix the other dry ingredients with, the flour, and sift. Beat the eggs, and add them and the flour to the cold mixture.
Stir two cupfuls of boiled rice into the mixture for waffles, No. 2. Hominy waffles can be made in the same way.
One cupful of Indian meal, two of flour, three of boiling milk, one- fourth of a yeast cake, or one-fourth of a cupful of liquid yeast; one teaspoonful of salt, one table-spoonful of sugar, two of butter. Have the milk boiling, and pour it on the meal and butter. When cool, add the flour, salt, sugar and the yeast, which has been dissolved in four table-spoonfuls of cold water. Let the mixture rise over night. Fry like griddle-cakes.
Two cupfuls of Graham, one of flour, two and a half of milk, one table-spoonful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, one of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, two eggs. Let half the milk come to a boil. Pour it on the Graham, and stir until perfectly smooth; then add the cold milk, and set away to cool. Mix the other dry ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. Add with the eggs, well beaten, to the Graham and milk. Rye griddle-cakes are made the same way.
One pint of flour, nearly a pint of milk, two eggs, one tea-spoonful of cream of tartar, half as much soda, four table-spoonfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, two cupfuls of sifted squash. Mix the flour with the other dry ingredients, and rub through a sieve. Beat the eggs well, add them and the milk to the squash, and pour on the flour. Beat till smooth and light. This gives a thin batter. If the cakes are liked thick a little more flour may be used. Fry as usual.
One cupful of Indian meal, one of flour, three of boiling milk, two eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, one of cream of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda, two table-spoonfuls of sugar. Have the milk boiling, and, gradually, pour it on the meal. Put the other dry ingredients with the flour, and rub through a sieve. When the scalded meal is cool, add to it the flour and the eggs, well beaten.
To a pint of warm boiled hominy add a pint of milk or water and a pint of flour. Beat two or three eggs and stir into the batter with a little salt Fry as any other griddle-cakes. They are delicious.
There is no better form in which to serve eggs than as an omelet, but so few people make a good omelet that that is one of the last things the inexperienced housekeeper or cook will attempt. Yet the making is a simple operation, the cause of failure usually being that the pan for cooking is not hot enough, and too much egg is put in at one time. When there is too much egg in the pan, one part will be cooked hard before the other is heated through. A pan measuring eight inches in diameter will cook an omelet made with four eggs; if more eggs are used, a larger pan is necessary.
Four eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, two table-spoonfuls of milk, one table-spoonful of butter. Beat the eggs with a Dover, or any other good egg beater, and add the salt and milk. Have the pan very hot. Put in the spoonful of butter and pour in the beaten egg. Shake vigorously on the hottest part of the stove until the egg begins to thicken; then let it stand a few seconds to brown. Run the knife between the sides of the omelet and the pan, fold, and turn on a hot dish. Serve without delay.
A Quaker omelet is a handsome and sure dish when care is taken in the preparation. Three eggs, half a cupful of milk, one and a half table- spoonfuls of corn-starch, one tea-spoonful of salt, one table- spoonful of butter. Put the omelet pan, and a cover that will fit closely, on to heat. Beat well together the yolks of the eggs, the corn-starch and the salt. Beat the whites to a stiff froth. Add to the well-beaten yolks and corn-starch. Stir all together very thoroughly, and add the milk. Put the butter in the hot pan. When melted, pour in the mixture. Cover, and place on the stove where it will brown, but not burn. Cook about seven minutes. Fold, turn on a hot dish, and serve with cream sauce poured around it. If the yolks and corn-starch are thoroughly beaten, and if, when the stiff whites are added, they are well mixed, and the pan and cover are very hot, there can hardly be failure.
Make the same as plain omelet, and as soon as it begins to thicken, sprinkle in three table-spoonfuls of grated cheese.
The same as plain omelet, and add three tablespoonfuls of cooked ham, chopped rather fine, as soon as it begins to thicken.
The same as plain omelet, and, just before folding, add one cupful of cooked chicken, cut rather fine, and warmed in cream sauce.
A jelly omelet is made like the others, and, just before folding, spread with any kind of jelly (currant or grape is the best, however). Fold quickly, and serve.
This is made like a plain omelet, with the addition of salt and one table-spoonful of chopped parsley. A little grated onion may be used also, if you like it.
Boil a shad roe twenty minutes in salt and water. Chop it fine, and add to it a cupful of any kind of cold fish, broken fine. Season with salt and pepper, and warm in a cupful of cream sauce. Make a plain omelet with six eggs. When ready to fold, spread the prepared fish on it. Roll up, dish, and serve immediately.
One pint of cold boiled corn, four eggs, half a cupful of milk, one teaspoonful and a half of salt, a little pepper, three table-spoonfuls of butter. Beat the eggs, and add to them the salt, pepper, milk and corn. Fry like a plain omelet.
One pint and a half of milk, four eggs, one table-spoonful of flour, one of butter, one teaspoonful of salt. Let the milk come to a boil. Mix the butter and flour together. Pour the boiling milk on the mixture, which then cook five minutes, stirring all the while. Put away to cool. When cooled, add the salt and the eggs, the yolks and whites having been beaten separately. Pour into a buttered dish, and bake twenty minutes in a quick oven. Serve at once. The dish should hold a little more than a quart.
Have one quart of boiling water and one table-spoonful of salt in a frying-pan. Break the eggs, one by one, into a saucer, and slide carefully into the salted water. Cook until the white is firm, and lift out with a griddle-cake turner and place on toasted bread. Serve immediately.
Four eggs, one table-spoonful of butter, half a teaspoonful of salt. Beat the eggs, and add the salt to them. Melt the butter in a sauce- pan. Turn in the beaten eggs, stir quickly over a hot fire for one minute, and serve.
Two eggs, two table-spoonfuls of milk, half a teaspoonful of salt, half a teaspoonful of butter. Beat the eggs, and add the salt and milk. Put the butter in a small sauce-pan, and when it melts, add the eggs. Stir over the fire until the mixture thickens, being careful not to let it cook hard. About two minutes will cook it. The eggs, when done, should be soft and creamy. Serve immediately.
Place the eggs in a warm saucepan, and cover with boiling water. Let them stand where they will keep hot, but not boil, for ten minutes. This method will cook both whites and yolks.
Soft-boiled Eggs, No. 2.
Put the eggs in boiling water, and boil three minutes and a half. By this method the white of the egg is hardened so quickly that the heat does not penetrate to the yolk until the last minute, and consequently the white is hard and the yolk hardly cooked enough. The first method is, therefore, the more healthful.
Put the eggs in hot water to cover, and boil twenty minutes. Ten minutes will boil them hard, but they are not so digestible as when boiled twenty. Ten minutes makes the yolks hard and soggy; twenty makes them light and mealy.
Cook one cupful of rice thirty minutes in two quarts of boiling water, to which has been added one table-spoonful of salt. Drain through a colander, and add one table-spoonful of butter. Spread very lightly on a hot platter. On the rice place six dropped eggs, and serve.
Eggs Sur Le Plat.
Little stone china dishes come expressly for this mode of serving eggs. Heat and butter the dish, and break into it two eggs, being careful not to break the yolks. Sprinkle lightly with salt and pepper, and drop on them half a teaspoonful of butter, broken in small pieces. Place in a moderately-hot oven until the white is set, which will be in about five minutes. There should be a dish for each person. The flavor can be changed by sprinkling a little finely-chopped ham or parsley on the plate before putting in the eggs.
Boil six eggs twenty minutes. Make one pint of cream sauce. Have six slices of toast on a hot dish. Put a layer of sauce on each one, and then part of the whites of the eggs, cut in thin strips; and rub part of the yolks through a sieve on to the toast. Repeat this, and finish with a third layer of sauce. Place in the oven for about three minutes. Garnish with parsley, and serve.
Cut six hard-boiled eggs in two. Take out the yolks and mash them fine. Add two teaspoonfuls of butter, one of cream, two or three drops of onion juice, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix all thoroughly. Fill the eggs from the mixture, and put them together. There will be a little filling left, to which add a well-beaten egg. Cover the other eggs with this last preparation, and roll in cracker crumbs. Fry in boiling lard till a light brown.
One cupful of cooked lean ham, chopped very fine; one-third of a cupful of stale bread crumbs, one-third of a cupful of milk, half a teaspoonful of mixed mustard, cayenne enough to cover a silver five- cent piece, one raw egg, and six hard-boiled. Cook the bread and milk together until a smooth paste. Add to the ham, and add the seasoning and raw egg. Mix thoroughly. Break the shells from the hard-boiled eggs, and cover with this mixture. Put in a frying basket, and plunge into boiling fat for two minutes. These are nice for lunch, tea, or picnics.
Six eggs, half a cupful of milk, or, better still, of cream; two mushrooms, one teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, three table- spoonfuls of butter, a slight grating of nutmeg. Cut the mushrooms into dice, and fry them for one minute in one table-spoonful of the butter. Beat the eggs, salt, pepper, and cream together, and put them in a saucepan. Add the butter and mushrooms to these ingredients. Stir over a moderate heat until the mixture begins to thicken. Take from the fire and beat rapidly until the eggs become quite thick and creamy. Have slices of toast on a hot dish. Heap the mixture on these, and garnish with points of toast. Serve immediately.
Calf's Liver, Braised.
Wash and wipe a calf's liver. Lard one side of it. Cover the bottom of the braising pan with slices of salt pork, using about a quarter of a pound. Cut an onion and half a carrot in small pieces, and spread over the pork. Lay the liver on this, and dredge thickly with salt, pepper and flour. Cover the pan, and place where it will cook slowly for half an hour. Add a bouquet of sweet herbs and three pints of stock or water. Put the pan in a moderate oven and cook for two hours. Baste frequently with the gravy in the pan, and salt, pepper and flour. About twenty minutes before the liver is done, add one teaspoonful of vinegar and one of lemon juice. Strain the gravy over the liver when it is dished.
Take the bones and hard, tough parts left from a roast of beef. Remove all the meat from the bones, and cut it in small pieces. Cut about a quarter of a pound of the fat of the meat in very small pieces. Put it in the stew-pan to fry. When it begins to brown, put in half a carrot, one small turnip, and two onions, cut fine. Stir over the fire for ten minutes. Take out the fat and vegetables, and put the bones in the bottom of the kettle. Add the meat and the cooked vegetables, but not the fat. Dredge well with salt, pepper, and flour, shaking in at least half a cupful of flour. Add three pints of water, and simmer gently one hour; then put in six potatoes, pared and cut in slices. Simmer one hour longer. Taste to see if seasoned enough. Draw forward where it will boil more rapidly. Stir the stew, and put in the dumplings. Cook just ten minutes. The cover of the stew-pan must fit tightly. There should be about two pounds of meat for this stew, not counting the bones.
Cold Meat with Puree of Potato.
Six good-sized potatoes, one table-spoonful of butter, one cupful of boiling milk, salt and pepper to taste. Pare and boil the potatoes, and mash light and fine. Add the butter, seasoning and boiling milk. Beat up light, and spread on a hot platter. Lay on this handsome slices of any kind of cold meat, and on each slice put a table- spoonful of hot gravy. Put a little gravy around the dish, and set in the oven for five minutes. Garnish with parsley, and serve. If there is no gravy left from the dinner of the day before, make a pint in the following manner: Put a quart of water with some of the hard pieces and bones of the meat, and boil down to one pint. Put one table- spoonful of butter in a frying-pan, and, when hot, add one table- spoonful of flour. Stir until dark brown, and strain the broth on this. Season with salt, pepper and, if you please, one spoonful of Halford sauce.
One quart of any kind of cold meat, eight large potatoes, one small onion, one cupful of boiling milk, salt, pepper, and nearly a pint of gravy or stock, thickened with one table-spoonful of flour. Season the meat and put in a deep earthen dish. Grate the onion into the gravy, and pour over the meat. Pare, boil and mash the potatoes. Add the salt, pepper and milk and one table-spoonful of butter. Cover the pie with this, and bake gently half an hour.
Shepherds' Pie, No. 2.
Cut into dice one quart of any kind of cold meat. Mince very fine two table-spoonfuls of salt pork, and add to the meat. Pare and cut into dice four large uncooked potatoes; grate or chop fine one onion; chop fine one table-spoonful of parsley. Mix, and season well with salt and pepper, and add a large cupful of water. Put in a deep earthen dish. Make a paste with four potatoes, two table-spoonfuls of butter, a large cupful of boiling milk and a pint of flour. Pare, boil and mash the potatoes; then add butter, salt and milk. When all is very light, beat in the flour, gradually. Sprinkle the board with flour, and roll the paste a little larger than the dish. Make a hole in the centre, to let out the air. Cover the dish with the paste, being careful to have the edge come inside the dish. Bake gently one hour.
Chop the meat rather coarse. Season with salt and pepper. For one pint of meat use half a cupful of gravy and a heaping cupful of bread crumbs. Put a layer of the meat in an escalop dish, then gravy, then a thin layer of crumbs; and continue this until the dish is full. The last layer should be a thick one of crumbs. Cook in a hot oven from fifteen to twenty minutes. All kinds of cold meat can be escaloped, but beef is so dry that it is not so good as mutton, veal, etc,
Curry of Cold Meat.
Three table-spoonfuls of butter, three teaspoonfuls of flour, one onion, one teaspoonful of curry powder, salt, pepper, one generous pint of stock or water, about two pounds of any kind of cold meat, cut in thin slices. Put the butter in the frying-pan, and, when hot, add the onion. When the onion turns yellow, add the flour and curry powder. Stir two minutes, add the stock or water, simmer five minutes, and strain on the meat. Simmer all together for ten minutes. Serve with a border of rice or mashed potatoes.
About a quarter of a pound of cold roasted or broiled meat, two onions, four potatoes, a quarter of a cupful of barley, one table- spoonful of flour, one quart of water, and salt and pepper to taste. Cut the meat into dice; wash the barley; cut the onions very fine. Put all in a stew-pan, and dredge with the flour, half a table-spoonful of salt, and one-eighth of a teaspoonful of pepper. Add the water, and simmer two hours. Pare and slice the potatoes. Add them to the stew, and simmer one hour longer. Taste to see if there is enough, salt and pepper, and if there is not, add more.
One pint of flour, measured before sifting; half a teaspoonful of soda, a teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one of sugar, half a teaspoonful of salt. Mix all thoroughly and run through the sieve. Wet with a small cupful of milk. Sprinkle a little flour on the board. Turn the dough (which should have been stirred into a smooth ball with a spoon) on it roll to the thickness of half an inch, cut into small cakes, and cook ten minutes.
By remembering that the soup should be boiling rapidly when the dumplings are put in; that they should not sink too deep in it; that they should boil just ten minutes; that the cover should fit tightly, so that the steam shall not escape; and that the pot boils all the time, so that the steam is kept up; and by following the other directions, success is insured.
When you put the bread on the board, pat it lightly. Do not press down, but let all motions be as elastic as possible. Knead with the palm until the dough is a flat cake, and then fold. Keep doing this until the dough is light and smooth and will not stick to the board or hands. Use as little flour as possible in kneading. Do not stop until you have fully finished, for bread that has "rested" is not good. Milk can be used instead of water in mixing. It should always be first scalded, and then allowed to cool to blood heat. One table-spoonful of lard or butter makes the bread tenderer when water is used.
In cold weather some kitchens grow cold very quickly after the fire is out. In this case the bread should be made earlier in the evening, and set in a warmer place (about eighty or ninety degrees); because if it begins to rise within the first two hours, it will continue to rise, unless the temperature falls to the freezing point. The reason for letting the rolls rise longer than the loaves is that the former, being smaller, are penetrated by heat much more quickly than the loaves are, and, of course, fermentation is stopped sooner; therefore, the rolls do not rise as much in the oven as the loaves.
Rolls should be made into smooth little balls, and should be placed in even rows in a shallow pan. Breakfast rolls, are first made into little balls and then rolled between the hands until three inches long. They are placed close together in even rows in the pan. Dinner and French rolls, after being made into little balls, are put on a well-floured board, and a little, well-floured rolling-pin, two and a half inches in diameter, is pressed nearly through their centre. The rolls are to be so placed in pans as not to touch each other. Being so small, and baking so quickly, they have a sweet taste of the wheat.
The best-sized pan for loaves is made of block tin; is eight and a half inches long, four and a half wide, and three deep. Those for wheat bread should be greased very slightly with either butter or lard. For rye, Indian, or Graham, they must be greased thoroughly, as the dough clings more to the tins. There are many kinds of bread that can be made readily and safely after once learning to make good common bread. It is difficult to give exact rules for flour, as it varies, some kinds requiring much more water than others. The "new process" flour has so much more starch, and packs so much more closely than the "old process," that one-eighth less is required, or one-eighth more of liquid; but if the flour is weighed, the same amount of water is taken for a pound of flour made by either process. The best flour is always the cheapest for bread. As there is no one article of food of so great importance for the health and happiness of the family as bread, make it as nearly perfect as possible.
Put two quarts of water and two table-spoonfuls of hops on to boil. Pare and grate six large potatoes. When the hops and water boil, strain the water on the grated potatoes, and stir well. Place on the stove and boil up once. Add half a cupful of sugar and one-fourth of a cupful of salt. Let the mixture get blood warm; then add one cupful of yeast, or one cake of compressed yeast, and let it rise in a warm place five or six hours. When well risen, turn into a stone jug. Cork this tightly, and set in a cool place. As poor yeast is the chief cause of poor bread, pains should be taken to make yeast properly and to keep it well. It must never be allowed to stand in a warm room after it has risen, and the jug in which it is kept should be carefully washed and scalded each time the yeast is renewed. As much care must be taken with the stopper as with the jug. When it is convenient to get fresh cakes of Fleischmann's compressed yeast, it will be much better and cheaper to use them than to make your own. This yeast is wholly free of any injurious substance, and with it good bread can always be made, provided the flour is good and the rules are followed.
Yeast Bread, No. 1.
With these materials two loaves can be made: Two quarts of flour, half a cupful of yeast, nearly a pint and a half of water, half a table- spoonful each of lard, sugar, and salt. Sift the flour into a bread- pan, and, after taking out a cupful for use in kneading, add the salt, sugar, yeast, and the water, which must be about blood warm (or, say one hundred degrees, if in cold weather, and about eighty in the hot season). Beat well with a strong spoon. When well mixed, sprinkle a little flour on the board, turn out the dough on this, and knead from twenty to thirty minutes. Put back in the pan. Hold the lard in the hand long enough to have it very soft. Rub it over the dough. Cover closely, that neither dust nor air can get in, and set in a warm place. It will rise in eight or nine hours. In the morning shape into loaves or rolls. If into loaves, let these rise an hour where the temperature is between ninety and one hundred degrees; if into rolls, let these rise an hour and a half. Bake in an oven that will brown a teaspoonful of flour in five minutes. (The flour used for this test should be put on a bit of crockery, as it will have a more even heat.) The loaves will need from forty-five to sixty minutes to bake, but the rolls will be done in half an hour if placed close together in the pan; and if French rolls are made, they will bake in fifteen minutes. As soon as baked, the bread should be taken out of the pans and placed on a table where it can rest against something until cool. It should then be put in a stone pot or tin box, which has been thoroughly washed, scalded and dried, and be set away in a cool, dry place.
Yeast Bread, No. 2.
One cupful of Indian meal, two quarts of flour, one pint and a half of boiling water, one table-spoonful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt, half a cake of compressed yeast. Pour the boiling water on the Indian meal. Stir well, and set away to cool. When blood warm, add the yeast, salt and sugar to it. Stir this mixture into the flour, and proceed as for yeast bread, No. I.
Bread Made with Dried Yeast.
Two quarts of flour, one yeast-cake, one generous pint of water, blood warm; one table-spoonful of sugar, one of butter, one teaspoonful of salt. Dissolve the yeast in the water, and stir gradually into one pint of the flour. Set in a warm place for two hours. It will then be risen to a sponge. Stir it into the remainder of the flour. Knead well, and put in a warm place to rise. It will rise in about five hours if the heat is about seventy-five or eighty degrees. Or, it will rise during the night in a heat of sixty degrees. In the morning treat like yeast bread, No. I.
Four cupfuls of flour, one table-spoonful of sugar, one-fourth of a cupful of butter, one cupful of boiled milk, the white of an egg, one- fourth of a cake of compressed yeast, one scant teaspoonful of salt. Dissolve the butter in the milk, which have blood warm. Beat the white of the egg to a stiff froth. Dissolve the yeast in three table- spoonfuls of cold water. Add all the other ingredients to the flour, and knead well. Let the dough rise over night, and in the morning make into balls about the size of a large English walnut. Roll each of these balls into a stick about a foot long. Use the moulding board. Place the sticks about two inches apart in long pans. Let them rise half an hour in a cool place, and bake twenty-five minutes in a very moderate oven. Sticks should be quite dry and crisp. They cannot be if baked rapidly.
With this material two loaves or two dozen muffins can be made: One pint of water or milk, one of flour, one large pint of Graham, half a cupful of yeast, half a cupful of sugar, one teaspoonful of salt. Have the milk or water blood warm, and add the yeast. Sift the flour into a deep dish. Add the milk and yeast, gradually, and beat until wholly smooth. Set in a rather cool place (about sixty degrees) to rise over night. In the morning add the salt and sugar and then the Graham, a little at a time, beating vigorously all the while. When thoroughly beaten, turn into pans, and let it rise an hour in a temperature of from 90 deg. to 100 deg.. Bake an hour.
Three cupfuls of sweet milk and one of sour, three cupfuls of Indian meal and one of flour, half a cupful of molasses, one teaspoonful of saleratus, one of salt. Steam three hours.
One cupful of rye meal, one of Indian meal, one of molasses, two of flour, one pint and a half of sour milk, a teaspoonful of soda, an egg, one teaspoonful of salt. Mix the dry ingredients together. Dissolve the soda in two table-spoonfuls of boiling water. Add it and the milk to the molasses. Stir well, and pour on the other mixed ingredients. Beat the egg and add it. Mix thoroughly, and pour into a well-buttered tin pan that holds two quarts. Steam four hours, and then put in the oven for half an hour.
Cocoa is rich in nutritive elements. Like milk, it has all the substances necessary for the growth and sustenance of the body. It is the fruit of a small tree that grows in Mexico, Central America, the West Indies and other islands. The fruit is in shape like a large, thick cucumber, and contains from six to thirty beans. There is a number of forms in which it is sold in the market, the most convenient and nutritious being chocolate. Next comes cocoa, then cocoa nibs, and lastly cocoa shells. The beans of the cocoa are roasted in the same manner as coffee. The husks or shells are taken off and the beans then ground between hot rollers. Sometimes the husks are not removed, but ground with the bean. The ground bean is called cocoa; and mixed with sugar, after being ground very fine, is termed chocolate. Vanilla is often added as a flavor. Sometimes the cocoa is mixed with starch. When the bean is broken in small pieces, these are called nibs.
To Make Cocoa.
Put a gill of the broken cocoa in a pot with two quarts of water, and boil gently three hours. There should be a quart of liquid in the pot when done. If the boiling has been so rapid that there is not this quantity, add more water, and let it boil once again. Many people prefer half broken cocoa and half shells. If the stomach is delicate, this is better than all cocoa. Sugar and milk are used, as with coffee.
Use twice the quantity of shells that you would of broken cocoa, and boil twice as long.
Scrape fine an ounce (one of the small squares) of Baker's or any other plain chocolate. Add two table-spoonfuls of sugar, and put in a small saucepan with a table-spoonful of hot water. Stir over a hot fire for a minute or two, until it is perfectly smooth and glossy, and then stir it all into a quart of boiling milk, or half milk and half water. Mix thoroughly, and serve at once. If the chocolate is wanted richer, take twice as much chocolate, sugar, and water. Made in this way, chocolate is perfectly smooth, and free of oily particles. If it is allowed to boil after the chocolate is added to the milk, it becomes oily and loses its fine flavor.
There is a variety of coffees; but, unlike the teas, they do not owe their difference of flavor or color to the curing, but to the soil and climate in which they grow. Coffee grows on small trees. The fruit is something like the cherry, but there are two seeds in it. The beans are separated by being bruised with a heavy roller, and are then washed and dried. The longer the raw berry is kept the riper and better flavored it becomes. In countries where coffee is grown the leaves are used as much as the berry. Like tea, coffee must be roasted, that the fine flavor shall be developed. There are large establishments for roasting and grinding coffee. The work is done by machinery; and nearly always the grains arc evenly roasted, and just enough to give the right flavor. If the coffee, after roasting, is put in close tin cans, it will retain its best qualities for a long time. It can be ground when needed for use. Many persons think that heating the dry coffee just before making improves the flavor. There are many modes of making coffee, each having its advantages and disadvantages. Some people think that by first wetting the coffee with cold water, and letting it come to a boil, and by then adding the boiling water, more of the strength of the coffee is extracted. When there is not cream for coffee the milk should be boiled, as it makes the coffee richer. As soon as the milk boils up it should be taken off of the stove, since it grows strong and oily by much boiling. To many people it is injurious to drink coffee; but physicians say that, taken without milk, it is harmless. Some element of the coffee combines with the milk to form a leathery coating on the stomach, which impairs digestion. A great many substances are mixed with coffee, when sold, to cheapen it,—chicory, beans, peas, rye, and wheat being the commonest. To obtain it pure, the safest way is to buy it unground, unless you purchase of a strictly honest dealer. Coffee drinkers, as a rule, eat less than other people, though coffee, and also tea, have little direct food value; but they retard the waste of the tissues, and so take the place of food. The sugar and milk used with them give some nutriment.
The old method of boiling coffee is still practised by at least one- half the housekeepers in this country. The coffee is sometimes boiled with an egg, which makes it perfectly clear, and also enriches it. When an egg is not used a small piece of salt fish skin is boiled with the coffee to clear it.
Directions for making: A small cupful of roasted and ground coffee, one-third Mocha and two-thirds Java; a small egg, shell and all, broken into the pot with the dry coffee. Stir veil with a spoon, and then pour on three pints of boiling water. Let it boil from five to ten minutes, counting from the time it begins to boil. As soon as it has boiled enough, pour in a cupful of cold water, and turn a little of the coffee into a cup, to see that the nozzle of the pot is not filled with grounds. Turn this back, and let the coffee stand a few moments to settle, taking care that it does not boil again. The advantages of boiled coffee are that when the egg is used the yolk gives a very rich flavor, and when the milk or cream is added the coffee has a rich, yellow look, which is pleasing. It has also a peculiar flavor, which many people prefer to the flavor gained by any other process. The disadvantages are that the egg coats the dry coffee, and when the hot water is added the coating becomes hard, and a great deal of the best of the coffee remains in the grounds after boiling. Also, in boiling, much of the fine flavor is lost in the steam that escapes from the pot.
Another—and really the most economical and the easiest—way of making coffee is by filtering. The French coffee biggin is valuable for this. It consists of two cylindrical tin vessels, one fitting into another, and the bottom of the upper being a fine strainer. Another coarser strainer, with a rod running from the centre, is placed upon this. Then the coffee, which must be finely-ground, is put in, and another strainer is placed at the top of the rod. The boiling water is poured on, and the pot set where it will keep hot, but not boil, until the water has gone through. This will make a clear, strong coffee, with a rich, smooth flavor. The advantage of the two extra strainers is that the one coming next to the fine strainer prevents the grounds from filling up the fine holes, and so the coffee is clear, and made more easily. The upper strainer causes the boiling water to fall on the coffee like rain. In this way it is more evenly distributed, and the fine coffee is not carried through the fine strainer, as it would be if the water were poured directly on the dry coffee. When milk or cream is added to filtered coffee it does not turn a rich yellow, as in the case of that boiled with an egg. A few spoonfuls of this coffee, without sugar or milk, taken after dinner, is said to help digestion.
A quartet of a cupful of boiled milk. Add three table-spoonfuls of whipped cream, and fill up with filtered coffee.
Cafe au Lait.
This is simply one pint of filtered coffee added to one pint of milk that has come just to the boiling point.
Another mode of preparing coffee is to steam it. The coffee is put in a pot and boiling water poured on it. This pot, which is made to fit into a tea-kettle, is placed in the kettle, and the coffee is cooked from ten to twenty minutes, the water in the kettle boiling all the time. This will make a clear and delicious drink.
There are three varieties of the tea plant; both black and green tea can be prepared from them all. Green tea is made from leaves which are dried quickly, and black from leaves which have first been allowed to stand twelve hours or more before roasting. The leaves wilt and grow moist in that time, and that is what gives the dark and peculiar appearance to this tea. In making tea the pot should be earthen, rinsed with boiling water and left to stand a few moments on the stove, to dry. Put in the tea leaves, and let the pot stand a few minutes longer. Pour on boiling water, leaving the pot standing where it will be at the boiling point, yet will not boil, for from three to five minutes. For moderate strength use one teaspoonful of tea to half a pint of water. If the water is soft it should be used as soon as it boils, for boiling causes all the gases which flavor the water to escape; but if the water is hard it is best to boil from twenty to thirty minutes. The gases escape from hard water also, but boiling causes the mineral matter, which hardens the water, to settle on the bottom of the kettle, and the water becomes softer.
Good lemonade can be made with half a pint of lemon juice (extracted with a squeezer, and strained), three pints of water and a generous pint of sugar. Have the drink cold. Hot lemonade is highly recommended for a cold. A glass can be made with the juice of a lemon, one large table-spoonful of sugar and a cupful of boiling water. Drink it hot.
To Blanch Almonds.
Shell the nuts, and pour boiling water over them. Let them stand in the water a minute, and then throw them into cold water. Rub between the hands.
To Corn Beef.
For fifty pounds of beef make a pickle with two gallons of water, four pounds of salt, one and a half pounds of brown sugar, one and a half ounces of saltpetre, half an ounce of saleratus. Put these ingredients on to boil, and when they boil, skim, and put away to cool. When cold, put the beef in it. Put weights on the meat, to keep it under the brine.
To Scrape Chocolate.
If only one square of chocolate is needed, draw a line across the two squares at the end, dividing them in halves. With a sharp knife, shave off the chocolate until you come to the line. By this method there is no waste of time or material. If you want two or more squares, all that is necessary is, of course, to shave off until you come to the dividing line already there. The pound packages of Baker's chocolate consist of two cakes, each of which has eight squares; so one of these squares is an ounce.
To Use the Salamander.
The salamander is a circular iron plate, to which is attached a long handle. It is made red hot in the fire and held over the article to be browned, being careful not to have it touch. If you have not a salamander the fire shovel can be heated and used in the same way; but the shovel is not improved by the operation.
To Clean English Currants.
Pick all the stones, bits of dirt and long stems from the currants. Add one pint of flour to two quarts of currants, and rub well between the hands. This starts the stems and dirt from the fruit. Put about a pint of currants in the flour sieve and rub them until all the flour has passed through; then put them in the colander and shake until the stems have passed through. When all the fruit has been treated in this manner, put it in a large pan of cold water. Wash thoroughly, and drain in the colander. Repeat this operation three times. When the fruit is well drained, spread it on boards or flat dishes and dry in a warm place. Put away in jars.
To Remove Jellies and Creams from Moulds.
Have in a pan water enough (a little more than blood warm) to come to the top of the mould. If the mould is tin, set it in this for about half a minute; if earthen, keep it in long enough to have the heat pass through the mould. Wipe the mould, place over it the dish into which the jelly is to be turned, and turn both dish and mould simultaneously. Let the mould rest a moment before lifting it gently from the jelly.
To Whip Cream.
Very rich or very poor cream will not whip well. When too rich it turns to butter, and when too poor the froth becomes liquid almost as soon as it has been skimmed. Thick cream, that will hardly pour, should have an equal quantity of milk added to it before whipping. Such cream as one gets from the milkman will rarely be found too rich for whipping. It is more likely to be the other way; and one is often disappointed in finding it too poor to froth. The cream should be ice cold.
Have a large bowl or tin pail, rather narrow at the bottom. Place this in a pan of ice water. Have a bright tin pan in another of ice water. Put the cream in the bowl and put the whip churn in this. Hold the churn with the left hand, tipping it slightly, that the cream may flow out at the bottom. With the right hand draw the dasher lightly about half way up the cylinder; then press down hard. It must not be forgotten that the up stroke is light and the down stroke is hard. When the bowl is full, skim the froth into a tin pan. Continue this until nearly all the cream has been whipped. Draw the froth in the pan to one side, and turn the liquid cream at the bottom of the pan back into the bowl. Whip it again. A little of the cream will always become liquid again.
When the cream is for whips, or for a garnish for frozen pudding or Bavarian creams, sweeten it, and flavor with anything you please, before whipping. If the cream is very rich a Dover beater will whip it, but there is nothing that will whip cream so quickly and so well as the whip churn described in the chapter on Kitchen Furnishing.
To Boil Sugar.
The degrees of boiling sugar are variously divided by different cooks. Some give six and others as high as eight. The Stench boil sugar for nearly all their desserts. For all practical purposes a cook need understand only three stages. Put one cupful of granulated or loaf sugar and half a cupful of water on to boil. When the mixture has boiled fifteen minutes, dip the fore-finger and thumb in cold water and take up a little of the syrup between them. If, upon drawing them apart, the syrup forms a thread, it is at the second degree. This is the best stage for frozen fruits, sherbets, and preserves.
If, a little later, when some syrup is taken up with a spoon and blown hard, it flies off in tiny bubbles, it is at the fourth degree, called the souffle. It takes about twenty minutes' boiling for this. The syrup is then used for biscuit glace and various kinds of creams. At this stage it also gives sherbets and fruits a much richer flavor than when used at the second degree.
If, when a little syrup is taken up on the point of a stick or skewer, and dipped in cold water, it breaks off brittle, the sixth degree has been reached. This is the stage where it is used for icing fruit and cake, the dish being called fruit glace or gateau glace. The syrup must never be stirred, as this will cause it to grain. Great care must be taken that it does not boil after coming to the sixth degree, as it burns quickly after that point is reached.
To Make and Use a Pastry Bag.
Fold a piece of strong cotton cloth (perhaps a foot square) from the opposite corners, so as to give it a triangular shape. On one side sew together the two edges, thus making a bag shaped like a "dunce's cap." Cut the cloth at the apex just enough to permit a short tin tube, somewhat like a tailor's thimble, to be pushed through. The tube for eclairs measures about three-fourths of an inch at the smallest opening; that for lady-fingers is three-eighths of an inch, and that for meringues and kisses, half an inch. The tubes for decorating with frosting are very small.
Fill the bag with the mixture to be forced through, and gather the cloth together at the top with the left hand. Hold the point of the tube close to the pan on which the mixture is to be spread. Press the mixture out with the right hand. If the cakes are to be large use a good deal of pressure, but if to be small, very little will do. At first, it will be hard to get the shapes, but with a little practice it will seem comparatively easy.
To Make Paper Cases.
This is not difficult, if one will carefully study for a moment the diagram below and the directions following:
Cut the paper on the dark lines—(there are eight).
Crease on every dotted line.
At each end turn the parts lettered A over that lettered B, so that the lines c rest on the line d, and one A overlaps the other.
Fold the parts B up against the backs of the parts A.
Fold inward those parts of the edges which are lightly shaded, and fold outward those which are heavily shaded.
Stick the parts of the box together with the white of an egg mixed with a little flour.
Remember that it is a box that is to be made, and after the first two steps it may be easy to guess how to complete the work. By tracing a copy of the diagram one obtains a good model one quarter of the size the case should be; that is, the square should be five inches on a side instead of two and one-half. After experimenting with this the shape may be varied to suit the taste. Stiff white paper should be used. Cases can be bought of restaurateurs. They are used for biscuit glace, biscuit souffle, and other dainties.
Larding is a simple operation. The pork should be firm and young (salt, of course). Cut thin, even slices parallel with the rind, and cut these in long, narrow strips that will fit into the needle. For beef, veal, turkey or chicken the strips should be about as large round as a lead pencil, and about three and a half inches long; and for birds, chops, and sweetbreads they should be about as large round as a match. Three slices are all that can be cut from one piece of pork, because when you get more than an inch away from the rind, the pork is so tender that it will break when in the needle.
Put the strips in a bowl of broken ice, to harden. Have the meat, if beef or veal, free of skin and gristle. Put a strip (also called a lardoon) into the needle as far as it will go. With a skewer or knife draw a line on both sides of the meat and along the upper part. Thrust the needle into the meat at one of the side lines; and when it is about half way through to the top of the piece, press the steel slightly with the thumb and fore-finger, to hold the lardoon in place until it has entered the meat. Now push the needle through to the top, and gently draw it out, leaving about three-quarters of an inch of the strip exposed at both the side and upper part of the meat That part of the pork which is hidden should be half an inch under the surface. The needle's course is as if it started under the eaves of a gable roof and came out at the ridge-pole. Continue until all the rows are filled with lardoons. Two rows are enough for a fillet of beef. If the strips are too large for the needle they will be pressed out as soon as the lower part of the needle enters the meat.
The meat and vegetables for stews should, when it is possible, be browned in a little fat, and hot water should then be added. As soon as the stew comes to the boiling point, skim it, and set back where it will just simmer, not boil, the given time. The pieces of meat in a stew should come to the table whole and tender and juicy, and they will be in this condition only with slow cooking.
Braising is one of the best modes of preparing meat. There are pans expressly for braising; but any deep tin, sheet-iron, or granite-ware pan, with a cover, will answer quite well. The meat to be cooked must always be browned in some kind of fat, the vegetables fried in the same fat, and enough stock (if possible) or water be added to half cover the meat. The pan should then be covered and placed in the oven. The meat must cook slowly and thoroughly, and be basted frequently. No matter how tough, if properly braised it will become tender and juicy. If, however, the cooking is hurried the dish will be spoiled.
There are two modes of frying. One is to have just enough fat to prevent the article from burning or sticking; and the other is to have enough not only to cover the food, but to float it. The latter is by far the better way, as all the surface of the article is instantly hardened, and, therefore, will not absorb fat. It is also the cheaper way, because the fat can be used so many times. If the drippings saved from meats, soups and gravies should not be enough for frying purposes, buy pure lard to use with it. Many recommend buying beef suet for this same purpose; but food fried in suet is more liable to absorb fat than that fried in lard. The reason of this is that lard can be heated to a higher temperature without burning than can beef or any of the other fats. Butter is also often recommended for frying. If used, it should be free of salt. But aside from being so expensive, it is not so nice for frying purposes as fats, for it burns at a much lower temperature than either beef fat or lard. The Scotch kettle is the best utensil for frying. It rests on a rim, which lifts the bottom from the stove, and the inside surface is polished very smooth; therefore, the fat is less liable to burn than if the surface were rough and the bottom rested on the hot stove. The fat should heat gradually; and when the food is plunged into it a slight smoke should rise from the centre. It will smoke at the sides some time before it has become hot enough for frying. After the food has been put in, let the kettle stand on the hottest part of the stove until it regains its former temperature, and then set it back where it is not quite so hot. In frying fish-balls, doughnuts, etc., put only a few at a time in the boiling fat; then wait a few moments for the fat to regain its former temperature, and put in a few more. Fish-balls are often spoiled by the putting of a great many in the kettle at once. The temperature of the fat is instantly reduced, and the balls absorb the fat. When an article of food is fried, drain the fat from it, and lay it on a sheet of brown paper in a warm pan. The paper will absorb any fat that may remain on the food. As soon as you are through frying, take the fat from the fire, and when cooled a little, strain it, (See the chapter on the Care of Food.) If the directions given are followed, there will be no difficulty in having food fried without its being saturated with grease.
The dishes on which meats, fish, jellies and creams are placed should be large enough to leave a margin of an inch or so between the food and the lower edge of the border of the dish.
It is well to pour the sauce for cold puddings around the pudding, especially if there will be a contrast in color.
It is a great improvement to have the sauce poured around the article instead of over it, and to have the border of the dish garnished with bits of parsley, celery tops or carrot leaves.
When sauce is poured around meat or fish the dish must be quite hot, or the sauce will cool quickly.
Small rolls or sticks of bread are served with soup. Potatoes and bread are usually served with fish, but many people prefer to serve only bread. Butter is not served at the more elegant dinners. Two vegetables will be sufficient in any course. Cold dishes should be very cold, and hot dishes hot.
It is a good idea to have a dish of sliced lemons for any kind of fish, and especially for those broiled or fried.
Melons, cantelopes, cucumbers and radishes, and tomatoes, when served in slices, should all be chilled in the ice chest.
Be particular not to overdo the work of decorating. Even a simple garnish adds much to the appearance of a dish, but too much decoration only injures it. Garnishes should be so arranged as not to interfere with serving.
Potato-balls and thin fried potatoes make a nice garnish for all kinds of fried and broiled meats and fish.
Cold boiled beets, carrots and turnips, and the whites of hard-boiled eggs, stamped out with a fancy vegetable cutter, make a pretty garnish for cold or hot meats.
Thin slices of toast, cut into triangles, make a good garnish for many dishes.
Whipped cream is a delicate garnish for all Bavarian dreams, blanc- manges, frozen puddings and ice creams.
Arrange around jellies or creams a border of any kind of delicate green, like smilax or parsley, or of rose leaves, and dot it with bright colors—pinks, geraniums, verbenas or roses. Remember that the green should be dark and the flowers small and bright. A bunch of artificial rose leaves, for decorating dishes of fruit at evening parties, lasts for years. Natural leaves are preferable when they can be obtained.
Wild roses, buttercups and nasturtiums, if not used too freely, we suitable for garnishing a salad.
BILLS OF FARE.
What to set before guests at the table, or, indeed, before one's own family, is sometimes a perplexing matter for housekeepers to decide, and a few bills of fare are given on the following pages as an aid. The number of dishes can readily be increased or diminished. Any of the company dinners can be prepared at home almost as easily as an ordinary dinner, success depending not upon a great number of dishes, but upon a few well cooked and well served, and a hostess apparently free from care.
A great part of any company dinner can be prepared the day before. The vegetables can be prepared and put in cold water, the game or meat be larded, the meat or fish cooked for croquettes and salads, the salad dressing made ready, and jellies, creams and cold puddings be made. If a clear soup (and that is always best) is to be served, it also should be made. In the morning the bread and cake can be baked, and the fish and other dishes prepared. Early in the afternoon freeze the creams and sherbets.
Make a list of the principal dishes. With each dish have a list of the vegetables, sauces or other things to be served, and the time for serving. This will insure the dishes being ready at the proper moment. Have the plates and other dishes counted and ready to warm—and, by the way, arrange to have these and the silver washed where the noise cannot reach the guests.
Twelve seems to be a good number of people for a dinner party. But very little increase in the quantity of material will be required if the number should be as large as sixteen or eighteen. Fox six or eight the quantity of soup, oysters, creams, sherbets and coffee, can be diminished one-third, but that of meats and fish should not be much smaller. It is supposed that the coffee will be served in small cups. Although it is usually drunk clear, cream and sugar should be offered with it.
People differ as to the kinds of breakfast required. Many believe in the French custom of having only chocolate or coffee, rolls, and perhaps eggs in some form. Again, others believe in and require a substantial breakfast. There is no limit to the variety of dishes that can be prepared for breakfast and tea if the cook has taste and judgment in using the remains of meats, fish and vegetables left from dinner. Either oatmeal or hominy should always be served at breakfast. When it is possible, have fruit for the first course.
Oatmeal and Cream.
Coffee, Tea or Chocolate.
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Broiled Ham. Omelet.
Graham Muffins. Toast.
Coffee or Tea.
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DINNERS FOR TWELVE.
Clear Soup (five pints).
Fish (four or five pounds, baked, boiled, or escaloped).
Bread, and Potatoes if you like.
Chicken Croquettes, or any kind of Patties.
Fillet of Beef, Larded (two and a half to three pounds), with Mushroom Sauce.
Green Peas (two quarts, if fresh, or two cans of French peas).
Lettuce Salad (French dressing; two large heads of lettuce).
A Cold Pudding. Ice Cream (one gallon). Cake.
The cost of a dinner like this, when prepared at home, depends somewhat upon the market, but will rarely exceed twenty-five dollars.
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Oysters on a Block of Ice (two quarts).
Consomme a la Royale (five pints).
Baked Fish (five pounds), Hollandaise Sauce (double the rule).
Cheese Souffle (double the rule).
Roast Chicken (nine to twelve pounds).
Mashed Potatoes (twelve).
Green Peas (two quarts or two cans).
Celery. Cranberry Jelly.
Oyster Patties (fourteen).
Lettudfe Salad (two heads of lettuce with French dressing).
Water Crackers (a dozen and a half).
Neufchatel Cheese (two packages).
Orange Sherbet (three quarts).
Frozen Cabinet Pudding (the rule given), Apricot Sauce.
Glace Meringue (the rule given). Sponge Cake. Fruit.
Coffee (the rule for filtered coffee).
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Potage a la Reine (five pints).
Sardine Canapees (two dozen). Olives.
Roast Turkey (about eight pounds), Chestnut Stuffing and Sauce.
Macaroni, a l'Italienne (twice the rule).
Plain Boiled Potatoes.
Lettuce Salad (two large heads).
Custard Souffle (twice the rule), Creamy Sauce.
Frozen Pudding (the rule given).
Lemon Sherbet Cake.
Coffee (three pints of filtered).
Crackers and Cheese.
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Oyster Soup (two quarts).
Smelts a la Tartare (three dozen).
Chicken Vol-au-Vent (a large one).
Rolled Rib Roast (about twelve pounds).
Polish Sauce. Grape Jelly.
Cauliflower, with Cream Sauce.
Rice Croquettes (two dozen).
Larded Grouse with Bread Sauce (three grouse).
Potatoes, a la Parisienne.
Dressed Celery (two heads).
Royal Diplomatic Pudding (the rule given).
Raspberry Sherbet (three quarts).
Vanilla Ice Cream (three quarts).
Coffee (three pints of the filtered).
Crackers and Cheese.
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Meg Merrilies' Soup.
Larded Grouse, Bread Sauce and Crumbs.
Broiled Quail on Toast, Currant Jelly.
Roast Loin of Venison, Game Sauce.
Cauliflower, with Cream Sauce.
Roast Ducks, Olive Sauce.
Potatoes a la Parisienne.
Crackers and Cheese.
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SUPPER FOR FIFTY.
Boned Turkey (one).
Tongue in Jelly (two).
Chicken Salad (six quarts).
Escaloped Oysters (six quarts).
Two quarts of olives.
One hundred small rolls, buttered.
Fifty Sardine Sandwiches.
Jelly (four moulds).
Orange Bavarian Cream (four moulds). Frozen Pudding (three gallons).
Chocolate Ice Cream (two gallons).
Vanilla (ten quarts).
Pistachio (ten quarts).
Mixed Cake (three baskets).
Coffee (twelve quarts).
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CHILDREN'S PARTY (FIFTY).
Buttered Slices of Bread.
Richmond Maids of Honor.
Gateau St. Honore.
Dominos and other Small Cakes.
Vanilla and Chocolate Ice Cream.
Candies and Fruit.
The meat for the sandwiches should be chopped fine. The rolls must be small, and the buttered bread should be cut in thin slices, two slices be put together, and then be cut into long strips or little squares. There should be one hundred sandwiches, seventy-five rolls, one hundred dices of bread, forty maids of honor, six dishes of gateau St. Honore two gallons of each kind of ice cream, and a generous supply of small cakes, candies and fruit.
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Spinach. Fricandeau of Veal. Mashed Potatoes.
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Boiled Haddock, Lobster Sauce.
Chicken Croquettes, Cream Sauce.
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Broiled Halibut, Maitre d'Hotel Butter.
French Fried Potatoes.
Ground Rice Pudding.
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Turbot a la Creme.
Cold Roast Beef with Puree of Potatoes.
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Mock Bisque Soup.
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Boiled Blue Fish, Maitre d' Hotel Butter.
Veal Cutlets, White Sauce.
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Salmon, White Sauce.
Strawberry Bavarian Cream.
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Green Pea Soup.
Braised Fillet of Beef.
Potatoes a la Parisienne.
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Cream of Barley Soup.
Fried Egg Plant.
Blanquette of Chicken In a Rice Border.
Strawberry Ice Cream.
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Roast Lamb, Mint Sauce.
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Baked Fish, Tomato Sauce.
Sweetbreads, Cream Sauce.
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Boiled Fish, Egg Sauce.
Roast Ducks, Game Sauce.
French Fried Potatoes.
Eve's Pudding, Wine Sauce.
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Fried Smelts, Tartare Sauce.
Boiled Turkey, Oyster Sauce.
Macaroni a l'italienne.
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Baked Fish, Hollandaise Sauce.
Salmis of Turkey in a Potato Border.
Stewed Celery with Cream Sauce.
Apple and Rice Pudding.
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Macaroni with Tomato Sauce.
Baked Sweet Potatoes.
Cabinet Pudding, Creamy Sauce.
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Beef Stew with Dumplings.
Mutton Cutlets, Tomato Sauce.
Thin Fried Potatoes.
Blanc-Mange with Cream.
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Boiled Fowl, Bechamel Sauce.
Beef Steak, Brown Oyster or Mushroom Sauce.
Potatoes a la Parisienne.
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Cream of Rice Soup.
Baked Cod, Tomato Sauce.
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Cusk, a la Creme, Boiled Potatoes.
Roast Leg of Mutton, Currant Jelly.
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Mutton with Puree of Potatoes.
Macaroni with Cheese.
Apple Tapioca Pudding.
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Aitchbone Apple parer Back of the rump Bain-marie Bain-marie pan Baked fish, Hollandaise sauce Basting spoon Bird roaster Boning knife Bread grater Bread pans Brown bread tin Buckets Cake box Carcass of mutton Carving knife and fork Chuck ribs Coffee biggin Coffee pot Colander Confectioner's tube Crown moulds Devilled lobster Double boiler Double broilers Dover egg beater Dripping pan Escalop shell Face of the rump Fillet of beef, mushroom sauce First five ribs Fore-quarter of beef French cook's knife French frying-pan French pie mould French roll pans Frying basket Garnishing knife Hind-quarter of beef Ice cream freezer Jagging iron Jellymoulds Knife box Ladle Lady's fingers pans Larding and trussing needles Leg of mutton Lemon squeezer Lobster salad Loin of beef Long rump steak Meatrack Melon mould Milk pan Muffin pan Paper cases Potato slicer Quart measure Rattle-ran Rice mould Round of beef Round pudding mould Royal diplomatic pudding Rump Rump, showing end which joins the round Rump steak, out with the grain Saddle of mutton and French chops Saucepan Scotch kettle Shortfillet Short rump steak Sirloin roast, second cut Skewers Spice box Squash strainer Steamer for pot Steamer for tea-kettle Stew-pan Tea caddy Tin kitchen Vegetable cutter Vegetable scoop Whip churn Wooden boxes
Almond Bavarian cream, ice cream, pudding.
Almonds, To blanch
Apple and Indian pudding, and rice pudding, charlotte, fritters, ginger, meringue pudding, porcupine, pudding, Baked pudding, Dutch souffle, tapioca pudding,
Apple, Pickled sweet
Apricot ice cream,
Asparagus, salad, and salmon salad, soup, with cream,
Bacon dressing for salads,
Banana ice cream,
Barberry jelly, ketchup.
Batter and fruit pudding,
Bavarian cream, Almond Chocolate Coffee Orange Peach Pineapple Strawberry
Beef, see "Marketing" in Index, Alamode Boiled corned Braised Cannelon of fillet, a l'Allemande, a la Hollandaise, in jelly, larded, How to corn Macaronied olives, Potted roasted, with Yorkshire pudding roulette, salad, steak, broiled, stew, tongue, Braised in jelly.
Bills of Fare, Breakfest, Children's party, Dinners for twelve, Family Dinners. Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter, Game dinner. Supper for fifty,
Bird's nest pudding
Black bean soup,
Blanc-mange, Chocolate made with, gelatine, isinglass, sea moss farina,
Blanquette of chicken, of veal and ham,
Boiled salad dressing,
Border, Jelly Potato Rice
BREAD, Brown fried for soups, Graham made with dried yeast, sauce, Sticks, Togus Yeast
BREAKFAST AND TEA. Breaded sausages. Cakes, Corn Flannel Gems, Griddle cakes, Graham Hominy Indian Squash Hominy drop cakes. Sally Lunn, Snow pan-cakes. Waffles, Indian Raised Rice Canapees, Chicken cutlets, in jelly, livers and bacon, livers in papillotes, livers, saute, Corn pie, EGGS, bruille Creamed Dropped Hard-boiled Omelets, Poached Scotch Scrambled Soft-boiled Spanish Stuffed sur le plat, Ham and eggs on toast, Ham croquettes, Hominy, Kidneys, a la maitre d'hotel, Broiled saute, Stewed Liver and bacon, Broiled Curry of fried in crumbs, saute, saute, with piquant sauce, Lyonnaise tripe, Meat and potato sandwiches, fritters, hash, Minced veal and eggs, Muffins, Corn, English, Fried Indian, Graham, Hominy, Raised, Rice, Rye, Mutton, rechauffe, Oat meal, Strawberry short-cake, Vegetable hash, Welch rare-bit,
Brier Hill dessert,
Brown broad ice cream,
Cabbage, Minced, salad,
Cafe au lait,
CAKE, Ames, Angel, Black, Caramel frosting for, Chocolate, eclairs, icing, Composition, Cookies, Corn, Raised Thin Demon Dominoes Eclairs, Federal, Frosting for Gingerbread, Canada Fairy Hard Soft Gold Golden frosting for Hermits, Jelly roll, Jumbles, Lady-fingers, Lady's, Loaf, Marking in gold, Molasses pound, Nut, Orange, Plum, kneaded, Queen's, Railroad, Regatta, Ribbon, Rice, Seed cakes, Shrewsbury cakes, Silver, Snow-flake, Sponge, drops, for charlotte russe, rusks, Sunshine, Taylor, Vanilla eclairs, Viennois, Wedding, White fruit,
Calf's foot jelly,
Caramel, frosting, ice cream,
CARE OF FOOD,
Cauliflower, Escaloped Pickled salad, with cream sauce,
Celery, salad, sauce, soap, stewed in stock, with cream sauce,
Chartreuse of chicken, of chicken and macaroni, of oysters, of vegetables and game,
Cheese souffle, soup,
Chickens, a la matelote, a la reine, a la Tartare, Blanquette of Broiled Chartreuse of chaud-froid, croquettes, curry, cutlets, fillets, force-meat, Fried fritters, in jelly, livers and bacon, in papillotes, saute, patties, pie, pillau, Potted quenelles, Roasted salad, souffle, stew with dumplings, Vol-au-vent of
Chocolate, Bavarian cream, "blanc" mange, cake, eclairs, ice cream, icing, pie, pudding, souffle, To scrape whips,
Chops, Broiled mutton
Chowder, Corn Fish
Cider apple jelly,
Cocoa, To make
Cocoanut ice cream,
Cod, in puree of potatoes, Matelote of To cook salt with lobster sauce, Boiled
Coffee, Boiled Cafe au lait, Filtered Steamed Vienna
Coffee Bavarian cream, ice cream, jelly,
Consomme a la royal,
Corn, cake, chowder, oysters, pie, pudding, soup,
Cream a la Versailles, fritters, meringue, of barley soup, of celery soup, of rice soup, of tartar, salad dressing, sauces, To whip
Croquettes, Chicken Lobster Oyster Potato Rice Rice and meat Royal Salmon Shad roe
Croustade, Oyster To make a
Crumbs, To fry (under Bread Sauce)
Currant jelly, jelly sauce, sherbet,
Currants, English Preserved Spiced
Curry, of chicken, of lobster, of veal,
Cusk, a la creme,
Custards, Soft, Soft caramel,
Cutlets, a la duchesse, Game, a la royale, Lobster, Mutton, served in papillotes, Veal,
DESSERT. Apple charlotte, Bavarian creams, Biscuit Glace, Blanc-mange, Bombe Glacee, Brier Hill Dessert, Charlotte russe, Chocolate whips, Cream a la versailles, Cream meringues, Fanchonettes, Frozen apricots, peaches, pudding, raspberries, strawberries, Fruit Glace, Gateau St. Honore, Glace Meringue, Ice Cream, Jellies, Kisses, Kiss wafers, Nesselrode pudding, Richmond maids of honor, Royal cream, Sherbets, Soft custards, Souffle, Chocolate, Omelet, a la creme, Omelet, a la poete, Orange, Surprise, Sponges,
Directions for freezing,
Down East pudding,
Dressings for salads,
DRINKS, Chocolate, Cocoa, Coffee, Lemonade, Shells, Tea,
Eclairs, Chocolate, Vanilla,
ECONOMICAL DISHES. Barley stew, Beef stew, Calf's liver, Braised, Cold meats with puree of potato, Curry of cold meats, Dumplings, Escaloped meat, Shepherd's pies,
Eels, a la Tartare, Stewed,
Egg balls for soups, plant, Fried, sauce,
EGGS, brouille, Creamed, Dropped, Hard-boiled, Omelets, Poached, Scotch, Scrambled, Soft-boiled, Spanish, Stuffed, sur la plat,
English currants, To clean,
ENTREES. Alamode beef, Beef olives, Beef roulette, Blanquette of chicken, of veal and ham, Braised tongue, Cannelon of beef, Chartreuse of chicken, of chicken and macaroni, of vegetable and game, Cheese souffle, Chicken, chaud-froid, Curry of fillet, Braised Fried in jelly, pie, pillau, quenelles, souffle, Cold game pie, Croquettes, Croustade, To make a Cutlets, Escaloped tongue, Fillets, Fricandelles of veal, Fritters, Galatine of turkey, of veal, Lambs' tongues in jelly, Macaronied beef, Ox-tails, Pancakes, Pasties of game and poultry, Pate de fois gras, Patties, Potato border, Ragouts of mutton and veal, Rice border, Rissoles, Salmis of game, Stewed lambs' tongues, Stewed steak with oysters, Sweetbreads, Tongue in jelly, Veal, Curry of olives, quenelles, Vol-au-vents,
Fig ice cream, pudding,
Fillet of beef, of chicken, of tongue, of veal, To remove a
FISH, See "Marketing" in Index. a la vinaigrette, au gratin, Baked, balls, Boiled cod with lobster sauce, Court-bouillon, haddock with lobster sauce, Broiled halibut, chowder, Crabs, Cusk a la creme, Eels, Escaloped force-meat, Fried Lobsters, Matelots of cod, Oysters, salad, Salmon, Salt cod in puree of potato, To cook Salt fish souffle, with dropped eggs, Sauces for Smelts, Stewed Terrapins, stewed, Turbot a la creme,
FOOD, CARE OF
Force-meat, Chicken Fish, for game, Ham Veal
Fowl, Boiled, with macaroni, with pork,
French dressing for salads, paste for soups,
Fricandeau of veal,
Fricandelles of veal,
Fritters, Apple Batter for Chicken Clam Cream Fruit Meat Oyster Potato
Frosting, Caramel Chocolate Golden
Frozen apricots, cabinet puddings, peaches, pudding, raspberries, strawberries,
Fruit cake, White
GAME, cutlets, a la royale, Force-meat for Goose, roasted, Grouse, larded, Partridges, larded, pie, Pigeons, broiled, in jelly, potted, Quail, broiled, larded, Rabbit, Curry of roasted, Salmis of Small birds, broiled, roasted, Venison, Roast leg of Saddle of
Garnishes. Jelly border, Lemon points, Marinade, Cold Marinade for fish,
Gateau St. Honore,
Gingerbread, Canada Fairy Hard Soft
Graham, bread, muffins,
Green turtle soup,
Griddle-cakes, Graham Hominy Indian Squash
GROCERIES, Baking powder, Cracked wheat, Cream of tartar, English currants, Flour, Graham, Hominy, Meal, Indian Oat Rye Raisins, Soda, Spices, Sugar, Sundries,
Grouse, soup, larded,
Haddock, with lobster sauce,
Halibut, Broiled with maitre d'hotel butter,
Ham and eggs on toast, Blanquette of veal and Boiled croquettes, force-meat, Potted Roasted
Haricot of ox-tails,
Herbs sauce, Sweet To make a bouquet of
Hominy, drop cakes, muffins,
Hot cabbage sald,
How to blanch almonds, to boil sugar, to braise, to clean and truss poultry, to clean English currants, to corn beef, to fry, to fry crumbs, (under Bread Sauce) to fry parsley, to get onion juice, to lard, to make a bouquet of sweet herbs, to make and use a pastry bag, to make paper cases, to make spinach green, to open lobsters, to remove jellies and creams from moulds, to scrape chocolate, to serve, to stew, to use the salamander, to whip cream,
Ice cream, Almond, Apricot, Banana, Brown bread, Caramel, Chocolate, Cocoanut, Coffee, Directions for freezing, Fig, Lemon, Macaroon, Orange, Peach, Pineapple, Pistachio, Raspberry, Strawberry, Vanilla, Walnut,
Indian and apple pudding, meal, pudding, Delicate
Jelly, Aspic, Barberry border, Calf's foot Cider Cider apple Coffee Crab-apple Currant Grape Lemon Orange Pineapple roll, Strawberry Wine
Jenny Lind pudding,
Ketchup, Barberry Tomato
Kidneys, a la maitre d'hotel, Broiled saute, Stewed
KITCHEN FURNISHING, Gas and oil stoves, Refrigerators, Stoves and ranges, Utensils,
Lamb, Boiled, Braise breast of, Leg of, a la francaise, tongue in jelly, tongue, Stewed,
Lemon diplomatic pudding, ice cream, jelly, pie, points, sherbet, sponge,
Little pigs in blankets,
Liver, and bacon, Braised calf's, Broiled, Curry of, fried in crumbs, saute, saute, with piquant sauce,
LOBSTER, Breaded, Broiled, broiled in the shell, Canned, croquettes, Curry of, cutlets, Devilled, in the shell, Escaloped, patties, Potted, salad, sauce, soup, Stewed, To open a, Vol-au-vent of,
Macaroni, a l'Italienne, Boiled, Chartreuse of chicken and, in gravy, with cheese, with cream sauce, with tomato sauce,
Macaroon ice cream,
Mackerel, Continued., Potted,
Maitre d'hotel butter, sauce,
MARKETING, Beef, As to choosing it, Fore-quarter, Hearts, Hind-quarter, Kidneys, Liver, Porter-house steak, Quality and cost, Rattle-ran, Ribs, Round steak, Rump steak, Sirloin, Sirloin steak, Tenderloin steak, The rump, Tongues,
Fish, Bass, Black-fish, or tautog, Blue-fish, Clams, Cod, Crabs, Cusk, Eels, Flounders, Haddock, Halibut, Lake shad, Lobster, Mackerel, Mullet, Oysters, Pollock, Salmon, Scollops, Shad, Shrimp, Small, or pan-fish, Smelts, Sturgeon, Sword-fish, Tautog, Terrapin, Turbot, Weak-fish, White-fish, or lake shad, Lamb, Kidneys, Tongues, Mutton, Chops and cutlets. Fore-quarter, Hind-quarter, Leg, Loin, Prices, Pork, Kidneys, Liver, Sausages, Poultry and Game, Chickens, Ducks, Fowl, Geese, Grouse, or prairie chicken, Partridges, Pigeons, Quail, Squabs, Turkeys, Venison, Woodcock, Veal, Vegetables, Artichokes, Asparagus, Beans, Cauliflower, Celery, Chicory, or endive, Corn, Cucumbers, Dandelions, Endive, Lettuce, Mushrooms, Radishes, Spinach, Sweet herbs, Tomatoes, When in season,