Military Instructors Manual
by James P. Cole and Oliver Schoonmaker
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B. The next relief will remain within an easy distance of the sentry on post, usually in shelters provided for this purpose.

C. Every sentry is to be regularly posted by a non-commissioned officer who will explain to him his duties and ascertain that the sentry is aware of the position of the section and platoon commanders and of the sentries on either side, and whether there are any patrols or working parties out in front.

D. Every sentinel will report when an officer passes his post, "All is well," or otherwise.

E. Every sentinel by day will be provided with a head-cover to blend with the ground (this may be improvised), and while observing the ground to the front will remain perfectly still. An empty sand bag or some other suitable material may be utilized for this purpose.

3. Patrols.—A. It is the duty of all the troops holding the front lines to establish a command of the ground in front of their parapet up to the enemy's wire. This can be done by extended and constant patrolling by night and reconnaissance by day so that the ground is thoroughly well known to as large a portion as possible of officers and men and so no enemy can move or remain in his front by night or day without detection. One of the particular duties of these patrols is to observe the condition of the wire entanglements.

B. Every patrol must have definite orders as to its mission; broadly speaking, patrols may be divided into two classes: (1) reconnoitering patrols, (2) fighting patrols.

C. The first duty of reconnoitering patrols is to obtain the information for which they are sent out. They fight only in self-defense or if any especially favorable opportunity arises to inflict loss upon the enemy without prejudice to their mission. They usually consist of two to six men, under an officer or non-commissioned officer.

D. Fighting patrols are sent out for the express purpose of causing loss or damage to the enemies by such means as engaging the enemy's patrols or working parties, or by raiding saps, listening posts or trenches. For identification purposes they should always endeavor to secure at least one prisoner. Their strength depends upon the resistance they are likely to meet with.

E. Company commanders are responsible for the orders given to patrols, subject to any instructions which may be issued by higher authority. They are also responsible that all troops, whom it concerns, including companies on both flanks, are warned when and where patrols will be out, length of time they will be out, and of the points to which they will return.

F. Information gained by patrols is of little value unless transmitted quickly to those whom it concerns. Patrol reports will be made out by the commander of the patrol immediately upon his return and sent at once to the company commander unless orders to the contrary have been given.

4. Stand To.—A. "Stand to" will take place one-half hour after a relief has been posted and one-half hour before being relieved. At this parade every available man will be present. Rifles, equipment, clothing, etc., will be inspected. Firing steps will be tested as soon as practicable after reliefs have been posted to see that each man can fire on the foot of the nearest part of the wire entanglement which he is required to cover by his fire. The same procedure will be gone through at the "stand to" one-half hour before being relieved. Other "stand tos" may be ordered in the discretion of the company commander. These should be sufficiently often to insure that every man turns out promptly and knows his place in case of attack.

5. Machine Guns.—A. The concealment of machine gun emplacements is important. Consequently, it is only at night or in case of attack that machine gun crews will occupy their defense emplacements. At night guns should take up other position than their defense emplacements and fire a stated number of rounds in order to test out the guns and mislead the enemy as to their numbers and real emplacements, after which they will at once go back to their defense emplacements.

B. The guns and their crews will be tactically under the orders of the company commander in whose sector they are located, but no alteration will be made by him in their disposition or arcs of fire; he will, however, bring before the senior machine gun instructor any suggestions for improvements in machine gun dispositions for defense.

C. Two men per gun will always be on duty with the guns.

D. Range cards will be prepared and kept with each gun.

E. Officers and non-commissioned officers in charge of guns will remain in close proximity to the guns. They will frequently inspect their guns, emplacements, etc. They are responsible for cleanliness and maintenance of the emplacements.

F. Machine gun commanders are responsible for guns always being ready for action, and that emplacements are clear of all material except such as is required for the service of the guns; that embrasures or loopholes are kept clear of all obstructions which may interfere with fire or view.

6. Reliefs.—A. Reconnaisance. Prior to taking over the line of trenches the company commander, accompanied by his senior First Lieutenant and First Sergeant, will reconnoiter the trenches.

B. Points to be noted by the company commanders. The following points will be specially noted by company commanders before taking over trenches:

1. Plan of occupation (number of men holding lines to be taken over, their distribution and duties). 2. Shelter accommodations. 3. Work being done and proposed. 4. Conditions of the wire and defenses generally. 5. Information as to the enemy, his habits, snipers, and the work he is doing, etc. 6. Water supply. 7. Artillery support. 8. Communications. 9. Danger points. 10. Location and condition of stores. 11. Liaison.

7. Guides.—A. Arrangements will be made between the company commanders of the incoming and outgoing companies as to the rendezvous where guides will be provided by the latter to conduct the incoming troops to the trenches.

B. One guide per platoon, one for each company and one for battalion headquarters will be provided. These guides must know the exact spot where they will meet the relief troops and the best way to conduct the units to the particular section of the trench they will occupy.

8. Smoking and Talking.—A. After leaving the rendezvous there will be no smoking and talking until arrival in trenches. Strictest march discipline will be enforced on the way to and from the trenches.

9. Procedure on Arrival at Trenches.—A. The troops being relieved will not leave the trenches until the relieving troops are in position and the new sentries have been posted, all trench stores have been handed over and receipted for, and orders to move have been received from the Company Commander.

B. Platoon commanders will at once personally see that all sentinels are properly posted, that the non-commissioned officer is on duty, that every man knows his place in case of attack, and that both flanks of his platoon are in liaison with the adjoining platoon.

C. When reliefs are completed, Platoon Commanders will report to that effect to the Company Commander.

D. Men will not be dismissed until the Company Commander has received the reports from all of his Platoon Commanders that everything is in order.

10. Log Books.—A. Each Company Commander will keep a log book in which will be entered:

1. Work done. 2. Number of men working. 3. Hours worked. 4. Any information obtained from sentries, patrols, or other sources.

They will also enter in this book a list of any trench stores that come into their possession.

11. Equipment.—A. Equipment will be worn in the front trenches. Haversacks, packs, and trench tools need not be worn, these will be left in the shelters. In support and reserve trenches, they will be worn at the discretion of the Company Commander.

B. Ration and carrying parties will wear equipment and carry rifles unless otherwise ordered.

C. Pieces will be assumed to be loaded and locked at all times.

D. In the firing trenches bayonets will be fixed at night.

E. Non-commissioned officers and men of the firing line will at all times be in possession of their rifles and bayonets. The rifles of men in the support and reserve trenches or dugouts will be where they can be quickly seized, even in the dark.

12. Stretcher Bearers.—A. Stretcher bearers will be stationed at a point designated by the Company Commander.

13. Discipline.—A. Sleeping in the firing trenches will not be permitted.

B. No man will enter the firing trench, except in discharge of his duty, unless so ordered by his Company or Platoon Commander.

C. Sentries will remain standing unless the height of the parapet renders this impossible.

D. Saluting and standing at attention, etc., will be as carefully adhered to as when in camp except that sentinel will not let this interfere with their duties.

14. Rations and Cooking.—A. Cooking will be done in the rear of the reserve at a point to be designated.

B. Company Quartermaster Sergeants will accompany ration parties, which will be limited in size to the actual needs for bringing up cooked rations from the point where cooking is done, to the trenches. At no time should this exceed ten per cent of the effective strength of the unit from which sent.

C. Care will be taken that as little noise as possible be made by these carrying parties.

15. Sanitation.—A. The importance of strict attention to sanitation will be impressed upon all ranks.

B. The commanding officer of each unit is responsible for sanitation in his sector. He will make frequent inspections of latrines, refuse pits and trenches to ascertain that no unsanitary conditions exist.

C. Latrines will be constructed in the trenches, excreta kept covered at all times and such disinfectants as may be provided will be used at regular intervals. When filled within eighteen inches of the top, pits will be filled with earth and labeled.

D. Urinal cans will be provided and men required to use these cans and contents will be emptied as often as necessary into deep pits at least one hundred yards from the trenches. Empty tin cans, particles of food and other refuse will be collected in receptacles kept in the trenches for that purpose and carried to the rear and buried in pits. This is usually done at night.

Emergency Dumps for Companies (Material).

1. Any large shell crater will do for these or holes can be dug 10' x 10,' x 5' deep.


10 rolls barbed wire. 8 coils French accordion wire. 30 long screw stakes. 50 short screw stakes. 4 prepared wire blocks (gooseberries).


100 very flares. 6 S.O.S. rockets. 2 verminal sprayers. 1 strombos horn. (gas alarm) rubber boots. periscopes. 200 revolver ammunition. 1 log book. 1 set maps. 1 set air photos. 1 defense scheme.

2. These are taken over and signed for. Each dugout must have a gas blanket and some form of gas alarm (usually empty shell case.)


1 strombos horn. 2 verminal sprayers. 300 very flares. 20 S.O.S. rockets. 500 revolver ammunition. 50 ground flares.


The present army of the United States had its inception at Plattsburg in 1915. The first regiment of the Business Mens' Training Camp will go down in history as the first chapter of preparedness.

The training camps of 1916, not only at Plattsburg, but at various other places throughout the United States, constituted the second chapter.

We are just finishing chapter three in the officers' training camps of 1917.

This book brings together the essential points of the instruction given at the second and probably the last of the officers' training camps at Plattsburg, in such a way that an officer may refresh his memory when he is about to take up with his men any of the subjects covered.

It is hardly necessary to add that no attempt has been made to cover fully any branch of the work. The bibliography provides for further study and the books in it should be at every officer's command.

As the war progresses many changes will be made; not only will methods change but some branches now considered essential may be cast aside as useless.

Nothing but work can make the pages of any military book have real meaning. This book gives what are now considered the essentials of military training. If it has brought to the conscientious officer points he might otherwise have forgotten to the detriment of his command, it will have served its purpose.



Balck "Tactics" Vol. 1. Infantry.

Howell "Lectures on the Swiss Army."

Bjornstadt "Lectures on the German Army."

"Drill and Field Training" (English)—Imperial Army Series.

"Instructions on the Offensive Conduct of Small Units." War Department, May, 1917.

"Notes on the methods of attack and defense to meet the Conditions of Modern Warfare." Army War College, April, 1917.

Privates Manual. (Moss.)

"Instructions for assembling the Infantry Pack," Ordnance Department. Pamphlet No. 1717 Manual of Military Training. (Moss.)


"Manual of Physical Training." (Koehler.)

"Field Physical Training of the Soldier." Special Regulation No. 23.

Voice Culture. (Robert Lloyd.) (In lecture form.)


Bull's Eye Scorebook.

U.S. Marines Scorebook.

"How to Shoot." (Moss.)

"Notes on training for Rifle Fire in Trench Warfare." Army War Coll., April, 1917.

"The Rifle in War." (Eames.)

"Suggestions to Military Riflemen." (Whelen.)

"Musketry" sheets from First Camp, Plattsburg, New York.

"Control of the Firing Line." Army Service School.

"Musketry Training." (Pickering.)

"A Synopsis of the Rifle in War." Army Service Schools.

British—"Aids in Musketry." "Fire Problems." (Pilcher.)

"Fire Orders"—"Direction and Control"—"Musketry"—Imperial Army Series.

"Lecture and Lessons on Musketry and Instructions for Officers and N.C.O.S. Musketry Diagrams." (Clutterbuck.)

"Notes on Bayonet Training." Army War College, March, 1917.

"British Manual of the Bayonet." Ordnance Pamphlet No. 1715 and No. 1866. (Pistol.)

"Notes on Bombing." (McClintock.)

"Notes on Grenade Training"—Plattsburg Training Camp.

"Notes on Grenade Warfare." Army War College.


"Military Map Reading." (Sherrill.)

"Military Sketching and Map Reading." (Grieves.)

"An Officer's Notes" (Parker.)

"Topography." (Sherrill.)

Engineers Field Manual.

"Manual of Infantry Training." (Moss.)

"Training Manual in Topography, Map Reading and Reconnaissance." (By Major Spalding, U.S.A.)

"Military Sketching and Map Reading." (Capt. Barnes.)


"A Guide to the Articles of War." (Professor Eugene Waumbaugh.)

Manual of Courts Martial.


"Manual for Commanders of Infantry Platoons." Translated from the French by the Army War College, 1917, War Department Document No. 626. a.r., 1913.


"Notes on Field Fortification." Army Service Schools, 1916.

"E.F.M." and Addendum thereto.

"Elements of Trench Warfare." (Waldron.)

"Field Entrenchments." (Solano.)

"Scouting and Patrolling." (Waldron.)

"Scout Instruction." (McKenney.)

"Scout's Handwork." (McKenney.)

"The 2nd Matabele War." (Baden Powell.)

"Aids to Scouting." (Baden Powell.)

"Manual of Military Training." (Moss.)

"Small Problems in Infantry." (Bjornstadt.)

"S.M. Tactics."

"A Military Primer." (Marshall & Simonds.)

"Technique of Modern Tactics." (Von Allen.)

"Night Movements." (Burnett.)

"Night Operations for Infantry." (Dawkins.)


"Manual for Army Cooks."

"Mess Sergeant's Handbook." (Holbrook.)

"Mess Officer's Assistant."

"Mess Account Book." (Frink.)

"Handling the Straight Army Ration." (Holbrook.)

"Manual of Military Training." (Moss.)

"Field Service." (Moss.)


"Manual of Military Training." (Moss.)

"Lectures on Military Sanitation and Management of Sanitation Service," Army Service Schools.

"Lectures" delivered at Plattsburg Training Camp, 1917.

"Elements of Military Hygiene." (Ashburn.)

"Red Cross Pamphlet on First Aid."

"Manual for Non-Coms. and Privates."


"United States Signal Book."

"Infantry Drill Regulations."


"Manual of Interior Guard Duty."


"Company Administration." (Waldron.)

"Army Paper Work." (Perrin-Smith Pub. Co.)

"Notes on Organizations." (Waldron.)

"Synopsis of Work Done at 1st Plattsburg Camp." (Farley.)

"Army Paper Work." (Moss.)

"Army Regulations."


"Examinations in Military Science," Harvard University, 1917.


"Field Fortifications." (Lt. Henri Poire.) Plattsburg, N.Y., 1917.

"The French Automatic Rifle." (Capt. Gene Loriot.)

"Notes on Liaison in Modern Warfare."

"Notes on the Method of Attack and Defense to Meet the Conditions of Modern Warfare."

"Machine Gun Tactics." (Applin.)

"Grenades, Hand and Rifle." (Solano.)

"Training for the Trenches." (Vickers.)

"Studies in Leading Troops." (Vernois.)

"Tactical Decisions and Orders." (Buddecke.)

"Problems in Leading Troops—Army Service Schools."

"Battle Orders." (Von Kiesling.)

"70 Problems." (Morrison.)

"Tactical Principles and Problems." (Hanna.)

"Technique of Modern Tactics." (Bond and McDonough.)

"Estimating Tactical Situations." (Fitch.)

The Book Department, Army Service Schools, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, or the United States Infantry Association, Washington, D.C., will get any books available.



Schedules; 1


Infantry drill regulations; 31 School of the soldier; 31 Instruction without arms; 31 Attention; 32 Position of; 32 Heels together and on a line; 32 Feet turned out equally, forming angle of 45 degrees; 32 Knees extended without stiffness; 32 Trunk erect upon hips; 32 Shoulders falling naturally; 32 Arms hanging naturally; 33 Head erect, chin raised; 33 Rests; 33 Position of rest and at ease; 33 Fall out; 34 Rest; 34 At ease; 34 Parade rest; 34 Eyes right; 34 Right face; 34 Right half face; 34 About face; 34 Hand salute; 34 Forward march; 34 Double time, march; 34 Mark time, march; 34 Half step, march; 34 Right step, march; 34 Squad, halt; 34 By right flank, march; 34 To the rear, march; 34 Change step, march; 34 Manual of arms; 35 Purpose; 35 Commands and cautions; 35 Order, arms; 35 Present, arms; 35 Port, arms; 35 Right shoulder, arms; 35 Left shoulder, arms; 35 Parade, rest; 35 Trail, arms; 35 Rifle salute; 35 Fix bayonet; 35 Unfix bayonet; 36 Inspection arms; 36 School of the squad; 36 Object; 36 Composition of squad; 36 Fall in; 36 Fall out; 36 Count off; 36 Inspection arms—right dress, front; 36 Guide right; 37 Take interval; 37 To reform; 37 Take distance; 37 Assemble, march; 37 Stack arms; 37 Take arms; 37 Oblique, march; 37 In place, halt; 37 Resume march; 38 Right turn; 38 Right half turn; 38 Squads right; 38 Squad right about; 38 School of the company; 38 Object; 38 Composition; 39 Fall in; 39 Platoon movements; 40 Leading platoon; 40 Rear platoon; 40 Questions which come up in daily military life; 40 Answers; 41 Insignia; 41 For second lieutenants; 41 Company right, march; 42 Platoons right, march; 42 Squads right, march; 42 Right turn, march; 42 Column right, march; 42 Platoons, column right, march; 42 Squads right, column right, march; 42 Squads right, platoons, column right, march; 42 Squads right about, march; 43 Right into line, march; 43 Right front into line, march; 43 Platoons, right front into line, march; 43 Route step, march; 43 Right by twos, march; 43 Squads right front into line, march; 43 Dismiss the company; 43 To fall in company when it cannot be formed by squads; 44 For muster; 44 In aligning company; 44 To march squad without unnecessary commands; 44 As skirmishers, march; 44 Assemble, march; 45 Kneel; 45 Lie down; 45 Rise; 45 Loadings and firings; 45 Arming; 45 Sight-setting announced; 45 Fire at will; 45 Clip fire; 45 Unload; 45 Extended order; 45 Corporal cautions; 46 Left face; 46 Company right; 46 Deployments; 46 As skirmishers, guide right, march; 46 To deploy from column or squad; 46 Assemble, march; 47 Platoons, assemble; 47 Platoons, columns; 47 Squad columns; 47 No. 1's forward, march; 48 Captain points out new line; 48 Disadvantage; 48 Advantage; 48 Being in skirmish line; 48 By platoon; 48 Commands; 48 School of the Battalion; 49 Basis; 49 Arrangement; 49 Number; 49 Center; 49 Band; 49 Dressing; 49 To form the battalion; 49 Other than ceremonies; 49 For ceremonies; 49 To dismiss the battalion; 50 To rectify the alignment; 50 To rectify the column; 50 Helpful hints to beginners; 50 In column of squads; 50 In column of companies; 51 Line of companies; 53 In battalion line; 54 Inspections; 55 Special points of company; 55 Battalion inspection; 56 Regimental inspection; 56 Ceremonies; 56 Battalion review; 56 Battalion parade; 57 Regimental parade; 58 Regimental review; 58 Fire direction; 58 Fire control; 58 Fire discipline; 58 The colonel; 59 Position; 59 Duties; 60 The major; 60 Position; 60 The general; 61 Duties; 61 Special; 62 Battalion staff; 63 Positions; 63 Duties; 64 Position; 65 Duties: before fire action; 65 during the action; 65 Buglers; 66 Position; 66 Duties; 66 Must be proficient in; 67 Range estimators; 67 Platoon leader; 68 Position; 68 Duties; 68 Thereafter; 69 First sergeant; 70 Guides; 70 General rules; 70 Equipment; 70 Close order; 71 Taking intervals and distances; 71 To form the company; 72 Alignments; 72 Exercise for; 74 Result; 74 Platoon Guides; 75 Position; 75 Duties; 75 Corporal; 76 Position; 76 Duties; 76 Thereafter; 76 The private; 78 Position; 78 Duties; 79 Packs; 81 Cartridge belt; 81 To attach first-aid pouch; 82 To attach canteen cover; 82 To attach pack carrier to haversack; 82 To attach cartridge belt to haversack; 83 To attach bayonet scabbard to haversack; 83 To attach intrenching tool carrier to haversack; 83 To assemble the full equipment (without rations); 84 To make the pack; 85 To assemble the pack; 85 To assemble the full equipment (with rations); 86 To make the pack; 86 To assemble the pack; 86 To adjust to the soldier; 86 To assemble full equipment, less the pack (with rations); 87 To assemble full equipment, less the pack (without rations); 88 To discard pack without removing equipment from body; 88 Care of equipment; 89 Leather; 89 Woolen clothes; 89 Mending; 89 Cloth equipment—dry cleaning; 89 Washing; 89 Instructions on making packs; 89 Methods; 89 Adjusting cartridge belt; 90 Distribution of intrenching tools in the squad; 90


Physical training; 91 Physical training; 91 Bayonet training; 91 Time schedule; 91 Formations; 92 Second formation; 93 Commands; 93 Kinds of and how given; 93 First lesson; 94 Second lesson; 95 Third lesson; 96 Fourth lesson; 98 Fifth lesson; 99 Voice culture; 103


Use of modern arms; 105 Small arms firing; 106 Slow fire; 109 Rapid fire; 109 Pistol; 112 Nomenclature and care; 112 Manual for the pistol; 112 Position; 116 The grip; 116 The trigger squeeze; 117 Position and aiming drills; 117 Quick fire; 118 Classes of fire; 118 Slow fire; 118 Quick fire; 118 Automatic fire; 118 Trench; 118 Score; 119 Course; 120 Slow fire; 120 Quick fire; 120 Automatic fire; 120 Trench fire; 120 Bayonet training; 120 Functions of; 120 General practice; 120 Technique of bayonet combat; 121 Manual of the bayonet; 122 Progressive exercises; 124 Machine guns; 128 Mode of action; 128 Fire; 129 Inconspicuousness; 129 Offensive reinforcement of a front momentarily stationary; 130 Defensive; 130 General rules for installation; 131 Employment of fire and instruction; 132 Resume; 132 Points before firing; 133 Points during firing; 133 Points after firing; 133 Grenade instruction; 134 Introduction; 134 Working of grenades in use; 136 Instruction in throwing; 138 Instruction in grenade organization; 139 Points to remember; 141


Map sketching; 143 Class room—map reading; 143 Taking up map scales; 143 Field work—strict scale map making; 145 Road sketch; 146 Area sketch; 146 Problem; 150 Class room—problem; 150 Field work—problem; 154 Class room—problem; 155 Field work—problem; 157 problem; 158 Map reading; 159


Helpful references to the articles of war; 161 Military law; 161 Article 1; 161 Definitions; 161 Article 2; 161 Persons subject to military law; 161 Articles 3-18; 162 Courts martial classified; 162 Method of entering a charge against a man; 163 Specification; 164 General remarks; 164 Article 31; 164 Order of voting; 164 Article 39; 164 Limit upon prosecutions; 164 Article 54; 165 Fraudulent enlistment; 165 Article 58; 165 Desertion; 165 Article 61; 166 Absence without leave; 166 Article 62; 166 Disrespect toward President and others; 166 Article 63; 166 Disrespect toward a superior officer; 166 Article 64; 167 Assaulting or wilfully disobeying superior officer; 167 Article 65; 167 Insubordinate conduct toward a non-commissioned officer; 167 Article 68; 167 Disorders; 167 Article 69; 168 Breaking arrest; 168 Article 75; 169 Misbehavior before the enemy; 169 Article 83; 169 Neglect of military property; 169 Article 84; 169 Waste or unlawful disposal of property issued to soldiers; 169 Article 85; 169 Drunk on duty; 169 Article 86; 170 Misbehavior of sentinel; 170 Article 92; 170 Murder or rape; 170 Article 93; 170 Various crimes; 170 Article 94; 171 Frauds against the government; 171 Article 95; 171 Conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman; 171 Article 96; 171 General articles, the catch all; 171 Examples; 172 Problem 1; 172 Problem 2; 172 Problem 3; 172


Notes on army regulations; 175 Authority exercised; 175 Abusive language; 175 Respect to superiors; 175 Remarks by officers; 175 Furloughs; 175 Men on furloughs; 175 Men in foreign countries; 175 No payments; 175 Desertion; 175 Abandoned clothes; 175 Reward; 175 Costs of apprehension; 176 No pay or clothes; 176 Will be restored; 176 Absent without leave; 176 Discharge of enlisted men; 176 Final statements; 176 Certificate; 176 Loss of discharge certificate; 177 Physical disability certificate; 177 Death of soldier; 177 Effects; 177 Will be delivered; 177 Medal of honor; 178 Certificate of merit; 178 Quarters; 178 Saturday; 178 Neglect of rooms; 178 Destruction of tableware; 178 Chiefs of squads; 178 Premises; 178 Company commanders; 178 Arms; 178 Accountability and responsibility; 178 Example; 179 Loss of public property; 179 Ration; 179 Forfeiture; 179 Pay; 179 Allotments; 180 Class A; 180 Class B; 180 Compensation for death or disability; 181 Additional insurance; 182 Deposits; 182 A lost deposit book; 182 Payment; 183 Withdrawal of deposits; 183 Interest; 183 Forfeiture; 183 Officers and men; 183 Furloughed to reserve; 183 Transportation; 183 Discharged soldier; 183 Transfer of claims; 183 Notes on the laws of war; 183


Practice marches; 187 Field work; 188 An order; 188 Do not deploy too early; 188 Fire direction; 189 The troops; 189 Defense; 190 Leadership; 190 Communications; 191 Night operations; 191 Patrols; 191 Leader; 191 Conduct of; 192 Report; 192 Return; 193 Advance guard; 193 Rear guard; 194 Flank guard; 194 Camps; 194 March outpost; 194 Outpost; 195 Outline of field service regulations; 197 Land forces of U.S.; 197 Military information; 197 Transmission of information; 198 Questions and answers on; 206


Feeding men; 213 In camp; 213 On the march; 214 For individual cooking; 214 In the trenches; 215 Rations and cooking; 215 Camping and camp sanitation; 216 General principles; 216


Personal hygiene and first aid; 221 Personal hygiene; 221 Bathing; 221 Sexual indulgence; 222 Exercise; 222 Cleanliness of surroundings; 223 Preventable diseases; 223 Typhoid fever; 223 Dysentery; 223 Malaria; 224 Tonsilitis and colds; 224 Measles; 224 First aid; 224 Grounds; 224 Poisoned wounds; 225 Diagnosis tag; 225 Treatment of wounds; 225 Bleeding wounds; 225 Fainting, heat exhaustion and shock; 226 Sunstroke; 226 Burns and scalds; 226 Freezing and frostbites; 226 Fractures; 226 Treatment; 227 Artificial respiration; 227 Trench foot; 227


Signaling; 229 Semaphore; 229 First cycle; 229 Second cycle; 229 Third cycle; 229 Fourth cycle; 230 Doubles; 230 Instructing; 230 Second step; 230 Third step; 230 Fourth step; 230 Wig wag; 232 Points to remember; 233 Letter codes; 233 Arm signals; 234 Forward, march; 234 Halt; 234 Double time, march; 234 Squads right, march; 234 Squads left, march; 234 Squads right about, march; 234 Change direction or column right, march; 234 As skirmishers, march; 234 As skirmishers, guide center, march; 235 As skirmishers, guide right, march; 235 Assemble, march; 235 Range, or change elevation; 235 What range are you using?; 235 Are you ready?; 235 Commence firing; 235 Fire faster; 235 Fire slower; 235 To swing the cone of fire; 235 Fix bayonet; 236 Suspend firing; 236 Cease firing; 236 Platoon; 236 Squad; 236 Rush; 236


Guard duty; 237 Guards; 237 Formal guard mounting; 238 Ceremony; 238 First detail; 239 Other details; 239 Sergeant major; 239 Adjutant; 239, 240, 241 Officer of the guard; 240 New officer of the day; 240 Commander of the guard; 241 Guard duty in the trenches; 241


Company administration; 245 Notes on organization; 245 Prepare in advance to receive men; 245 Duties; 245 If in cantonments; 246 If in tents; 246 Men reporting; 246 Issue of equipment; 247 Organization; 248 Day's routine; 249 Reveille; 250 Mess; 250, 251 Sick call; 250, 251 Morning instruction; 250 Afternoon instruction; 251 Retreat; 251 School call; 251 Tattoo; 251 Call to quarters; 251 Taps; 251 Sundays and holidays; 252 Details; 252 Paper work; 252 Military correspondence; 253 Morning report; 254 Ration return; 254 Sick report; 254 Duty roster; 254 Monthly return; 255 Service record; 255 Discharge; 255 Final statement; 255 Muster roll; 255 Pay roll; 256 Names; 257 Losses; 257


Conferences; 259 Study; 259 Syllabus: Small problems for infantry; 261 Examinations; 269 Military science and tactics; 275 Minor tactics; 275


Trench warfare; 287 General principles; 287 Instructions to be issued by battalion commander; 287 Attack of a defensive position; 289 Attacking from trenches; 291 Defense of trenches; 296 Liaison; 298 Trench orders; 299 Selection of site; 302 Trench construction; 303, 307 General arrangement; 303 System of laying out trenches; 307 Revettments; 308 Sod; 310 Sand bags; 310 Concrete work; 310 Gabions; 310 Trench armament; 311 Loopholes; 311 Trench bottoms; 311 Communication trench; 313 Latrines; 315 Shelters; 315 Dugouts; 317 Sentries; 317 Position; 317 Entrances; 317 Galleries; 318 Bomb-traps; 318 Interior; 318 Depots for supplies; 318 Telephones; 319 Departure parallel; 319 Machine gun emplacements; 319 Listening posts; 321 Wire entanglements; 321 High entanglements; 321 Tracing entanglements; 322 Low entanglements; 322 Loose wire; 322 Criticisms by Lieut Henri Poire; 322 Occupation; 325 Two main classes of relief; 325 General principles of relief; 325 Mechanism of relief; 325 Attack during the march; 328 The stay in the trenches; 329 Four objects of a trench commander; 329 His plan of defense; 329 Organization of defense; 329 Liaison; 331 Observation; 331 Trench work; 333 Offensive operations; 334 Rule of the trench commander; 335 Duties of the company commander; 335 Duties of platoon leaders as officers on duty; 339 Duties of platoon leaders; 339 In front line trenches; 340 Duties of non-commissioned officer on duty; 341 Patrols; 342 Sentinels; 342 Machine guns; 342 Snipers; 343 Organization of a platoon; 344 Deployments; 346 Normal battalion formation in attack; 347 General principles of the platoon formation in assault of fortified positions; 349 Remarks regarding forming of wave from close order; 353 Some questions a platoon commander should ask himself; 354 Defensive measure against gas attacks; 356 General considerations; 356 Nature of gas attacks; 356 Gas clouds; 356 Gas projectiles; 358 Tear or lachrymatory shells; 359 Poison shells; 359 Smoke; 359 Mine and explosion gases; 359 Protection of shelters; 360 Methods of protection; 360 Shelters which should be protected; 361 Protection of weapons and equipment; 361 Small arms and S.A.A.; 362 Hand and rifle grenades; 362 Light trench mortars; 362 Action to be taken in trenches on gas alarm; 363 Action to be taken in billets and back areas; 363 Action during gas attack; 364 Protective measures; 364 Tactical measures; 364 Precautions against gas shells; 365 Action subsequent to a gas attack; 367 General; 367 Movement; 367 Clearing dugouts and other shelters; 367 Ventilation; 368 Natural; 368 By fire; 368 By fanning; 369 Cleaning arms and ammunition; 369 Treatment of shell holes; 370 Concealment from aerial observers; 370 Orders governing intrenchment problems; 372 Company organization; 384 Company headquarters; 384 Headquarters; 384 Personnel; 385 Commissioned; 385 Enlisted; 386 Equipment; 386 Trench standing orders; 386 Duties; 386 Sentries; 387 Patrols; 388 Stand to; 389 Machine guns; 389 Reliefs; 390 Guides; 391 Smoking and talking; 391 Procedure on arrival at trenches; 391 Log books; 392 Equipment; 392 Stretcher bearers; 392 Discipline; 392 Rations and cooking; 393 Sanitation; 393 Emergency dumps for companies (material); 394 Contents of dump; 394 Stores for company; 394 Stores at battalion headquarters; 394 Conclusion; 396 Bibliography; 397


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