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Military Instructors Manual
by James P. Cole and Oliver Schoonmaker
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A sentry squad consists of one squad, posts a double sentinel post in observation near the post of the squad. A picket consists of two or more squads not exceeding half a company. It furnishes cossack posts, sentry squads, sentinel posts, and patrols. It is usually placed at the more important points of the outguard line, as a road fork, etc. The post furnished by pickets may be as far as 100 yards away. There should be also a sentinel post near the picket in observation. If the outguard consists of two or more companies there is a reserve. The reserve is held at some suitable point, where it can readily support the line. The reserve maintains connection with the main body and the support. The support occupies the line to be held. This line should be entrenched. The support maintains communication with its outguards and with each support on its flanks. It also sends out the necessary reconnoitering patrols. The outguards furnish sentinel posts and maintain communication with them, and with the outguards on each flank. It is the duty of the support commander to inspect his line and make such changes in the outguards as he deems necessary, then to report to the outpost commander with a sketch if practicable of his line when his dispositions are completed. The outpost commander should inspect the line, order such changes as he deems necessary, and report with a sketch of the outpost line to the commander of troops when his outpost has taken up its position. "The support commander must practice the greatest economy on men consistent with the requirements of practical security." Instead of using outguards along the whole front, part of it may be covered by patrols.



Outline of Field Service Regulations.

LAND FORCES OF U.S.

Regular Army. Organized Land Militia. Volunteer forces.

How Grouped: Mobile Army. Coast Artillery.

Mobile Army:

For offensive operations against enemy and so requires maximum degree of mobility.

Basis of organization the division, a self-contained unit composed of all necessary arms and services.

Coast Artillery: (1) Permanent fortifications for defense against naval attack. (2) Semi-permanent fortifications for protection of permanent from raiders. (3) Organization of mobile troops to prevent landing of enemy.

MILITARY INFORMATION.

Essential: (1) To enable War Department to estimate equipment and size of force necessary. (2) To enable commander properly to estimate the situation in the field of operations.

TRANSMISSION OF INFORMATION.

Wire, Signaling, Radio and Messenger: Message.—Concise, written information sent by messenger or wire. Source always given.—"Heard" separated from "seen." Report.—Formal account of some enterprise. War Diary.—Record of events kept in campaigns. Maps.

Reconnaissance: The work of individuals or units in gathering information. To keep contact with the enemy—to be acquainted with the terrain; to protect flanks and rear and guard against surprise. Reconnaissance begins on entering theater of operations and lasts through campaign. Effected by patrols and air craft.

Indications of enemy: Tracks on road. Abandoned camps and clothing. Infantry, thick, low cloud of dust. Cavalry, high, thin cloud of dust. Artillery and wagons, broken cloud.

Determination of Enemy Forces: Timing past a given point. Cavalry (walk), 110 per minute. Cavalry (trot), 200 per minute. Infantry, 175 per minute. Artillery and wagons, 5 per minute.

Security: Those measures taken to protect a command from enemy observation, annoyance and surprise. Obtained by covering the front with detachments. March.—Advance, flank and rear guards. Camp.—Outposts. March and camp detachments.—To give warning and resist attack until such time as detachment in rear can deploy.

Advance Guard: Detachment from main body to cover its advance. Against surprise for information. Push back small bodies. Check enemy's advance until deployment in rear. Seize good position and locate enemy lines. Remove obstacles. Strength 1-20 to 1-3 of entire command.

Divisions of Advance Guard: Cavalry point. Infantry point. Advance party. Support. Reserve.

Leading Troops: A detachment protecting the head of a column in retreat.

Rear Guard: Detachments protecting the rear of a retreating column. Formation like that of advance guard.

Flank Patrols: Detachments for protecting the flanks of marching column.

March Outpost: Detachments for protection of column halted on march. Formation, that of the marching protection.

Outpost: The detachments forming the protection for a force in camp or bivouac.

Divisions of Outpost: Reserve. Line of supports. Line of outguards. Pickets.

Sentinel Posts: Sentry squads. Cossack posts. Sentinels. Detached posts (from support).

Hours of Special Danger: Evening and dawn; thus good times to relieve outposts.

Examining Post: Intelligence and a place where prisoners, etc., are brought in.

Orders: The expression of the will of a commander, either written or verbal. Letters of instruction—plans of the superior leaders.

Field Orders: Regulate tactical and strategical actions of troops.

General Orders Include: (1) All necessary detailed instructions. (2) All standing instructions (avoid repetition). (3) Proceedings of general and special courts-martial.

Special Orders: Relate to assignment and movement of individuals, not necessary to be communicated to the whole command.

Bearers of verbal orders must repeat.

Field Orders: (1) Heading.—Title, place, date, hour and number. (2) Distribution of troops.—Division of command. (3) Body: (a) Information of enemy and supporting troops. (b) General plan of commander. (c) Detailed tactical dispositions to carry out general plan. (d) Instructions for trains—also the positions of ammunition and dressing stations. (4) Ending.—Authentication and method of sending.

Marches and Convoys: Successful march.—That which places troops at destination on time, and in best possible condition.

Rates of March: Infantry.—2 to 2-1/2 miles per hour. Cavalry.—4 miles (walk), 8 miles (trot), 12 miles (gallop). Artillery.—(Same.)

Average Marches: Infantry.—15-20 miles per day. Cavalry.—25 miles per day. Artillery.—15-20 miles per day. Load of pack mules equals 250 pounds.

March Orders, State: (1) Object of march. (2) Distribution of troops. (3) Order of march of main body. (4) Manner of forming the column.

Halts: First hour, 15 minutes' rest. Each successive hour, a 10-minute rest. Weather conditions create exceptions to above rule.

Marches in Peace: (1) Changing station. (2) Practice.

In War: (1) Concentration. (2) In presence of enemy. (3) Forced marches. (4) Night marches.

Convoys (on Land): Those trains by which supplies are forwarded to an army from depots, etc., in the rear—also trains bringing supplies collected by requisition.

Security Furnished by an Escort: (1) Advance guard. (2) Main body. (3) Flank guard when necessary. (4) Rear guard.

Favorable places for attacking convoys: Through woods defile. Over hedges. Sharp bends. Ascending or descending slopes. Farming corral, watering. Whenever conditions are such that escort cannot quickly prepare for defense.

Conducting Prisoners: 10 foot soldiers to every 100 prisoners.

Infantry: The principal arm, charged with the main field work. Its role is the role of the entire force and its success is the success of the whole force.

Artillery: The close supporting arm of the infantry. Its targets are those most dangerous in the eyes of the infantry.

Cavalry: Reconnaissance—supports the other arms and is valuable in pursuit.

Combat: Offensive. Defensive. (a) Temporary. (b) Passive defense.

Combat Principles: Fire superiority. Unity of command. Simple and direct plans and methods. All troops necessary to mission must be assigned at beginning. Detachments justifiable only when they can contribute directly to success of main battle. Some reserves must be kept. Flank protection and reconnaissance.

Fire Superiority: Must be gained early and maintained.

Frontage of Units: Depth in formation for combat rather than extension of line.

Reserves:

Fresh troops must be on hand to

(1) Give fire line impetus. (2) To penetrate enemy lines. (3) To fill gaps and help reorganization. (4) To meet counter attacks.

Plan of Action: Mission of army is to win battle. Offensive action must be the rule. When enemy is near every available means must be taken to gain information, in order to prepare for deployment.

Offensive Combat: The attack develops into 2 parts. (1) Assaulting hostile position at selected points. (2) Threaten or assault all other parts of enemy line in order to hold enemy from reinforcing operations.

Enveloping Attack: Advantage of converging fire upon position.

Holding Attack: An attack for holding enemy in one place, while assaults made at another point.

Assaults: The local concentrated offensive.

Pursuit: Only by energetic pursuit can the full fruit of victory be gleaned. Its purpose is to cause the greatest loss in personnel and morale possible cavalry and artillery active.

Defensive Combat: Passive defense—to gain time, or to hold certain points pending results in other parts of the line. Defense seeking a favorable decision—a parrying of blows while seeking a favorable opening. Counter attack the crisis of this form. Counter attack—made by launching reserves at the flank, while the enemy is fully committed to the attack.

Defensive Positions: Requisites: Clear field of fire. Flanks naturally secure. Extent of ground suitable to strength of force. Effective corps for reserves. Good lines of retreat. Good communication.

Position in Readiness: A position intended to resist the advance of an enemy in the immediate vicinity information of whose movements is not full enough to warrant definite action.

Withdrawal From Action: Troops most readily disengaged from the enemy should be withdrawn first. Demands highest order of skill in troop leadership. Covering Positions—those positions chosen to cover the retreating force. Retreat—a step by step opposition to the enemy's advance on a prearranged plan. Delaying actions: 1. Advance delayed as long as possible, consistent with safe withdrawal. 2. Delayers must hold position.

Night Combat: Offensive advisable. 1. Where fire superiority is impossible by day. 2. To avoid heavy losses by advance to assaulting position by day. 3. To capture posts or patrols. 4. To surprise for moral effect.

Defensive: Obstacles in front of position. Trenches heavily manned and supports drawn close.

Shelter: Troops under canvas—in camp. Troops on ground without canvas—bivouac. Troops in huts or villages—cantonment. Tactical considerations are paramount in the selection of camp sites in the theater of operations.

Selection of Camp Site: 1. Suitably large to accommodate command. 2. Water supply sufficient and accessible. 3. Good roads to and in camp. 4. Wood and grass forage near at hand. 5. Sandy subsoil for drainage. 6. Hot weather shade—cold protection.

To maintain the efficiency of a command, troops must have adequate shelter.

Sanitary Considerations Around Camp: Latrines on opposite side of camp from kitchens. Short camps, straddle trenches. Long camps, trenches 2 by 6 by 12 with seats. Have latrines screened. Burn the trenches out daily and keep covered. Wash boxes and paint with tar.

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON F.S.R.

1. How are the land forces of the U.S. organized?

Ans.—The Mobile Army consisting of Regular Army, organized land militia when called to Federal service, drafted army, volunteers and the field artillery and the Coast Artillery.

Basis of organization is the Division composed of all arms and self-sufficient. Several divisions may be grouped into a field army, to which are attached field army troops. These are organized into a brigade for purpose of supply and administration when necessary through numbers.

Coast Artillery is charged with the care and use of land and coast fortifications, including submarine mines and torpedo defenses.

2. What is the object of collecting military information?

Ans.—To enable the War Department to decide upon the size of army or expedition, the proportions of different arms, the character of clothing, equipment, etc., needed for any operation.

Information collected by the Gen. Staff in time of peace should include geography, physical resources, and military strength of the various nations.

3. Define reconnaisance.

Ans.—Reconnaisance is used to designate the work of troops or individuals when gathering information in the field.

It is necessary during combat for the tactical use of troops.

It is carried on by: (a) aero squadron; (b) independent cavalry; (c) divisional cavalry; (d) by infantry as reconnoitering patrols.

4. What are some indications of the presence of the enemy?

Ans.—Clothing or material on roads or in abandoned camps.

A thick, low cloud of dust indicates infantry.

A high, thin cloud cavalry.

A broken cloud artillery or wagon trains.

How would you determine from these indications what the number and organization of the enemy might be?

Ans.—Estimate strength by length of time it takes to pass a given point. Assuming that infantry in column of squads occupies half a yard per man, cavalry in column of fours 1 yard per trooper, and artillery in single column 20 yards per gun or caisson, a given point would be passed in one minute by about: 175 infantry, 110 cavalry at walk, 200 cavalry at trot, 5 guns or caissons.

5. Suppose on patrol and safely concealed for sighting the enemy at no great distance, by what rough method would you ascertain the approximate strength of the force assuming it to be composed of infantry, cavalry and artillery?

See answer No. 4.

6. What is the composition and arrangement of the advance guard?

Ans.—All arms of the service. In open country much cavalry and field artillery, the latter seldom assigned to command smaller than a brigade. Also machine guns, ambulance company if the force is large and engineers for purpose of removing obstacles to the march.

Large command; advance cavalry, support, reserve.

Small command; point, advance party, support, reserve.

Strength should be 1/20 to 1/3, depending on size of command and character of terrain.

Advance guard increases in size proportionately with size of command. Why?

7. Define: (a) Outguard; they constitute small detachments farthest to the front and nearest to the enemy.

(b) Cossack post; observation group at indicated point consisting of four men, post single sentinel.

(c) Picket; small command up to platoon placed in line of outguards at more important points such as road forks.

8. What is an order?

Ans.—Orders are used by commanders of divisions and separate brigades for regulating the movement and supply of field trains, fixing position of distributing points for rations and forage, in short, have to do with supplies of all kinds, especially food.

Form: The heading. The distribution of troops (in certain orders). The body. The ending.

The Body contains: 1. Information about the enemy and our supporting troops. 2. General plan of the commander. 3. Disposition of the troops. 4. Instructions for the trains. 5. Where the commander may be found or messages are to be sent.

9. During an advance what is the general order of advance of a column?

Ans.—Cavalry and horse artillery. Infantry and light artillery. Engineering and signal troops. Trains.

10. What is the average march per day of various arms?

Ans.—Infantry, 15 miles per day. Infantry in large bodies, 12 miles per day. Cavalry, 25 miles per day. Field artillery, 15 to 20 miles per day. Horse artillery, same as cavalry, to which it may be attached.

Forced marches are from 28 to 30 miles for infantry.

11. How is the escort distributed in guarded convoys?

Ans.—Advance guard, with advance cavalry 3 to 5 miles ahead.

Main body may be opposite most important point of the train, usually opposite its center.

Section of infantry at head and tail of train.

Flank guard—if necessary.

Rear guard—1/6 of escort.

What places are most favorable for attacking convoy?

When passing through woods, defile, or over bridge, when going around sharp bends in the road; when convoy is forming corral.

12. Discuss uses of the various arms in combat.

Ans.—Infantry: The most important arm, charged with the main work of the battle.

Artillery: Supporting arm of infantry. Its target is the opposing arm most dangerous to the infantry.

Cavalry: Reconnaisance before combat, support of other arms during combat.

13. What is the difference between the attack and the assault?

Ans.—In combat where the force is as large or larger than a division, a simultaneous advance against the entire hostile front is out of the question. Attack is made up of a number of local combats. Some where enemy is engaged with view to driving him out. This is called the assault. Other parts of attack with fewer troops simply to keep the enemy from coming to the support of those troops of the assaulted lines. The entire advance against the enemy is the attack.

After the firing lines have advanced some distance the weak and the strong points of the enemy's lines are disclosed. The weak points of course are selected.

14. Discuss the manner in which a pursuit should be carried out?

Ans.—If enemy commences withdrawal before front lines have given way, troops in action push forward until enemy in their front are driven away. Cavalry and horse artillery are thrown against flanks of retreating enemy, or on their front. Purpose to further disorganize the enemy, beat him to bridges, defiles, etc. In meantime reserve is sent into the pursuit, while troops engaged are assembling to constitute a new reserve. General scheme is to keep in continuous contact with enemy, giving him no chance to reorganize. Boldness necessary.

15. What are the different kinds of defense, and what is the purpose of each?

Ans.—(a) Passive; to retain position for specified time with or without combat, or to prevent enemy from carrying position.

(b) Defense seeking favorable decision; troops forced temporarily to assume the defensive, with intention of assuming the offensive at first favorable opportunity.

16. What is the purpose of the counter attack?

Ans.—To win victory, stave off defeat or prevent lines from being entered. It may be launched either at the enemy's strong or weak points depending on conditions. If enemy are beaten off and disorganized at some point, it may be good opportunity to follow up the advantage by counter attack. Also at other points where weakness develops. Counter attack is made at strength of enemy to prevent him from penetrating the defensive position.

17. How should advance position be organized and held?

Ans.—Force should not be so weak that it can be driven back to main body before it accomplishes its purpose, nor so strong that it will hold out too long, thereby committing the entire force to action in advance line instead of the line selected.

Trenches. What is position in readiness?

Troops placed in readiness for action where it is intended to resist the advance of enemy in immediate vicinity, but knowledge of his movements not yet sufficiently definite to decide upon plan of action. Preliminary to taking up offensive, or more usually to taking up and occupying defensive position. Hasten deployment when time comes.

18. If it becomes necessary to withdraw troops from action state steps necessary to insure the safety of troops during the withdrawal and retreat.

Ans.—Last reserves should be used. If none, troops least pressed used to cover withdrawal. Cavalry and artillery used unsparingly. Depends on the terrain. First covering position well to the rear so as not to suffer demoralization. On flanks of line of retreat. There should also be facilities to withdraw the occupying force. Firing line made as strong as possible, minimum of reserves held. Use M.G. Perhaps successive covering points necessary further to rear before advance of enemy can be checked. When a few miles to the rear, or far enough to free troops from all contact with the enemy, reorganize. Step-by-step opposition useless. Number of covering positions should be reduced to the minimum.

Retreat; trains at once put into march. Other forces at once put into order of march. All roads used, separate roads for divisions.

Effective rear guard from troops whose strength and morale is least impaired.

Divisional cavalry and as much artillery as can effectively be used. Use artillery at long range to keep the enemy deployed, destroy bridges, etc.



CHAPTER 9.

Feeding Men.

IN CAMP.—You will usually have plenty of food but continual inspecting is necessary to have it properly cared for, prepared and served. The kitchen must be kept clean: company commanders inspect daily and insist on the following:

1. Have cooks and enlisted men come to attention at the command of the first man who sees you approach. 2. Have all refrigerators opened, and put your head in far enough to detect any bad odors. 3. Check the bill of fare and see that food not consumed one day is utilized later—waste bread for bread pudding, for example. 4. See that doors close properly, that windows are screened and roof is tight—allow no flies. 5. Have floors, tables and refrigerators scrubbed daily. 6. Have the ground around the mess shack raked and thoroughly policed. Towels hung out to dry must be so hung as not to fall to the ground. Raked ground does not allow flies to build undisturbed. 7. Taste the coffee and look in the coffee bins. 8. Inspect pans, knives, meat grinder (have latter taken apart for you occasionally). 9. See that the mess sergeant looks after the incinerator properly; that he makes the cooks use what he tells them to. Cooks should not be allowed to help themselves to things; the mess sergeant should weigh out or set out just what is to be used each day. 10. Have the food served hot and in individual portions as far as possible; see that the food is not put on the table too soon. 11. During each month talk with an old soldier, a raw recruit and a non-commissioned officer about the mess to see what the men think of it.

ON THE MARCH.—(1. i.d.r., 669-673.)

If portable kitchens accompany troops, the men should fall in in single file and be helped to food as they pass by in companies.

FOR INDIVIDUAL COOKING.—Rations issued might be: 1 carton of hard-tack, 1 ration of bacon, 1 potato, 2 tablespoons of rice, 1 heaping tablespoon of coffee, sugar.

Fires for individual cooking are best made out of small dried twigs to produce a hot fire large enough for a group of four men.

There are two methods of cooking with the issue mess-kit.

First Method: Each man cooking for himself. As there are but two cooking utensils, the tin cup and the frying pan, the cooking must be systematized in order to cook four articles on the two utensils. To do this, the rice is first cooked in the tin cup filling the tin cup one-third full of water throwing in the rice. The water is brought to a boil and boiled until the individual grains of rice are soft through. The tin cup is then removed from the fire, the water poured off, and the cup covered with the lid of the mess tin, the rice being allowed to steam. In the meantime, the bacon should be fried in the frying pan, the grease being saved. When the rice is well steamed, it is turned out in the lid of the meat can, then the bacon placed on top of it. The tin cup is washed out and the man is then ready to fry his potato and boil his coffee. The cup is filled two-thirds full of water and the coffee placed in it and boiled until the desired strength is attained. To prevent the coffee from boiling over, a canteen of water should be handy and water thrown in whenever the coffee begins to boil over. When the coffee is strong enough, the addition of cold water will settle the grounds. In the meantime, cut the potatoes very thin and fry them in the bacon grease and the meal is ready: hard-tack, potatoes, rice, bacon and coffee.

Second Method: Squads of four may specialize; one man to collect the frying pans and fry all the bacon, another the potatoes, another the rice and coffee, and the other for collection of wood. Either method may be followed.

Mess-kits should be cleaned immediately after using, sand being used for scouring. Mess-kits must be cleaned thoroughly.

IN THE TRENCHES.—Usually rations and stores will be carried up to the trenches by the supports and the reserves. If this is not possible and it becomes necessary that men from the front line trenches be employed, not more than 10 per cent of the men in the firing line are to be away from the trenches at the same time.

RATIONS AND COOKING:

(a) Ration parties from the support and reserve trenches will be made up in complete units, i.e., platoons or companies.

(b) The company mess sergeant will accompany the ration parties for his company and will report his arrival to the company commander.

(c) Great care is to be taken that ration and carrying parties make as little noise as possible.

(d) Cooking if possible will be done behind the front line trenches, and should be concentrated by sections or companies. Steps must be taken to insure that as little smoke as possible is made by the cook's fires.

(e) Waste in any form will be discouraged.

(f) Arrangements should be made to insure that soup or some hot drink be available for the men between midnight and 7 a.m.

Each company commander must see that timely requisitions for rations are made and to have no delays at meal times. Food should be brought up in tin boilers about the size of wash boilers so that two men can handle one of them easily without a relief. In front line, men send mess kit relayed from hand to hand to these boilers at stations in each platoon or section and they are relayed back. Sometimes men in the front line are relieved for a few minutes. Always carry 24 hours rations.

Camping and Camp Sanitation.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES:

Great care must be exercised in selecting a camp site, but it must never be forgotten that the tactical situation is of paramount importance.

The following principles govern the selection: (1) Sufficient supply of pure water. (2) Good roads, but not too near a main highway on account of dust and noise. (3) Wood and forage must be obtainable.

The ground should: (1) Give ample room without crowding. (2) Have porous soil. (3) Have high elevation to make site dry.

Avoid: (1) Marshy ground and mosquitoes. (2) Woods or dense vegetation. (3) Ravines or depressions in terrain or dry stream beds subject to sudden freshets.

Water must be obtainable: (1) Arrange immediately where to obtain (a) Drinking and cooking water. (b) Water for animals. (c) Water for bathing and washing. In the case of running water, the point furthest up-stream shall be guarded for drinking and cooking water. Bathing shall be done at a point furthest down-stream.

Successful military camping depends upon three (3) things: (1) Discipline. (2) Cooking. (3) Sanitation.

Discipline means control; it means order. Nowhere are these more essential. Confusion is loss of control, loss of time, and loss of respect by the men.

Upon arrival at a favorable camp site get the men off their feet. Do not wait around. As C.O. have your decisions made and the work organized, so that each squad will be under a leader. Keep squads together, allowing none to stray off until the work is done, then let everyone rest except the sentinels.

Do not omit to post sentinels over the water supply and at important points, even though you have not decided upon the exact location of camp.

Organize the work by platoons or squads and rotate, if camp is to be made every few days.

Discipline in camp means more than order and dispatch, however, men must understand that they are under discipline when off duty—that they cannot disregard sanitary measures, eat promiscuously, destroy property, vegetation, or timber and must police the grounds at all times. Papers, cigarette butts, and newspapers, should never be allowed on the ground near camp. Eatables should never be kept in tents to draw vermin. Where possible, in dry weather, the company street should be wet down to keep the dust out of the tents. Have men ditch around tents immediately upon making camp. Though it may seem somewhat of a hardship, a sudden down pour of rain, will recompense them for this labor many times over. In ditching the tents, completely circle them, for if this is not done a great deal of rain will come in the front of the tent.

Food means everything to a soldier. The camp cooking is a barometer of the organized efficiency and of the enlisted men's attitude. Nothing else can do so much to help or hinder.

The Company Commander should realize the controlling power exercised by the company cook and keep the matter in his own hands. He should accept no excuse for burnt or dirty food.

If officers mess with their companies they will appreciate the attitude of the men and be able to judge the real situation. Officers will be well repaid for doing this, as it gives them an idea of the food that is being served their men.

In the mechanical details of preparing food, the fire is of first importance. A quick method of cooking is by laying a pair of large green logs on the surface of the ground just wide enough to place the pots between them, so that the bottom of the pots will be resting upon them. Build a fire between these logs, making sure to place the logs parallel to the direction of the wind.

A pit may be dug, with a sloping bottom, and across this may be placed the pots, and if iron rails are available, the utensils may be placed on these. For longer stays this pit may be lined with stone. Stones retain the heat and less wood is required. Four trenches radiating from a central chimney will give one flue whatever may be the direction of the wind. (For more specific data on the subject of fires and camp cooking, see Manual for Army Cooks—U.S.A.—also notes in i.d.r., pp. 154-155.)

Make a rule never to allow food to remain in tin cans after opening them. Remember to place kitchen near available water supply and furthest from latrines, horse picket lines, or dumps of any kind.

Sanitation comes last in the thoughts of the enlisted man, but it is no less important for that.

The first requisite is cleanliness. Food receptacles must be scoured and covers and cracks in tin ware scraped as well as scalding the tins themselves. Have boiling hot water in tanks (galvanized iron ash cans are good) for men to wash mess kits in after meals. One can should contain soapy water so as to cut the grease from the dishes, and the second tank should contain clean, boiling water for scalding the kits. Scraps of food should be scraped from the mess tins before immersing them in water, otherwise washing water becomes filled with small particles of food. Wiping cloths will greatly add to the convenience of the men and takes but a short time to make them clean and fit for use again.

Care must be exercised over three kinds of waste: (1) Garbage. (2) Kitchen slops. (3) Excreta.

Garbage can be burned in the kitchen fires. It should never stand exposed to the air, but should be tightly covered in iron cans, and should be disposed of every twenty-four hours. Kitchen help have an aversion to prompt disposal of garbage and need watching. Fly traps should be made of muslin and used freely about the kitchen.

Kitchen slops, fats, greasy water, etc., must be drained into covered pits, never allowing them to be tossed on the ground around the cook tent. A hole dug and partially filled with stones with a barrel placed upside down on them, makes a very good receptacle for kitchen slops. The barrel should be placed so that the inverted top will be a little way beneath the surface of the ground. A hole should be bored in the bottom of the barrel and a funnel inserted, through which the slops may be poured. If the soil is porous, a trough may be dug and covered with mosquito netting or cheese cloth, and the water poured through this and allowed to drain off.

Excreta is the most deadly form of waste, and too much care cannot be exercised in disposing of it. Impress upon every man that he must cover completely with dirt all excreta so that flies may not have a chance to approach it.

For short stops and while working in the field "straddle," latrines are the best. These are shallow trenches the width of a shovel, about 12 inches wide, and several feet in length. For long stops a deep latrine is dug of the following dimensions: 2 feet wide, 6 feet deep by 15 feet long. Two posts with crotches, driven at the ends of this trench, supporting a substantial pole to make a seat * * * for convenience a hand rail placed in front of this improvised seat will add to the comfort of the men.

A more permanent latrine is made by covering the pit with a wooden box, in the top of which are cut holes of the necessary diameter. To these holes should be fitted spring covers which will shut down tightly. A wooden frame boarded around this arrangement makes a satisfactory enclosure.

A urinal made of two long boards joined together to form a V-shaped trough and drained by a pipe into the pit completes the whole. A pitch sufficient for rapid drainage should be given the urinal trough.

When necessary to utilize separate urinals, a hole filled with stone and sprinkled daily with quicklime is sufficient for short periods. At night there should be a galvanized iron can placed in each company street and emptied before reveille each morning. This can must be disinfected by burning out, as must be the latrines when earth or sand is not used as a covering each time.

Pits must be covered daily with quicklime, ashes, earth and filled when within two (2) feet of the surface. Their position should be distinctly marked so as to prevent reopening.

It is a safe rule never to use an old camp ground, but select a new one, even if less conveniently located. Camp sites should be changed if it is found that the soil is becoming polluted, or if the ground is cut up and dusty from constant use.

The condition in which a camp site is left by an organization will clearly indicate the efficiency and discipline in a command.



CHAPTER 10.

Personal Hygiene and First Aid.

This is a purely arbitrary grouping of topics for the purpose of saving space. Either of the topics mentioned could be treated at length; detailed information will be found in any of the reference books mentioned in the bibliography.

PERSONAL HYGIENE means "the preservation of health by attention to the care of the body;" it is determined by the formation of correct habits. Cleanliness of person, clothing and bedding should become a habit of life with the soldier; but some men will always require watching and admonition. These habits are: personal cleanliness; regulation of diet; avoidance of excesses (eating, drinking and sexual matters); wearing suitable clothing; keeping the bodily processes at work (kidneys, bowels and skin); taking sufficient exercise, preferably in the open air; rest of body and mind, with recreation for the latter; maintaining the surroundings in which one lives in a cleanly state.

BATHING is easily the most important requirement in matters of personal hygiene; men should bathe as often as conditions of life in barracks and camp will permit. On the march a vigorous "dry rub" with a coarse towel will often prove an excellent substitute when water is not available. Teeth should be cleaned at least twice daily. Clothing should be kept clean, particularly underclothing. Diet is not a matter which a soldier can determine to any extent for himself; but he can follow a certain few precautions:

1. Don't eat hurriedly; chew the food properly. 2. Don't overload the stomach. 3. Don't eat green or overripe fruit. 4. Don't eat anything while away from camp or barracks, whose materials or manner of preparation seem questionable. 5. Don't bring a "grouch" to the table with you. 6. Don't eat on the march; don't drink too much water on the march.

SEXUAL INDULGENCE is a matter to be handled tactfully, but with absolute frankness. Men should be taught that it is not a matter of necessity; that their health will not suffer by any lack of it; that they themselves will be the sufferers for any violations of rules of health. The procedure directed by the War Department for purposes of combatting infection is as follows:

1. That physical inspections of enlisted men be made twice each month for the detection of venereal disease.

2. That any soldier who exposes himself to infection shall report for cleansing and preventive treatment immediately upon return to camp or garrison.

3. That any soldier who fails so to report, if found to be suffering from a venereal infection, shall be brought to trial by court martial for neglect of duty.

4. That men so infected shall be confined strictly to the limits of the post during the infectious stages of the disease.

5. That all officers serving with troops shall do their utmost to encourage healthful exercises and physical recreation and to supply opportunities for cleanly social and interesting mental occupations for the men under their command.

6. That company and medical officers shall take advantage of favorable opportunities to point out the misery and disaster that follow upon moral uncleanliness; and the fact that venereal disease is never a trivial affair.

With a great many men these precautions and measures will not be necessary but for the sake of those who are ignorant or neglectful, proper steps should at all times be taken.

EXERCISE.—A sufficient amount of exercise to maintain health is ordinarily provided by military drills and other duties requiring active movement. But this should be regarded only as the minimum of exercise; athletic work should be encouraged (and this will be done by the present activities of those "higher up"); bayonet training will be found an excellent medium of accomplishing a double purpose; calisthenics should be short but snappy and vigorous. A vigorous policy of an officer as regards things of this sort will ward off a great many minor ills and particularly "colds," which are often the result of poor ventilation.

CLEANLINESS OF SURROUNDINGS.—Men should be taught that cleanliness of surroundings is not merely for purposes of inspection; but that it is absolutely necessary where a great number of men are living together in close quarters. Quarters should be well policed; the company street should be kept clean; refuse of all sorts should be kept in receptacles provided for that purpose and frequently removed. A police squad appointed daily should be charged with this work, and the corporal of the same made responsible for the condition of quarters and the company street.

PREVENTABLE DISEASES.—Men should be given a certain amount of theoretical knowledge of preventable diseases. These matters will be taken care of to a large extent by the Medical Corps; but men should be taught just what precautions are necessary to avoid recourse to the hospital.

VENEREAL diseases have already been touched upon.

TYPHOID FEVER is a germ disease and communicable. Vaccination is the first preventive; protection of water supply is the second; thorough disposal of wastes is a third; and sharp punishment for violation of sanitary regulations is a fourth. Habits of personal cleanliness will do much to prevent any such disease.

DYSENTERY is very common in field service, but may be prevented by same methods as for typhoid fever, save for vaccination; men suffering from this malady should be isolated, if possible, and utmost precaution taken to prevent spread of the disease.

MALARIA is a mosquito disease; get rid of mosquitoes and then you will get rid of the carrier of the germs. Quinine may act as a preventive. Cases should be isolated, if possible.

TONSILITIS AND COLDS may be combatted very effectively by proper precautions as to ventilation.

MEASLES.—Very important but little known; isolation recommended.

There are many other diseases concerning which the men should be instructed, but lack of space prevents further treatment of them. They should be taught the proper treatment of blistered feet, for they incapacitate a great many men; the chief causes are ill-fitting shoes and our old friend "uncleanliness." Shoes are the most important article of clothing of the infantryman; each man should have one pair well broken in for marching, and two other pairs. Socks should be soft, smooth and without holes—also clean. Further steps for the prevention of blisters are; hardening of the skin by appropriate baths for the feet; soaping the feet; or adopting some other means of reducing the friction of the foot against the sock. Treatment—Wash the feet; open the blister at the lowest point, with a clean needle; dress with vaseline or other ointment and protect with adhesive plaster, care being taken not to shut out the air. Zinc oxide plaster is excellent. Sterilize a needle; thread it with a woolly thread and run it through blister, leaving ends projecting about one-half inch; this will act as a wick and dry up blister in short time.

FIRST AID.—Explain to the men the uses of the first aid packet and of the pouch carried by the Medical Corps. (This pouch is being replaced by web-belts with pockets.)

WOUNDS may be classed as ordinary cuts, inside wounds, lacerated, punctured and poisoned wounds. For ordinary minor wounds—iodine and exposure to the air are usually sufficient. War wounds are usually caused by something having an explosive effect and may be accompanied by hemorrhage, shock and even loss of function; they may be arterial or venous.

POISONED WOUNDS are of two sorts; external and internal.

DIAGNOSIS TAG.—This tag placed on a soldier shows wound, name, rank, regiment, treatment received, etc. This tag should be carefully read before further treatment is accorded.

TREATMENT OF WOUNDS.—The compress, of the first aid packet will always prove of help.

BLEEDING WOUNDS.—The bandage of the first aid packet will stop all ordinary bleeding; but in aggravated cases the bleeding may be stopped by pressure on the artery, between the wound and the heart. This may be done by hand or by means of the forceps in the medical pouch. The points of compression should be learned and located; in front of the ear just above the socket of the jaw; in the neck in front of the strongly marked muscle reaching from behind the ear to the upper part of the breast bone; in the hollow behind the collar bone; just behind the inner border of the larger muscle of the arm; the femoral artery at the middle of the groin where the artery passes over the bone. Bleeding may also be stopped to some extent by elevating the wounded part. A tourniquet may be improvised by using the compress, running a stick or the bayonet through the band, and taking up the slack by twisting.

POISONED WOUNDS.—For a snakebite make a tight constriction just above the wound; make an incision at the bite and suck out the poison. Do it quickly. If this is impossible, follow the same plan but give a stimulant; repeatedly loosen the constriction and let a little of the poison into the system at a time to be neutralized. In cases of chemical poisoning do not follow the usual method of treating poisoning. Do not make the patient vomit, but give him something fat or albuminous such as raw eggs or milk. This forms mercurial albuminate. Ptomaine poisoning (symptoms are headache, cramps, nausea, high fever and chills, etc.). Drink salt water, vomit and repeat the procedure to clean out the stomach. A purgative should also be taken. Ice cream and milk kept too long are frequent causes of this sort of poisoning, as are dishes kept in the icebox over night.

FAINTING, HEAT EXHAUSTION AND SHOCK are all of the same class; symptoms are the same—weak pulse, paleness and low temperature, tendency to fall to ground. Often follows taking too much water on the march. Treatment should be in nature of stimulant; make patient lie down, get blood to his head, wrap him in blankets, give him hot drinks, etc.

SUNSTROKE.—Symptoms and treatment are different. Patient has a high temperature. Keep his head high and feet low; disrobe him and pour cold water on him; keep him in a cool place until temperature lowers to 101; then remove cold water and temperature will go down itself. Do not apply cold water too long as the temperature may go to sub-normal which is just as dangerous as a temperature abnormally high.

BURNS AND SCALDS.—Air should be shut out; otherwise treat like blister, care being taken not to remove skin. Do not put on anything that will stick and do not try to remove anything that has a tendency to stick; put on linseed oil and water, cotton and a loose bandage.

FREEZING AND FROSTBITES.—Use ice water and snow to start with. Keep the patient cool until he is thawed out. Massage and gradually work up to a warmer temperature.

FRACTURES are of three kinds; simple, compound and comminuted.

Simple: Bones do not penetrate the skin (may be single or double). Compound: Bones penetrate the skin and cause infection. Comminuted: Bone is shattered.

Indications of a fracture are: Pain, redness, swelling and mobility where it ought not to be.

TREATMENT.—Find out the kind of fracture. Paint the wound and put on first aid packet; replace the clothes and splint the break. Splints should not be too long so as to cause any friction or annoyance to the patient. They may be made out of any available material, such as rifle, bayonet, shingle, piece of board, scabbard, etc. Bind them firmly but not too tightly.

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION.—This subject is worthy of more treatment than it can be accorded here. Any text on first aid will explain thoroughly the Schaefer method, which is now the standard method in the army. Points to be remembered in this method are; remove foreign articles from the mouth; curl the little finger over the 12th rib; avoid the pelvic bones; hold the arms straight and apply the pressure by means of the whole body brought forward; take care not to break a rib; do not give up too soon.

TRENCH FOOT.—This is due to long standing with legs and feet in wet clothes. There are three types:

Mild: Symptoms are numbness and a slight swelling. Medium: Additional symptom of a bluing of the leg; also large blisters. Severe: Gangrene sets in.

Tight clothes help to bring on these things. Keep the shoes, socks and breeches loose; keep the clothes dry; furnish the men with hot food in the trenches and so keep up the circulation. Do not use grease. Trench foot can be avoided by proper treatment, and punishment should follow upon its contraction.



CHAPTER 11.

Signaling.

This chapter proposes to cover a large amount of ground in a small compass; hence treatment must be brief. A more liberal treatment will be found at different sources; here a few suggestions and hints will be given.

SEMAPHORE.—Time spent, 61 hours: 6 sessions 1/2 hours, 1 session 1 hour, 1 conference 2 hours. It is easy to say "just learn the semaphore," but to learn it quickly and well is another matter. A few suggestions as to the methods followed by others will usually prove helpful. Learn the semaphore by what may be called the "cycle" method, i.e., teach and illustrate how the successive letters are formed by moving the arm or arms around the body in a clockwise direction through successive stages. There are a few exceptions to the rule as will be pointed out; but they only serve as a few landmarks and help to fix the whole matter more firmly in mind.

FIRST CYCLE.—1 arm. A to G. One arm always at the interval. Be sure to make the "D" with right arm straight overhead—then it is more distinct at a distance. (Plate.)

SECOND CYCLE.—2 arms. H to N, inclusive, with exception of J. One arm always in the A position. In making I always be sure that the left hand is at the A position. Some men insist in making this letter wrong by crossing the body with the left hand uppermost. This is very awkward and also very indistinct at a distance. P changes arms but retains same relative position of flags.

THIRD CYCLE.—2 arms. T and U. Right arm in position of C. Letter U actually resembles that letter.

THIRD CYCLE.—2 arms. O to S. One arm always in B position. In letter O, left arm is in B position; in all others, right arm.

FOURTH CYCLE.—2 arms. T and U. Right arm in position of C. Letter U actually resembles that letter.

DOUBLES.—L, U, R, N. These letters are keys to many others and should be promptly learned.

OPPOSITES.—V and K, O and W, Q and Y, S and M, Z and H, X and I, M follows L in cycle and is opposite of S, S follows E in cycle and is opposite of M, K precedes L in cycle and is opposite of V. Figures are first 10 letters of alphabet, preceded by crossing flags overhead.

INSTRUCTING.—This plan of teaching the semaphore will be found very helpful, for it helps to reason out the alphabet for the student. By fixing firmly in mind a few things the student can soon reason out the alphabet for himself by a very logical plan.

SECOND STEP.—After the men have been taught the alphabet they should either pair off and one man send to the other, or one man should be selected to send for the entire class. At first only letters should be sent until the men have learned the alphabet thoroughly. In this way the key characters of the alphabet can be fixed in mind, as well as their relation to the other letters.

THIRD STEP.—The men should next be paired off and instructed to send simple messages to each other. You should insist that there be no other communication between the men than by means of their flags.

FOURTH STEP.—Proceed to simple qualification tests, four men working in two pairs and the pairs alternating in sending and receiving. One man of first pair should read for his companion to send. On the other end, one man should read and the other copy. The distances should be such as to preclude the possibility of conversation. Forty letters per minute is a fair test; or this system may be followed: Have a good signalman send 10 combinations of 5 letters each to the whole class. The men should read these and write them down, one combination at a time. Time limit should be 3 minutes.



WIG WAG.—Time spent: Same as semaphore course. The alphabet can be found in any standard signal book, or in the "Manual for Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates." The dots are made to the right of the body, the dashes to the left; interval at the end of a word by dipping the flag once to the front, at the end of a sentence by dipping it twice, and at the end of a message by dipping it three times. The alphabet should be learned first according to the same general plan as in the semaphore; i.e., the key letters to certain combinations should first be learned. The following grouping of letters may be found helpful:

E I S H; T M O; A U V; N D B; R F L; K C Y; W P J; G Z Q.

The instructor can find many other groupings that will aid him. It should also be pointed out that each number from one to ten consists of five characters, and that each succeeding number follows the previous one according to a regular method.

After the men have studied the alphabet sufficiently, have them send to each other, limiting the work at first to letters only. Then gradually work up to the point where they may send simple messages. Make them rely upon the flags for communicating during the practice. Do not permit conversation—separate the men by a considerable distance. In both wig wag and semaphore instruction the same plan should be followed as in teaching a foreign language; i.e., confine all communication to the medium under study. Qualification tests are similar to those for the semaphore, except that less speed can be exacted; 15 characters per minute or 10 combinations of 5 letters each to be received and written down in 5 minutes.

In both the semaphore and the wig wag men should be taught the conventional signals used in field work. These can be found in any manual on the subject.

POINTS TO REMEMBER.

The semaphore is a quicker means of communication than the wig wag; but the wig wag can be used in a prone position under shelter.

Lanterns can be used at night for semaphoring.

Acetylene lamps can be used at night in place of the wig wag. In this case a short flash represents a dot, a long flash a dash.

A few men in each company should be developed into expert signalers; some men always show aptitude for this sort of thing.

Frequent use should be made of signaling in field work.

Letter Codes.

INFANTRY.

For use with General Service Code or semaphore hand flags.

- Letter of If signaled from the rear If signaled from the firing alphabet to the firing line line to the rear - AM Ammunition going forward. Ammunition required. CCC Charge (mandatory at Am about to charge if all times). no instructions to the contrary. CF Cease firing Cease firing. DT Double time or "rush." Double time or "rush." F Commence firing. FB Fix bayonets. FL Artillery fire is causing us losses. G Move forward. Preparing to move forward. HHH Halt. K Negative. LT Left. O What is the (R.N., etc.)? What is the (R.N., etc.)? (Ardois and Interrogatory. Interrogatory. semaphore only). .. .. What is the (R.N., etc.)? What is the (R.N., etc.)? (All methods Interrogatory. Interrogatory. but Ardois and semaphore). P Affirmative. Affirmative. RN Range. Range. RT Right. Right. SSS Support going forward. Support needed. SUF Suspend firing. Suspend firing. T Target. Target -

Arm Signals.

The following arm signals are prescribed. In making signals either arm may be used. Officers who receive signals on the firing line "retreat back" at once to prevent misunderstandings.

FORWARD MARCH.—Carry the hand to the shoulder; straighten and hold the arm horizontally, thrusting it in direction of march. This signal is also used to execute quick time from double time.

HALT.—Carry the hand to the shoulder; thrust the hand upward and hold the arm vertically.

DOUBLE TIME, MARCH.—Carry the hand to the shoulder; rapidly thrust the hand upward the full extent of the arm several times.

SQUADS RIGHT, MARCH.—Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it to a vertical position above the head and swing it several times between the vertical and horizontal positions.

SQUADS LEFT, MARCH.—Raise the arm laterally until horizontal; carry it downward to the side and swing it several times between the downward and horizontal positions.

SQUADS RIGHT ABOUT, MARCH (if in close order) or, TO THE REAR, MARCH (if in skirmish line).—Extend the arm vertically above the head; carry it laterally downward to the side and swing it several times between the vertical and downward positions.

CHANGE DIRECTION OR COLUMN RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH.—The hand on the side toward which the change of direction is to be made is carried across the body to the opposite shoulder, forearm horizontal; then swing in a horizontal plane, arm extended, pointing in the new direction.

As SKIRMISHERS, MARCH.—Raise both arms laterally until horizontal.

As SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE CENTER, MARCH.—Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; swing both simultaneously upward until vertical and return to the horizontal; repeat several times.

As SKIRMISHERS, GUIDE RIGHT (LEFT), MARCH.—Raise both arms laterally until horizontal; hold the arm on the side of the guide steadily in the horizontal position: swing the other upward until vertical and return it to the horizontal; repeat several times.

ASSEMBLE, MARCH.—Raise the arm vertically to its full extent and describe horizontal circles.

RANGE, OR CHANGE ELEVATION.—To announce the RANGE, extend the arm, toward the leaders or men for whom the signal is intended, fist closed; by keeping the fist closed battle sight is indicated; by opening and closing the fist, expose thumb and fingers to a number equal to the hundreds of yards; to add 50 yards describe a short horizontal line with forefinger. To change elevation, indicate the amount of increase or decrease by fingers as above; point upward to indicate increase and downward to indicate decrease.

WHAT RANGE ARE YOU USING? OR WHAT IS THE RANGE?—Extend the arms toward the person addressed, one hand open, palm to the front, resting on the other hand, fist closed.

ARE YOU READY? OR I AM READY.—Raise the hand, fingers extended and joined, palm toward the person addressed.

COMMENCE FIRING.—Move the arm extended in full length, hand palm down, several times through a horizontal arc in front of the body.

FIRE FASTER.—Execute rapidly the signal "COMMENCE FIRING."

FIRE SLOWER.—Execute slowly the signal "COMMENCE FIRING."

TO SWING THE CONE OF FIRE TO THE RIGHT, OR LEFT.—Extend the arm in full length to the front, palm to the right (left); swing the arm to right (left), and point in the direction of the new target.

FIX BAYONET.—Simulate the movement of the right hand in "Fix Bayonet."

SUSPEND FIRING.—Raise and hold the forearm steadily in a horizontal position in front of the forehead, palm of the hand to the front.

CEASE FIRING.—Raise the forearm as in suspend firing and swing it up and down several times in front of the face.

PLATOON.—Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; describe small circles with the hand.

SQUAD.—Extend the arm horizontally toward the platoon leader; swing the hand, up and down from the wrist.

RUSH.—Same as double time.

The signals PLATOON and SQUAD are intended primarily for communication between the captain and his platoon leaders. The signal PLATOON or SQUAD indicates that the platoon commander is to cause the signal which follows to be executed by platoon or squad.



CHAPTER 12.

Guard Duty.

Time spent: Study, 2 hours. Conference, 2 hours. Formal guard mounting.

Guards are divided roughly into four classes: 1. Exterior—(Which come more properly under head of field service). 2. Interior—Their purpose is to preserve order, protect property and enforce police regulations. 3. Military Police—Also treated of in field service. 4. Provost Guards—Used in the absence of military police to aid civil authorities in preserving order among soldiers beyond the interior guard.

Here we are concerned chiefly with interior guards. We shall make up a brief summary of what an officer must know and what he ought to teach his non-coms. and men. Also we shall touch upon the subject of guard duty as it has been changed by trench warfare.

An officer ought to have a good grasp of the following subjects relative to guard duty: 1. Guard mounting (both formal and informal). 2. Posting reliefs. 3. Preparation and running of rosters. 4. General orders—also special orders at post No. 1. 5. Duties of the following in reference to guard duty: 1. Commanding officer. 2. Officer of the day. 3. Adjutant. 4. Sergeant Major. 5. Commander of the guard. 6. Sergeant of the guard. 7. Corporal of the guard. 8. Musicians. 9. Orderlies and color sentinels. 10. Privates of the guard. 6. Compliments of the guard. 7. Prisoners: General. Garrison. Awaiting trial. Awaiting result of trial.

How is an officer arrested? Can an enlisted man arrest him? How is a non-com. arrested? How is a soldier arrested? How is a civilian arrested? (See a.w. No. 68.)

An officer ought to-teach to his non-coms. as much of the above as is consistent with time and other demands; he ought to teach to his privates all that is necessary to the proper discharge of their duties in this connection.

FORMAL GUARD MOUNTING.—Here follow a few reminders that may help the reader to keep the ceremony in mind:

1. Weather conditions permitting, guard mounting takes place every day at the discretion of the C.O.

2. Tour of duty is 24 hours; there are 3 reliefs, 2 hours on and 4 hours off. No organization is detailed for guard duty more than once in 5 days if this can be prevented.

CEREMONY.—1. The band takes post, its left 12 paces to the right of where the right of the guard is to be.

2. Adjutant's Call.—The Adjutant marches to the parade ground (Sergeant Major on his left) and takes post 12 paces in front of and facing the center of where the guard is to rest. The Sergeant Major continues on, marches by the left flank and takes post 12 paces to the left of the band and facing in the direction the line is to extend.

3. The details are marched to the parade ground by the senior non-commissioned officers, halted and dressed as follows:

FIRST DETAIL.—Non-commissioned officer.—1. Detail; 2. Halt. The detail is halted against the left arm of the Sergeant Major; the non-commissioned officer steps out, faces the Sergeant Major at a distance slightly greater than the front of the detail and commands: 1. Right; 2. Dress. The detail dresses on the line formed by the Sergeant Major and the Commander of the detail. 3. Front. The Commander of the detail salutes and reports: "The detail is correct" (or otherwise). When the report is made the Sergeant Major returns the salute. The Commander of the detail passes by the right of the guard and takes post in rear of the right file of his detail.

OTHER DETAILS.—Non-commissioned officers.—1. Detail; 2. Halt; 3. Right; 4. Dress; 5. Front. Each commander of a detail halts his detail, dresses it on the general line, salutes and reports as does the first; then takes his post in a similar manner. Should the commander of a detail not be a non-commissioned officer he passes by the right of the guard and retires.

4. SERGEANT MAJOR.—He takes one step to the right, draws sword and verifies the detail, and then commands: "Count off." He completes the last squad if necessary and indicates the division into platoons: then takes his post and commands: 1. Open ranks; 2. March. This is executed as laid down in the Infantry Drill Regulations. 3. Front. He then moves parallel to the front rank until opposite the center, turns to the right, halts half-way to the Adjutant, salutes and reports: "Sir, the details are correct" (or otherwise).

5. ADJUTANT: "Take your post." (Adjutant draws saber.)

6. SERGEANT MAJOR.—Faces about, approaches to within two paces of the center of the guard, turns; to the right and moves three paces beyond the left of the guard, turns to the left, halts on the line of the front rank, faces about and brings his sword to the order. (When the Sergeant Major has reported the Officer of the Guard takes his post, as shown in the diagram, and draws saber.)

7. ADJUTANT.—1. Officer (officers) and non-commissioned officers; 2. Front and center; 3. March. At "Center" the officer carries saber; at "March" the officer advances and halts 3 paces from the Adjutant, remaining at the carry; non-commissioned officers pass by the flank, move along the front and form in order of rank from right to left, 3 paces behind the officer, remaining at the right shoulder. If there is no officer of the guard the non-commissioned officers halt 3 paces from the Adjutant. The Adjutant assigns them to their positions in order of rank—commander of the guard; leader of the first platoon; leader of the second platoon, etc., and commands: 1. Officer (officers) and non-commissioned officers; 2. Posts; 3. March. At the command "March" they take their posts as prescribed in the School of the Company with open ranks (Platoon leaders 3 paces in front of center of their platoons).

8. ADJUTANT: "Inspect your guard, sir."

9. OFFICER OF THE GUARD.—Faces about and commands: "Prepare for inspection."

10. ADJUTANT (after the inspection is ended, and after posting himself 30 paces in front of and facing center of the guard—at the same time the new Officer of the Day takes position about 30 paces behind the Adjutant, facing the guard, and with the old officer of the day 1 pace in rear and 3 paces to the right): 1. Parade; 2. Rest; 3. Sound off. (The band, playing passes in front of the Officer of the Guard to the left of the line, returns to its post and ceases to play.) 1. Guard; 2. Attention; 3. Close ranks; 4. March. (As in the School of the Company.) 1. Present; 2. Arms. He then faces the new officer of the day, salutes, and reports: "Sir, the guard is formed."

11. NEW OFFICER OF THE DAY (returning salute): "March the guard in review, sir."

12. ADJUTANT.—He carries saber, faces about, brings the guard to the order and commands: "1. At trail, platoons right; 2. March; 3. Guard; 4. Halt." The band takes post 12 paces in front of the first platoon, the Adjutant 6 paces from the flank and abreast of the Commander of the Guard, and the Sergeant Major 6 paces from the flank of the second platoon. Adjutant commands: "1. Pass in review; 2. Forward; 3. March."

13. COMMANDER OF THE GUARD (as the guard reaches a position 6 paces from the Officer of the Day): 1. Eyes; 2. Right; (at 6 paces beyond the Officer of the Day) 3. Front.

At 12 paces beyond the Officer of the Day the Adjutant and the Sergeant-Major halt, salute and retire.

14. COMMANDER OF THE GUARD (as the Adjutant and the Sergeant Major retire): 1. Platoons, right by squads; 2. March. The guard is then marched to its post; the old guard is then relieved and sentinels posted according to the principles laid down in the Manual of Interior Guard Duty. (See diagrams at the end of this chapter.)

GUARD DUTY IN THE TRENCHES.—It differs from guard duty as we are accustomed to it. The challenge is not "Who is there?" but rather a sudden and imperative "Hands up." The party challenged throws up his hands and gives the countersign in a low voice. Sentinels are posted in the front line and in the line of dugouts, one at each entrance to a dugout to give immediate warning. Watchers are posted at places having a good range of view; at night they keep watch over the parapets rather than through the loopholes since the latter afford only a narrow range of view. Auto riflemen (6 or 7 to a post) are used as watchers, one being on duty at a time. They should have a favorable background to provide concealment.



CHAPTER 13.

Company Administration.

Company administration is a very broad subject and can be really learned only by experience. However, this chapter will attempt to point out a few suggestions and practices that may prove of some assistance, particularly to the new officer. We shall treat briefly of the first organization of the company; then we shall try to reproduce in some slight measure the actual work of a day in camp (more particularly of a training camp such as Plattsburg); then finally we shall treat of the orderly room and some of the problems that come up in army paper work.

Notes on Organization.

(By MAJOR W.H. WALDRON, Twenty-Ninth Infantry.)

1. PREPARE IN ADVANCE TO RECEIVE MEN ASSIGNED TO COMPANY.

(a) Detail one of the Lieutenants in charge of the company mess.

DUTIES.—Secure the necessary kitchen and dining room equipment and prepare everything to start the mess; make up a bill-of-fare for a week based on the ration components and supplies available; secure the rations and issue them to the cooks daily. Train a mess Sergeant in the duties that fall to him. In fine, this Lieutenant will have complete charge of the company mess, the cooking, and serving of the meals, training of cooks and men detailed for duty in connection with the mess.

(b) Detail the other Lieutenant in charge of property.

DUTIES.—Procure all the articles of individual and company equipment from the Regimental Supply Officer. Get into the company storeroom and prepare it for issue. Train the Company Supply Sergeant in the duties that will fall to him.

(c) This leaves the Company Commander free to organize the orderly room and make the necessary preparations to receive the men as they report.

IF IN CANTONMENT.—Lay out the quarters into platoon sections and subdivide these into squads, allowing space for platoon leaders and guides. Starting at the end of the quarters plainly mark each squad section, 8 beds, four on each side of the aisle with the number of the squad—first squad, second squad, etc.

IF IN TENTS.—Number the tents, one for each squad, leaving two tents in the center for platoon leaders, guides, etc. Prepare a sheet having a space for each squad, large enough to enter eight names in it. Prepare a measuring post where the men can be measured for height as they report.

2. MEN REPORTING:

(a) When the men arrive they will be sent to Regimental Headquarters direct. There they will receive their assignment to a company. When so assigned they will be directed to join the company.

(b) A table on which is spread the squad assignment sheet is located at the head of the company street. Nearby is located the measuring post. When a man reports, look him over, receive him in the company, make him feel at home. Make him feel that he is welcome. This little act will pay you large dividends in contentment and company esprit de corps later on. Turn him over to the man in charge of the measuring post to get his height. Assign him to a squad corresponding to his height. Enter his name in the squad space to which he is assigned and send him to the section of the cantonment designated for that particular squad. Detail a few of the first men who report for duty to assist in this work.

Say you have 16 squads. They will run in height about as follows:

1st squad, over 6 feet; 2nd, 6 feet; 3rd, 6 feet; 4th, 5 feet 11 inches; 5th, 5 feet 11 inches; 6th, 5 feet 10 inches; 7th, 5 feet 10 inches; 8th, 5 feet 9 inches; 9th, 5 feet 9 inches; 10th, 5 feet 8 inches; 11th, 5 feet 8 inches; 12th, 5 feet 7 inches; 13th, 5 feet 7 inches; 14th, 5 feet 6 inches; 15th, 5 feet 6 inches; 16th, 5 feet 5 inches. If there are more squads put them in the 5 feet 7 to 5 feet 9 inches class.

(c) As soon as practicable place one member of the squad in charge for the ensuing 24 hours, change this detail every day until every man of the squad has had an opportunity to demonstrate his ability. This will assist you greatly in the selection of your non-commissioned officers.

(d) Should the entire company be assigned in a body, line them up in a row according to height and assign them to squads. Place the most likely looking man in each squad in charge for the time being.

3. ISSUE OF EQUIPMENT:

(a) The articles of camp equipment, bedding and poncho should be issued as soon as practicable. These are necessary for the immediate comfort of the men.

(b) Hold the articles of personal equipment for issue later on. Do not dump the entire equipment on a man all at once. There is nine-tenths of it that he knows nothing about. He does not know what it is for. As the training progresses you can issue it to him, an article or two at a time until he has finally gotten all of it. Before issuing an article, explain at a company formation, what it is for, the purpose it serves and where it is carried.

(c) Uniforms and clothing should be procured as soon as practicable. The commanding officer will indicate whether or not the clothing will be requisitioned for in bulk or on individual clothing slips. The supply officer will provide a quartermaster publication which shows the sizes of clothing by the numbers. Seek out a couple of tailors in the company, have them measure the men and make a record of the sizes of clothing that they require. Shoes will have to be fitted to each man. Make them large enough. The average recruit will want to wear a shoe at least one size too small for him. When he gets the pack on and drags it around all day his feet will swell and fill his small shoes to the bursting point. Do not let the men decide what size shoes they will wear; you decide it for them and make them plenty big. This work of measuring the men can be started right out the first day. The captain that gets in his requisition first, properly made out, will be the first to get his clothing.

4. ORGANIZATION:

(a) As soon as practicable get the company organized into permanent squads. Try out squad leaders for a few days. You will soon be able to select the men that you will want for non-commissioned officers. Be careful in their selection so that you will not have to make many changes. Don't be in too much of a hurry about making sergeants; try them out as corporals first. Try to get a good man and start him in as mess sergeant. A man with hotel experience, especially the kitchen and dining room end of the business, give him a trial. Your lieutenant in charge of the mess can tell in a day or two how he stacks up. Make it plain that the men detailed from day to day are merely acting non-commissioned officers and that you are merely placing them in charge to give them an opportunity to demonstrate their ability. It's better to work this proposition out in a systematic manner than it is to jump in and make a lot of non-commissioned officers that you will have to break later on to make way for better men.

Give your acting non-commissioned officers all the responsibility you can. Assign tasks with their squads and see how they get away with it.

(b) At one of the first formations explain the rules of camp sanitation and personal cleanliness and the necessity for their strict observance.

(c) Start right out with a system of rigid inspections so that the men will acquire habits of cleanliness and tidiness of their surroundings. Once this is acquired it is easily maintained. The reverse of this statement is equally true. Let a company get started in a slovenly, untidy manner and it is difficult to get it back on the right track again.

(d) As soon as uniforms are issued have every man dispose of his civilian clothing, dress suit cases, trunks, etc. There is no place for them in the cantonments or tents. Strip right down to uniforms and allow no civilian clothing around.

(e) Before issuing rifles provide places for their safe keeping in cantonments. If wooden trunks are used, a wire staple driven into the upright of the bed at the height of the slacking swivel forms an excellent support; simply hook the slacking swivel into the staple.

(f) Get every man interested in the company. Be personally interested in every man yourself. Do not permit any swearing at the men or around the barracks. Explain the idea of military courtesy and the salute and insist on its being carried out at all times. By doing all of these things and systematizing your work of training and instruction right from the start you lay the foundation for a "good company." Fifteen good companies make a "good regiment" and so on up to the division, and that's what we want "good divisions"—the basis of which lies in the "good company" which you are going to command.

DAY'S ROUTINE.—The day's routine will soon develop and cannot be a stereotyped thing. It will be determined to a large extent by local conditions. But in all training camps some such model as the following will no doubt be followed:

REVEILLE: First call, 5.30 a.m. March, 5.40 a.m. Assembly, 5.45 a.m.

At first call the non-commissioned officer in charge of quarters, or some other charged with that duty, will go through the barracks and awaken the men. After a short time this may be dispensed with.

MESS: First call (followed by mess call), 5.55 a.m. Assembly, 6.00 a.m.

Allow the men approximately 20 minutes for breakfast and the privilege of returning individually—this for purposes of attending to the calls of nature.

SICK CALL, 6.30 a.m.—Have the non-commissioned officer in charge of quarters put through this call; the sick will report to the orderly room, be entered on the sick report and marched to the hospital by the same non-commissioned officer. All men answering sick call should be questioned as to the nature of their trouble and its cause; men who are trying to dodge work should be caught up with. Care should be exercised in making out the sick report; be careful what you put on it and where you put it. The sick report will be treated further under "Paper Work."

MORNING INSTRUCTION: First call, 6.50 a.m. Assembly, 7.00 a.m. Recall, 12.00 m.

Utilize this time according to the schedule laid down by higher authorities. It will no doubt be insisted that the schedule be closely adhered to; but this can be done without completely destroying individual initiative.

MESS: First call (followed by mess call), 12.10 p.m. Assembly, 12.15 p.m.

Allow 30 minutes for noon mess. The men may not consume it all; but judgment must be used in this matter. After mess have the company formed and marched back to barracks. This plan should be followed for a time, at least, particularly with "green" men purely for disciplinary purposes.

AFTERNOON INSTRUCTION: First call, 1.20 p.m. Assembly, 1.30 p.m. Recall, 4,30 p.m.

Same general procedure as for morning work.

SICK CALL, 4.45 p.m.—When the sick report is sent to the hospital in the afternoon, it is customary to make a new entry for all men who are in the hospital. In this way a running account is kept and quickly referred to without running all through the book.

The time from recall to retreat at 5.30 or thereabouts can usually be used to advantage in cleaning up and getting ready for this ceremony.

RETREAT.—(Formal—on the parade grounds). First call, 5.30 p.m. Assembly, 5.35 p.m. Retreat, 5.50 p.m.

MESS: First call, followed by mess call, 6.00 p.m. Assembly, 6.05 p.m.

SCHOOL CALL (except Saturdays), 7.00 p.m. TATTOO, 9.00 p.m. CALL TO QUARTERS, 9.30 p.m. TAPS, 9.45 p.m.

At taps lights should be out and absolute quiet should prevail. This rule should be insisted upon from the very beginning of the training period. A check roll call is often taken at taps and the company reported to the Officer of the Day. Likewise, the company is reported to the Officer of the Day at reveille, retreat and mess formations; however, these things are determined entirely by local conditions.

SUNDAYS AND HOLIDAYS.—Calls are 1/2 hour later, except retreat, tattoo, call to quarters and taps. In case an entertainment is given on the post, taps usually follow its close by a half hour.

DETAILS for any day should be published at retreat formation the day previous; bulletins and notices should also be published to the company at this formation.

PAPER WORK.—Paper work in the Army is generally viewed askance. A certain amount of it is absolutely necessary, but the amount can be reduced by careful attention to the way in which the work is done. A good first sergeant and a good company clerk will take a load of trouble off the shoulders of the company commander in this respect; but usually these men must be trained. Instructions on the blank forms should be carefully read the first time a certain paper is made out. Attend to all paper work promptly and make a note of anything that cannot be handled immediately. Do not let anything get into the company files until it has been O.K'd. by the company commander or initialed by the officers. Have a basket for the company commander and one for the other officers where they may expect to find matters that are of interest to them. Get reports, requisitions and other papers in on time. Do not wait until they are called for. Establish a daily, as well as a monthly, system of doing things in the orderly room and then stick to it as nearly as possible. Have a file for:

1. General orders, post and W.D. 2. Special orders. 3. Memorandums, bulletins and notices may be included under this head. 4. Company orders. 5. Document file (copies of letters, etc.).

The needs for files will be determined largely by local conditions. The point is to have things where they can be found readily under an appropriate heading; and to have them accessible to others besides the company clerk. Keep a copy of everything, as nearly as possible, but do not clutter up your company files with unimportant items. Keep your orderly room looking as neat as possible.

MILITARY CORRESPONDENCE.—A very important feature of Army Paper Work. Neatness, brevity and clarity are to be sought—ceremonial forms are avoided.

References to Army Regulations: Paragraphs 225, 512, 776, 778, 779, 780, 786, 789, 790, 822 (g.o. 23 w.d.).

A letter consists of three parts; heading, body and signature. The heading consists of designation of the command, place and date, all placed in the upper right-hand corner. At the left, and with a margin of about an inch, should be:

From:

To:

Subject:

A double space should be left between these lines.

The body should be divided into numbered paragraphs, each paragraph treating of but one topic. The lines should be single-spaced, but a double space should be left between the paragraphs. The signature should be made without any unnecessary forms.

Any good treatise on this subject will show the proper forms for a military letter.

Indorsements follow the signature in succession on the same page or on added pages. They are very brief, follow a prescribed form and, if necessary, are paragraphed in the same way as the letter. Letters should be made in three, four, five or six copies, according to destination. They should always be handled through military channels; time will be lost if you try to dodge it.

MORNING REPORT.—This is a complete record of daily events and should be kept with great care. It is submitted daily to the proper authority, checked and returned. Any standard work on this subject will show the proper method of making entries. Be sure to make entry of all events affecting your company, its numbers or condition. If there is no change, say so.

RATION RETURN.—This form is made out in duplicate for periods of from 10 days to a month. In case men join the company after the ration return has been submitted for a given period, one ration for each man for each day from date of joining to date of submitting next return, may be drawn on the next return. The same plan is followed in making deductions for men in the hospital or absent from the company. For ration allowances see a.r. 1202-1252.

SICK REPORT.—A commissioned officer of the company and the medical officer sign on one line following the last entry for the occasion. Neither may encroach on the territory of the other and both enter their opinions as to whether the sickness is in line of duty. No erasures are allowed.

DUTY ROSTER.—For any roster the key word should be "equality of all duties." It means the difference between contentment and dissatisfaction among your men. Keep an exact list of men available for every duty and detail them in exact rotation; adjust to complete satisfaction any little differences that arise. Let the men know that you want to give them a square deal and they will respond. The longest man off duty is the first man to be called. In the regular service the roster covers guard duty and other duties, notably kitchen, police and other fatigue work.

MONTHLY RETURN.—The form is self explanatory. Read the instructions on the blanks before filling them in. By keeping in the company a record of events you can easily fill out the return properly when the time comes.

SERVICE RECORD.—References in Army Regulations: Paragraphs 115, 118, 124, 135, 138, 938, 1337, 1361, 1451, 1535. Article 16.

The service record is a complete personal history of the soldier and follows him wherever he goes. It contains: a descriptive list, report of assignment, record of prior service, current enlistment, military record, record of allotments, clothing account and settlement, deposits, indorsements (this latter to give reasons for change of status or station of the soldier).

DISCHARGE.—Discharges are of three kinds: honorable, dishonorable and plain discharge. The first is on a white sheet and entitles the soldier to re-enlist; the second is on a yellow sheet and is given following sentence of a general court-martial; the third is on a blue sheet and is given on account of physical disability—it does not entitle the soldier to re-enlist.

FINAL STATEMENT, a.r., Art. 21.—The final statement is issued to every enlisted man upon his discharge unless he has forfeited all pay and allowances and has no deposits due him.

The final statement is not to be prepared on the type-writer. Money amounts shall be written in both figures and words. The final statement should show the amount due the soldier for: additional pay; clothing; deposits; pay detained; miscellaneous causes. It also should show the amounts due the United States by the soldier for various reasons. In addition it should also state the period covered by the last pay of the soldier.

Officers signing and certifying to the various entries are responsible.

MUSTER ROLL. a.r. ARTICLE 42.—The muster roll is made bi-monthly and great care should be taken in its preparation to make it both correct and complete. All officers and enlisted men are taken up on the muster roll from the date of receipt of notice of assignment. The following are entered on the rolls:

1. Commissioned officers belonging to the organization, in order of rank. 2. Commissioned officers attached to the organization, in order of rank. 3. Non-commissioned officers in order of grade. 4. All others except musicians and privates, alphabetically arranged in order of grade. 5. Musicians. 6. Privates.

All names, except those entered by rank, are entered in alphabetical order with the last name first.

The names of enlisted men attached to the company are borne on a detachment roll. This is not true of officers attached to an organization, however.

Remarks should be entered according to the model which can be obtained from the Adjutant General's Office.

All changes should be noted which affect the status of the soldier. An excellent idea for retaining this data is to keep a separate card for each man and to enter thereon anything that affects his status.

PAY ROLL. a.r. 1315-1383.—The pay roll is made out monthly in triplicate, one copy being retained and two copies being sent to the Quartermaster. On the pay roll there are four certificates to be signed:

1. The commander of the organization examines the roll carefully and certifies that all entries are correct. 2. The inspecting and mustering officer signs certifying that all are present or accounted for—or notes exceptions. 3. The commanding officer witnesses the payment of each man and certifies to that effect. 4. The commanding officer certifies that the duplicate and triplicate are exact copies of the original.

NAMES.—The last name is entered first; e.g., Smith, John A. But the soldier signs as follows: John A. Smith.

LOSSES.—The losses should follow immediately on the next line after the last entry. They include those by reason of: Discharge, transfer, retirement, desertion and the fact that the man has been dropped.

Each officer should check his knowledge and be sure that he knows the purpose of, and is familiar with the following papers: (References are to Army Regulations and to Adjutant and Quartermaster forms.)

(1) Morning Report (a.r. 280). (2) Daily Sick Report (a.r. 280), (339 a.g.o.). (3) Duty Roster (a.r. 282), (339 a.g.o.). (4) Company Fund Book (a.r. 280), (452 q.m.c.). (5) Delinquency Record (a.r. 280), (509 q.m.c.). (6) Property Responsibility: Quartermaster (a.r. 280), (501cc q.m.c.). Ordnance (a.r. 280), (501c q.m.c.). (7) Descriptive List, Military Record and Clothing Account (a.r. 280), (29 a.g.o.). (8) Memorandum Receipts (a.r. 281), (448 a.g.o.). (9) Abstract Record of Memorandum Receipts (par. 1, g.o., 6, 1916), (448b a.g.o.). (10) Summary Court Records (a.r. 9570), (594 a.g.o.). (11) Statement of Clothing charged to Enlisted man (165b q.m.c.). (12) Abstract of Clothing (180 q.m.c.). (13) Company Target Records (307 a.g.o.). (14) Individual Clothing Slips (165 q.m.c.). (15) Files of Orders (a.r. 280). (16) Correspondence Book with Index (a.r. 280). (17) Document File. (18) Record of Rifles (p. 14, Ordnance Pamphlet No. 1965). (19) Record of Sizes of Clothing (g.o. 48, 1911). (20) Company Return (a.r. 811), (30 a.g.o.). (21) Muster Roll (a.g. 807). (22) Returns (a.g. 811). (23) Return of Casualties. (24) Pay Roll (366 q.m.c.).

As well as numerous other forms for special occasions which are not here listed.

Except for the morning report, sick report, duty roster, correspondence book and various files, practically all the afore-mentioned records are now kept at regimental headquarters instead of in the company orderly room.



CHAPTER 14.

Conferences.

(Time—2 hours each day in afternoon.)

1. Know your subject and be thoroughly prepared.

2. Have an outline to refer to, showing main points you wish to cover.

3. Do not allow a man to give an entire chapter in reply to a question. Make your questions short and specific—and require answers to be the same.

4. Get every man on his feet at least once every day.

5. Have a laugh every little while—keep the men awake.

6. Vary your system of calling on men so that no one will know when he is likely to be called on.

7. Avoid reading to the men.

8. Require men to put things on the blackboard when possible.

9. In case of a conference for which no time has been given for preparation, use all possible schemes to get the points home without having either a lecture or a study period. Allot—a definite time and require definite results—e.g., allow 10 minutes for a rough map showing the placing of a picket—15 minutes for an outline of a certain chapter, etc.

10. Never forget that there are 2 sides to every conference—what you plan to give and what you plan to get. You must test the men to see how well they know the work but you must also make sure that every man knows it when he goes out even if he didn't when he came in.

Study.

The study period usually comes after a full day in the open, and the warm air and artificial light soon make the most ardent soldier doze off into cat-naps. Something must be done to counteract these influences and keep the men on the job. The terror of the next day's conference will not do it, as that time seems safely distant, with all night ahead.

Assign the men three to five questions on the work to be studied, which will be asked in conference and which require a pretty general knowledge of the subject. Every man will then have a definite objective and a certain minimum of attainment for the evening. Or reverse the process and let each of the class write several questions about what they have studied. The following day let these questions, with the names of the men who asked them, be read before the class and answered. The effect of reading the name of the writer is to insure careful preparation of the question and study of the subject. A good question can hardly be asked without a basis of knowledge, and a foolish question condemns its author.

Another plan is to let the men, whenever possible, instruct the class. Announce that any man may be called upon to take charge, and the uncertainty will keep everyone studying. This plan will also give the men valuable practice in teaching others. Their periods of instruction, of course, must be limited, and unsatisfactory parts of their work reviewed before the conference is dismissed.

Another way to stimulate study is to have a short discussion, talk or quiz just before the close of the study hour, when the men, if left to themselves, will incline to look at their watches more often than at their books. A brief explanation of the work assigned, with emphasis upon a few especially important points, makes good use of this closing time, especially when the men are required to write down the points emphasized.

Syllabus: Small Problems for Infantry.

(References, f.s.r., p. 26-30, 33-39.)

First Problem: Advance Guard and Point:

A. Definition and Function.—Small patrol sent ahead from advance party for disclosing enemy's position and strength, in time for larger bodies to make suitable defensive and offensive dispositions. Function primarily warning; but to give specific information, it may have to fight and thus feel enemy out.

B. Principles:

1. Formed zig-zag; distance from advance party ? 2. Controlled by leader of advance party. 3. Speed must be great enough not to impede the main column. Must not halt at first sign of enemy, nor go off on a flank. 4. Interest and co-operation of inferiors, by adequate explanation of situation and of individual duties ("repeats"). 5. Rules for estimating numerical strength of the moving body of troops (cf., f.s.r., sec. 27). 6. Point as a "march outpost" (?) when the column is halted. Only then may the A.G. point make any lateral arrangement of its members (cf. 3 above).

Second Problem: Advance Guard Connecting File, cf., f.s.r., reference above:

A. Definition and Function.—Two men (usually) for liaison en route where elements too widely separated or roads too curved and wooded. Distance 200 to 5 yards apart.

B. Principles:

1. Constant touch with elements before and behind. 2. Relay both ways messages sent to or from remoter parts of the column. Speed and accuracy of signaling. 3. Guide to be forward in daytime, at night on the main body.

Third Problem: Advance Guard Flank Patrol, pp. 31-32:

A. Definition and Function.—For protecting a marching column from attack, by warning it on the basis of information gained in reconnaissance. Interval between men depends on circumstances.

B. Principles:

1. Start from near head of the column, i.e., from smallest element in the advance guard that can afford to cut down its numbers. 2. Speed rather than safety, to keep abreast of own column and to force the enemy to disclose himself by firing on F.P. rather than on main body. 3. Sent to investigate suspicious areas, e.g. in woods, behind houses. 4. Action in case of firing on main body; advance and counterfire, deployed. 5. Get-away man in rear of column. 6. Stick to the job: no wandering or chasing of enemy beyond range of column. Job is to warn and protect against flank attack.

Fourth Problem: Platoon as Advance Party:

A. Definition and Function:

Body of infantry, amounting to 1/8 to 1/2 the Support (depending on the number of cavalry ahead) cf., f.s.r., p. 28. Duty.—To back up the point and the advance cavalry (if any) if fired upon; remove enemy bodies and other obstacles.

B. Principles:

1. Describe general mission to inferiors. 2. Explain individual duties to inferiors. 3. Send out point and connecting files. 4. Form in platoon; zig-zag. 5. Keep going; prosecute engagements briskly, not to delay main column. 6. Procedure under fire: deploys and drops, when fired upon; looks for enemy's direction and assigns target and range. Advance under cover if any, when fire light; when heavy seek to divert fire to you away from main body of advance guard to facilitate latter's disposition for advance to your support. Seek to drive off a weaker enemy, and to hold off a stronger. 7. Speedy decisions. Value of imaginary situations, while on the march; and planning your commands.

Fifth Problem: Combat Patrol:

A. Definition and Function.—Contrasted with covering detachment, which is large enough to offer considerable resistance, the combat patrol is primarily to Warn, especially against flank attacks. Size varies widely because of looseness in definition, e.g., 100 men might be covering detachment for a regiment, but a combat patrol for a brigade.

B. Principles:

1. Comparison of thin line versus thin column, regarding: (a) vulnerability, (b) fatigue, (c) tactical advantage, when engagement materializes, (e) control of movement and of fire. 2. Agent between advance and main body. 3. Attack any enemy of reasonable size that attacks main body. 4. Corn as concealment versus corn as obstruction to sight. 5. Vulnerability of charging cavalry. 6. Lieutenant as tactical chief, sergeant as disciplinarian, in a platoon; except when? 7. Messages concise, not ambiguous, written versus oral? Repeats. 8. Limitations of use of map. Vegetation changes; errors in contouring.

Sixth Problem and Seventh Problem: Two Pickets:

A. Definition and Function.—Outpost contrasted with advance guard in that former is stationed around a camp or bivouac, while latter precedes a marching column. To check enemy attempting to attack main body, and hold him till larger force is able to deploy. Consists of outpost reserve, outpost line of supports, line of outguards (pickets, sentry squads, and cossack posts), plus sentinels, patrols, etc.

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