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Military Instructors Manual
by James P. Cole and Oliver Schoonmaker
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GENERAL RULES FOR INSTALLATION.

Machine gunners must under no circumstances abandon their positions. They must, when necessary, allow themselves to be surrounded and defend themselves in their place to the end. In many cases the heroism and tenacity of a few machine gunners have permitted the rapid retaking of a lost position. To provide for this resistance to a finish, the machine gun emplacements must fulfil the following conditions:

1. Be surrounded by a wire entanglement of irregular trace and as invisible as possible. 2. In the enclosure thus created having several firing emplacements, in case one or more becomes useless. 3. The personnel must have all the means for protection against gas and have in addition rations, water and abundant ammunition.

EMPLOYMENT OF FIRE AND INSTRUCTION.

The more grazing the fire of a machine gun the more effective it is. This causes the principal employment of the machine gun to be at distances where the trajectory is flattest, that is under 800 or 1,000 yards. However, the effort to obtain a grazing fire must not exclude long distance fire. This latter will always be justified when directed upon important objectives, or necessary points of passage. For this fire to have some efficacy, it is necessary to calculate the range with the greatest precision. On the defensive indirect fire will be employed sometimes to annoy the supply, reliefs, etc. To give results, great quantities of ammunition will have to be expended. All of the officers and non-commissioned officers and as many men as possible must be capable of firing the machine gun, so that at the time of an attack no gun will remain idle for want of personnel. It is, moreover, essential to keep up the training of the personnel by having them fire at least twice a month, and, if possible, once a week.

RESUME.

Machine guns must be utilized in the greatest measure in order to economize the infantry.

Seek to employ them always in a, flank fire.

Conceal them so as to get surprise fire.

Echelon them and shelter them so as to avoid their premature destruction.

POINTS BEFORE FIRING.

1. Thoroughly overhaul the gun to see that no part is deficient, and that the mechanism works freely. 2. See that the barrel is clean and dry. 3. See that the barrel mouthpiece is tight. 4. See that small hole in gas regulator is to the rear. 5. Thoroughly oil all working parts, especially the cam slot and exterior of the bolt, and the striker post and piston. 6. Weigh and adjust the mainspring. 7. See that the mounting is firm. 8. Examine the magazines and ammunition. 9. See that the spare parts and oil reserve are handy.

POINTS DURING FIRING

1. During a temporary cessation of fire, re-oil all working parts. 2. Replace a partly emptied magazine with a full one. 3. Examine the mounting to see that it is firm. 4. See that empty magazines are refilled without delay.

POINTS AFTER FIRING.

1. Unload. 2. Oil the bore and chamber, piston rod and gas cylinder. 3. Sort out live rounds from empty cases. 4. See that mainspring is eased. 5. Thoroughly clean and oil the gun on returning to quarters. Clean the bore daily for several days.

It is of the greatest importance that the points before, during, and after firing, should be carefully attended to as otherwise the number of stoppages will be unnecessarily increased.

Nine out of ten stoppages are due to want of care.

Immediate action must become instinctive and automatic.

Grenade Instruction.

INTRODUCTION.—War, as it is being fought on the western front, has brought to light many new weapons; but no other weapon that this struggle has brought forth exceeds the grenade in importance. It is not a new weapon, but its present importance is entirely new. Its extensive use has grown out of conditions on the western front; conditions which have never been seen previous to this war. The fact that armies have taken to "digging themselves in" has necessitated the use of some other weapon than the rifle. The rifle with its flat trajectory is of little use against an enemy who is completely hidden from view and who can go on existing under ground. Hence the reversion to the ancient grenade—but with all its modern improvements. The grenade has shown itself to be the weapon that can solve the problem of seeking out an enemy who is under ground; its trajectory is high and its fire is plunging, so that it can be thrown from a place of concealment and protection and into a place equally well concealed from ordinary view.

The importance of the grenade may be judged from its extensive use by both the Allies and the Germans; and also by the formations now adopted by both British and French armies for the purpose of exploiting its use. In a British Battalion the normal percentage of expert bombers is 25. In the French Company 36 per cent of the men are devoted to grenade work.

A grenade has been defined as a slow moving, high trajectory missile containing high explosive and exploding by contact or time fuse. Grenades may be divided roughly into two classes—1, hand grenades, and 2, rifle grenades, and each of these classes may be subdivided as regards means of explosion, into 1, time fuse, or 2, percussion grenades.

Among the time-fuse hand grenades may be mentioned the Mills No. 5, Stokes bomb, smoke bombs, fumite bombs, etc. The Mills is easily the most important and has come to be the standard adopted by the Allies. The percussion grenade is little used—the most important among those of this type is the so-called "mushroom," named from its shape.

Chief among the rifle grenades may be mentioned the Mills No. 23, the Hale No. 3 and the Newton No. 24. Just as the Mills hand grenade has become the standard, so has the Mills rifle grenade attained that pre-eminence. A more detailed description of the various sorts of grenades cannot be attempted in this brief space; but one or two diagrams at the close of the chapter may serve to clarify the subject to some extent.

Any course in grenade training should have a three-fold purpose:

1st. To give the individual a practical knowledge of the working of the grenades in use. 2nd. To teach him how to throw them. 3rd. To make him acquainted with the general principles of organization and the execution of a grenade attack, either as a separate operation or as a part of a general attack. The time spent on any such course of training is a matter to be settled in the light of local considerations; but for purposes of preliminary training of a great number of men a period of two weeks is usually sufficient, with time allotted according to some such plan as this: (1) 10 separate half-hour sessions of practice in throwing from various positions and at the various targets; (2) 2 hours of study and a like amount of time spent in a conference for the purpose of clearing up matters that are hazy. In this brief time (only 9 hours) the foundation may be laid for a more thorough training of the specialists later on. In any such course the use of dummy grenades should always precede the use of any live ones; and men should be taught caution above all other things. This is a point easily lost sight of when men are using only dummies; but it is well worth remembering, for obvious reasons.

FIRST: GIVING THE INDIVIDUAL A PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORKING OF THE GRENADES IN USE.—The differences in the construction and the uses of hand and rifle grenades should be brought out clearly. The various sorts of grenades should be explained and men should not forget the importance of knowing the grenades of the enemy as well as our own. This knowledge may one day prove of no little importance. As has already been stated, the Mills No. 5 is the standard among hand grenades of the Allies. It conforms to the general description of hand grenades; i.e., it is an egg-shaped projectile, more or less hollow, and loaded with a charge of explosive. Besides this it has an apparatus for setting off the bursting charge. It weighs 1 pound 5 ounces approximately, and 4 ounces of this is high explosive. The shell being of serrated cast-iron, an explosion will scatter a sort of shrapnel over an area equal to three times the height. No more need be said of the effectiveness of such a weapon. Among rifle grenades the Mills is also the standard more or less, although the French make great use of a rifle grenade that fits over the muzzle of the rifle, fired by ball cartridge, in contrast to the Mills No. 23, which has a rod running down the barrel of the rifle and which is propelled by the explosion of a blank cartridge. The maximum range of this grenade with a 5-1/2-inch stem is 120 yards, the gun being fired at an angle of 45 degrees. The Newton Improved (a rifle grenade which explodes on contact) has a range of 250 yards; the Hale No. 3 also explodes on contact and has a range of 200-225 yards.



SECOND: INSTRUCTION IN THROWING.—As previously stated the use of dummy grenades should precede the use of any live ones. Due precautions should be taken at all times, even when working with dummy grenades, for a habit of carelessness is not to be tolerated with this sort of weapon. Men should be instructed to throw from standing, kneeling and prone positions; although this last-named position is little used. Distance is important but ACCURACY IS ESSENTIAL. Men should always be taught to throw at a definite target, even when throwing in the open during preliminary work. The men may work in groups, one group throwing and the other returning. This method keeps all hands occupied and furnishes a medium for a little competition, which is a very helpful thing in training of this sort. A manual of the following sort may be of use in acquiring the proper sort of throw.

1. Pick up the grenade with the left hand. 2. Prepare to throw—face to the right and transfer the grenade to the right hand. 3. Take aim—left hand and arm extended up and straight toward the target, right hand and arm behind the thrower in the same plane as the left. 4. Withdraw pin with left hand. 5. Throw—use a straight overhead motion and do not bend the arm at the elbow. It is not a baseball throw. The tendency for most of us Americans is to follow a perfectly natural habit—try to use the baseball throw. This is to be discouraged for several reasons, the chief one being that the grenade weighs about a pound and a half, whereas our baseball weighs only a third of this amount. Then, too, it often happens in the trenches that a grenade duel will last for hours. Under such circumstances the last grenade may decide the issue and endurance will be a mighty telling factor. Hence, the insistence upon the overhead throw.

The preliminary throwing should take place in the open but always with a definite target, an outline of a section of trench being the best sort of target. Another excellent idea is to have a target arranged according to the diagram shown herewith and to keep score. This procedure will also add incentive for competition and will produce results. After men have thrown in the open for a sufficient period, they should proceed to the next stage: This is the stage of throwing in a cage or from behind and over obstacles. There are three distinct phases of this feature of the training: (1.) The thrower sees the target but must throw over an obstacle. (2.) The target is invisible; the thrower is aided by an observer and a periscope; the observer notes the fall of the grenades and gives directions as follows—"So many yards right or left" or "Shorten or lengthen so many yards." (3.) Actual throwing in trenches. This stage immediately precedes that of "working up a trench."

THIRD: INSTRUCTION IN GRENADE ORGANIZATION.—Men should be given a certain amount of theoretical instruction as to the composition of the armies now on the western front; this in order that they may see the part that grenadiers and bombers are playing in the struggle. They should be shown the organization of the British Infantry and how the first section of each platoon is composed exclusively of bombers and—rifle grenadiers; they should also be taught how the bombers and grenadiers are concentrated in the French organization. The typical bombing squad consists of 7 or 8 men and a leader who take positions as follows: 1 and 2, bayonet men; 3, first thrower; 4, first carrier; 5, leader; 6, rifle bomber; 7, second thrower; 8, second carrier; 9, rifle bomber. One of these bayonet men may be reserved to act as a sniper. The leader acts as an observer and directs the work of the bombers. The rifle bombers outrange the hostile bombers and also afford protection on the flanks. Every man must be taught his job and must be thoroughly instructed in the work of the squad as a whole in order that each man may be able to fill any position and that there may be perfect teamwork.



POINTS TO REMEMBER.

1. Men should always have a definite target for their throwing—an outline of a trench is usually to be preferred. 2. Caution in handling grenades should be made a habit. 3. Accuracy is essential. 4. Training should be progressive, both for men and organizations. 5. Keep up competition among the men; rivalry will increase practice and men will throw grenades for recreation. This will get results. Let two men throw at each other. A good shot will make the other man move. 6. Insist upon the straight overhead throw. It is less tiresome and when developed properly will give equal accuracy with any other method. 7. Teamwork in a bombing squad is essential. 8. Under new methods of warfare every infantryman is a bomber; but specialists must be trained. 9. Officer must be a real leader and the best fighter in his platoon. 10. Qualification tests should be arranged and the better qualified men taken for special training in this art.



CHAPTER 5.

Map Sketching.

Map sketching is an important factor in trench warfare to-day as it is in a war of movement. A fairly accurate map will indicate more than many words and in much less time. Time is the great factor in war. Instruction must also be rapid. Here are ten lessons which would occupy a week if taken morning and afternoon. The aim of the instruction as in company rifle shooting is to train many men to do a satisfactory job, not to make a few finished topographers. Neatness, accuracy and initiative are cardinal points.

For the instructor, reference should be made to Grieves' "Military Sketching and Map Reading", 2nd edition, if he desires to supplement any points given here.

LESSON 1. (CLASS ROOM—FOUR HOURS.)

Problem—Map Reading.

Study the conventional signs found in the "Manual for Non-commissioned Officers and Privates of Infantry of the Army of the U.S.," 1917, page 273, or in Grieves, pages 28-35. These conventional signs are not universal and must be used only as indications of the general practice.

In map sketching in the field few conventional signs are used, and the items of importance are written on the map, such as WOODS, CULTIVATED, HEDGE, SWAMP, etc.

TAKING UP MAP SCALES.—There are three ways of indicating the relation between the actual distance on the ground and the space the same distance occupies on the map:

1. The graphic scale is a straight line divided into units, as miles, yards, feet or meters, which represents the actual ground distance. Thus if 6" = 1 mile the line would be six inches long and marked at one end and 1 mile at the other, three inches being marked 1/2 mile, etc. It is important to always have this graphic scale on a map so that if the paper gets wet or is stretched from its original size the scale will change in the same proportion.

2. A Statement in words or figures, e.g., 3 inches equal one mile, meaning that 3 inches measured anywhere on the map represent 1 mile on the actual ground.

3. The Representative Fraction (generally known abbreviated as R.F.) having a number above the line that shows the unit length on the map and below the line the number of units which are in the corresponding actual ground distance. For example, if 1" = 1 mile, then the R.F. is:

1" (map distance) —————————————————- 63,360" (1 mile—ground distance)

if 3" = 1 mile the R.F. is: 3" (map distance) 1 —————————————————- or ———- 63,360" (1 mile—ground distance) 21120

if 6" = 1 mile: 6" 1 ———— or ———- 63360" 10560

if 12" = 1 mile: 12" 1 ————- or ——— 63360" 5280

In reading a map one must know the scale and also where the North is. This is always indicated by an arrow pointing either to the magnetic North or the true North. If to the magnetic North the needle will have but one barb away from the true North. The angle between the magnetic and the true North is the declination.

Placing the map in proper relation to the ground so that points of the compass coincide on map and ground is called orienting the map.

In map work there is one vital point to remember; practically all the ground surface is in its present form as a result of water action

1. Look for the water courses, that is the drainage system. It will give the general slope of the land. 2. Look for the high points between the water courses, remembering that there is always a valley then a hill then a valley again continued in succession. 3. Finally locate towns, railroads, main highways and work down to the minor details.

In measuring a map to get the actual distances on the ground, copy the graphic scale on any piece of paper and apply this directly or if your distances exceed your scale use the edge of a piece of paper and then apply it to the graphical scale on the map.

LESSON 2. (FIELD WORK—FIVE HOURS.)

Problem—Stride Scale Map Making.

Producing a map from the actual ground requires certain instruments. The second lesson takes up the preparation of the stride scale on the alidade and the different kinds of maps, made in military sketching.

The alidade is a triangular ruler with one or more working scales on it beside other measurements. The working scale is, for infantry, the stride or the space of ground covered from left foot to left foot again in walking, reduced to the proper map distance. This varies with individuals of course. Any scale of units, however, can be used as, horse trot, telegraph poles, etc.

The working scale for each man is made by having him step off a measured course, say 440 yards. The ground should not be too even as a general average is needed, moreover the pace must be the natural gait of the individual under ordinary circumstances. Let him count the course three times then average the three results for the final estimate.

Now to convert this into a working scale for the alidade made on a scale of six inches to the mile; take the case of a man who takes 220 strides in 440 yards:

440 yards = 15,840 inches 15,840 / 220 = 72, or his stride in inches then 880 strides = 1 mile or 6" on the scale.

It is better to have a scale of 1,000 strides which is easily done by the proportion:

1,000 sts. : 880 sts. : : x : 6 x = 6.8

now draw a line 6.8 inches long and a diagonal line from it; divide this diagonal line into 10 equal parts for each 100 paces at any convenient scale and draw a line from the end of the tenth part to the end of the 6.8 inches line; draw lines parallel to this line from each of the divisions. The 6.8" line is then divided into 10 equal parts; each of these parts may be divided in the same manner into tenths.

Your scale is ready to be pasted or transferred to the alidade and each 6.8. inches on the map will equal 1,000 of your strides on the ground, or about 1-1/12 miles (2,000 yards).

There are two general classes of sketches:

1. ROAD SKETCH.—A traverse (passing over) made along a definite rout showing all features of military importance for a distance of 200 or 300 yards on each side of the road. A road sketch is always made on a scale of 3 inches to 1 mile.

2. AREA SKETCH.—A map of a definite locality. There are 3 kinds of area sketches according to opportunity for observation:

(a) Position Sketch—when access may be had to the whole area. (b) Outpost Sketch—where part of the ground must be mapped without passing over it. This form is applicable particularly to trench warfare. Intersection and resection are used to locate points within the enemy's lines. (c) Place Sketch—when sketch must be made from one point, as when the proximity of the enemy would prevent any movement; as from trench observation stations, etc.; also an elaboration of the landscape or horizon sketch which is used everywhere in the trenches today. From one point an actual outline of the opposite trench and background is made in perspective, reference points on the horizon being marked on the edge of a pad at arm's length. These marks are then prolonged on the paper and the horizon is sketched. In like manner the middle distance and the foreground come under observation and are put on in one below the other.

Time must be allowed the men to make their stride scales and to paste or transfer them to their alidades.



LESSON 3. (FIELD WORK—FIVE HOURS.)

The problem is to make a Position Sketch about one mile square closing the traverse. First considering the sketch board, compass, pencils, etc.; next the orienting, sighting and pacing; finally the uses of intersection and resection and in making allowance for error.

The sketch board should be about 12 to 18 inches square, being used with or without a tripod. A cheap camera tripod is excellent. The board should have a compass attached so that it will remain in the same relative position on the board. If iron thumb tacks are used avoid getting them too near the compass. A hard pencil must be used to obtain good results. The paper must be smooth and where possible covered with another sheet fastened on but one side which will readily fold back when one desires to work on the sketch.

By always placing the board so that the compass reads North it will be oriented correctly. Care must be used when near electric wires or masses of metal as automobiles, railroad tracks, etc., which will attract the needle from its true azimuth (N. and S. direction) and thus throw off the whole map. In such cases it is far better to back sight and use the compass only at intervals to verify the sights.

This brings up the matter of sighting. It is important to make long shots thus reducing the amount of individual error. In taking a sighting point make sure it can be recognized when reached and make sure to look at the reverse side in order to recognize it in case of back sighting if necessary. Always carry several large-headed pins using one at your present station and resting the side of the alidade against it, swinging the other end for sighting.

After sighting and lining the sight on your sketch, step off evenly to pace the distance. Time is always a factor in military mapping and where possible make mental notes as you go along as to where roads or other important features are located, so that you can place them in their proper place on the map when you have reached the next station. It is well always to set a good pace for here time can be readily saved.

Making an intersection is very simple. For as the sketcher moves along he ties his map together by sighting at any prominent object near his area, running these lines very lightly and only where he assumes the points to lie on his map. An abbreviation on the line or a number referring to a list off to one side will answer to recall the object. At any other station where the same point can be seen a similar line is drawn and where the two lines cross will be the location of the object. In the case of three lines not crossing at the same point take the middle of the triangle so formed.

Resection is just the reverse of this process. The mapper wants to know where he is located on the map. If he is properly oriented and can aim at two points on the ground which he has located on the map, he places a pin at one of these locations on the map and aims with the alidade at the object on the ground drawing a line towards himself; this is repeated with the other known point and where the two lines cross on the map will be the point he is standing at.

In intersection the greatest accuracy is obtained by running the rays so as to meet as nearly as possible at right angles.

In running a traverse the sketcher must expect to find some error at his closing point. This error must be distributed over the whole traverse so as not to have all the error concentrated at one point.

LESSON 4. (FIELD WORK—FOUR HOURS.)

PROBLEM.—Make a simple sketch, containing topographical details using the traverse made during the preceding lesson. Use of conventional signs should be emphasized and the appreciation of features of military importance impressed. A tendency is to put in details to a point of confusion. Judgment must be developed to choose telling points.

A sharp pencil is always needed in sketching; in putting in the topographical details special attention must be given to the pencil. Keep the point sharp and make clear, distinct signs.

LESSON 5. (CLASS ROOM—FOUR HOURS.)

PROBLEM.—Contours, the Vertical Interval, Use of the Slope Board, Map Distance, Visibility and Profiles.

A contour is an imaginary line on the surface of the earth all points of which have the same elevation from a base or datum level, sea level usually being this base. Slice an apple into pieces 1/2-inch thick; where the cuts come may represent the contour lines. Take these individual slices, beginning at the bottom and outline them on a sheet of paper with a pencil (having run a nail through the apple first to keep each piece in place). The resulting circles will represent the apple's outline at 1/2-inch intervals.

Contours are always at equal elevations from each other, and the Vertical Interval (known by the abbreviation V.I.) is the measure between successive contour lines. In military maps the V.I. is always the same for each map scale:

1 inch to the mile, the V.I. is 60 feet. 3 inch to the mile, the V.I. is 20 feet. 6 inch to the mile, the V.I. is 10 feet. 12 inch to the mile, the V.I. is 5 feet.

Note that the V.I. changes in proportion to the scale, a map on a 3 inch to the mile scale is 3 times as large as one on a scale of 1 inch to the mile, while the V.I. is 1/3 as great, hence the former shows 3 times as many contours as the latter.

Map Distance means the horizontal distance between two contour lines on a map and indicates a certain degree of slope. As the scale increases the V.I. decreases in proportion and the M.D. therefore remains the same for the same degree of slope whatever the scale of the map. By computation we find that a one degree slope rises one foot for every 57.3 feet horizontal distance, so a one degree slope would have a 20 foot rise in 1,146 feet horizontal distance, this distance equals .65 of an inch on the map if the scale is 3" to 1 mile.

The term "Map Distance" is also loosely used to denote distance between points as measured on the map. Care should be taken to distinguish between these two meanings.

Distances between contours, scale 3" to 1 mile: 1/2 deg. slope = 1.3", 1 deg. slope =.65", 2 deg. slope =.32", 3 deg. slope =.22". These distances are already on the alidade and if you get a slope of 2 deg. with the slope board and have the distance from your station on the map to the point of aim either by pacing, intersection or resection, apply the M.D. scale as many times as it will go. This will give the number of contour lines crossing the traverse and the difference in elevation. The spacing of the contours may not be even between your station and the point of aim in which case the position of the contours must be estimated by eye.

If your elevation above the datum or sea level is unknown at the start assume any elevation which is great enough to put the datum lower than the lowest spot of the area to be sketched.

The sketching board is easily made to serve as a slope board in this manner. Hang a plumb bob about an inch below the center of a straight edge of the board while pointing at the horizon, using the back of the board. Mark a point 5.7" directly below and draw a semicircle through it with the same radius. Now mark the point below the center zero and from it divide the arc using chords one tenth of an inch long. This will give a scale reading in degrees. By sighting along the top of the board at some object at the height of the eye from the ground the degree of slope is shown by the plumb bob on the scale below. Care must be exercised to prevent the wind from disturbing the reading. A protractor may be used in the same manner by sighting along the top and using a plumb bob to record the angle.

In reading maps it is important to know whether points are visible from each other due to intervening ridges or other topographical features. This can be told by laying off accurately the distance on the map between the points in question and using as datum the lowest of the 3 points, then draw vertical lines, from the 2 higher points, making them in proportion to their elevation with any convenient scale. Draw a line between the first and last points and, if the intervening vertical cuts this line the second point is not visible from the first. Take for example, two points A and B, 1,760 yards apart, by the map, A 500 feet and B 450 feet above sea level, the intervening point C is 475 feet above sea level and 500 yards from B. As B is the lowest we will call its elevation zero or at datum, then elevation of A is 50 feet and C 25 feet.



Another method of deciding visibility is by proportion. Measure the distance between the three points A, B, and C, and obtain their elevations above the datum (lowest of the 3) and using similar triangles. Take the same case as above, letting X represent the point above which the view is clear at 1,260 yards from point A, the line of sight passes through this point.

1760 (A—B) : 500 (B—C) : : 50 (elev. A) : X solving, X = 14.2

Now, since the ground at point C is 25 feet above the base and the line of sight passes within 14.2 feet of the base at this place, an observer at A is unable to see B.

The matter of profiling is very simple. Merely mark where the contours cut the edge of a piece of co-ordinate paper and extend the proper elevations, then pass a line through these points, remembering that the surface of the ground has a natural curve.

LESSON 6. (FIELD WORK—FIVE HOURS.)

PROBLEM.—By use of the slope scale on the sketch board and the contour interval scale on the alidade, each man will secure vertical data on the flat sketch made in the fourth lesson. Certain critical elevations will be determined and marked with red flags before hand. The elevations of two points on the ground will be furnished, one as the datum and the other as a check. Draw in contours of this sketch with the help of drainage lines and elevations already secured.

The chief points to be considered are to take slopes from points established on the sketch; to take several sights and average the angle of slope; to properly lay off the elevation by using the slope scale on the alidade; and finally to put in the contours along these lines of sight on the spot thus allowing for difference in topography between the point of sight and the station from which the elevation is taken. Careful note must be made of the drainage systems as these are the keynotes to the sketch and finally the contours are connected together, keeping in mind always that no contour stops unless it makes a closed curve or goes off the map. Remember also that contours make fingers pointing up stream and are blunt around hill sides. Contours cross streams to opposite points and break at roads, continuing on the other side. Uniform slopes have equally-spaced contours. Do not try to measure every slope, two intersecting elevation sights on a hill will check the height. Put the intervening contours in by eye.

LESSON 7. (CLASSROOM—FOUR HOURS.)

PROBLEM.—Completing the map sketch previously made and making a landscape sketch.

It is important to complete a map and no matter how good it is, if certain points are omitted, the value of the work is very much decreased. The sketcher must clear the sketch of all unnecessary lines and notes and make his lettering clear on the map. Be sure that the following items are on the sketch before it is turned in.

1. Location of the ground shown. 2. Line of magnetic north shown by an arrow, and if declination is known, the true north also. 3. Graphic scale and representative fraction—R.F. 4. Vertical interval—V.I. 5. Sketcher's name and organization to which he belongs. 6. Date.

A landscape sketch is a place sketched with details shown in perspective. The horizon is always of military importance and should be shown as well as intervening crests, woods, houses, etc. Landscape sketching in trench warfare is a necessary accomplishment of the observer. The beginner will at first be confused by a mass of details, but he must note only the outline of the features sketched. First draw the sky line and crests, then fill in the other details with fewest lines possible. Unnecessary shading tends to detract from the clearness of the sketch. There will be great difficulty in getting the perspective, note the size of objects, the further away they are the smaller they seem. Make them so. In making the sketch, hold the pad in front with one eye closed, the upper edge of the pad horizontal; a string 20 inches long is tied to the pad and held between the teeth to insure the same distance from the eye each time. Moreover, if it is desired to locate objects by deflection of an angle from a reference point, this can be done by using mils. One mil is 1-6400 of a circle. At 20 inches a half-inch interval subtends 25 mils.



The paper is oriented by bringing the sector desired along the upper edge of the pad. The points desired are then in proper positions, both horizontally and vertically.

Place a mark at the upper edge for points desired. The sky line should be located first. Now carry these lines down, having drawn three horizontal lines about 1/2 inch apart, beginning with the highest point on the top line. Marks locating the other features are likewise transposed in vertical and horizontal portions.

Now draw sky line connecting transposed marks, then such other points as crests, trenches, houses, etc. After practice most other features can be drawn in without reorienting, the sky line having been drawn. The vertical elevation should be slightly exaggerated. Objects in the background should be drawn in lightly while nearby features are indicated by heavy lines. Avoid details, draw only silhouette, shade only in showing woods.

LESSON 8. (FIELD WORK—FIVE HOURS.)

PROBLEM.—Make complete area sketch including contours, with no data furnished other than the initial elevation.

Before commencing the work summarize the important points involved.

1. If possible select a base line. 2. Locate as many points by intersection as possible. 3. Make traverse by road, check locations by resection. 4. At good observation points observe and complete the sketch as far as possible.

At each station keep the following points in view:

1. Back sight on previous station. 2. Select new sighting point ahead. 3. Determine elevation by slope board. 4. Put in contours where possible noting the drainage and critical points of the general slope and the terrain. 5. Put in details along traverse just made of all topographical features of military importance. 6. Determine your present elevation. 7. Make as many shots for intersection as you can and mark them. 8. Look for possible resection shots.

LESSONS 9 AND 10. (FIELD WORK—NINE HOURS.)

PROBLEM.—Make a road sketch of about 12 miles with scale of 3 inches to the mile, V.I. 20 feet. This should include details of military importance to a distance of 300 yards on either side of the road.

Keep in mind these points:

1. Start carefully and give attention to every part of the map. 2. Keep the board properly oriented. 3. Watch the water drainage systems. 4. Put down all necessary details at each setup. 5. Note high hills and towns not on immediate route, condition of roads, fences, cultivation, hedges, cuts and fills, bridges (kind and length), railroads, telegraph and telephone lines, schools, churches, etc., notice particularly woods and points of concealment for hostile troops.

Do the work at each station for elevation, contours and the noting of necessary details so that the sketch will be complete as you go along. Make certain that the title of the sketch, scale, orientation, etc., are all clearly indicated, for a road map may have to be completed by another or may be called for suddenly when it will be useless without these details.

Remember there are but two things absolutely essential to a good road sketch; a good traverse and the location of the drainage system in its relation to this traverse. With this control approximate contours can be drawn by anyone having a knowledge of the principles of topography. Never plot unimportant details. Prominent buildings and farm houses are of value for locating oneself. Woods and orchards are shown for tactical reasons but no one can expect to show every fence, ditch or bit of cover that might hide a patrol.

Map Reading.

(GETTYSBURG 3" MAP—HUNTERSTOWN SHEET.) Plattsburg Barracks, N.Y., Sept. 17, 1917:

1. What is the shortest distance by road from Biglersville to Texas?

2. Describe the road between Texas and Table Rock.

3. Is it a cut or a fill along the railroad about 1/2 mile east of Granite Hill Station?

4. What is meant by 931 on Chestnut Hill?

5. Can a man on the summit of hill 712 (about one mile southwest of Plainview) be seen from the town of Plainview?

6. Point out two fords on the Conewago River.

7. Where is the highest point on the road from Plainview to Heidlersburg?

8. Describe the fences along the road from Texas to Table Rock Station.

9. Is Hill 566 S.W. from D. Wert visible from Henderson Meeting House?

10. Of what material is the bridge at Bridge School House constructed?

Harvard College:

1. Can a sentinel standing at 707 see road fork 535 (about 1,500 yards south)?

2. An enemy patrol is marching north on the 544-616 road, and has crossed the stream (750 yards north of 544.) Can this patrol see the Red outguard at 707 from any point between stream and cross roads 616?

3. Can the sentinel at 712 see the road fork 518 (1,850 yards southwest from 712)?

4. Can the sentinel at 712 see the cross roads 561 (about 1,200 yards southeast)?

Assuming the height of a man as 5' 0" above the ground and trees and buildings as 30' 0".

1. Is the ground at road fork 552 near D. Wirt visible to a patrol on Hill 712? If not what is the obstructing point? Turn in profile, using cross section paper.

2. Disregarding trees, is a man standing on Bridge 523 near Bridge S.H. visible from Hill 712?

Solve by any method desired indicating the method.

1. Make a profile from location of the letter "U" of Chestnut Hill near Center Mills to Hill 712, 2-1/2 miles to the south.

2. Is the location of the letter "B" of Beatrich visible from "U" of Chestnut Hill? If not what obstructs?

1. Can a man on Hill 712 see a man at cross roads 554 in Hunterstown (disregard trees)?

2. To a man standing at the point where contour 680 crosses the road just south of 707, where does the roadbed first become invisible?

1. When the point arrives at Hill 647 can it see the road fork 610 to the northwest?

2. When the flank patrol reaches Benders Church cross roads can it see an enemy patrol at the house midway on the road 534-554 one mile to the northeast?

3. Looking north along the Center Mills road from Hill 647, where does the road first become invisible?

1. What does 1/21120 mean?

2. What direction is the general drainage system on this sheet?



CHAPTER 6.

Helpful References to the Articles of War.

(Extracted from M.C.M. and Guide to the Articles of War—Waumbaugh's Lectures.)

MILITARY LAW is the body of rules that governs members of the army. Military Law is based upon the Articles of War approved by Congress, August 27, 1916, effective March 1, 1917. This body of rules defines:

(1) Punishable offenses of members of the army. (2) The Method of determining guilt. (3) Punishment.

The present Articles of War are revisions of those from the Revolution.

ARTICLE 1.

DEFINITIONS:

(1) The word "officer" shall be construed to refer to a commissioned officer (and no one else). (2) The word "soldier" to include non-commissioned officer or any other enlisted man.

ARTICLE 2.

PERSONS SUBJECT TO MILITARY LAW:

(1) All officers and soldiers of the Regular Army. (2) All volunteers in the service of the U.S. (3) All other persons lawfully called, drafted or ordered into such service. (4) West Point cadets. (5) Officers and soldiers of the Marine Corps when detached for service with the army, by order of the President. (6) All retainers to the camp, or accompanying or serving with the army in time of war, both within and without territorial jurisdiction of U.S. (7) All persons under sentence by court-martial.

ARTICLES 3-18.

COURTS MARTIAL CLASSIFIED:

(A) General Courts Martial. Appointed by (1) President, (2) Commanding officer of department or territorial division. (3) Commanding officer of separate army division brigade. (4) Commanding officer of district or force empowered by President. Jurisdiction. Over all persons subject to Military Law as regards all offenses punishable by Military Law. Sentence. Everything. (B) Special Courts Martials (3 to 5 officers inclusive). Appointed by (1) Commanding officer of district, garrison, fort or camp. (2) Commanding officer of brigade, detached battalion. Jurisdiction. Over any person subject to military law (except an officer), and for any crime not capital. (Only soldiers excluding those having certificate of eligibility for promotion.) Sentence. (1) No power to adjudge dishonorable discharge. (2) No confinement in excess of six (6) months. (3) No forfeiture of pay in excess of six (6) months. (C) Summary Courts Martial (one (1) officer). Appointed by (1) Commanding officer of garrison, fort, camp, etc. (2) Commanding officer of regiment, detached battalion, etc. (N.B.) When but one (1) officer is present with command he shall be the summary court martial. Jurisdiction. (1) Only privates holding no certificate of eligibility for promotion—and (2) For crimes not capital. Sentence. (1) Confinement not over 3 months. (2) No dishonorable discharge. (3) No punishment over one (1) month without higher authority.

METHOD OF ENTERING A CHARGE AGAINST A MAN:

Example:

Charge: Violation of the —— Article of War.

Specification: In that (rank, name, organization) did at (place) on or about (date) etc. (brief description of offence committed).

Signed (Name) (Rank and Branch of Service)

In cases where there are more than one charge the number of each A.W. is put down in the charge. A description of each offence is put down separately under SPECIFICATION.

Note that double lines are drawn under CHARGE, single line under SPECIFICATION.

GENERAL REMARKS:

The three (3) Courts Martial are alike in the following:

(a) Composed only of officers of Army or Marine Corps on detached service with the Army by order of the President. (b) Pass upon both law and fact. (c) Criminal Courts only. (d) Unable to promulgate any finding that does not require approval of appointing authority.

The three (3) Courts Martial differ in the following:

(a) Number of members. (b) Appointing authority. (c) Punishments.

ARTICLE 31.

ORDER OF VOTING:

Members in General or Special Courts Martial shall vote from junior to senior.

ARTICLE 39.

LIMITATIONS UPON PROSECUTIONS:

Military offences fall into three (3) groups:

(1) War desertion, mutiny, murder. Have no limitations. (2) Burglary, etc. (A W. 93) and frauds against Government (A.W. 94). Prosecution limited to 3 years. (3) All other offences. 2 years.

In some cases the Statute of Limitations is suspended (A.W. 39), especially in cases of absence from the United States.

* * * * *

The following Articles of War are the important ones for officers to be acquainted with in the ordinary course of his duties:

ARTICLE 54.

FRAUDULENT ENLISTMENT:

Punishment: Court Martial.

"Any person procuring himself to be enlisted by means of willful misrepresentation or concealment as to his qualifications for enlistment and shall receive pay or allowance," ... This offense requires two (2) steps: (1) Misrepresentation or concealment. (2) Receiving pay or allowances.

ARTICLE 58.

DESERTION:

Punishment: (Wartime) Death or Court Martial. (Peacetime) Court Martial.

"Any person—who deserts or attempts to desert in time of War ... death or such other punishment as the court martial may direct ... any other time any punishment except death." Essential features are: (1) An intent not to return. (2) An overt act of separation from duty. Drunkenness tends to show absence of the intent. Minority is no defense. Enlistment while in desertion does not remove the charge of desertion.

ARTICLE 61.

ABSENCE WITHOUT LEAVE:

Punishment: Court Martial.

"Any person who fails to repair at the fixed time to duty, or goes from same without leave of absence, or absents himself from his command, guard, quarters, station or camp without proper leave...." Does not require to prove intent, yet persons ignorant of military law, drunk or victims of mistake are dealt with gently.

ARTICLE 62.

DISRESPECT TOWARD PRESIDENT, VICE-PRESIDENT, CONGRESS, SECRETARY OF WAR, GOVERNORS, LEGISLATURES:

Punishment: (Officer) Dismissal from the service, (Soldier) Court martial.

"Any officer who uses contemptuous or disrespectful words against the President, etc.... any other person subject to military law who so offends." Contemptuous language is objectionable and liable to court martial whether (1) Used in public or private. (2) In official or private capacity. (3) Written or spoken. (4) True or untrue.

ARTICLE 63.

DISRESPECT TOWARD A SUPERIOR OFFICER:

Punishment: Court-martial.

"Any person subject to military law who behaves himself with disrespect toward his superior officer...." Unlike Article 62, disrespect toward a superior officer requires no words—acting or neglecting to act (such as rudeness or failure to salute) are enough.

ARTICLE 64.

ASSAULTING OR WILLFULLY DISOBEYING SUPERIOR OFFICER:

Punishment: Death or court-martial.

(1) "Any person subject to military law who on any pretense whatsoever, strikes his superior officer—lifts a weapon, or offers violence against him, being in the execution of his office." (2) "Or willfully disobeys any lawful command of his superior officer." Drunkenness here tends to show absence of the essential willfullness. Self defense is not forbidden nor violence to suppress mutiny.

ARTICLE 65.

INSUBORDINATE CONDUCT TOWARD A NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICER:

Punishment: Court-martial.

(1) "Any soldier who assaults or attempts or threatens to strike or assault." (2) "Or willfully disobeys the lawful order of a non-commissioned officer while in the execution of his office." (3) "Or uses threatening or insulting language." (4) "Or behaves in an insubordinate or disrespectful manner." Drunkenness will not have the effect here of showing an absence of willfullness.

ARTICLE 68.

DISORDERS:

Punishment: Court-martial.

"All officers and non-commissioned officers have power to quell disorders and to order officers who take part in the same into arrest, and other persons into arrest or confinement. Whosoever, being so ordered: (1) Refuses to obey. (2) Draws a weapon. (3) Otherwise threatens or does violence shall be punished." This is one instance (except a.w., 67, mutiny) where even a corporal might order a general into arrest. This is the only instance: (1) Where anyone other than a commissioned officer can put an officer under arrest. (2) Where anyone other than an officer can order, arrest or confinement of a soldier except on power given by C.O.

ARTICLE 69.

BREAKING ARREST:

Punishment: (Officer) Dismissal, (Soldier) Court-martial.

"Any officer charged with crime shall be placed in arrest by C.O.... in exceptional cases ... confined." "A soldier charged with crime ... shall be placed in confinement ... when charged with minor offense placed in arrest." "Any person placed in arrest ... shall be restricted to barracks, quarters, tent, unless limits are enlarged by proper authority." "An officer or any other person breaking his arrest or who escapes from confinement before being set at liberty by proper authority shall be punished by...." To break arrest is punishable even though a person is innocent of the charge or ought to have been released.

ARTICLE 75.

MISBEHAVIOR BEFORE THE ENEMY:

Punishment: Death or court-martial.

"Any officer or soldier who: (1) Misbehaves before the enemy—runs away, or shamefully abandons post. (2) Or speaks words inducing others to do so. (3) Or quits his post or colors to plunder or pillage. (4) Occasions false alarms in camp or quarters shall suffer ...." The word "enemy" implies "any hostile body" such as a mob or riot crowd.

ARTICLE 83.

NEGLECT OF MILITARY PROPERTY:

Punishment: Make good the loss and court-martial.

"Any person subject to military law who willfully or through neglect suffers to be lost, damaged, or wrongfully disposed of, any military property belonging to United States of America—shall make good the loss and...."

ARTICLE 84.

WASTE OR UNLAWFUL DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY ISSUED TO SOLDIERS:

Punishment: Court-martial.

"Any soldier who sells or wrongfully disposes of any property issued for military service shall be punished...."

ARTICLE 85.

DRUNK ON DUTY:

Punishment: (War time) dismissal and court-martial, (Peace time) court-martial.

"Any officer ... drunk on duty shall ... in time of war be dismissed ... and Any other person subject to military law, drunk on duty ... shall be punished...."

ARTICLE 86.

MISBEHAVIOR OF A SENTINEL:

Punishment: (War time) death or court-martial, (Peace time) court-martial.

"Any sentinel found: (1) Drunk. (2) Asleep. (3) Or who leaves before being regularly relieved shall be punished...."

ARTICLE 92.

MURDER OR RAPE:

Punishment: Death or life imprisonment.

"Any person who commits murder or rape shall suffer death or life imprisonment as the court-martial may direct." No person shall be tried for murder or rape committed in the limits of the U.S.A. in time of peace. This is left to civil courts.

ARTICLE 93.

VARIOUS CRIMES:

Punishment: Court-martial.

"Any person who commits (1) Manslaughter, (2) Mayhem (cutting), (3) Arson, (4) Burglary, (5) Larceny, (6) Embezzlement, (7) Perjury, (8) Assault with intent to commit any felony. (9) Assault with intent to do bodily harm. shall be punished...." Definition of these crimes is left to local law.

ARTICLE 94.

FRAUDS AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT:

Punishment: Court-martial.

Article of War No. 94 is equivalent to prohibiting any person subject to military law from defrauding or attempting, or conspiring to defraud the Government of the U.S.A.—also from stealing, embezzling any Government property.

ARTICLE 95.

CONDUCT UNBECOMING AN OFFICER AND A GENTLEMAN:

Punishment: Dismissal.

"Any officer or cadet convicted of unbecoming conduct shall be dismissed...." Misconduct may be official or unofficial.

ARTICLE 96.

GENERAL ARTICLE, THE CATCH ALL:

Punishment: Court-martial.

"... all disorders and neglects to the prejudice of good military discipline. All conduct of a nature to bring discredit upon the military service. All crimes and offences not capital shall be taken cognizance of by (1) General, (2) Special, (3) Summary court-martials according to the nature and degree of the offense and punished.... Article of War 96 covers all crimes and is handy when no other Article of War fits. It is wise, however, to use this Article sparingly on Charges, finding if possible the exact Article necessary to cover the case at hand."

EXAMPLES.

PROBLEM 1:

Charge.—Violation of —— Article of War.

Specification.—In that Private John Doe, Company C. 301st Regiment Infantry, did at Albany, New York, on or about September 15th, 1917, dress himself in the uniform of a 1st Lieutenant and attend a dance at Odd Fellows Hall.

(Signed) JOHN HANCOCK, Captain, 301st Infantry.

Under what article of war, if any, does this belong?

PROBLEM 2:

Charge.—Violation of —— and —— Articles of War.

Specification.—In that Sergeant James Hopkins, Company H, 205th Infantry, did at Franconia, N.H., on or about July 4th return to barracks intoxicated.

In that Sergeant James Hopkins, moreover, refused to appear at reveille July 5th.

(Signed) WILLIAM HITCHCOCK, Captain, 205th Infantry.

Under what articles of war do these offenses belong?

What kind of court-martial required?

PROBLEM 3:

Charge.—Violation of —— Article of War.

Specification.—In that Captain George Jones, 125th Infantry did at Laconia, Maine, on or about August 20, 1917, make a speech in which he stated that the Reichstag of Germany was a more efficient and democratic body than the United States Congress.

(Signed) ALBERT SMITH, Major, 125th Infantry.

Under what article of war does this offense belong?

NO. ARTICLES OF WAR. PUNISHMENT. 54. Fraudulent enlistment Court martial 58. Desertion War: Death or court martial Peace: Except death 61. Absence without leave Court martial 62. Disrespect to Presidents Officer: Dismissal Vice-President, Secretary Soldier: Court martial of War, Congress, etc. 63. Disrespect to superior officer Court martial 64. Assaulting or disobeying Death or court martial superior officer 65. Insubordination to a Court martial non-commissioned officer 69. Arrest or confinement Officer: Dismissal of accused persons Soldier: Court martial 75. Misbehavior before the enemy Death or court martial 83. Loss, etc., military property Make good the loss and court martial 84. Loss of military property Court martial issued to soldiers 85. Drunk on duty { Officers— { War: Dismissal { Peace: Court martial { Soldiers: Court martial 86. Misbehavior of sentinel { War: Death or { Peace: Court martial (except death) 93. Various crimes Court martial 94. Frauds against the Government Court martial 95. Conduct unbecoming an officer Dismissal 96. General article Court martial (General or special)



CHAPTER 7.

Notes on Army Regulations

1. OBEDIENCE required in the military service—strict and prompt.

2. AUTHORITY EXERCISED with firmness, kindness and justice—prompt and lawful punishment.

3. ABUSIVE LANGUAGE or conduct by superiors forbidden.

4. RESPECT TO SUPERIORS will be extended upon all occasions, whether on duty or not.

5. REMARKS BY OFFICERS or soldiers upon others in the military service, whether praise or censure, public or private, written or spoken, is prohibited. Any effort to affect legislation for a personal favor will be entered against a man's military record.

106. FURLOUGHS not granted to men about to be discharged. Not more than five per cent of a company shall be absent at one time.

109. MEN ON FURLOUGH may not leave the United States.

111. FOR MEN IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES furlough can begin on date of reaching United States.

113. No PAYMENTS made to men while on furlough. Arms not to be taken on furlough or while reporting sick. (N.B.—There will unquestionably be a modification of this ruling, as the custom abroad is to have every man keep his complete equipment with him whenever possible.)

116. DESERTION. Property lost or destroyed will be charged against deserter.

117. ABANDONED CLOTHES turned over to Quartermaster. Personal effects sold and credited to United States.

121. REWARD OF $50 for apprehension and delivery of deserter or military prisoner.

127. COSTS OF APPREHENSION will be charged against deserter.

129. NO PAY OR CLOTHES drawn by soldier awaiting trial on charge of desertion.

131. WILL BE RESTORED to duty only by court martial or authority competent to order trial.

132. ABSENT WITHOUT LEAVE. Enlisted man forfeits all pay and allowances while away. Soldier will not be charged with desertion until commanding officer has reason to believe he intended to desert. Absence of less than 24 hours will not be noted upon the muster roll.

139. DISCHARGE of enlisted man only 1. By order of President or Secretary of War. 2. By order of General Court Martial. 3. By order of United States court or justice or judge, on writ of habeas corpus. 4. By command of territorial department. 5. By disability in line of duty. 6. By sentence of civil court. 7. By purchase. (N.B.—In time of war it is probable that the last two methods would not be effective for discharge from the service.)

140. FINAL STATEMENTS. The company commander will furnish each enlisted man a final statement (or duplicate) or a full statement in writing explaining why such final statement is not furnished. No final statement will be furnished a soldier who has forfeited all pay and allowances or who has no deposits due him.

147. CERTIFICATE will give 1. Character certified by company commander. 2. Whether recommended for re-enlistment. In case of negative opinion, the soldier should be notified at least 30 days prior to discharge. In that case the company commander shall convene a board of three officers (if possible) to determine what kind of discharge shall be given. The soldier will be given a hearing.

151. LOSS OF DISCHARGE CERTIFICATE. Discharge certificates will not be made in duplicate. Upon proper proof of loss or destruction without fault of person entitled to it, the War Department will issue a certificate of service, showing date of enlistment and discharge from the army and character given in original certificate. Discharge certificates should never be forwarded to the War Department in correspondence unless called for.

159. PHYSICAL DISABILITY CERTIFICATE issued when an enlisted man is permanently unfitted for service, in line of duty. Certificates of disability not made in duplicate.

162. DEATH OF SOLDIER. 1. Effects are secured. 2. Nearest relatives notified. 3. Adjutant General of army notified.

In active service the War Department requires the following reports: 1. Report of company commander to Adjutant General, covering death and disposal of remains. 2. Report of surgeon or company commander embodying a. Cause of death. b. Whether in line of duty. c. Whether due to another soldier's misconduct. 3. Inventory of effects in duplicate.

163. EFFECTS, when not claimed within reasonable time, sold and credited to United States. No authority for officers to pay debts of dead soldiers. Trinkets will not be sold but sent to the Adjutant General's office.

165. EFFECTS will be delivered, if called for, to legal representative of deceased after arrears are paid.

167. MEDAL OF HONOR. Authorized by Congress to be awarded to officers and men for extreme acts of gallantry in action, beyond line of duty. Recommendations will be considered by standard of extraordinary merit, and must have incontestible proof.

184. CERTIFICATE OF MERIT. Granted by President to any enlisted man in the service for distinguished acts in line of duty, on recommendation of company commander, based upon statement of eye witness, preferably the immediate company commander. $200 permanent additional pay is allowed.

285. QUARTERS. Name of each soldier on bunk. Arms on rack. Accoutrements hung up by the belts.

287. SATURDAY INSPECTION preceded by thorough policing. Leaders of squads will see that everything is clean.

1011. NEGLECT OF ROOMS or furniture by officer or soldier a military offense. All necessary costs shall be paid by him.

1178. DESTRUCTION OF TABLEWARE or kitchen utensils by soldiers will be charged against their pay.

288. CHIEFS OF SQUADS are responsible 1. For cleanliness of men. 2. For their proper equipment for duty. 3. For their proper dress when going "on pass."

374. PREMISES shall be policed daily after breakfast.

290. COMPANY COMMANDER will see that public property held by men is kept in good order, and missing or spoiled articles paid for.

292. ARMS shall not be taken down without proper supervision and by order of commissioned officer. No changing of parts or finish. Tompions (muzzle plugs) in small arms forbidden.

657. ACCOUNTABILITY AND RESPONSIBILITY—Both devolve upon persons entrusted with public property. Responsibility without accountability devolves upon one to whom property is entrusted, but who does not have to make returns therefor. Responsibility does not end until property has been given back to accountable officer and a receipt taken, or he has been relieved by regulations or by orders. Accountability without responsibility occurs when an officer holds proper memorandum receipts for property delivered to others.

EXAMPLE.—The Company Commander is accountable and responsible for the rifles turned over to his company. He is accountable without responsibility when each enlisted man has been issued a rifle and has signed a receipt for it. Each enlisted man is then responsible for his rifle, without accountability, until he returns it in proper condition. In general, therefore: Accountability requires evidence of the disposition that has been made of property. Responsibility implies possession, and requires return of the property or payment for it.

685. LOSS OF PUBLIC PROPERTY by neglect of any officer or soldier shall be paid by him, at such rates as a survey of the property may determine. Charges will be made only after conclusive proof, and not without a survey if the soldier demands one. Signing the payroll will be regarded as an acknowledgment of the justice of the charge.

1202. RATION is the allowance of food for one person or animal for one day.

1229. FORFEITURE of ration is made when a soldier overstays furlough.

1339. PAY for continuous service is credited a soldier if he enlists within three months after honorable discharge. For privates an increase of $3 per month is allowed up to and including the third enlistment, beyond this $1 per month increase given up to and including the seventh enlistment. For non-commissioned officers the increase of $3 per month continues to and includes the seventh enlistment. No increased pay is given after the seventh enlistment to private or non-commissioned officer.

1347. ALLOTMENTS (revised by Act of Congress, October, 1917). The new law does away with future pensions. Allotments may be made to: 1. Family. 2. Bank.

For married men or those with dependents, such as children, parents divorced wives, whose support is required by court order, allotments are compulsory, and must not be less than $15 a month and not more than one-half of his pay. The Company Commander is responsible for finding who comes under this rule. By this arrangement soldiers cannot shirk the support of dependents. The government will double the amount allotted by each soldier, to a limit of $37.50 a month. In cases where the soldier allots half of his pay the government will add to the allotment according to the following scale, even though it more than doubles the amount paid by the soldier:

Class A. Wife, no child, $15. Wife, one child, $25. Wife, two children, $32.50. For each additional child, $5 more. No wife living, one child, $5. Two children, $12.50. Three children, $20. Four children, $30. For each additional child, $5. Class B. One parent, $10. Two parents, $20. Each grandchild, brother, sister or additional dependent, $5. Nurses can make allotment.

When both A and B classes are in need of allotment from a soldier's pay, and he has allotted half of his pay to Class A, he may allot an additional one-seventh of his pay for the support of Class B dependents, and the government will pay the sums listed above to the Class B dependents, to the limit of $20 a month. Payments under this act were begun November 1, 1917. In case less than one-half of a soldier's pay is allotted, the Secretary of War may require the allotment to be increased up to one-half of the pay.

COMPENSATION FOR DEATH OR DISABILITY in line of duty. In all cases must be applied for. In case of death, monthly compensation shall be as follows per month:

Widow, $25. Widow and 1 child, $35. Widow and 2 children, $47.50. Each additional child, $5. One child alone, $20. Two children, $30. Three children, $40. Each additional child, $5. Widowed mother, $20. For transportation of body, $100.

No women can receive compensation from two sources. The government will continue to pay compensation to a dependent wife until her death or remarriage, and to children until they are 18 years old, unless they are insane or helpless, in which case it will continue to pay the compensation during such incapacity. In case of total disability, compensation will be as follows per month:

Soldier alone, $30. With wife, no child, $45. With wife, one child, $55. With wife, two children, $65. Three children or more, $75. No wife living, one child, $40. No wife living, each additional child, $10. Soldier and widowed mother, $40.

In case of total disability where attendance is needed, $20 per month will be added to the compensation, unless the soldier is blind, bedridden, or has lost both feet or hands, in which case the compensation will be $100 per month, with no extra allowance for attendance. In case of partial disability, compensation will be a percentage of the amount paid in case of total disability. These annuities continue only during the life of the person for whom they are first paid.

ADDITIONAL INSURANCE.—Uniform compensation for all ranks can go only to blood relations. In case of death or disability in line of duty, it is paid in monthly instalments for 20 years. Insurance is from $1,000 to $10,000 in multiples of $500. The rate is exceedingly low. Insurance must be applied for within 120 days after entering the service. Premiums are paid monthly, quarterly or yearly from the pay of the insured man. After the war this insurance must be converted within five years into a policy either of straight life insurance, 20-year payment or endowment, maturing at the age of 62. In case of death when there is no blood relationship, the reserve value, according to the American insurance mortality tables, is paid to the estate. None of these payments can be attached for debt, nor legal action started against them except in a United States Court. The maximum lawyer's fee in any such case is $500.

1361. DEPOSITS of not less than $5 may be made by an enlisted man (not retired) to any quartermaster. Deposit book, signed by quartermaster and company commander, given to man who makes the deposit. This book is not transferable.

1363. A LOST DEPOSIT BOOK is not replaced without an affidavit of the soldier, testifying that he has not sold nor assigned it.

1364. PAYMENT made only on final statement. The soldier should be informed of the importance of keeping the deposit book.

1365. WITHDRAWAL OF DEPOSIT when discharged or furloughed to reserve.

1366. INTEREST on sum greater than $5 is 4 per cent.

1368. FORFEITURE due to desertion, but not by sentence of court martial. Deposits not exempt from liabilities due the United States.

1371. OFFICERS AND MEN lose pay while confined by civil authorities.

1375. FURLOUGHED TO RESERVE or discharged, a soldier is given a final statement in duplicate. This must be presented to be valid.

1378. TRANSPORTATION and subsistence is allowed to the point of enlistment, or for the same distance. Not subject to deduction for debts due the United States.

1380. DISCHARGED SOLDIER under charge of fraudulent enlistment is not entitled to transportation and subsistence.

1383. TRANSFER OF CLAIMS on the government made by an enlisted man are only recognized after discharge or furlough to the reserve. They must be in writing and must be endorsed by a commissioned officer or other responsible person known to the quartermaster.

1437. No one is allowed to accompany sick or wounded from the battle line to the rear except those specifically authorized.

1530. Ammunition lost or used without orders or not in line of duty shall be charged to the soldier using it.

NOTES ON THE LAWS OF WAR.

(From Manual for Commanders of Infantry Platoons, translated from the French at the Army War College, 1917. War Department Document No. 626.)

The laws of war were instituted under the generous error that certain well-organized peoples had entirely emerged from barbarism and that they considered themselves bound by the placing of their signatures to international conventions, freely agreed to.

An infinite number of acts minutely and officially investigated have established that our troops and our Nation should never count on the observance of these laws and that the atrocities committed prove to be not only individual violations dishonoring merely the perpetrator, but violations premeditated and ordered in cold blood by the commanders with the moral support of the heads of the enemy nation.

These laws are nevertheless repeated here in order that:

1. The knowledge of how the war should have been conducted may develop in the heart of each man the sentiment of hate (applicable only to foes such as we actually have), that in no case should a chief of platoon tolerate any intercourse between his men and the enemy other than that of the rifle; this duty is explicit and not to be departed from except in the case of the wounded and prisoners incapable of doing harm.

2. That every violator of these laws, taken in the act, shall be the subject of an immediate report with witnesses, then sent to the division headquarters to be tried as to the facts of the case.

The laws of war resulted from the Geneva convention, from the declaration of St. Petersburg (Petrograd), and from the different Hague conventions. All these diplomatic papers were signed by Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria.

The following are the principal articles:

Protect the wounded on the field of battle from pillage and from bad treatment; respect ambulances and evacuation convoys; respect the personnel exclusively concerned with the transportation, treatment and guarding of wounded; do not treat this personnel as prisoners of war if it falls into the hands of the enemy; but return such personnel, as well as material, when its retention shall be no longer necessary for the care of the wounded prisoners.

Refrain from employing any projectile which weighs less than 400 grams that is either explosive or loaded with incendiary or inflammable material, from all projectiles having for their sole object the spreading of asphyxiating or harmful gases, all expanding bullets or those which will easily flatten out inside the human body, such as jacketed bullets whose jacket does not entirely cover the core or is nickel.

Forbid the use of poisons or of poisoned arms, killing or wounding an enemy who has thrown down his arms and surrendered; declarations that there will be no quarter; refrain from bombarding towns and cities which are not defended, from firing on churches, historical monuments, edifices devoted to the arts, to science, to charity, to sick and wounded and which are marked by a conspicuous signal known to the enemy.

Prisoners should be treated as to rations, housing and clothing the same as troops of the country which has captured them. All their personal belongings, except their arms and military papers, should be left in their possession.

The following should be inviolate: The emissary—that is to say, an individual authorized by a belligerent to enter into talks with the authorities of the other side and coming under a white flag; also his trumpeter, his standard bearer, and his interpreter. He loses his inviolability if it is proven that he has profited by his privilege to provoke or commit treachery.

An undisguised military man can never be treated as a spy.



CHAPTER 8.

Practice Marches.

"Special attention should be paid to the fitting of shoes and the care of the feet." (i.d.r., 627.)

Short marches from 2 to 4 miles should be made daily and at a uniform rate until the troops become hardened. Particular attention must always be paid to the rate of march—it is imperative for the leading element to keep a uniform rate per hour.

Be careful and see to it that your troops march on the right-hand side of the road, and during halts, no one, not even officers, must be permitted on the left. Keep closed up, and during the last mile of your march have your company sing some real snappy song, and they will come in in jubilant spirits. Keep the muzzles of your rifles always elevated on the march so that men marching in rear wont be bothered.

On the march the first halt is for 15 minutes taken after 45 minutes of marching. The men should be taught to use this time to adjust their clothing and equipment, and answer the calls of nature. Do not halt where there are houses, etc., on this first halt, as a great many men want to relieve themselves.

The succeeding halts are for 10 minutes after 50 minutes of marching—except of course during a forced march—when you would march for a longer period. During rainy or very hot weather the halts should be made oftener.

Do not have any straggling, remember if a man falls out he must have a certificate signed by an officer stating the cause. Have one officer march in rear of the company. Be careful about the use of water. Have your men take a good drink early in the morning just after reveille, and on the march use their canteen sparingly. One canteen of water must last one man one day. Do not allow men to drink until after the second halt.

On reaching camp the kitchens are put up, latrines are dug, and tents are pitched. When everything has been tended to each man should give his feet a good salt water bath. Put them in the water and let them remain there for 2 minutes. Do not dry them by rubbing, but sponge them—this will harden the feet. This should be done for the first three days, after which it can be dispensed with. A change of socks daily should be made, take one pair of socks from the pack, and wash out the dirty pair.

Try to avoid night marching.

The leading company in each regiment regulates the rate of march.

"The marching efficiency of an organization is judged by the amount of straggling and elongation and the condition of the men at the end of the march." (i.d.r., 632.)

Remember a sanitary squad should be detailed daily to police the immediate vicinity after each halt.

Field Work.

Field work will be classified under the following heads: Orders, Deployment, Fire, Attack, Defense, Leadership, Communications, Night Operations, Patrols, Advance Guards, Rear Guards, Flank Guards, Camp, March Outpost, and Outpost.

(a) AN ORDER is the will of the commander expressed verbally or in writing to his subordinates. It should be clear, concise and to the point. A field order should be given as follows: 1. Information of the enemy and supporting troops. 2. General plan of the commander. 3. Dispositions of the troops. 4. Instructions for the trains. 5. Place where messages are to be sent.

(b) DO NOT DEPLOY too early. It is very fatiguing, and has a tendency to disorganize the skirmish line. The major designates the companies to be on the firing line, and those to remain in support. The distance between the firing line and support is from 50 to 500 yards. The support should be as close as possible under cover.

(c) FIRE DIRECTION is the function of the company commander. He gives each platoon its sector or objective, determines the range, target, indicates the class of fire, and the time to open fire. Fire control is given to platoon commanders. The platoon is the fire unit. "Fire control implies the ability to stop firing, change the sight setting and target, and resume a well directed fire. The best troops are those that submit longest to fire control." Fire discipline is the function of the individual soldier. "It implies that in a firing line without leaders, each man retains his presence of mind and directs effective fire upon the target."

(d) THE TROOPS march in column of squads until under the observation of the enemy. Platoon columns are used in crossing ground where there is cover. Squad columns are used across the artillery zone. At approximately 800 yards a skirmish line is formed. Thin lines may then be used to advance to the attack. Remember the Major has assigned each company in the firing line an objective. Be sure to watch out for flank protection. If the Major has forgotten to have combat patrols on the exposed flank or flanks, it is up to the flank company to send out a combat patrol. This patrol should be slightly in advance of the front line, and off to the right or left. The advance is made by a fraction rushing forward. These rushes are from 20 to 80 yards. When a rush is made the remaining troops fire faster. The firing line should not be reinforced by less than a platoon. The Major determines when to fix bayonets. The front rank men fix bayonets first, the rear rank men fire faster, then the rear rank men fix bayonets while the front rank fire faster. A battalion is the smallest unit in the firing line to inaugurate a charge. Remember the battalion is the attack unit.

In changing sight setting follow same plan as fixing bayonet, i.e., each front rank first, the rear rank man firing faster, etc.

(e) DEFENSE.—In defense the line is usually stronger and the support weaker than in the attack. Do not give up your ground unless you have written orders from the High Command. Watch out for flank protection by combat patrols.

(f) LEADERSHIP.—A good leader should possess self reliance, initiative, aggressiveness, superior knowledge, and have a conception of teamwork. Make your work a game in which each man has a part to play. Reward merit and give the disagreeable things to be done to the "knockers." A leader must know his men. Never give them a job to do that you couldn't do yourself. Train yourself to estimate the situation quickly and calmly. Have your men well disciplined, well drilled, well equipped, and well dressed. It might be called unmilitary by some of the sterner characters in our service, but we believe by occasionally drawing comparisons to something real amusing—a good joke—you show your men that the "old Man" is really made of human stuff. Be sympathetic, and it has been shown by experience that, for some slight breach of discipline a "little talk" in the orderly room does the most good, and is the best form of punishment. Do your work cheerfully, and your men will do likewise. Keep yourself abreast of the times in all matters military—remember your men look to you in time of action and excitement and you must be ready to deliver the goods. Work out and plan your orders, etc., simply. Morale is the greatest asset an organization can have. Keep all your troubles and have the men keep theirs within the company. Have esprit de corps. The real successful leader knows and plays the game.

(g) COMMUNICATIONS.—Communication is maintained by wireless, telegraph, telephone, signals, runners, carrier pigeons, aeroplanes, motor cars, patrols, and connecting files. Each unit usually maintains communication with the next higher command, and with similar commands on the flanks.

(h) NIGHT OPERATIONS.—They are used to minimize losses from hostile fire, to escape observation, and to gain time. The ground to be traversed at night should be carefully looked over in daylight. Some distinctive badge should be worn by our troops. The bayonet is chiefly used at night. Avoid firing. The enemy should be surprised. Place obstacles in front of your own lines at night. Usually 50 yards is the maximum range to fire at night.

(i) PATROLS.—"A commander may be excused for being defeated, but never for being surprised."

PATROLS.

Commander selects leader, strength, gives it a mission, when to report back, and where to send messages. He gives it a number if more than one patrol is sent out, information of the enemy, and location of any friendly patrols that may be or have been sent out. Patrol leader is then allowed to ask questions.

Patrol Leader.—He should have a compass, watch, pencil, note-book, knife, and a map of the country. He should then do the following:

1. Assemble his men. 2. Inspect them. a. To see if they are fit for this duty. b. That they have no valuable maps or papers, that their equipment does not rattle or shine. c. Rations and water. 3. He repeats the instruction that he has received. 4. He explains any signals that are to be used. 5. Designates a rallying point in case they are scattered. 6. Details a second in command. 7. Takes a formation that will favor the escape of at least one man.

Conduct of the Patrol.—1. Move cautiously but not timidly. 2. Do not flinch or show consciousness of it in case you become suddenly aware that you are under the observation of the enemy. Not knowing that you are aware of his presence he will let you come on, and suddenly, when you see cover, make a dash for it and escape. 3. Do not get lost. 4. Do not allow yourself to think of the enemy as being in one direction only. 5. In entering or passing through woods take an extended skirmish line formation. 6. In passing any short defile bridge or ford, send one man ahead. 7. If you suspect the presence of the enemy under certain cover, a good way to find out is to let one man approach within a reasonable distance and then, acting as though he had been discovered, turn and run. This will generally draw his fire. 8. Keep quiet. Forbid unnecessary talking. 9. From time to time select suitable rallying points in case you become separated. 10. Remember that you do not fight unless in self defense.

Report.—1. Do not report the presence of small patrols unless you have been ordered to do so. Locate the main body or a large command. 2. Determine his strength, kind of troops and movements. 3. Remember the indispensable qualities of a report are: accuracy as to facts, simplicity, clearness, legibility and correct spelling. Surmises must not be given as facts. Separate what you know and what has been told you. A report should not be expressed carelessly in ten words when it could be clearly stated in twenty. Send a sketch if practicable. 4. Do not send a verbal message. 5. Address it to C.O. Support or C.O. Advance Guard, etc., not to the commander of a certain body of troops. Give date, place and time. 6. Remember to state what you intend to do. 7. In hostile country send two messages by different routes. In friendly country one will suffice. 8. When the capture of your message is likely, give messenger a false one that will be easily found and conceal the true message carefully.

Return.—1. Do not return over the same route as you avoid ambuscade and widen your field of reconnaissance. 2. Report any special features of military value that you have seen to your C.O. 3. Compliment your men.

(j) Advance Guard.—"An advance guard is a detachment of the main body which precedes it and covers it on the march" (i.d.r. 639). The commander of troops designates the advance guard, the distance between it and the main body, and also designates a commander. The advance guard commander if he has more than a battalion designates the reserve, support, distance between them. If the advance guard is a battalion or less it would have no reserve, and in that case the advance guard commander would designate the support, advance party, and the distance between them. In the former case the support commander would designate the advance party, and the distance between the support and the advance party. In both cases the advance party commander designates the point, and the distance between the point and the advance party. Usually it is the duty of the advance party to send out flank patrols. The strength varies from 1/20 to 1/3 of the main body. Remember "the formation of the advance guard must be such that the enemy will first be met by a patrol, then in turn by one or more larger detachments, each capable of holding the enemy until the next in rear has time to deploy before coming under effective fire." The advance guard must be aggressive. Do not put up with a cautious point. Have a double connecting file, and if possible every 100 yards. "Each element of the column sends the necessary connecting files to its front." On the road in order are: point—advance party—support—reserve (if there is one)—main body. Have the point precede the advance party, all the remaining elements follow the one ahead. This has been found by experience to be the best method of getting "there."

(k) Rear Guards.—"A rear guard is a detachment detached to protect the main body from attack in the rear." "The general formation is that of the advance guard reversed." i.e. rear point, rear party, support, and main body. "In retreat a column is preceded by a body of troops designated 'leading troops,' whose principle duty is to clear the road of obstacles and to facilitate the withdrawal of the command."

(l) Flank Guards.—As their name imply protect the flanks. They should be in constant communication with the column. Their formation usually conforms to that of patrols.

(m) Camps.—The four principal factors to be considered in the selection of the camp site are: near a good road or roads, have good drainage, plenty of room to accommodate your troops, and have a good water supply. Immediately after camp is made sinks are dug for the disposal of excreta. One should be dug for each company on the opposite flank from the kitchen for the disposal of human excreta, and one near the kitchen for the disposal of wastes, etc., that cannot be burned around the kitchen.

(n) March Outpost.—A march outpost is usually an advance guard halted, with observers in each unit on the alert. A cossack post might be established on a good near by observation point. The march outpost is the protection furnished the main body at short halts, or on making camp before the outpost is established.

(o) Outpost.—The outpost may be best illustrated by circles:

Each support is numbered from right to left. Each outguard in each support is numbered from right to left. Each sentinel post in each outguard is numbered from right to left. Outguards are divided into three classes, cossack posts, sentry squads and packets. A cossack post consists of 4 men, 1 posted in observation near the posts of the remaining three.

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