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Military Instructors Manual
by James P. Cole and Oliver Schoonmaker
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VIII. THE FIRST SERGEANT.

Commands a Platoon, Never a Guide.

GUIDES.

GENERAL RULES:

1. Guides must be resourceful, have good health, vigorous physique, keen eyesight, presence of mind and courage, with good judgment, military training and experience. They must be able to read maps, make sketches and send clear and concise messages.

2. EQUIPMENT.—Guides are equipped with whistle, watch, compass, message book, knife, pencil, wire cutters, map, pace scale and glasses if possible.

3. As instructors they go where needed.

4. As file closers they insure steadiness and promptness in the ranks.

5. In column of subdivisions the guide of the leading subdivision is charged with the step and direction.

CLOSE ORDER.—The guides of the right and left, or leading and rear, platoons, are the right and left, or leading and rear guides respectively of the company when it is in line or in column of squads. Other guides are in the line of file closers.

In platoon movements the post of the platoon guide is at the head of the platoon, if the platoon is in column, and on the guiding flank if in line. When a platoon has two guides their original assignment to flanks of the platoon does not change.

The guides of a column of squads place themselves on the flank opposite the file closers. To change the guides and file closers to the other flank, the Captain commands: 1. File closers on left (right) flank; 2. March. The file closers dart through the column; the captain and guides change.

In column of squads, each rank preserves the alignment toward the side of the guide.

Men in the line of file closers do not execute the loadings or firings.

Guides and enlisted men in the line of file closers execute the manual of arms during the drill unless specially excused, when they remain at the order. During ceremonies they execute all movements.

IN TAKING INTERVALS AND DISTANCES.—Unless otherwise directed, the right and left guides, at the first command, place themselves in the line of file closers, and with them take a distance of 4 paces from the rear rank. In taking intervals, at the command "March", the file closers face to the flank and each steps off with the file nearest him. In assembling the guides and file closers resume their places in line.

To FORM THE COMPANY.—At the sounding of the assembly the first sergeant takes position 6 paces in front of where the center of the company is to be, faces it, draws saber, and commands "Fall in".

The right guide of the company places himself, facing to the front, where the right of the company is to rest, and at such point that the center of the company will be 6 paces from and opposite the first sergeant; the squads form in their proper places on the left of the right guide, superintended by the other sergeants, who then take their posts.

For the instruction of platoon leaders and guides, the company, when small, may be formed in single rank. In this formation close order movements only are executed. The single rank executes all movements as explained for the front rank of the company.

ALIGNMENTS.—The alignments are executed as prescribed in the School of the Squad, the guide being established instead of the flank file. The rear-rank man of the flank file keeps his head and eyes to the front and covers his file leader.

At each alignment the Captain places himself in prolongation of the line, 2 paces from and facing the flank toward which the dress is made, verifies the alignment and commands: "Front".

Platoon leaders take a like position when required to verify the alignments.

In "Company right" the right guide steps back on the command "March", aligning the first two men next to him as he does so, to establish the correct line.

In "Platoon right" the Captain announces the guide and the guides cover promptly.

In "Right turn" the right guide is the pivot of the front rank.

In "Column right" the right flank man of the leading squad is the pivot, not the guide.

In "Right by squads" the right guide (when he has posted himself in front of the right squad) takes four short steps and then resumes the full step. The right squad conforms.

"Squads right about." If the company or platoons are in column of squads, file closers turn about toward the column and take posts. If in line, each darts through the nearest interval between squads. The right and left guides place themselves in the new front rank. File closers on facing about, maintain their relative positions.

When the company executes "About face", guides place themselves in the new front rank.

In "Right front into line, double time" halting and aligning commands are omitted. Guide is toward side of the first unit.

In "Take interval" or "Take distance" guides drop back at the first command.

In "Squads right" or "Platoons, column right" interior guides of platoons cross the company. A good rule for beginners is always to cross over (except in "column right").

Guide of a company in line is right (unless otherwise announced).

Guide of a platoon in line is right.

Guide of a battalion in line is center.

Guide of a line of subdivisions is center.

Guide of a deployed line is center.

Guide of a squad is toward the side of the guide of the company.

Guide of successive formations into line is toward the point of rest.

File closers remain on the same side of the company except when in so doing they would be left in front of the company.

If the battalion is in line, the guide away from the point of rest (in each company) comes to the "Right shoulder arms" at the command to dress.

At the command "Eyes right", guides who are charged with the direction do not execute "Eyes right", but simply salute.

At "Retreat" guides unarmed stand at "Attention". Only officers salute.

In "Stack arms" the right guide should align the stacks.

In squads (acting alone) the corporal is the guide; number 2 of the front rank, if the corporal is not in line.

The guides of rear units are charged with the step, trace and distance.

EXERCISE FOR GUIDES.—Lay out a course of arbitrary distance; 200 yards will answer the purpose. Instruct the guides to march the course as they would if they were guiding a company, but being sure to count their steps (a pebble transferred to the left hand at 100 steps is often found useful).

RESULT.—The number of steps will range from 205 to 225. After getting the number of steps taken by each man, show them that they should have taken 240 steps and that each man took too long a step. Have them march back guiding on two points in line as before, cautioning them to cut down the length of the step to 30 inches from the start, and not to wait until they get half way down the course and find that they have less than 120 steps.

RESULT.—All of the men, even after the caution, will have taken too long a step.

Instructor times the guides both ways, and calls attention to the fact that in ALL cases the cadence was under 120 steps per minute.

After repeating above as much as desired have the men march in pairs, one man keeping time and the other counting steps and marching on two points.

They may check up every 10 seconds if desired.

IX. PLATOON GUIDES.

POSITION:

1. Behind the firing line, on left of platoon leader. (163, i.d.r.) 2. Advancing in line—behind center of platoon. (213 and 223, i.d.r.) To insure prompt and orderly advance. 3. "Advance by thin lines"—lead even numbered lines. (218, i.d.r.) 4. Advancing in squad or platoon column—in rear.

DUTIES:

(104, 213, 223, 229, 255, 367, 375, and 376, i.d.r.)

1. The platoon leader's assistant and may be assigned any duty the platoon leader sees fit. 2. Keeps adjoining units under observation. 3. Watches firing line. 4. Checks every breach of fire discipline. 5. Prevents skulking, men leaving the ranks at any time to care for wounded, etc. 6. Designates new squad leaders and organizes new squads when necessary. 7. Attaches men that have become separated from squads to other squads. 8. Insures prompt and orderly advance. 9. On joining firing line from the support takes over duties of sergeants disabled. 10. May receive and transmit signals to the Captain. 11. If the platoon leader is disabled, he takes over his duties. Hence he should know what the platoon leader is doing and how. 12. When taking over the duties of the platoon leader he calls the senior corporal of his platoon out to act as guide.

X. CORPORAL.

POSITION:

1. Marching in line, as center skirmisher of squad (124, i.d.r.) or 2. When skirmish line is halted, immediately behind his squad.

Note.—The School has recommended to the War Department that the Infantry Drill Regulations be changed to provide that the Corporal's position be as prescribed above and in paragraph 20, page 10.

DUTIES:

Paragraphs 42, 222, 252, 254, 255, 411, and 551, i.d.r., cover in general the corporal's duties. The squad leader (Corporal) controls the fire of his squad, he must understand the duties of the private and in issuing his fire orders:

1. Receives his instructions from the platoon leader. 2. Points out indicated objective to his squad. 3. Takes as the squad target that portion of the platoon target which corresponds to the position of the squad in the platoon. 4. Announces sight setting. 5. Announces class and rate of fire. 6. When his squad is ready to fire looks toward the platoon leader and holds up his hand. At the platoon leader's signal to commence firing he sees that the squad opens fire.

THEREAFTER:

1. Makes all fire from the shoulder. 2. Makes all use ordered rate of fire. 3. Insures that all fire at designated objective. 4. Prevents slighting of invisible portions of the target for more visible parts. 5. Prevents men from changing fire to unauthorized targets not in the assigned front or sector. 6. Maintains constant observation to the front; when squad is firing, for effect of fire—when squad is not firing, for appearance of enemy. 7. Insures prompt obedience to orders to suspend and cease firing. 8. Makes men utilize ground to fullest extent for concealment in firing and advancing. 9. In sight-setting, changing sights and fixing bayonets, has front rank perform operation first (rear-rank men increasing rate of fire) and then the rear-rank follow while the front-rank men make up for loss of fire for the rear rank, thus insuring that the rate of fire for the squad does not fall off. 10. Prevents increasing vulnerability of squad while preparing for a rush, and rushes as soon after cease firing as possible. 11. When other squads of his platoon, are rushing, or the platoon which is covering the same target as is his platoon, is rushing he has his squad increase its rate of fire to make up for lost fire effect of the rushing element. 12. In rushing causes men to spring to feet running at full speed, all men to drop to the ground at the same time, and those who are in rear to crawl up to the line. 13. When re-enforcing the firing line, takes over the duties of disabled squad leaders. For this purpose his squad may drop into line at one place and he may move to the next squad on the right or left where there is a squad leader needed. If there are no vacancies caused by disabled squad leaders, he drops into line and assists the squad leaders who are there. 14. Prevents decreasing rate of fire when men are transmitting data to arriving supports. 15. Prevents wasting of ammunition. 16. Prevents use of 30 rounds in right pocket section of belts except on order of an officer. 17. Distributes ammunition of dead and wounded and ammunition brought up from the rear. 18. Prevents decreasing the rate of fire while ammunition is being distributed. 19. Looks to the rear only at his platoon leader's whistle "Attention." Pays no attention to any other except suspend firing. 20. Takes his position in rear of his squad when it is firing and remains there, where he can control its fire, and only crawls into line and adds his rifle when all control is lost. (Short ranges.) 21. To control his squad he does not walk up and down behind his squad but rolls along behind his line and keeps down. 22. Leads his squad in moving to the front or rear. 23. Must know thoroughly the drill regulation signals and have a good practical knowledge of the theory of fire. 24. In rushing, maintains the direction of advance of his squad so as not to blanket the fire of squads in his rear. 25. Takes advantage of every lull in the action and every favorable opportunity to reorganize his squad and get it more under control. 26. Checks every breach of fire discipline, abates excitement, and prevents any man from leaving the squad to go to the rear for any purpose whatsoever. 27. If called out of line to act as guide, notifies designated private (103, i.d.r.) to take command of squad.

XI. THE PRIVATE.

POSITION:

Deployed in line: One man per yard (125, i.d.r.), unless a greater extension is directed in the order for deployment. (126, i.d.r.)

DUTIES:

(6, 42, 104, 133, 134, 138, 139, 149, 152-156, 203, 209, 233, 247, 251, 254, 255, 319, 354, 367, i.d.r., and 209, s.a.f.m.)

The individual soldier must be trained:

1. To recognize targets from description quickly. 2. To describe and define targets. 3. To use rear sight in describing targets. 4. To use horizontal and vertical clock systems, singly or in combination in describing target. 5. To set sights quickly and accurately as ordered. 6. To bring piece to shoulder, aim carefully and deliberately from habit, and to reload quickly. 7. To fire at the ordered rate. (Par. 18, Standard for Field Firing.) 8. To fire at the part of the designated objective which corresponds to his position in the firing line. 9. To continue firing in the designated sector and not to change therefrom unless ordered. 10. Not to slight invisible parts of the target for more visible ones. 11. To maintain constant observation to the front. 12. To utilize folds of ground for concealment in advancing and firing. 13. To select firing positions. 14. To understand effects of visibility and the selection of backgrounds. 15. To fire from all positions, from behind hillocks, trees, heaps of earth and rocks, depressions, gullies, ditches, doorways and windows. 16. To obey promptly orders to suspend and cease firing. 17. To ignore whistle signals, except suspend firing. 18. To watch closely for the expected target after having suspended firing. 19. To obey promptly all orders from his squad leader. 20. To drop into the nearest interval when reinforcing the firing line and obey the orders of the nearest squad leader. 21. To transmit firing data to men of the supports coming into the line rapidly and accurately, without decreasing his rate of fire. 22. To call for range and target when reinforcing the firing line. 23. To have confidence in his own ability to hit. 24. To a system of sight setting and fixing bayonets in order that there may be no cessation of fire in the unit during this operation. 25. To prepare for rushes without decreasing fire of the unit unduly. 26. To avoid unnecessary movement in preparing for rushes. 27. To spring forward at command "Rush" or "Follow Me" without preliminary rising. 28. To avoid bunching in rushing. 29. Not to swerve to the right or left in search of cover but to advance in a straight line, in order not to blanket the fire of men in his rear. 30. To drop quickly at end of rush and crawl up to line if in rear of it. 31. To remain with his own company, but if he accidentally becomes detached from his company or squad to join the nearest one. 32. To maintain silence except when transmitting or receiving firing data and charging. 33. To retain presence of mind. 34. To be careful not to waste ammunition. 35. To use the thirty rounds of ammunition in the right pocket section of the belt only upon the order of an officer. 36. To remain with the firing line after bringing up ammunition. 37. To utilize ammunition of dead and wounded. 38. Never to attempt to care for dead or wounded during the action. 39. To have confidence in his ability to use the bayonet. 40. To a firm determination to close with the enemy. 41. To preserve the line in charging. 42. To understand that a charge should be slow and steady (the faster men must not run away from the slower ones). 43. To form up immediately after the charge and follow the enemy with fire, not attempting a disorganized pursuit. 44. To understand that it is suicidal to turn his back to an enemy and that, if he cannot advance, he must intrench and hold on until dark. 45. To count distant groups of object or beings. 46. To recognize service targets. 47. NEVER TO FIRE UNTIL HE UNDERSTANDS WHAT THE TARGET IS, AT WHAT PART HE IS TO FIRE, AND WITH WHAT SIGHT SETTING.

Packs.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ASSEMBLING THE INFANTRY EQUIPMENT, MODEL OF 1910.

1. THE CARTRIDGE BELT.—(a) To assemble the belt. Place the adjusting strap on the ground, eyeleted edge to the front; place the pocket sections on the ground in prolongation of the adjusting strap, pockets down, tops of pockets to the front; insert end of adjusting strap in outer loop of metal guide, from the upper side, carry it under the middle bar and up through the inner loop; engage the wire hook on the end of adjusting strap in the eyelets; provided on the inner surface of the belt.

(b) To adjust the belt. Adjust the belt to fit loosely about the waist—i.e., so that when buckled it may rest well down over the hip bones on the sides of the body and below the pit of the abdomen in front. Care should be taken that the adjustment be made equally from both ends of the adjusting strap, so that the center eyelet will be in the middle of the belt.

(c) To fill the belt. Unsnap the flap of the pocket and the interior retaining strap; lay the retaining strap out flat in prolongation of the pocket, insert a clip of cartridges, points of bullets up, in front of the retaining strap; press down until the base of the clip rests on the bottom of the pocket; pass the retaining strap over the bullet points and fasten it to the outside of the pocket by means of the fastener provided; insert a second clip of cartridges, points of bullets down, in rear of the first clip; press down until the points of the bullets rest on the bottom of the pocket; close the flap of the pocket and fasten by means of the fastener provided.

The remaining nine pockets are filled in like manner.

2. TO ATTACH THE FIRST-AID POUCH.—Attach the pouch under the second pocket of the right section of the belt by inserting one hook of the double-hook attachment in the eyelet, from the inside of the belt; pinch the base of the pocket, bringing eyelets close together, and insert the other hook in the same manner in the adjoining eyelet. Place the first-aid packet in the pouch and secure the cover.

3. TO ATTACH THE CANTEEN COVER.—Attach the canteen cover to the belt under the rear pocket of the right section in the same manner as the first-aid pouch. Place the canteen and cup (assembled) in the cover and secure the flaps.

4. TO ATTACH THE PACK CARRIER TO THE HAVERSACK.—Spread the haversack on the ground, inner side down, outer flap to the front (Fig. 4); place the buttonholed edge of the pack carrier on the buttonholed edge of the haversack, lettered side of carrier up; buttonholes of carrier superimposed upon the corresponding ones of the haversack; lace the carrier to the haversack by passing the ends of the coupling strap down through the corresponding buttonholes of the carrier and haversack nearest the center of the carrier, bringing the ends up through the next buttonholes and continuing to the right and left, respectively, to the sides.

5. TO ATTACH THE CARTRIDGE BELT TO THE HAVERSACK.—Place the haversack and pack carrier (assembled) on the ground, inner side down (Fig. 5); place the cartridge belt, pockets down, tops to the front, along the junction of the haversack and carrier; insert hook on rear of belt suspender in the center eyelet of the adjusting strap, so that the end of the hook will be on the outside of the belt; insert hooks on ends of front belt suspenders in the eyelets between the second and third pockets from the outer ends of the belt, so that the end of the hooks will be on the outside of the belt.

6. TO ATTACH THE BAYONET SCABBARD TO THE HAVERSACK.—Attach the scabbard by passing its lower end through the loop provided on the side of the haversack body, then engage the double-hook attachment in the eyelets on the outer flap on the haversack, inserting the hooks from the inside. Place the bayonet in the scabbard.

7. TO ATTACH THE INTRENCHING TOOL CARRIER TO THE HAVERSACK.—Fold the outer flap of the haversack over so that the meat-can pouch is uppermost; pass the intrenching tool carrier underneath the meat-can pouch and engage the double-hook attachment in the eyelets in the flap provided, inserting the hooks from the underside. Place the intrenching tool in the carrier and secure. Place the meat-can, knife, fork, and spoon in the meat-can pouch. The equipment is now assembled and is never disassembled except to detach the pack carrier and its contents as hereinafter provided for.

To ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.

(With Rations.)

Place the assembled equipment on the ground, suspender side of haversack down, pockets of cartridge belt up, haversack spread out, inside flap and pack carrier extended their full length to the rear (Fig. 6).

Place three cartons of hard bread in the center of the haversack body, the lower one on the line of attachment of the inside flap; lay the remaining carton of hard bread, the condiment can and the bacon can on the top of these, the condiment can and the bacon can at the bottom, top of the bacon can to the front; the socks and toilet articles are rolled, towel on the outside, into a bundle of the same approximate dimensions as a carton of hard bread, and are placed in front of the two rows thus formed.

The inside flap of the haversack is folded over these articles, the end of the flap being turned in so that the flap, thus shortened, extends about 2 inches beyond the top of the upper row; the sides of the haversack are folded over the sides of the rows; the upper binding straps are passed through the loops on the outside of the inside flap, each strap through the loop opposite the point of its attachment to the haversack body, and fastened by means of the buckle on the opposite side, the strap being passed through the opening in the buckle next to its attachment, over the center bar, and back through the opening of the buckle away from its attachment; the strap is pulled tight to make the fastening secure; the outer flap of the haversack is folded over and fastened by means of the lower haversack binding strap and the buckle on the inside of the outer flap; the strap is pulled tight, drawing the outer flap snugly over the filled haversack.

The haversack is now packed and the carrier is ready for the reception of the pack (Fig. 7).

If one haversack ration and one emergency ration are carried in lieu of two haversack rations, the haversack is packed in the manner described above, except that two cartons of hard bread and the bacon can form the bottom layer, the bacon can on the bottom; the condiment can, the emergency ration, and the toilet articles form the top layer.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two haversack rations, it is packed on top of the top layer.

TO MAKE THE PACK (Fig. 8).—Spread the shelter half on the ground and fold in the triangular ends, forming an approximate square from the half, the guy on the inside; fold the poncho once across its shortest dimension, then twice across its longest dimension, and lay it in the center of the shelter half; fold the blanket as described for the poncho and place it on the latter; place the shelter tent pins in the folds of the blanket, in the center and across the shortest dimension; fold the edges of the shelter half snugly over the blanket and poncho and, beginning on either of the short sides, roll tightly and compactly. This forms the pack.

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK (Fig. 9).—Place the pack in the pack carrier and grasp the lower suspension rings, one in each hand; place the right knee against the bottom of the roll; pull the carrier down and force the pack up close against the bottom of the packed haversack; without removing the knee, pass the lower carrier binding strap over the pack and secure it by means of the opposite buckle; in a similar manner secure the lower haversack binding strap and then the upper carrier binding strap. Engage the snap hook on the pack suspenders in the lower suspension rings. The equipment is now assembled and packed as prescribed for the full equipment.

TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT.

(Without Rations.)

Place the assembled equipment on the ground as heretofore described; fold up the inside flap of the haversack so that its end will be on a line with the top of the haversack body; fold up the lower haversack strap in the same manner.

TO MAKE UP THE PACK.—Fold the poncho, blanket and shelter half, and make up the pack as heretofore prescribed, except that the condiment and bacon can (the former inside the latter) and the toilet articles and socks are rolled in the pack. In this case the pack is rolled, beginning on either of the long sides instead of the short sides, as heretofore described.

TO ASSEMBLE THE PACK.—Place the pack on the haversack and pack carrier, its upper end on a line with the upper edge of the haversack body; bind it to the haversack and carrier by means of the haversack and pack binding straps; fold down the outer flap on the haversack and secure it by means of the free end of the middle haversack banding strap and the buckle provided on the underside of the flap; engage the snap hooks of the pack suspenders in the lower suspension rings.

The equipment is now packed and assembled (Fig. 10).

TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER.—Put on the equipment, slipping the arms one at a time through the pack suspenders as through the sleeves of a coat; by means of the adjusting buckles on the belt suspenders, raise or lower the belt until it rests well down over the hip bones on the sides and below the pit of the abdomen in front; raise or lower it in rear until the adjusting strap lies smoothly across the small of the back; by means of the adjusting buckles on the pack suspenders, raise or lower the load on the back until the top of the haversack is on a level with the top of the shoulders, the pack suspenders, from their point of attachment to the haversack to the line of tangency with the shoulder, being horizontal. The latter is absolutely essential to the proper adjustment of the load.

The position of the belt is the same whether filled or empty.

TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.

(With Rations.)

(Fig. 11.)

Detach the carrier from, the haversack; place the rest of the equipment on the ground as heretofore described; place the four cartons of hard bread, the bacon can, the condiment can, and the toilet articles in one row in the middle of the haversack body, the toilet articles at the top, the bacon can at the bottom, top to the front, the row extending from top to bottom of the haversack; fold the inside flap over the row thus formed; fold the sides of the haversack up and over; pass the three haversack binding straps through the loops on the inside flap and secure by means of the buckles on the opposite side of the haversack; pass the lower haversack binding strap through the small buttonhole in the lower edge of the haversack, fold the outer flap of the haversack over the whole and secure by means of the buckle on its underside and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.

If one haversack ration and one emergency ration are carried in lieu of two haversack rations, the haversack is packed in the manner described above, except that one emergency ration is substituted for two of the cartons of hard bread.

If one emergency ration is carried in addition to the two haversack rations, it is packed on top of the layer.

TO ASSEMBLE THE FULL EQUIPMENT LESS THE PACK.

(Without Rations.)

Detach the carrier from the haversack; place the rest of the equipment on the ground as heretofore described; fold up the inside flap of the haversack until its upper end is on a line with the top of the haversack body; fold the sides of the haversack over, pass the three haversack binding straps through the loops on the inside flap and secure by means of the buckles on the opposite side of the haversack; pass the lower haversack binding strap through the small buttonhole in the lower edge of the haversack; place the condiment and bacon can (the former inside the latter) and the toilet articles and socks in the bottom of the pouch thus formed; fold the outer flap of the haversack over the whole and secure by means of the buckle on its underside and the lower haversack binding strap.

Pass the haversack suspension rings through the contiguous buttonholes in the lower edge of the haversack and engage the snap hooks on the ends of the pack suspenders.

TO ADJUST THE EQUIPMENT TO THE SOLDIER.—Put on the equipment as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the cartridge belt as prescribed for the full equipment. Adjust the pack suspenders so that the top of the haversack is on a level with the top of the shoulders.

TO DISCARD THE PACK WITHOUT REMOVING THE EQUIPMENT FROM THE BODY.

Unsnap the pack suspenders from the suspension rings and snap them into the eyelets on top of the belt and in rear of the rear pockets of the right and left pocket sections; support the bottom of the pack with the left hand and with the right hand grasp the coupling strap at its middle and withdraw first one end, then the other; press down gently on the pack with both hands and remove it. When the pack has been removed, lace the coupling strap into the buttonholes along the upper edge of the carrier. Adjust the pack suspenders.

For illustration of how packs are made up and carried, see Privates' Manual, Chapter 2.

CARE OF EQUIPMENT.

LEATHER.—1. Keep leather clean. Use material furnished by Ordnance Department, or castile soap and water.

2. Oil leather frequently to keep it pliable. Use Neatsfoot oil, Viscol or Harness soap.

3. Dry in the shade; never in the sun or in artificial heat. Always store in a cool, dry place without artificial heat. Shoe polishes are almost always injurious.

WOOLEN CLOTHES.—Wash in tepid or cold water with a non-alkaline soap; do not wring it out; dry in the shade.

MENDING.—Always keep equipment ready for use.

CLOTH EQUIPMENT.—DRY CLEANING.—Scrub with a stiff brush frequently.

WASHING.—Only under the direction of an officer.

Dissolve 1 piece of Q.M. soap (not yellow), in 9 cups of water. One cup will clean the equipment of one man. Apply with a brush and lather well. Rub soap directly on persistent spots. Wash off in cold water and dry in the shade.

INSTRUCTIONS ON MAKING PACKS.

FOUR METHODS:

Full equipment with rations. Full equipment without rations. Full equipment less pack, with rations. Full equipment less pack, without rations.

Haversack, Weight 9-1/4 Carrier Cartridge belt, canteen, Weight 11-1/2 Suspenders Mess Rations Weight 10-1/2 Mess pouch Gun 9 Clothing 7 ———- 40

ADJUSTING CARTRIDGE BELT.—1. Fits loosely around waist. 2. Resting on hips. 3. Hole between buckles. Insert ammunition: First, clip in front, points up, fastened with retaining strap, Second clip points down. First aid pouch under 4th pocket, left. Canteen under rear pocket, right. Bayonet between 3rd and 4th pocket, left. (New bayonet scabbard fastens on haversack.)

DISTRIBUTION OF INTRENCHING TOOLS IN THE SQUADS.

No. 3 rear of each odd-numbered squad ... Bolo No. 3 rear of each even-numbered squad ... Hand Axe. No. 1 rear of each squad ... Pick Mattock. Nos. 1, 2 and 3 front of each squad ... Shovels No. 2 rear of each squad ... Wire Cutter.



CHAPTER 3.

Physical Training.

Only the carefully trained and conditioned man can make victory possible. For this reason the first and most important concern of a nation at war is the physical training of its soldiers.

The setting-up exercises are the basis for all other activities and their disciplinary value is almost as great as their physical value.

PHYSICAL TRAINING.—Each period should include exercises for all parts of the body. Following the setting-up exercises the following should be given in the order named: marching, jumping, double timing, gymnastic contests, and concluding or restorative exercises.

Rifle exercises have for their purpose the development of "handiness" with the piece. They should be used moderately and with frequent rests, for they develop big muscles at the expense of agility—a muscle bound man cannot use his strength.

BAYONET TRAINING in addition to its military value calls into play every muscle of the body and makes for alertness, agility, quick perception, decision, aggressiveness and confidence.

Time Schedule.

A.M. (Begins 1/2 hour P.M. (End 1/2 hour after breakfast): before retreat):

1. Disciplinary exercises, 1. Bayonet training, 30 2 minutes. minutes. 2. Starting positions, 1 2. Games and contests, minute. 30 minutes. 3. Setting up exercises, Alternating daily with: 20 minutes. 1. Bombing practice, 20 4. Marching and marching minutes. exercises, 5 to 8 2. Conditioning exercises, minutes. 15 minutes. 5. Jumping, 5 to 8 minutes. Double timing. 6. Double timing, 5 minutes Vaulting and overcoming obstacles. 3. Rifle practice, 10 minutes.

Instructions must be:

1. An inspiration to the men. 2. Well prepared themselves. 3. Stripped for action. 4. An example to the men. 5. Must make drill attractive. 6. Never have men overdo. Temper the exercises to the endurance of the weakest man. 7. Accompany every exercise with the proper breathing. 8. See that the men are clothed according to the season. 9. Have the drills short and snappy. 10. Have frequent rests at the beginning—less frequent as work progresses.

The platoon is the best unit for physical drills.

FORMATIONS.—When exercising in small squads, the men "fall in" in a single rank and, after having "counted off" by fours, threes or twos, as the instructor may direct, distance is taken at the command: Take distance, March, Squad Halt. At "March" No. 1 moves forward, being followed by the other numbers at intervals of four paces. Halt is commanded when all have taken their distances.

At the discretion of the instructor the distance may be any number of paces, the men being first cautioned to that effect.

When distance is taken from the double rank, No. 1 of the rear rank follows No. 4 of the front rank, and he is in turn followed by the other numbers of the rear rank.

If the instructor desires the files to cover, he commands: In file Cover. Nos. 1 stand fast, the others moving to the right with the side step, until the Nos. 1 are covered.

To return to the original formation, the instructor commands: Assemble March. No. 1 of the front rank stands fast and the other members move forward to their original places.

Second Formation. To the right and left. Take interval, March.

Front Rank: Rear Rank: No. 1, 6 steps right step. No. 1, 3 steps right step. No. 2, 3 steps right step. No. 2, Stands fast. No. 3, Stands fast. No. 3, 3 steps left step. No. 4, 3 steps left step. No. 4, 6 steps left step.

Commands.

KINDS OF COMMANDS, AND HOW GIVEN.—There are two kinds, preparatory and executive.

The preparatory command describes and specifies what is desired and the executive command calls what has been described into action.

The tone of the command should always be animated, distinct, and of a loudness proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

Instructors should cultivate a proper command, as its value as a tributary to the success of any military drill cannot be overestimated.

After an exercise has been described, its various movements or parts should be performed at executive words, which indicate not only the movement that is desired but the manner of the execution. Thus: 1. Trunk forward, 2. Bend, 3. Recover (or Raise), here the word bend is drawn to indicate moderately slow execution; the recovery being a little faster, the word recover should be spoken to indicate it.

The word Recover should always be used to bring the men back to the original position.

If it is desired to continue an exercise, the command Exercise should be used and the cadence or rhythm should be indicated by words or numerals. If numerals are used, they should equal the number of movements composing the exercise. Thus an exercise of two movements will be repeated at one, two; one of four movements will require four counts, etc.

The numeral or word preceding the command Halt should always be given with a rising inflection in order to prepare the men for the command Halt.

Thus: 1. Thrust arms forward, 2. Exercise one, two, one, two, one, Halt.

If any movement of any exercise is to be performed with more energy than the others, the word or numeral corresponding to that movement should be emphasized.

FIRST LESSON.—A. Disciplinary Exercises. 1. Attention; 2. At Ease; 3. Rest; 4. Facings. B. Starting Positions. (m.p.t., pp. 25 to 29.) C. Setting-up Exercises (every exercise has two motions)[P]:

1. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Swing arms downward and forward. 2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes. (33.) 3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend head backward; same, forward. (38.) 4. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Turn trunk right; same, left. (40.) 5. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Half bend knees slowly. (35.) 6. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk forward. (36.) 7. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Raise and lower shoulders. (32.) 8. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk sideward, right; same, left. (37.) 9. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Stretch arms sideward. (43.) 10. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk backward. (34.) 11. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Raise knees forward alternatingly. (41.) 12. Breathing Exercise: Inhale, raising arms sideward; exhale, lowering arms.

D. Marching Exercises:

1. Marching in column in quick time and halting. 2. Same, marking time, marching forward and halting. 3. Same, marching on toes.

[Footnote P: Note.—Jumping and double-timing exercises and contests should not be included in the first week's work. Bracketed numbers refer to pages in "Manual of Physical Training," where similar exercises are illustrated and described.]

SECOND LESSON.—A. Disciplinary Exercises. Same as in first lesson. B. Starting positions. C. Setting-up Exercises (every exercise has two motions):

1. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Swing arms sideward. 2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes. (33.) 3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Turn head right; same, left. (41.) 4. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Turn trunk sideward, right; same, left. (40.) 5. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Full bend knees, slowly. (39.) 6. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk forward. (36.) 7. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Move shoulders forward and backward. (35.) 8. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk sideward, right; same, left. (31.) 9. From Attention. Stretch arms forward and sideward. 10. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend trunk backward. (34.) 11. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Extend right and left leg forward. (44.) 12. Breathing Exercise: Inhale, raising arms sideward and upward; exhale, lowering arms sideward.

D. Marching Exercises:

1. Marching in column in quick time, mark time, marching in quick time and halting. (88.) 2. Marching on toes. (89.) 3. Marching on toes and rocking.

E. Jumping Exercises:

1. Rise on toes and arms forward, 2 Raise. Swing arms downward and bend knees; swing arms forward and extend knees, and recover Attention. 2. Jumping in place. (193.)

F. Double Timing:

1. Double timing, change to quick time and halting. (92.)

G. Concluding Exercises:

1. Breathing exercise, raising and lowering arms sideward.

THIRD LESSON.—A disciplinary Exercises, as in first lesson. B. Starting Positions. C. Setting-up Exercises:

1. Arms forward, 2. Raise. Swing arms downward and sideward. (4 motions.) 2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on right and left toes, alternatingly. (4 motions.) (46.) 3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Bend head forward and backward. (4 motions.) (38.) 4. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Turn trunk right and left. (4 motions.) (53.) 5. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes and full bend knees slowly. (4 motions.) (39.) 6. Fingers in rear of head, 2. Place. Bend trunk forward. (2 motions.) (42.) 7. Arms to thrust, 2. Raise. Move shoulders forward, upward, backward, and recover. (4 motions.) 8. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Bend trunk sideward, right, and left. (4 motions.) (37.) 9. From Attention. Stretch arms sideward, upward, sideward, and recover. (4 motions.) 10. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Bend trunk backward. (2 motions.) (34.) 11. Hands on hips, 2 Place. Extend right and left leg backward. (2 motions.) 12. Breathing Exercise: Inhale, raising arms forward, upward; and exhale, lowering arms sideward, down.

D. Marching Exercises:

1. Marching in quick time, raising knees. (89.) 2. Thrusting arms sideward.

E. Jumping Exercises:

1. Standing broad jump. 2. Three successive broad jumps.

F. Double Timing:

1. Double timing. (92.) 2. Double timing, marking time in the double and forward. 3. Double timing and halting from the double.

G. Gymnastic Contests. Two of these games should be included in each lesson. See pp. 39-40. H. Concluding Exercises:

1. Breathing exercise, as in 12.

FOURTH LESSON.—A. Disciplinary Exercises, as in first lesson. B. Starting Positions. C. Setting-up Exercises:

1. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Extend arms forward; swing sideward, forward, and recover. (4 motions.) 2. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Rise on toes quickly. (2 motions.) (33.) 3. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Turn head right and left. (4 motions.) (41.) 4. Arms upward, 2. Raise. Turn trunk right and left. (4 motions.) 5. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Half bend knees, quickly. (2 motions.) (35.) 6. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk forward. (2 motions.) 7. Hands on shoulders, 2. Place. Move elbows forward, and stretch backward. (2 motions.) (45.) 8. Arms upward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk sideward, right and left. (4 motions.) 9. From Attention. Stretch, arms forward, sideward, upward, sideward, forward, and recover. (6 motions.) 10. Arms sideward, 2. Raise. Bend trunk backward. (2 motions.) 11. Hands on hips, 2. Place. Extend legs sideward. (2 motions.) 12. Breathing Exercise: 1. Inhale, raising arms forward, upward; exhale, lowering arms sideward.

D. Marching Exercises:

1. Marching in quick time, raising knees, and rising on toes of other foot. 2. Raising heels. 3. Thrusting arms sideward.

E. Jumping Exercises:

1. Three successive standing broad jumps. 2. Jumping in place, raising knees.

F. Double Timing:

1. Double timing. 2. Raising heels. 3. Double timing, sideward, crossing legs.

G. Gymnastic Contests. H. Concluding Exercises:

1. Swing arms forward, upward, relaxed. 2. Breathing exercise, as in 12.

FIFTH LESSON.—A. Disciplinary Exercises. B. Starting Positions. C. Setting-up Exercises:

1. Arms to thrust. Thrust arms upward; swing downward; forward; upward, and recover. (4 motions.) (55.) 2. Hands in rear of head. Rise on toes and rock. (2 motions.) (39.) 3. Hands on hips. Bend head forward and backward. (4 motions.) 4. Hands on shoulders. Turn trunk right and left, stretching arms sideward. (4 motions.) (52.) 5. Full bend knees. Hands on ground between knees, squatting position, extend right and left leg backward, alternatingly. (4 motions.) (65.) 6. Hands on shoulders. Bend trunk forward and stretch arms sideward. (2 motions.) (51.) 7. From Attention. Curl shoulders forward and stretch backward. (2 motions.) (38.) 8. Hands on shoulders. Bend trunk sideward, right and left, extending arms sideward. (4 motions.) (65.) 9. From Attention. Flex forearms vertically; extend upward; flex and recover. (4 motions.) (54.) 10. Hands on shoulders. Bend trunk backward, stretching arms sideward. (2 motions.) (56.) 11. From Attention. Raise arms forward and extend leg forward; stretch arms sideward, extending leg backward; move arms and leg to first position and recover Attention. (4 motions.) (53.) 12. Breathing Exercise: Raise arms sideward; upward; and lower laterally quickly. (4 motions.)

D. Marching Exercises:

1. March in quick time and swing extended leg forward, ankle high. 2. Raising knee and hopping on other foot. 3. From arms forward. Swing arms upward.

E. Jumping Exercises:

1. Standing hop, step and jump. 2. Preliminary running broad jumps. 3. Broad jump from a walking start of four paces. (197.)

F. Double timing.

1. Double timing. 2. Double timing sideward, crossing leg in front. 3. Double timing, raising knees.

G. Gymnastic Contests. H. Concluding Exercises:

1. Bend trunk forward and backward, relaxed. 2. Breathing exercise, as in 12.

For further work for recruits and work to be given trained soldiers, see Special Regulation No. 23, "Field Physical Training of the Soldier."

To prevent grumbling, keep men at work. Idle men are the ones who growl. The French consider periods spent in the trenches as periods of rest; instead of letting the men go on pass when relieved, they restore discipline by close order drill.

The physical benefit is less than half of physical exercises. There should be mental exertion in every exercise. But the most important part is the disciplinary benefit. The exercises must teach men to jump at commands, and by this means must make the organization a homogeneous mass.

The principal thing in the position of attention is "chest lifted; and arched." There should be a stretch upward at the waist. The position should give the impression of a man as proud of himself as he can be. This is a bluff which works, not only by making a good first impression on others, but by causing the man himself to live up to it.

Insist on precision. Especially when men are losing interest, don't let the work sag, but make it interesting by requiring concentration. At the beginning of each exercise, wake the men up by calling them to attention until they do it well, giving the facings, etc.

COMMANDS.—There is a tone at which each voice carries best. Each man must find it for himself. To make commands understood, enunciate carefully with lips and teeth. Sound especially first and last letters of words. Officer's posture adds to effect of command. His personality is impressed on his men largely by his voice. Preparatory command should be vibrant and cheerful—not a harsh tone that grates on the men and antagonizes them. The command of execution must be short and sharp; drill can be made or marred by it.

MARCHING.—A cadence faster than 120 a minute adds snap to marching, but snap can not be gained in proportion as the cadence is run up. Snap is attained chiefly by the proper gait. Soldiers should march, not with knees always slightly bent, but should straighten them smartly at the end of each step. This adds drive to the step, and gives the men confidence and a mob spirit of courage. After long drill at attention, this spirit can be carried into extended order work.

Marching exercises are useful and can be greatly varied. The command "Exercise" should always be given as the left foot strikes the ground. "Exercise" is a command of execution, and the first movement should be executed at once when it is given. The count "One" is given when this first position is reached. The command to stop all marching exercises is "Quick time—March."

In all exercises the instructor should cultivate the ability to pick mistakes. He can develop this until he can watch much larger groups than at first.

Voice Culture.

Mastery of the voice is a necessity for every officer; for without it the giving of commands will soon make his throat look and feel like a piece of raw Hamburg steak. Quality of voice is more effective than quantity. Brute force may produce a roar that has tremendous volume at a short distance; but the sound will not carry unless it is so placed that it gets the benefit of the resonance spaces in the head. If the tone is produced properly, so that it has the singing quality necessary in all right commands, quantity of tone will come of itself.

This singing quality has nothing to do with music; it may be attained by a man who can hardly distinguish a bar of music from a bar of soap. It depends upon three principles, which are very simple in themselves but can not be applied without careful practise. The first covers proper use of the breath. Air must be drawn into the lungs by expanding the diaphragm and abdomen, a process best seen in the natural breathing of a man who is lying on his back with all muscles relaxed. Filling the upper part of the lungs by raising the chest puts the work on the comparatively small muscles between the ribs; but filling the base of the lungs by pulling downward brings into play the diaphragm, the largest muscle in the body. The sensation which accompanies proper deep control of the breath is as if the tone were not pushed out of the mouth, but drawn in and upwards. It is partly described by the phrases of singing teachers, "drawn tone" and "singing on the breath."

The diaphragm must not only relieve the muscles between the ribs, but, still more important, the small muscles of the throat. The second great principle of voice production is that the throat must be perfectly relaxed. Any tension there interferes with the free vibration which is essential for strong and resonant tone. This relaxation is most easily gained by drawing the chin in slightly, loosening the muscles under it. The base of the tongue can be relaxed by rolling the letter "R," even to the extent of making two syllables of such words as "gr-rand." Talking with the teeth closed loosely will also help to ease incorrect, tension about the throat. If the throat is properly relaxed, there will be no sensation in it during the production of the voice. Any sensation between the diaphragm and the resonance chambers of the head is a sign of wrong and harmful tension.

The use of these resonance chambers is required by the third principle—that the tone must be reinforced by resonance in all the hollow spaces of the head. These are found in the nose, above the palate and even above the eyes. They have the same effect as the sounding board of a musical instrument, in giving quality to the tone. The best way to put this principle into practice is to learn the sensation of the clear and ringing tone which is produced by proper placing of the voice. Exercises containing the letters "M" and "N" will give this effect. This does not mean that the sound should be nasal; it should be made in the nose, but not through it. Another way to increase resonance is to think of crying the words rather than talking them. A slightly whining intonation or a sound like that of a laugh has more ring to it than an ordinary flat talking tone.

These principles should not be neglected because they are simple. They can not be mastered without work, and unless they are mastered the voice will not be heard at a distance and will not last under the work of giving commands. Further suggestions on the manner of giving commands will be found under Physical Training.



CHAPTER 4.

Use of Modern Arms.



Small Arms Firing.

Under this heading we have many phases of the training and exercises given to our armed forces. It has been found best to use simple every day methods to get the best results.

There are two principal factors—the rifle and the pistol. The former only will be taken up now. The scheme is to make the soldier a good shot singly and collectively, in time of peace and in time of war.

The course of instruction at this camp was arranged as follows:

(a) Nomenclature and care of the rifle. (b) Sighting drills. (c) Position and aiming drills. (d) Deflection and aiming drills. (e) Range practice. (f) Estimating distance drill. (g) Combat firing.

(a) Every man should be taught the names of the principal parts (see cut) of the rifle and how to clean and keep it clean.

(b) If time permits, the sighting bar described on page 26, s.a.f.m. should be used. To illustrate the normal and peep sight make a drawing on a blackboard of page 30, s.a.f.m.

Using a sand bag or some convenient rest for the rifle. The instructor sights it on some object showing the normal and peep sight. Using the above rests have a marker hold a disk against a large piece of paper towards which the rifle is pointed. There is a pin hole in the center of the bull's eye on the disk. The range should be about 50 feet, and the bull's eye about 1 inch in diameter. The marker moves it about until the man sighting tells him to "hold," at which time he marks the center with the point of a pencil. This is done three times, the three points are then connected. The triangle thus formed is then used by the instructor to show the man whether he took too much or too little front sight or whether he leaned to one side or the other while aiming.

Use for this exercise both the normal and peep sight.

To show the effect of canting the piece use a sight setting of 1,000 yards, take out the bolt, aim the rifle while lying on a sand bag at a 1-inch bull's eye 50 feet away. Then look through the bore of the rifle and have the place where the target would be approximately hit by a bullet marked. Cant the piece to the right and aim at the same bull's eye. Then look through the bore of the rifle and mark the place where the bullet would approximately strike the target. The last mark would be lower and to the right of the first mark. It should be readily seen that in canting the piece to the right your sight is to the right of its original position—that is right windage. Also by canting it to the right your elevation is lowered, that is, lessened. Canting the piece to the left would make the bullet strike low and to the left.

(c) Preliminary command "Position and aiming drill," command of execution "Squad (platoon, or company) Ready." At the command "Ready" each man faces half right and carries the right foot about 1 foot to the right, in such a position that will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness, raises the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left thumb along the stock, muzzle at the height of the breast. If kneeling or sitting the position of the piece is similar—if kneeling the left forearm rests on the left thigh—if sitting the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground. From the position of ready the four exercises—position, aiming, trigger squeeze, and rapid fire—are given. These exercises given on pages 38-42, s.a.f.m. should be carefully studied. Do not leave it to the sergeant, etc., to do—give your company your own instruction when practicable, and in time of battle they will know you and you will know them, and there will grow up between you that mutual understanding which is necessary for the real success of any undertaking. Do not forget to give these exercises in all positions of firing, namely, standing, sitting, kneeling, and prone.

(d) A change of one point of windage at the 100 yard range will change the point struck by the bullet of the next shot 4 inches. If right windage is taken the bullet will strike to the right, if left windage is taken it will strike to the left:

number of Range. windage. direction. inches change. 100 1 point right or left 4 200 1 point right or left 8 300 1 point right or left 12 500 1 point right or left 20 600 1 point right or left 24

Remember to take windage in the direction you want the bullet to strike.

A change of 25 yards in your sight setting raises or lowers the point struck by the bullet of the next shot at the 100 yards range 1 inch:

Number inches Range. Change in sight. change on target. 100 25 yards 1 200 25 yards 2 300 25 yards 3 500 25 yards 5 600 25 yards 6 300 75 yards 9 500 150 yards 30

(e) Range practice.

Target details must be thoroughly familiar with paragraphs 106-110, s.a.f.m. Scorers must be familiar with the method of recording scores. The following schedule is the one that was followed at this camp:

SLOW FIRE.

================================================== Range Time Shots Target Position Sights Ammunition - - 100 No limit 15 A Prone Leaf Guard 100 No limit 15 A Kneeling Leaf Guard 100 No limit 15 A Standing Leaf Guard 200 No limit 15 A Prone 10 leaf, 5 battles Service 200 No limit 15 A Kneeling 10 leaf, 5 battles Service 300 No limit 15 A Prone 10 leaf, 5 battles Service 300 No limit 15 A Sitting 10 leaf, 5 battles Service ==================================================

RAPID FIRE.

========================================================== Range Time Shots Target Position Sights Ammunition - - - - 100 1 min 10 D Prone Leaf Service 100 1 min. 10 H Prone Leaf Service 200 1 min. 10 D Kneeling from standing Leaf Service 200 1 min. 10 H Prone from standing Leaf Service 300 1'-10" 10 D Prone from standing Leaf Service 300 1'-10" 10 H Prone from standing Leaf Service ==========================================================

At each range with the rapid fire 5 additional shots should be fired with the battle sight and with half the allotted time.

(f) A course should be laid off in an open field. The base should be marked. At least 5 natural objects whose distances are to be estimated should be placed so that they are clearly visible from the base. The objects should be men standing, kneeling or prone, and should be placed from 550 to 1,200 yards from the base. Each company should be conducted to the base and extended along it, backs towards the objects, in single rank. Each man should have a pencil and paper. The objects whose distances are to be estimated are pointed out by the company commander and the men told to estimate and record their estimates. At the conclusion of the exercise, the company commander should read off the correct distances, and have each man figure his per cent of error. It is important that the men know the correct distances while the objects are still in view.

For record, paragraph 85, s.a.f.m. should be followed.

Remember that there are four principal ways to estimate distances by: 1, it cannot be more than a certain distance, and it cannot be less than a certain distance—take the mean; 2, divide the distance into a certain number of familiar lengths; select a halfway point, estimate this and multiply by 2; 3, estimate the distance along a parallel line, as a road having well defined objects; 4, take the mean of several estimates.

(g) In combat the platoon is the fire unit. The fire of the company, battalion or regiment is nothing more than the combined fire of all the fire units. The enemy can be imaginary, outlined or represented. The exercise must be conducted under an assumed tactical situation. The commander must lead his men according to the assumptions made by the umpire. Signals are used to indicate the enemy's actions, strength, etc. The situation should be simple, and after the exercise a critique should be held on the ground. Combat practice with ball ammunition against disappearing targets, and at estimated ranges, gets excellent results. The officer conducting the exercise will prohibit the advance if it would be impossible were the enemy real.

Have every man play the game.

A point to be remembered is that for battle sight the sight slide must be as far to the rear as it will go. If it is part way up the leaf, the drift correction cut in the slot upon which it moves will throw it to the left, and left windage will be taken.

Point blank range is 530 yards. Battle sight is set for this distance because this is the extreme range at which a bullet would strike a man kneeling between the rifle and the target.



Pistol.

NOMENCLATURE AND CARE.—The soldier is first taught the nomenclature of the parts of the pistol. Ordinance Pamphlet No. 1866 gives this information, (See cut of pistol.)

MANUAL FOR THE PISTOL.

1. The pistol being in the holster: 1. Raise, 2. Pistol.

At the command Raise, unbutton the flap of the holster with the right hand and grasp the stock, back of hand outward.

At the command Pistol, draw the pistol from the holster, reverse it, muzzle up, the hand holding the stock with the thumb and last three fingers; forefinger outside of the guard; barrel to the rear, and inclined to the front at an angle of about thirty degrees; hand as high as the neck and six inches in front of the point of the right shoulder. This is the position of Raise Pistol, and it may be similarly taken from any position.

2. To withdraw magazine, pistol in any position: 1. Withdraw. 2. Magazine.

At the command Magazine, place pistol, barrel down, in left hand and clasp barrel in full grip of left hand, thumb clasped over barrel in front of trigger guard, butt of pistol up, barrel pointing to the left front and slightly downward. With tip of right forefinger press stud releasing magazine and then place tip of same finger under projection at front of magazine base. Raise magazine about an inch then close thumb and second finger on sides of magazine, giving a secure grasp with which it can be withdrawn from socket, placed inside belt (in pocket of shirt or otherwise disposed of without throwing it away). Right hand then grasps stock, back of hand to the left.

3. To open chamber, the pistol in any position: 1. Open. 2. Chamber.

Carry the pistol to the left hand (if not already there) barrel to the left, front end of slide grasped between the thumb and forefinger of left hand; right hand grasping stock, back of hand up; right thumb under slide stop. Hold left hand steady and push forward with right hand till slide reaches end of stroke; engage slide stop, and come to Raise Pistol. Should the pistol be cocked and locked, it will be unlocked so that the slide can move.

4. To close chamber, being at Raise Pistol, chamber open: 1. Close. 2. Chamber.

At the command Chamber, release slide top with right thumb and let hammer down gently. To let hammer down, pull downward with point of right thumb till hammer presses against grip safety and forces it home; then while continuing this pressure on hammer, pull trigger; and while continuing pull on trigger, let the hammer down. While letting hammer down, grasp stock firmly between the palm and last three fingers to prevent pistol rotating in hand.

5. To insert magazine, pistol being in any position, no magazine in socket: 1. Insert. 2. Magazine.

Lower pistol into left hand as in Withdrawn Magazine, grasp magazine with tip of right forefinger on projection at base of magazine, withdraw from pocket and insert in pistol. To make sure that magazine is home, strike base of magazine with palm of right hand. Bring the pistol to the position of Raise Pistol.

6. To return pistol, being at Raise Pistol: 1. Return. 2. Pistol.

Lower the pistol and raise the flap of the holster with the right thumb; insert the pistol in the holster and push it down; button the flap with the right hand. If the pistol be loaded and cocked the command. 1. Lock, 2. Pistol must precede the command "Return."

7. To load, having loaded magazine in pistol, pistol in any position, chamber empty: 1. Load. 2. Pistol.

Place pistol in left hand, barrel down, butt of pistol up, barrel pointing to left front and downward, slide grasped between thumb and forefinger. Push forward with right hand until the slide is fully open, then release slide allowing it to move forward and load cartridge into chamber. Come to Raise Pistol. If the last shot in the magazine has been fired, to reload; same command, but execute Withdrawn Magazine, Insert Magazine, Close Chamber. As soon as the pistol is loaded, it will be immediately locked by the commands. 1. Lock. 2. Pistol. Should the command for locking pistol be inadvertently omitted it will be locked without command.

8. To unload pistol, being in any position, loaded:

Execute by the commands, Withdraw Magazine, Open Chamber, Close Chamber, Insert Magazine.

9. To inspect pistol, it being in the holster: 1. Inspection. 2. Pistol.

Execute, Raise Pistol.

To inspect the pistol more minutely, add 3. Withdraw. 4. Magazine. 5. Open. 6. Chamber.

To avoid accidents, individual men out of ranks, in barracks or camp will first Withdraw Magazine then Open Chamber whenever the pistol is removed from the holster for cleaning, for examination, or for any other purpose. Accidental discharges will not occur if the above rule is always observed, and failure to observe it must be considered a military offense, whether or not accident results.

10. Whenever men fall in ranks with the automatic pistol the officer or non-commissioned officer in charge will command:

1. Raise, 2. Pistol; 1. Withdraw, 2. Magazine; 1. Open, 2. Chamber; 1. Close, 2. Chamber.

1. Insert, 2. Magazine. 1. Return, 2. Pistol.

When falling in the above commands are given after chamber of rifles have been opened and closed, and the order resumed—the rifle being held against the left wrist. The commander of any company or detachment thereof is responsible for giving the necessary commands to put the pistols in a safe condition.

11. The pistol with cartridge in chamber is habitually carried cocked and locked, whether in the hand or in the holster. The hammer will not be lowered while a cartridge is in the chamber.

12. In campaign, the pistol should habitually be carried with a magazine in the socket, loaded with seven ball cartridges, chamber empty, hammer down. The extra magazines should also be loaded with seven ball cartridges each.

When action seems imminent, the pistol should be loaded by command. It may then be returned by command to the holster till the time for its use arrives.

13. Recruits are first taught the motions of loading and firing without using cartridges. However, the automatic action and the effect of ball cartridges in operating the slide cannot be taught without firing ball cartridges. Practice without cartridges is very necessary to acquire facility in the exact movements of the manual and in aiming, holding and trigger squeeze.

To execute the movements without cartridges, first Withdraw Magazine, Open Chamber, and Examine both Pistols and magazines to assure that none contain ball cartridges.

14. All the movements in loading pistol should be practiced without looking at it. In order to do this successfully it is necessary to know exactly where the magazines are carried so the hand may find them without fumbling. Also, since the projection at the front of the magazine base is on the same side as the bullets, and the magazine must be inserted in the socket with these to the front, the magazine should be carried in the pocket with the projection to the left and should be withdrawn from the pocket with the same grasp as is prescribed for Withdrawn Magazine.

15. This manual must be practiced with all the precision and exactness required for the manual for the rifle. Accidents will be reduced to a minimum and familiarity with the pistol gained.

POSITION

Stand firmly on both feet, body perfectly balanced and erect and turned at such an angle as is most comfortable when the arm is extended toward the target; the feet far enough apart (about 8 to 10 inches) as to insure steadiness; weight of body borne equally upon both feet; right arm fully extended but not locked; left arm hanging naturally.

THE GRIP.—Grasp the stock as high as possible with the thumb and last three fingers, the forefinger alongside the trigger guard, the thumb extended along the stock. The barrel hand and fore-arm should be as nearly in one line as possible when the weapon is pointed toward the target. The grasp should not be so tight as to cause tremors but should be firm enough to avoid losing grip. The lower the stock is grasped the greater will be the movement or jump of the muzzle caused by recoil. If the hand be placed so that the grasp is on one side of the stock, the recoil will cause a rotary movement of the weapon toward the opposite side.

The releasing of the sear causes a slight movement of the muzzle, generally to the left. The position and pressure of the thumb along the stock overcomes much of this movement.

To do uniform shooting the weapon must be held with exactly the same grip for each shot, not only must the hand grasp the stock at the same point for each shot, but the tension of the grip must be uniform.

THE TRIGGER SQUEEZE.—The trigger must be squeezed in the same manner as in rifle firing. The pressure of the forefinger on the trigger should be steadily increased and should be straight back, not sideways. The pressure should continue to that point beyond which the slightest movement will release the sear. Then when the aim is true, the additional pressure is applied and the pistol fired. When the pistol is fired the greatest effort should be taken to hold the pistol to the mark as nearly as possible. This will be of great benefit in automatic firing.

POSITION AND AIMING DRILLS.—The Squad is formed with an interval of one pace between files. Black pasters are used as aiming points. The pasters are ten paces distant from the squad. The instructor command, 1. Raise, 2. Pistol and cautions "Position and Aiming Drill." The men take the position prescribed in paragraph 3. At the command, 1. Squad, 2. Fire, slowly extend the arm till it is nearly horizontal, the pistol directed at a point; about six inches below the bull's-eye. At the same time put the forefinger inside the trigger guard and gradually feel the trigger. Inhale enough air to comfortably fill the lungs and gradually raise the piece until the line of sight is directed at the point of aim, i.e., just below the bull's-eye at six o'clock. While the sights are directed upon the mark, gradually increase the pressure on the trigger until it reaches that point where the slightest additional pressure will release the sear. Then, when the aim is true, the additional pressure necessary to fire the piece is given so smoothly as not to derange the alignment of the sights. The weapon will be held on the mark for an instant after the hammer falls and the soldier will observe what effect, if any, the squeezing of the trigger has had on his aim.

When the soldier has become proficient in taking the proper position the exercise is conducted "At Will."

QUICK FIRE.—Being at the Raise Pistol, chamber and magazine empty, 1. Quick Fire Exercise, 2. One. Lower the forearm until it is nearly horizontal, pistol pointing at the target, 3. Two. Thrust the pistol forward to the position of aim, snapping the pistol just before the arm reaches its full extension. Then look through sights to verify the pointing. 4. Three. Return to Raise Pistol and cock the pistol.

In this exercise the soldier must keep his eyes fixed upon the mark. He should constantly practice pointing the pistol until he acquires the ability to direct it on the mark in the briefest interval of time and practically without the aid of the sights. In other words, the pistol in this exercise is accurately pointed instead of accurately aimed. In night firing pointing the pistol is the only method that can be used. After careful practice in this exercise it is surprising what good results can be obtained at night.

This exercise should then be practiced from the position of the pistol in the holster instead of Raise Pistol.

CLASSES OF FIRE: 1. SLOW FIRE.—As described above. Target L or A or improvised target.

2. QUICK FIRE.—Being at Raise Pistol, pistols locked, at the command "Commence Firing" fire and return to Raise Pistol after each shot following the principles of Quick Fire Exercise. Target E, five yards apart, one for each man firing. This firing should be done by the numbers as described in Quick Fire Exercise.

3. AUTOMATIC FIRE (TARGET E).—Being at Raise Pistol, pistols locked. At the command "Commence Firing" empty the magazine in seven seconds, keeping the arm extended. Target E, 5 yards apart, one for each man firing.

4. TRENCH FIRE (TARGET E).—Two lines of targets. The first line is composed of F targets, 5 yards apart, one figure for each man firing. The second line is composed of two E figures, one yard apart, for each man firing, placed in a trench immediately in rear of the figures of the first line. This gives for each firer a group of three figures, one placed on top at the near edge of the trench and the other two in the trench immediately in rear. In case a trench is not available the rifle pit can be used. A gutter, sunken road, embankment, or hedge can be used for this purpose so long as trench fire is simulated.



The firing line advances at a walk from 100 yards takes up a double time 50 yards from trench, fires one shot at the double time when within ten yards of the first target continues to the trench and fires the remaining six shots, automatic fire, at the two targets in the trench in rear of the first line target.

SCORE (TARGET E, BOBBING).—A score will be seven shots. Targets will be marked after the men in the firing line have completed their scores. All loading and firing should be done by command.

COURSE: 1. SLOW FIRE.—10 yards. Minimum of one maximum of five scores. 2. QUICK FIRE.—10 yards. Minimum of one maximum of three scores. 3. AUTOMATIC FIRE.—10 yards. Minimum of one maximum of three scores. 4. TRENCH FIRE.—Minimum of one maximum of three scores.

Bayonet Training.

A. THE FUNCTIONS OF BAYONET TRAINING ARE:

1. To teach the correct use of the bayonet until it becomes instinctive. 2. To develop the fighting spirit. 3. To develop speed, accuracy, and cooerdination.

B. GENERAL PRINCIPLES:

1. Fencing, in modern combat, is out of the question. Almost every fight will consist of but one or two motions. Hence the class must be taught that the best defence is the quickest offensive. 2. Every available means of offence, with hands and feet as well as with rifle and bayonet, is a part of bayonet training. 3. Teamwork is essential. Men must be taught, especially in the combat, to exercise, to seize every opportunity to act together. 4. Personal control during combat, especially at night, will be nearly impossible. Control should be practiced, therefore, in the form of clear instructions delivered to the men before assault, and fulfilled individually. 5. In every assault and combat exercise, the men must be taught never to leave an enemy alive, or who may be alive, behind them.

C. TECHNIQUE OF BAYONET COMBAT:

1. The point is the main reliance. Its use should be practiced in every possible situation, until a correct choice or combination of long point, short point, and jab, and the execution thereof, becomes a matter of instinct. 2. The point must always be directed at a definite target. The most vulnerable points of the body are: Lower abdomen, base of the neck, small of the back (on either side of the spine), chest, and thighs. Bony parts of the trunk must be avoided by accurate aim. 3. The use of the rifle as a club, swinging or striking, is valuable only: a. When the point is not available. b. In sudden encounters at close quarters, when a sharp butt swing to the crotch may catch an opponent unguarded. c. After parrying a swinging butt blow, when a butt strike to the jaw is often the quickest possible riposte. The use of butt swings overhead or sidewise to the head or neck, is to be avoided; they are slow, inaccurate, easily parried or side-stepped, and leave the whole body unguarded. After every butt blow a thrust must immediately follow, since no butt blow, of itself, is apt to be fatal. 4. The parries must be regarded and practiced chiefly as means of opening the opponent's guard; hence, a thrust must immediately follow each parry. 5. The foot movements shown in the old manual are useful only to promote quickness and steadiness. They should, therefore, be practiced in combination with the points and butt blows, and so combined can be executed in the oblique directions as well as at right angles. The left foot moves in the direction of the thrust.

D. MANUAL OF THE BAYONET: There are only 7 exercises to learn in the new bayonet drill:

1. Guard.—Point of the bayonet directed at the opponent's throat, the rifle held easily and naturally with both hands, barrel inclined slightly to the left, right hand at the height of the navel and grasping the small of the stock, left hand holding the rifle at a convenient position above the lower band, so that the left arm is slightly bent, making an angle of about 150 degrees. The legs should be well separated and in an easy position. Lean forward, on your toes, left knee slightly bent, right foot flat on the ground and turned to the right front. Remember in this position to have your eye on your opponent, do not restrain your muscles, keep them taut, but flexible. 2. "High Port."—The hands hold the rifle as in guard; the left wrist level with, and directly in front of the left shoulder; the right hand above the right groin and on level with the navel. Remember that the barrel in this position is to the rear. This position is assumed on the advance without command. 3. "Long Point."—Being in the position of "guard," grasp the rifle firmly, vigorously deliver the point to the full extent of the left arm, butt along side and close to the right forearm; body inclined forward; left knee well bent, right leg braced, and weight of the body pressed well forward with the fore part of the right foot, heel raised. The right hand gives the power to the point, while the left guides it. If a point is made in the oblique direction the left foot should move in that direction. This exercise is done in 3 counts. At 1 the point is made; at 2, the withdrawal; at 3, resume the guard. The withdrawal must be straight back, and not with the downward motion, until the right hand is well behind the hip. 4. Right (Left) Parry.—1. Straighten the left arm, without bending the wrist or twisting the rifle in the hand, and force the rifle forward far enough to the right (left) to ward off the opponent's weapon, 2. Resume "guard." Remember to keep your eyes on the weapon to be parried. 5. Short Point.—1. Shift the left hand quickly toward the muzzle and draw the rifle back to the full extent of the right arm, butt either high or low as a low or high point is to be made. 2. Deliver the point vigorously to the full extent of the left arm. 3. Withdrawal. 4. Resume the "guard." 6. Jab Point.—1. Shift the left hand quickly toward the muzzle, draw the rifle back, and shift the right hand up the rifle and grasp it above the rear sight, at the same time bringing the rifle to an almost vertical position close to the body. Bend the knees. 2. Straighten the knees, jab the point of the bayonet upward into the throat or under the chin of the opponent—chiefly by a body movement. 3. Withdrawal. 4. Carry the rifle forward with the left hand, grasping the small of the stock with the right. 5. Resume guard. Remember in the first motion to have the hands at least 4 inches apart. 7. Butt swing—butt strike—out.—1. Swing the butt up at the opponent's ribs, forearms, etc., using a full arm blow, bringing the rifle to a horizontal position over the left shoulder, butt to the front. 2. Advance the rear foot, and dash the butt into the opponent's face. 3. Advance the rear foot and at the same time slash the bayonet down on the opponent's head or neck. 4. Resume the "guard." (The easiest guard to a swing at the crotch is simply to get the left knee in the opponent's right.)

E. PROGRESSIVE EXERCISES:

1. The class works in pairs with scabbards on bayonets. One man alternately in each pair signals; the other promptly executes the movement, at the target, designated by the signal. The following signals are suggested: The hand, placed against the body, indicates the target. Long point—Back of hand outward. Short point—Palm of hand outward. Jab point—Hand horizontal against chin, palm down. High port—Fist against left breast. Parry right (left)—Hand waved to right (left). Butt swing—Fist against crotch. Butt strike—Fist against jaw. Instead of signals, thrusting sticks are then used. These are strong wands having a padding of paper and burlap over one end and a rope ring tied to the other. Points and butt swings are executed at the padding and rings, respectively, as these are presented. The man holding the stick must remember to stand to one side of the man with the bayonet. 2. AS IN FIRST EXERCISE.—One man thrusts with a stick: the other parries. 3. THRUSTS ARE PRACTICED AT DUMMIES, first from a distance of five feet, then by advancing two paces or more. To simulate fighting conditions, a frame is then arranged in which dummies are slung on ropes passed over pullies, and so manipulated that as the man withdraws his bayonet from one dummy another swings at, him from a different direction. 4. As SOON AS PROFICIENCY HAS BEEN GAINED in the above exercises, the assault practice is taken up. a. A course is laid out as follows: (1) A fire trench about 60 yards long, well revetted. (2) 20 yards in front of the trench, smooth wire entanglements. (3) 15 yards further, another trench, parallel to the first, 60 yards long, 4 feet deep and 4 feet wide. In this trench prone dummies are placed, one per yard. (4) 15 yards further, 60 dummies, hung on frames, parallel to the trenches. (5) 15 yards further, a hurdle 4 feet high and 60 yards long, parallel to the trenches. (6) 10 yards further, a low trip wire, stretched parallel to the trenches. (7) 10 yards further, 60 dummies, hung on frames, parallel to the trenches. (8) 15 yards further, a large trench, 60 yards long, 6 feet deep, 10 feet wide, containing 60 prone dummies, 1 per yard. b. Procedure: Each platoon, in turn, enters the first trench at skirmish intervals, bayonets fixed. On signal, all move out at a walk, guiding carefully in line on a leader previously designated. After passing each obstacle, the line is again carefully formed. On each of the swinging dummies one of the seven movements of the manual is used; a long or short point is used on each prone dummy. All go down into the last trench together, with a good loud yell, point of the bayonet level with the toe, and land on the dummies in the bottom, stabbing as they land. This course should be repeated several times at quick time, then at double time, and finally at a run. Remember that in the advance the rifle is carried at high port. 5. COMBAT EXERCISES (to be used in conjunction with the assault practice): a. Equipment for each man: Thrusting stick or other wooden rod with wooden ball or thick padding covering one end. (Old rifles with spring-bayonets are even better.) Plastron. Baseball mask. Pair of broadsword or single stick gloves. b. Procedure: The class is formed in two lines of about equal numbers, facing each other, about fifty paces apart, with intervals in each line of about two paces. A leader is designated for each line. The instructor stands at one end of the space between; an assistant at the other end. On the instructor's whistle, the lines advance, guiding carefully on their leaders. When about ten paces apart, they charge, each seeking to break and roll up the opposing line. Sticks are carried and used as rifles with bayonets fixed. Any other use disqualifies. Use of the butt is barred. One thrust on the plastron or mask, or two hits on the extremities, disables the recipient, who must promptly retire—or be retired. The combat continues until the second whistle, blown not more than 30 seconds after contact; when they cease fighting promptly, separate, and form as before. c. Criticism: After each combat, the instructor will criticize the manner of advance and of fighting, especially the alignment kept in the advance and the team work in combat, and the advantage taken of opponents' mistakes. He counts the casualties and awards the decision. He must continually urge the men never to lag behind nor advance ahead of the line, never to allow large gaps to occur in the line, and always to seize the advantage given by opponents who disregard these principles. d. The terrain for this exercise should be frequently varied. It may also be conducted at night, the opposing sides being clearly distinguished.[Q]

[Footnote Q: The last exercise was devised and perfected by M. Jules Leslabay, Master of Fencing, Harvard R.O.T.C., 1917. It is more completely described in his "Manual of Bayonet Training."]

Machine Guns.

1. Properties of the machine guns are divided into three general classes: Mode of action, fire, and inconspicuousness.

(a) THE MODE OF ACTION.—The machine gun acting only by its fire can prepare an attack or repulse an offensive movement, but it does not conquer ground. The latter role is almost exclusively that of infantry which is fitted for crossing all obstacles. When it will suffice to act by fire, employ the machine gun in preference to infantry, preserving the latter for the combined action of movement and fire. By the employment of the machine gun economize infantry, reserving a more considerable portion of it for manoeuvre purposes. (b) FIRE.—Machine gun fire produces a sheath, dense, deep but narrow. The increase of the width of the sweeping fire gives to the sheath a greater breadth, but when the density becomes insufficient, the effect produced is very weak. Machine gun fire will have its maximum power upon an objective of narrow front and great depth. With the infantry fighting normally in thin lines the preceding conditions will generally only be realized when these lines are taken in the flank. "The fire of the machine gun parallel to the probable front of the enemy—a flanking fire—must therefore be the rule." The fire perpendicular to the front will be employed generally on certain necessary points of passage as, bridges, roads, defiles, cuts, roadways, communicating trenches, etc., where the enemy is generally forced to take a deep formation with a narrow front, or where he is in massed formation. (c) INCONSPICUOUSNESS.—By reason of its small strength the machine gun section can utilize the smallest cover, and can consequently hide from the enemy; the machine gun therefore, more than the infantry, has the chance to act by surprise. The opening of the fire by surprise will be the rule; the machine gun will avoid revealing itself upon objectives not worth the trouble. Flank action and surprise are the two conditions to try for under all circumstances.

2. OFFENSIVE REINFORCEMENT OF A FRONT MOMENTARILY STATIONARY.—The machine guns assisted by small elements of infantry cover thoroughly the getting in hand of the main body, the machine guns presenting to the enemy a line of little vulnerability. The machine guns assist in securing the possession of the ground previously taken, and will permit time to prepare for the resumption of the forward movement. Preparation of the attack—machine gun fire completes the preparation done by the artillery, either by acting on the personnel or by opening breaches in the accessary defenses. At times the machine guns alone may be charged with the preparation of the attack where it is necessary to act very quickly as in pursuit, exploitation of a success. Whatever the situation, concentrate the machine gun fire on one or several points. Machine guns cover the flanks of attacking troops. They follow the advance of these troops remaining on the flanks, so as to be able to fire instantly on all points from which an attack might come. Machine guns will likewise be employed in intervals created intentionally or accidentally between units. It is here a powerful weapon which can rapidly be put into action by the Commander. The personnel and material must be protected as far as possible from the effects of fire.

3. DEFENSIVE.—It is here that the flanking fire is especially necessary. In the defensive preparation of a position the machine guns must be so placed that they will provide along the front several successive fire barriers. The machine guns must be ready at all times to stop by instantaneous fire all hostile attack. In order to have machine gun protection at all, it is absolutely necessary that they be protected from bombardment. This is best done by the following: Place the machine guns under solid cover; make their emplacement invisible; echelon the machine guns in depth. The cover must be placed where it can be hidden from the sight of the enemy, such as a counter slope, a position where it is impossible to blend it, relief with an accentuated slope of the ground, woods, brush, etc. It is essential that the principal parts of the machine gun casemate be prepared in the rear. Only in this manner will the work be done solidly and rapidly. While the machine gunners and helpers do the excavating, specialists in rear prepare the parts for assembling. The latter are then transported to the position and, the casemate is established, hiding the work with the greatest care from enemy observation. Remember that it is of the utmost importance that the machine gun be invisible, so the firing emplacements must be made outside of the shelter, but near enough for the gun to be brought out instantly and put into action. All communicating trenches leading to the firing emplacement must be concealed. Enough emplacements should be built to avoid firing daily from the emplacements especially reserved for cases of attack. Do not place too many machine guns in the first line; in case of a violent bombardment they are sure to be destroyed. The object to be attained is to install the machine guns in conditions such that if the enemy penetrates our first line, by aid of his bombardment or asphyxiating gas, his infantry, as it advances, comes under the fire of machine guns echeloned previously in depth, under whose fire it must stop. It is not a matter of sweeping a wide sector, but of giving over certain strips of ground flanking fire which will cut down surely the enemy's waves when they push forward. The commander should, therefore, divide between the first line and the terrain in rear, the machine guns which he controls, organizing for each particular case a firing emplacement in accord with the surrounding ground and the purpose in view.

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