Memoirs of Lady Fanshawe
by Lady Fanshawe
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The like signification was at the same time sent to all other Ambassadors and Foreign Ministers here that they would not send, the which, in compliance therewith, they forbear, all but the French, who upon the very morning, the hour of my audience approaching, sent four of his gentlemen, with one of his coaches, to accompany me. The Marquis de Malpica, mayor-domo of the week, and Captain of the German guard, in behalf of the Marquis of Salinas, proprietor thereof, happening to be my conductor, with his guard, did a little expostulate with those gentlemen, why they came contrary to his Majesty's order; who replied, their Lord did receive no orders but from his own master, who had sent him very strict ones to perform, I think he said this office in particular, at least, in general, all offices of amity to the Ambassador of the King of England, his Christian Majesty's most dear brother and ally. In fine, accompany me they did, and very civilly comported themselves, both unto the palace, which was customary, but now forbid, and home again, which was never done before, by the family of any Ambassador, to any other whatsoever in this Court. They did insist that their Ambassador's coach should precede my second coach, which was not denied them, being a civil expedient practised in all or most other courts; the ordinary style of this, and practised, by these individual French themselves towards public ministers of the lowest rank, as they avowed to me the same morning, in the presence both of the Marquis and the Master of Ceremonies, and expressly a majori, that whenever I should send in the like case to accompany a new comer from France, the same measure would never be scrupled towards me.

For this obliging piece of gallantry to the King of England's Ambassador, endeared by the singularity, by the opposition of the Spanish Court, and by the supererogation of his followers extending it in part beyond the example of others, when the same was in custom, I wrote my thanks yesterday unto his Excellency, who answered, that if he had not had the orders of the King his master to pay me the respects he did, it would have sufficed for obliging him thereunto, to know that the King of England's Mother is his Master's Aunt. My Lord, there are in this Court, who seem of opinion, that this excess of courtesy from the French Ambassador, is not sound within, looking one way and rowing another; which, say they, will shortly appear. For my own part, I am quite of another mind; and hitherto I am sure, in farther demonstrations of kindness and civility, he followeth suit with the forwardest, if in that he was the single unfollowed precedent. I am, my Lord, your Excellency's most faithful, and ever most obedient Servant, RICHARD FANSHAWE.—Ibid. p. 106.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 171 and p. 175.]

Madrid, Wednesday, the 15th June, 1664, English Style.

"I write this, being just now returned from my first private audience of his Catholic Majesty, which was given me in the Buen Retiro, and therein did deliver myself in the sense of my instructions and directions; not in many words, because the King's weak state of body will not allow it; but with much plainness and humble freedom, concerning the languishing and desperate condition in which the peace and commerce between the Crowns and nations have long lain gasping, and expecting an utter dissolution, by frequent violations of articles in several manners."—Ibid, p. 113.

Madrid, Wednesday, 25th June, 1664.

In the first place, having procured his Catholic Majesty to be prepared to expect it, I delivered myself in English, and in the express words of my instructions, only changing the person, as followeth, viz.

'The most Serene King of Great Britain, my Master, hath charged me, after kissing your Majesty's feet with due reverence, to represent unto your Catholic Majesty, that some unhappy accidents intervening, have occasioned his not performing this part towards your Majesty sooner, in return of those congratulatory embassies which your most Serene Majesty sent unto him immediately upon his late happy restoration to his kingdoms. His most Serene Majesty commanded me to add farther, that neither those accidents, nor any other, of what nature soever, have been, or can be able, to lessen his esteem of your royal person and friendship, or the obligations he had to your most Serene Majesty in the time of his adversity; and that therefore your Majesty may assure yourself, that his Majesty will be ready in all times to make proportionable returns.'

With this, and the delivering to his Catholic Majesty, first my Latin credential, then the respects of the whole Royal Family of England, in general words, and particularly a letter from his Royal Highness; also, his Majesty's leave first asked, presenting my comrades one after another to do their obeisance, I made my retreat in the accustomed manner.

The like respectively, immediately after, in the Queen's side, to her Majesty, unto whom I presented his Majesty's letter, and afterwards two others from their Royal Highnesses; then a compliment to the Empress, so treated as to title, but ranked as to place, because not yet espoused beneath the Queen her mother, and would have been also, (had his Highness been there present, as was intended, but that it proved either his sleeping or eating hour,) beneath her brother the Prince; all which seemed very graciously accepted; and here no English at all was spoken. Lastly, a dumb show of salute, as you know the custom to be, after the Queen and Empress, to every particular dame; and in the close of this ceremony, as well towards their Majesties as the ladies, my comrades had all of them leave to follow me.

The evening, and near that time it was before we had gotten home and eaten our breakfast, was wholly spent by me in expected visits to the Duke of Medina de las Torres, and the rest of the Council, the President of Castile (quatenus such) only excepted by me, as likewise by all other Ambassadors of the first class used to be. This is the reason why, for haste, having only a piece of the night for my own before the post departs, I write to you bare matter of fact in this misshapen way hitherto; and in another point, perhaps of more import in the consequence than all the rest, I must be forced, for the same reason, to go yet less, only touching thereupon very briefly for the present.

You well know a custom of this Court, and I believe of most others likewise, till abuses thereof enforced an alteration in some, that Ambassadors and other Foreign Ministers upon the place, send their families to accompany any new comers to their first public audience; and this went round, Accordingly, I was now to expect this function towards me, as I did.

[Sir Richard then repeats precisely what he stated in his Letter to Lord Holles.—See pages 254, 255]

So that hitherto, as to this action, they can have nothing to boast of, but an excess of civility towards the crown of England, or the person of our Royal Master. In return whereunto, his Majesty, in my humble opinion, will think fit to command me, or whosoever shall succeed me, to perform the same office towards the successor of this French Ambassador. As to both points, which make it worthy of peculiar estimation, that is to say, with an exception in this one particular only, though his Catholic Majesty should continue his present general rule to the contrary; and although also, even whilst his compliment was generally practised, it was not by any extended so far as to accompany any Ambassador back to his house; and this the rather, if it shall be found that the French Ambassador, conforming hereafter to the general rule, as to all others, shall have made the English Ambassador his single exception in the case. The experiment will now soon be made, a new Venetian Ambassador being daily expected here; though possibly he may not have his audience so very soon after, but that, in the interim, I may, upon this clear, though brief, stating of all actions and circumstances to me, as yet appear above ground in this matter, receive his Majesty's particular directions and cautions how to carry myself in all events, the which I am exceedingly desirous of; and, in default thereof, will, with all fidelity, proceed and work according to the best of my understanding.

If it be not already clear enough from the premises, you may be pleased to take notice, that no one stranger went with me but those French in the Ambassador's coach, which, without any least dispute whatsoever, did give place to my principal coach, as mine did to that which brought the Marquis, being the King's proper coach, a thing not formerly usual upon these occasions.—Ibid. p. 117.


I humbly thank your Excellency for the civility you showed to the King my Master, and the honour you did me, in sending your coach and domestics to accompany my entry; and whereof I retain so lively a sense, that I am just going to acquaint my Master with it, not doubting in the least but it will meet with that esteem from him which your Excellency so highly deserves. My instructions, indeed, were to observe a more than ordinary intimacy and amity with your Excellency at this Court, which I shall always continue to do, and whereby I imagine we may not a little contribute towards the good and welfare of both kingdoms. I kiss your Excellency's hands, and wish you a long and prosperous life, being, My Lord,

Your Excellency's most obliged and most humble servant,



Madrid, 2 July, 1664, Stilo Loci.

The herewith enclosed papers do contain my complaint of a studied neglect put by a Venetian Ambassador, whom I found in this Court ready to depart the same within a short time, upon the Ambassador of the King of England, in not giving me a visit either of welcome or farewell, as the custom of this and all other Courts do require in the like case; the which I have thought it my precise duty to represent to the King our Master, as knowing how highly the like neglect in the Court of England, by a Venetian Ambassador also, with others, towards an Ambassador, but of a Duke of Savoy, was resented; his then Majesty himself, in his Princely judgment, condemning the omission, as will here appear in the first place.

And lest this Venetian Ambassador should justify himself in this towards me, as pretending to be aggrieved by me, because I am entitled by his Catholic Majesty to the house of the Seven Chimeneas, which he was possessed of, and endeavoured to entail the same upon his successor, both against the decree of his Majesty and the consent of the owner, I having both, I do likewise herewith, in the following papers, make it clearly appear, that I did neither think of that individual house, till it was already embargoed for me, nor pursue it afterwards, as most men but myself would have done, being so destitute of conveniences of dwelling as I then was, and yet am, merely out of a respect I bear to the character of an Ambassador. So that, even in this particular, which is all the colour he can have for excuse of not visiting, I have just cause of a second complaint, but this second I totally let pass.

The other being much taken notice of by this Court as a matter of a more public nature, I humbly submit it to his Majesty's consideration, whether, in his Royal wisdom, he may not think fit to expostulate it with the Senate of Venice; in the mean time, his successor being arrived, I intend to send just such a message to him as his predecessor did to me; but have already declared, with the seeming approbation of all, that I will never give to, nor receive a visit from, this, or any Venetian Ambassador whatsoever, that shall be in this Court while I remain here, unless the King my Master, being applied to by the Republic, shall command it.—Ibid. p. 129.


Madrid, Thursday, 28th July, 1664, English Style.

You proceed expressing your gladness to hear I was housed in Madrid, upon which, after my humble thanks for the favour, I must needs observe the expression was very happy, if you rightly understand my case, and happier if you understand it not. Housed I have been here, that is, under a roof, these two months, making a shift with an upper quarter; such a one, indeed, as the Duke of St. German contained himself and family in; but a house I never had till this morning, then I had delivered into my possession the Casa de las siete Chimeneas.

This house was defended, for the space of time I have mentioned, against the King of Spain, and all his Aposentadores, [Footnote: Aposentadores are persons belonging to the Household, whose duties resemble those of the Harbingers in that of the Kings of England, namely, to provide lodgings on his journies or progresses. The office of Aposentador-Mayor is one of great honour and dignity.] by two Venetian Ambassadors successively; the first was really leaving it without any thought, as I am assured, of asking it for his successor; then the Duke of Medina de las Torres, when I never dreamed of it, and was in pursuit of another, procured it to be embargoed for me in reversion; this the Venetian apprehends an affront to him and his Republic; and whiles off the time of his stay here, to his great inconvenience, in respect of the advancing heats and otherwise, till he had got his successor up to him, marching furiously, who, contrary to the King and Council's expectation and express decree, doth amanecer in the Seven Chimeneas, fortifying himself there with his privilege of Ambassador, and makes it point of reputation so to do (patriaeq. suaeq.); in this security his predecessor leaves him about six weeks since, not to be removed with all the King and the Duke have been able to do, without imposition of hands, till the last night.

I dare confidently say nothing hath troubled both the Ambassadors so much in this whole business, as that they could never draw me in to make myself a party in the dispute; for as, at the first, I never asked that individual house; so when promised and decreed to me, I never insisted upon it, provided some other convenient one were found out for me, or that I myself could find out such a one for my money, and, effectually, about a fortnight since, did contract, under hand and seal, with the owner, for the entire house where I am, upon condition the Court did approve thereof; but the Duke told me, that must not be now, how well soever it might serve my turn, for the King would be obeyed in his own kingdom, and the Venetian should out. Upon the whole, all circumstances which I have seen, considered, it is to me apparent enough, that these Ambassadors of Venice, in this contest, did nourish double ambition, either to carry the house against an English Ambassador, or that an English Ambassador should carry it against them; but my business throughout hath been never to come in any competition or comparison with them.

This story I have been the longer in, because the matter thereof hath filled this Court, and may do some others, with as much noise, expectation, and, I do believe, secret sidings too, as it had been some very weighty interest of princes or states.

The heats of this summer have risen here proportionable to what you express of those in England.

"From a Letter to my Lord Holles, sent by mistake to my Lord Ambassador Fanshawe."

Whitehall, May 26, 1664.

"It is truly observed by you, that Monsieur de Lionne doth you wrong in not treating you with 'Excellency,' but then it is truly observed, that that style is quite out of use in that Court, and so much, that Frenchmen of any tolerable quality do not use it to their own Ambassador here, or in any other Court."—Ibid. p. 141.


Madrid, Wednesday, July, 1664.

"Upon Sunday the 3d, stilo novo, of July, 1664, being the day of celebrating the Empress's birth, I attended his Majesty with the parabien; also, in the Queen's apartment, her Majesty, the Prince, and Empress: it was the first time I had seen the Prince."—Ibid. p. 142.


Madrid, Friday the 12th of August, 1664, N.S.

The design of the French courtesy in my public audience, even then perceivable and perceived, is now full blown; that the King hath in person expostulated with the Spanish Ambassador at Paris, why the King his Master would offer, by an innovation in the Spanish Court at that time, to bereave him, the said French King, of an opportunity of vindicating his just precedence of the King of England, and in pursuance thereof hath since sent letters to his Court to the same effect, and to demand restitution of the former custom in first entrances of Ambassadors from such others as they found here, which demand this French Ambassador hath done and doth manage to that degree of heat, with and in this Court, as, amongst other expressions, to have plainly threatened, that if he were not satisfied in this point, he would himself dispute the precedency with the Ambassador of the Emperor, I cannot say with the Pope's Nuncio too, because that hath not been told me, but the sequence is as if it had been so; for of certain, both the Emperor's Ambassador and Pope's Nuncio, and more, if not all, have addressed themselves to his Catholic Majesty, either by word of mouth or memorial, or both, (the which I do rather believe,) that since the French Ambassador did assume that liberty and privilege to himself, as to send his coach and family to the English Ambassador, contrary to the new order, it might be free for them to do the like to all other hereafter. All these particulars I have had from the Duke de Medina de las Torres; with this farther, that the French King enforced his said demand with many presents; the Duke told me the matter is sub judice, and not determined; therefore, yesterday, having obtained audience, I presented to his Catholic Majesty, according to my late intimation to your Honour, the herewith enclosed protest, or not protest, as this or any other Court shall understand it, or rather as the King our Master, in his princely wisdom, shall interpret or command me to interpret the same, whose royal directions in the case, long since to be foreseen, I shall now by every post expect, for my better light, in case of revival of the former custom, which, by the packing of the cards, I conceive to be most probable; keeping myself in the interim that they come not upon my guard, the best I may.

The Venetian Ambassador's entry, which is next expected, can put me to no difficulty at all, in respect his predecessor never thought fit to give me a visit, either of welcome when I arrived, or farewell when he departed, whereof I formerly advertised you at large, and how such neglect hath been resented in another age. The Holland Ambassador, now resident mutato nomine, will have his entrada soon after; there will be some scruple, yet no very great one; on the contrary, I think there is a rational query whether I, or any other of the Ambassadors de Capilla [Footnote: Ambassadors of the first-class, who have the right to be covered at their audience of the Sovereign to whom they are accredited.] should visit him at all. The case is, in his quality of Resident he hath totally declined the visiting either the Emperor's, or me, or the French Ambassador; because the other two first, and then I, by their example, did not assent to treat him with 'Senoria Illustrissima,' and in our own houses with the hand and upper chair, this latter,
of giving him precedence in our own houses, being, I conceive, the only point he absolutely insists upon. Now if we do him wrong in this, why should we not right him whilst he is yet under the notion of Resident? And if we do him none, why should we visit the Holland Ambassador in our turn, when the Holland Resident, especially, being the same person, will not visit us in this?

Here is a Danish Resident, and an Enviado of Genoa, who stand off upon the very same terms both with those Ambassadors and with me. The latter having obliged me, by message, to solicit for the King our master's orders to guide me on behalf of his pretence, because I had sent him word, that without such I could not in discretion and civility, being a new comer, vary from the judgment and practice of my seniors in this Court.

Your Honour, by your long and late experience here, will understand the pinch of this business better than yet I do; who, by what I can learn, am of opinion, that according to the style of this Court, perhaps of all others likewise, a King's AMBASSADOR, in his own house, doth not give the hand to another King's RESIDENT, much less 'illustrissima,' twenty years ago; but then again, I am informed, that now these very Ambassadors of Germany and France, who may with justice enough make scruple of that, may at the same time give 'illustrissima,' and, within their own doors the hand, to a Ducal Ambassador, thereby preferring them to their own Residents: an old controversy not easily decided, and yet in a fair way to be so, when by strong inference we shall be found judges against ourselves. I have farther to avow, in justification of my not sending to accompany the Hollander in his entrada, or any other but a new French Ambassador, that having been myself accompanied from none of them who show themselves now so zealous to perform that function to others, I have no reason to perform it towards them, until I shall have received the King my master's particular direction therein, after knowledge of what hath passed.

This, by way of discussion, not of decision of the question; for although, by my seventeenth instruction, it is very clear I must give not the hand to any King's Ambassador, on which behalf his Majesty shall not need to doubt my zeal, neither, I hope, the success, how roughly soever the precedence may be jostled for, whether by them or theirs; yet, whether by receiving by such arts as are now on foot, and for such ends as are now declared, the forementioned custom of Ambassadors sending their coaches and families to each others entradas, be such a point of advantage above me, as in the same instruction I am commanded to be wary of; and whether, in that case, I am not to thrust in for a share, in as good a room as I can get by scratching for, since others by their unquietness, or by their inconstancy, impose the necessity, there will be the question; whereof I do now hope for resolution from his Majesty by every post, of what I formerly writ concerning this matter, then in prospect, and find, by your honour's last, that those despatches were at the writing thereof come newly to hand.—Ibid. p. 199.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 179.]

Madrid, Wednesday, 12th of October, 1664, English style.

"Since my last to you of yesterday, the President of Castile having by the King's special and angry command, gone forth to the neighbouring villages, attended with the hangman, and whatsoever else of terror incident to his place and derogatory to his person, the markets in this town begin to be furnished again plentifully enough, yet so as that the bullion remaining fallen to the half value, bread, wine, and other provisions, are held up much higher than they were before in the numerical money; the reason is, whether upon intelligence or jealousy, the people that sell, do expect a second speedy fall, in which regard they rather choose to part with their wares upon trust, as many do and will, to receive for the same at the rate money shall go awhile hence, than for present money, though to persons whom before they would have been very scrupulous to have trusted."—Ibid. p. 265.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 178.]

Madrid, Wednesday, 19th of October, 1664, English style.

Upon the 10th instant, stilo novo, invited by the delicacy of the weather, and not knowing whether I should have another opportunity for it during my residence in this Court, together with my family, man, woman, and child, I took a small journey by stealth, of three days going and coming, to Aranjuez.

As soon as it was known that I was gone, the Duke of Medina de las Torres sent a post after me, with a letter to myself, of courtly chiding, that I had given the Spanish civility the slip in that manner, with another to the officers of the palace, to perform their part towards me, which was not wanting in any needful degree, although the Propio [Footnote: The Duke's courier.] tracing me all the way, could not reach me till I got home again.

For the same reasons, we began another journey, upon Monday last, to the Escurial. [Footnote: Lady Fanshawe, p. 180, says they went to the Escurial on the 27th of October. Her Ladyship calculated by the NEW, and Sir Richard by the OLD style.] This was not, nor could be kept secret; therefore the Duke, prompting his Catholic Majesty, sent his orders before, by virtue whereof I was lodged in the quarter there of the Duke of Montaldo, Mayor-domo Mayor to the Queen, and of like special order, by the Prior of that most famous monastery, showed, with all demonstrations of courtesy, the much that is there to be seen, besides an extraordinary present of provisions, of all which Don Juan Combos, whose company I was favoured with in this excursion, is able, if he pleases, to give you a better account than I.

Before I was returned half-way to this Court, we met some French, who told us the French Ambassador was following them to the Escurial. Advanced as far as a very small village, about a league from Madrid, the highway lying by a single house, at the outskirts thereof, at the door of the same, were two that wear his livery, of whom one of my people, asking whether the French Ambassador was coming towards the Escurial? they replied 'No;' but that his Excellency was in that village, and thence immediately to return to Madrid. That is all I yet know pertaining to that matter; unless this be, that it hath rained plentifully from morning to night, being, as the year hath fallen out, very extraordinary, the first day here of winter. Thus much may be built upon as a certainty, that neither the palace here upon Monday morning when I went, nor the Escurial this morning when I left it, had the least notice or inkling of any intention of the French Ambassador to go thither at this time.

A report there hath been for some days whispered, that the said Ambassador is revoken. To notify which the more, it is possible he might design this visit to the Escurial, which is commonly left to the last by all public persons from abroad.—Ibid. p. 267.


Madrid, Wednesday, 12th November, 1664, N.S.

On Monday last, in the afternoon, I should by appointment have had a conference with the Duke of Medina de las Torres, but in the morning his Excellency sent to excuse it for that time, upon notice then arrived of the death of his kinsman, the Duke of Medina Sidonia, which obliged him to the offices which those cases require.

The manner of this Duke's death, like his quality, was extraordinary. His Excellency was, for his diversion and recreation, being as then in good health to all outward appearance, and not much stricken in years, at a town of his own, not far from Valladolid, where you know his constant appointed abode was; in that place of recreation, his Excellency had some number of dogs, newly given him, the which, looking out of his windows, he happened to see worrying a poor woman. They neither killed nor maimed her, but the Duke's apprehension was so great they would do the one or the other, that violently crying out from the place where he was unto his people to prevent it, he fell into a sudden ecstacy; from that into a deep melancholy, and from that into a fever, which dispatched him before his physicians could come from Valladolid; so thereby verifying in his particular the surname of his family, de puro bueno murio.

Upon the 7th of November, N.S. I gave the King, Queen, Prince, and Empress, the parabien of the Prince's birth-day. The day itself was the precedent, and then it was that I desired audience to that end, by the Master of the Ceremonies; but it was appointed me, as I have said, to avoid concurrence with others, as I do believe, according either to the old or new style of this Court, the which I have formerly mentioned. However, for the English Ambassador alone, as might be supposed, all the royal persons put themselves de gala, both as to apparel and humour. True it is, to make up the jollity enough for two days at least, there met in one, and the parabien was accordingly both from the other Ambassadors the day before, and from me then, the Peace of Germany, and the Prince's birth-day, and both were very well taken.—Ibid. p. 290.


Madrid, Monday, 14th of November, 1664, English style.

"Inclosed with this, I send you a print of that new invention here for ploughing, which you did lately command me to enquire out." [Footnote: Mr. Bennet, in a letter to Sir Richard Fanshawe, dated 29th of September, 1664, observed, "Sir George Downing tells me of a new invention of a plough in Spain. I beseech your Excellency to enquire after it. He saith an Italian hath made it, and that it is not only received in Spain, but sent into the Indies also, for the good of their land."—Ibid. p. 279.]—Ibid. p. 321.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 185.]

Madrid, Wednesday, 14th of December, 1664, O.S.

These five or six nights last past here hath appeared a very strange blazing star, so high and so clear that I presume it must needs have been seen in England likewise, and therefore forbear to give any description or judgment thereof, the people of this country not being so curious in such matters as ours are there.

Yesterday I went to give the King and Queen the nova buena of her Majesty's birth-day, which was the day before. As soon as I came from the King, the Dutch Ambassador was called in; and at his coming out, it being a very dry day, and we having an hour to spend before the Queen would be ready to receive us, I invited him into my coach, and we took a turn in the town, which caused almost as much wonder in this people as the blazing star; and indeed I did it to that end partly, there being no offence in it that I know, so long as his Majesty hath an Envoy in Holland, and the States an Ambassador in England. The truth is, many of this people begin to apprehend, that our disputes with them will have a quite other issue, and a very different operation, as other interests, and Spain amongst the rest, than Spain imagined.

Last night was before the palace a masquerade on horseback. I had a balcony appointed me in the armoury over the stables of his Majesty: the Dutch Ambassador, another for him next below mine, the rest of the Ambassadors in an entresuelo of the palace.

Mine I left to my gentleman, and sat myself with the Duke of Medina de las Torres, at his quarters in the palace; my wife in another room thereby with the Duchess.—Ibid. p. 376.


Madrid, the 24th of January, 1664, N.S.


I send your Lordship herewith enclosed, two transcripts, the one of a project, at making of which I was never good; but this is of a peace, and therefore I wish I were; a peace between Castile and Portugal, hardly practicable upon any terms, as I do humbly conceive, much less upon these, proposed by an unknown author, with regard to either side; yet I have thought them not unworthy your Lordship's notice, as possibly more practicable elsewhere, as to form, and in a great measure as to matter likewise, than in the altitude for which they were designed.

The other transcript is of a fresh libel, in and upon this Court and palace; a commodity I have in my nature no inclination at all to vent, either by wholesale or retail; yet is this fit also, in my humble judgment, for persons of great nearness to his Majesty not to be unacquainted with, representing sores which are in foreign kingdoms, whereby to praise God the more for the modesty of ours at home, as ours for the great goodness of his Majesty that stops our mouths, or rather fills them with prayers to God and him; not censuring other princes, neither for the liberties of their subjects in their disparagement, much less these of Spain, than whom, from all times, none talk more against, or (our own nation only excepted) act more for, their kings. This damnable libel doth not spare one Councillor of State here present, but the Inquisidor General; and to crown the damnation of it, the King himself bears the burden, besides the smaller game it picks up by the way. So more than ordinary black is the Spanish ink at this day, and the mouths of two too many, loud ones too, much of the same dye.

This King, by what I can collect, as crazy as he is, may rub out many years: his Majesty eats and drinks ordinarily with a very good stomach, I am told, three comfortable meals a day; and full of merry discourse, when and where his lined robe of Spanish royal gravity is laid aside.

Some discourse begins to be of swearing the Prince. The sending the Infanta this spring to her Imperial Crown is absolutely concluded, say the most, and some say no. Certain it is, (the ceremony of this kingdom requiring it,) that a Cardinal in the spiritual, and some very great lay-person in the temporal, should be joint conductors of her Imperial Majesty; for the first, Cardinal Colonna, a vassal born of this Crown, chosen by the Pope, is now actually entered in this Court to the same end; and for the second, the Duke of Cardona, invited thereunto by his Catholic Majesty, after many great ones, namely, the Duke of Alva and Montaldo, had refused or excused it, hath publicly accepted the charge.

By this latter hangs a story. Your Lordship well knows, that in these more civilised countries, no man will go upon his master's errand without a reward beforehand, (so the Marquis of Sande, the Conde de Molina, and others innumerable,) therefore his Catholic Majesty, even after acceptance as a thing of course, was graciously pleased to bid the said Duke of Cardona propose for himself, referring him for that purpose to the Duke's friend, the Conde de Castrillo, President of Castile. The Duke tells the Conde he must have three things granted him in hand, else would he not budge a foot. 'What are those?' said the Conde, in some disorder. 'First,' said the Duke, 'I will be made a grandee of Spain,' and his Excellency is so, I take it three or four times over: 'Secondly, I will have the Toison' he has it long since: 'Thirdly, the Conde de Chincon shall treat me with EXCELLENCY.' The riddle of this is, that the said Conde de Chincon, being no Grandee, and nominated for Ambassador Ordinary to the Emperor, though since excused of going for want of health, or other allegations, doth, upon that account alone, during life, according to the style of this Court, remain with the title of Excellency. This action of the Duke of Cardona is here very much celebrated, and the saying little less. —Ibid. p. 420.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 195.]

Madrid, Monday, 6th of February, 1664-5, O.S.


"The bearer hereof, Mr. Charles Bertie, son to the Earl of Lindsey, having done me the honour, together with other gentlemen of rank and personal worth, to afford me his company out of England hitherto, and now with them homewards bound by the way of France; I find myself encouraged by the opportunity of so noble a hand for conveyance, to give your Majesty this first immediate trouble of any lines of mine, since I had last the happiness to kiss that of your Majesty, as well to throw myself, in all humility, at your royal feet, as to render very briefly a faithful character of this young gentleman, in a more particular manner, whose virtues and extraordinary qualities, the former not lost, the latter acquired with much travels at few years, do no whit degenerate from the nobility of his blood, and active loyalty of his progenitors; my duty to your Majesty, as well as my affection to his person, obliging me ex officio to this short testimony of his merits unrequested, to the end so hopeful a branch of that house may not want even this means among others, of being early known to his Sovereign, I could humbly wish I could add, his master too, and that in some near degree of service to your sacred person, for the present, in order to public employment for the future; towards which, as years shall increase, and occasions be ministered, he is already furnished, in a very good measure, with two principal and proper gifts, that of tongues, and that of observation. But I forget to whom I speak, for which most humbly begging your royal pardon, I crave leave to subscribe myself," &c.—Ibid, p. 437.


Madrid, Tuesday, 18/28 April, 1665.

This King, with the Queen and Empress, have now been almost a fortnight at Aranjuez, to their great content, and also of this Court, to hear his Majesty is so vigorous there, as at one time to have set on horseback a matter of three hours, and in that posture to have killed a wolf from his own hands; whereas, before his going hence, it was doubted by many whether he had sufficient health and strength to perform the journey, though but seven leagues, in a coach or litter, and that in two days. The little Prince remains here in the palace, as far as I can learn, nothing so lively as his father; pray God he prove so lasting!

In this interim, Don John de Austria hath had leave to reside at a house within two leagues of Aranjuez, and from thence stepping over to get a sight of his Majesty, which he did. The ceremony between them was very short, and yet all that passed was ceremony; Como venis? Como estays? Dios os guarde, &c., with which his Highness departed to the Queen and Empress, and from thence to whence he came, after the same brief ceremony; only the Queen and Empress sent him each of them a jewel for a present.—Harleian MSS. 7010, f. 239.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 200.]

Madrid, Wednesday, August 1665.

My last to your Lordship of this day was a se'nnight, made mention of a conference I was to have the Friday following with the Duke of Medina de las Torres, but it happened the same Wednesday night I fell so extremely sick as forced me on Thursday to send my excuse to his Excellency, continuing my bed all that day, and since my house, though, I thank God, with some amendment daily, and now to such a competent degree of health and strength, that upon Friday next I hope our meeting will hold.

In the mean time, upon occasion of my wife's being brought to bed, on Sunday, the Duke hath been with me to give me the joy of my son, yet so as not to mingle therewith one word of business, making that expressly a piece of the compliment; the rest consisting of great riches of jewels upon his person, and extraordinary splendour of equipage.—Ibid. f. 346.


[See MEMOIRS, p, 201.]

Madrid, Thursday, 7/17th September, 1665.

My letter to your Lordship, delivered his Catholic Majesty, King Philip the Fourth, in a condition utterly deplored by most, though with a little spark of hope in some, even physicians, upon a lightening that showed itself before death as it proved, his Majesty giving up the ghost this morning between four and five of the clock, witnessed immediately by all the bells in the town; this being somewhat observable in my opinion, that neither his Majesty's sickness, nor his death, was concealed one moment from the people. Some care is taken that the news thereof shall not be sent out of these kingdoms till it hath first gone by their own Correos, stopping all others.

In observation of the custom which ought to be observed in like cases, the Council of the Chamber of Castile met to open his Majesty's testament, which he left closed; the which accordingly was opened and read before the President and said Council, by Don Blasco de Loyola, Secretary of the Universal Dispatch: this was done at eleven of the clock this forenoon. His Majesty left the Queen declared Governess of his kingdoms, assisted by four counsellors ex-officio, viz., the Archbishop of Toledo, that is or shall be; the President of Castile, that is or shall be; the Vice-Chancellor of Arragon, that is or shall be; the management of the kingdom, in like cases, belonging, by ancient laws of the kingdom, to these three dignities, though his Majesty should omit to name them; and the Inquisitor-General, that is or shall be: he is introduced by a new law. His Majesty added to this number of four, two more, one for a Grandee of Spain, which is the Marquis of Aytona; and the other, who is the Conde de Penaranda, for Counsellor of State. His Majesty left for executors of this his will, the Duke of Medina de las Torres, Fray Juan Martinez, who was his Majesty's confessor, and the Marquis de Velada.

Don John of Austria came post from Consuegra, soliciting to see his Majesty by the means of the President of Castile, who, telling his Majesty that Don John desired his blessing, his Majesty answered, 'He had not called him, and that he should return presently;' which he did, as soon as the King expired. This as to the seeing him at the King's hour of death; but for all that, it is said, his Majesty had already so far remembered him in his will as to recommend therein to the Queen and her assistants, his son Don John of Austria, to regard him and employ him, and if the means he hath be not found sufficient for his support, to augment the same in some other way. [Footnote: In the margin, Sir Richard has written, "Sic transit gloria mundi."]

It is said it will not be necessary to make more ceremony for the giving of obedience to the new King Charles the Second, than with a banner upon the tower of St. Salvador, to proclaim, 'Castilla, Castilla por el Rey Don Carlos Segondo nuestro Senor!' and this ought to be done by the Conde de Chinchon, unto whom, being Regidor of Madrid, it belongs to execute the said ceremony.

They have embalmed his Majesty, and found in one of his kidneys a stone of the bigness of a chestnut, in the other a kind of thin web. They put his dead body, open-faced, with the state accustomed, in the great gilded hall of the Palace; and upon Saturday, at night, will carry it to the Escurial to be interred in the incomparable Pantheon there, begun by his grandfather, carried on by his father, and finished by himself in his life-time to a ninth wonder, if the Escurial be the eighth, as the Spaniards term it.—Ibid. f. 387.


Madrid, Wednesday, 18/28 October, 1665.

"This evening I have had audience of the young King; giving him, in our Master's name, first the pesame, and then the parabien of the time. On Friday, begin the honras of the King, his father; after which, and, as I do believe, on the 5th of the next month, because it is the King's birth-day, the Queen will give her first audience to Ambassadors; none having yet seen her Majesty but the German, and he in his private capacity."—Ibid. f. 415.


[See MEMOIRS, p. 211]

La Coruna, March 20/30, 1666.


Being arrived at this place through necessity of the weather, which put us off from Santander, whither we were designed, I find it requisite to give speedy notice thereof to Madrid, and in the first place to your Excellency; hoping this letter will have the good fortune to meet you there, and if it do, I then beseech you, either from yourself to give notice to the Court of my arrival, or direct this gentleman, Mr. Weeden, of whom I have great esteem, to deliver the letter he hath from me to the Secretary of State, a copy whereof is here enclosed, if your Excellency doth not think fit that the same be signified to the Court both ways. I also farther entreat your favour in sending me such advice for my journey, and procuring me such helps and furtherances therein, as may enable me to accomplish it with most expedition. Mr. Weeden is fully instructed in the condition of my retinue and carriage; and as the affairs of both Crowns, the time of the year, and other circumstances considered, require much haste to be made in this negotiation, so the particular interest of the King our Master, needs as speedy a meeting as can be between your Excellency and me, which I pray to have in your mind, and contrive in the best manner you can. In the meantime, as soon as anything is concluded by you fit for my notice, I pray you to despatch Mr. Weeden back to me, whether I remain in this place, or shall be on my way to Madrid. I have not more to say unto you fit for a letter, but to desire you to present my most humble service to my noble Lady, and that you would believe that I come with that respect and resolution of doing you a service, and of expressing myself upon all occasions,

My Lord,

Your Excellency's most humble servant,



Madrid, April 1/11, 1666.

"My wife returns many humble services to your Excellency, hoping my good Lady's health; and likewise to be sooner happy in waiting upon her than your Excellency, as, taking her leave this very day hereof of the Queen and Empress, bound for England, at her good old father's long importunities, to have his dear daughter and all her children rest with him before he dies."—Ibid.


From My Quinta, near the Corunna, April 9/19, 1666.

"It is my great misfortune that I am like to miss of the happiness of kissing my good lady's hand at Madrid, to whom my wife and I are so infinitely obliged. The best satisfaction I can have next, is to hear that her ladyship hath good health and prosperity on her journey; which I most heartily wish, as I do all sorts of occasions, whereby to express unto her ladyship and yourself with what fidelity, I am,

My Lord,

Your Excellency's most humble and most obedient Servant,



Madrid, Thursday, 15/29 April, 1666.

"The Empress, married by proxy, which was the Duke de Medina de las Torres, upon Sunday last, did yesterday begin her journey from this Court towards Vienna. Her Imperial Majesty carried along with her a vast treasure in money, plate, and jewels; so, in that respect, will much enfeeble this summer's preparation against Portugal: in another regard the despatch of that great affair out of the way, which hath wholly taken up these Councils in pro's and con's for many months past, hath left them at liberty to prosecute with the more vigour this war."—Ibid.


Madrid, 3rd of May, 1666, s n.


There was due to me on 6th of March last past, upon my ordinary entertainment, the sum of two thousand pounds, of which I have not yet received one shilling, notwithstanding that I was forced to run myself in debt for my late journey to Portugal; as I have written long since to my Lord Arlington, requesting I might, by his Lordship's means, obtain a particular Privy Seal for the reimbursement of my laying-out therein, as was promised when that case should arrive.

Moreover, I have both pawned and sold plate for my present subsistence, and if immediately I do not receive a supply of all that is due to me upon amount of ordinaries, the which I do hopefully expect upon former addresses to that purpose, I cannot subsist longer in this Court, nor yet know how to remove out of it, if such should be his Majesty's orders of revocation, by my Lord of Sandwich: a thing intimated to me here by more than common persons, whether with or without ground I cannot say, having not heard one word from any Minister of our Court for the space of above seven weeks last past, or concerning myself anything out of England, save what I read in a London diurnal, that letters from me out of Portugal, by sea, signifying my then immediate return for Madrid, were come to hand. The like whereof having never happened to me before, so much as for a fortnight's time, I am utterly to seek what to impute it to, unless it be interceptings in France since the war hath been declared. In the meantime, it puts me to a great confusion in many respects, particularly for the want of monies; and thus farther I crave leave to inform you upon the same point, which is, that if my brother Turnor's kindness had not advanced out of his own purse, to comply with my bills, above a thousand pounds, before he received the last tallies on my behalf, whereof I have not had any notice, I had been reduced to yet greater extremities than these I am contending with.

Having thus delivered the truth of my condition in matter of fact, I presume there will need nothing farther of argument, with so good a friend and brother, to quicken and keep alive your constant endeavours for me, or indeed with such others whose concurrence is necessary to render your brotherly offices effectual, to afford the same accordingly, upon the mere account of our Master's honour and service, without other relation to the person that bears his image in this particular.

I pray you, as you have done hitherto, permit my brother Turnor to remind you of these things as often as occasion shall require.

My Lord Sandwich, according to our computation here, will begin his journey towards us to-morrow from the Corunna, and if his Excellency makes no stop by the way will arrive in this Court about twenty days hence, hardly sooner. I rest, dear brother, your most affectionate brother and faithful servant,



Madrid, Thursday, 3rd of June, 1666, stilo loci.


By the hands of my Lord of Sandwich, who arrived in this Court, upon Friday last, was delivered to me a letter of Revocation from your Majesty, directed to the Queen Regent; and at the same time another, with which your Majesty honoured me for myself, implying the principal, if not the only, motive of the former to have been, some exceptions that had been made to the papers which I signed with the Duke of Medina de las Torres, upon the 17th of December last past;[Footnote: Sir Richard Fanshawe wrote in the margin of the rough transcript, "Relating to the Commerce of this Crown, and the establishing a Truce between these and Portugal."] a consideration sufficient to have utterly cast down a soul less sensible than hath ever been mine of your Majesty's least show of displeasure, though not accompanied with other punishments, if your Majesty, according to the accustomed tenderness of your royal disposition, in which you excel all monarchs living, to comfort an old servant to your Majesty, had not yourself broken the blow in the descent, by this gracious expression in the same letter: That I may assure myself, your Majesty believes I proceeded in the articles signed by me, as aforesaid, with integrity and regard to your royal service, and that I may be farther assured the same will justify me towards your Majesty, whatever exceptions may have been made to my papers.

In obedience to your Majesty's letter above-mentioned, I make account, God willing, to be upon my way towards England some time next month; having in the interim performed to my Lord Sandwich, as I hope I shall to full satisfaction, those offices which your Majesty commands me in the same; whose royal person, council, and undertakings, God Almighty preserve and prosper many years; the daily fervent prayer of

Your Majesty's ever loyal subject, ever faithful and most obedient servant,



[See MEMOIRS, p. 217.]

Madrid, Thursday, 7/17 June, 1666.

My Lord having been taken with a very sharp fit of sickness two days since, and not yet being well able either to write or dictate a letter himself, hath commanded me to entreat you, that you will please to present his most humble service to my Lord Arlington, and beseech his Lordship to excuse his not writing by this post.

The Empress is said not to be yet embarked, though there are thirty galleys ready to attend her in her voyage.

My Lord of Sandwich hath not, as yet, had his first public audience. Sir Robert Southwell intends, within a day or two, to begin his journey for Portugal.—Ibid.


Blessed God, we beseech thee to be propitious in a singular manner to my good Lord, his Excellency, his Majesty's Ambassador in this kingdom; preserve him unto us in health and strength, and grant that he may so manage those weighty affairs he is employed in, that the issue of his negotiation may be to thy glory, the satisfaction of our Sovereign, and the mutual good and benefit of all his subjects and allies. Bless his most virtuous Lady; imbue her with the blessings of this life, and that to come; make his children thy children, his servants thy servants, that this family may be a Bethel, a house of God; that we, all serving thee with one accord here on earth, may for ever glorify thee in Heaven. Amen.


Blessed God, which suppliest the wants and relievest the troubles of thy servants, be particularly gracious to this family, and here, in a special manner, bless my most virtuous Lady, and give her patience under thy hand, submitting to thy will, and contentedness under every change; and we beseech thee so continually to assist her in the course of her life, that she may experimentally find thee a God all- sufficient, though the helps of this world fail: make her children thy children; bestow upon them thy choicest blessings, who hath promised to be a father to the children's children of those that trust in thee; make her servants thy servants, that this family may be a Bethel, a house of God; that we, all serving thee with one accord here on earth, may for ever hereafter glorify thee in Heaven. Amen.


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