Memoirs of Journeys to Venice and the Low Countries - [This is our volunteer's translation of the title]
by Albrecht Durer
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I gave Master Dietrich, the glass painter, an "Apocalypse" and the six "Knots." Paid 40 stivers for flax. Lost 8 stivers at play. I have given the little Portuguese factor, Signor Francisco, my small canvas with the small child, that is worth 10 florins. I have given Dr. Loffen at Antwerp the four books and an engraved "Jerome," and the same to Jobst Planckfelt. I have done the arms of Staiber and another. I have made a portrait of Tomasin's son and daughter in silverpoint; also I have painted a small panel in oil of the Duke. Have got 3 stivers for engravings. Rodrigo, the Portuguese secretary, has given me two Calicut cloths, one of them is silk, and he has given me an ornamented cap and a green jug with myrobalans, and a branch of cedar tree, worth 10 florins altogether. And I gave the boy for a tip 5 stivers and 2 stivers for a brush.

I have made a drawing for a mask for the Fugger's people for masquerade, and they have given me an angel. I have changed 1 florin for expenses. Gave 8 stivers for two little powder horns. Lost 3 stivers at play. Changed an angel for expenses. I have drawn two sheets full of beautiful little masks for Tomasin. I have painted a good "Veronica" face in oils; it is worth 12 florins. I gave it to Francisco, the Portuguese factor. Since then I have painted Santa Veronica in oils; it is better than the former, and I gave it to Factor Brandan of Portugal. Francisco gave the maid 1 Philip's florin for a tip, and afterwards, because of the "Veronica," 1 florin more, but the Factor Brandan gave her 1 florin. I paid Peter 8 stivers for two cases. I changed an angel for expenses.

On Carnival Sunday early, the goldsmiths invited me to dinner, with my wife. In their assembly were many notable men. They prepared a very grand meal, and did me the greatest honour. In the evening the old bailiff of the town invited me and gave me a splendid meal, and did me great honour. Thither came many strange maskers.

I have drawn the portrait of Florent Nepotis, Lady Margaret's organist, in charcoal. On Monday night Herr Lopez invited me to the great banquet on Shrove Tuesday, which lasted till two o'clock, and was very grand. Herr Lorenz Sterk has given me a Spanish fur. And to the above-mentioned feast came many very splendid masks, especially Tomasin Bombelli.

I have won 2 florins at play. Have changed an angel for expenses: paid 14 stivers for a basket of raisins. I have made the portrait in charcoal of Bernhard von Castell, from whom I won the money. Tomasin's brother Gerhardt has given me four Brabant ells of the best black satin, and has given me three big boxes of candied citron, so I gave the maid 3 stivers for a tip. Paid 13 stivers for wood, and 2 stivers for pine kernels. I drew the procurator's daughter very carefully in silver-point.

Have changed 1 angel for expenses. I have drawn the portrait in black chalk of the good marble worker, Master Johann, who looks like Christopher Kohler; he has studied in Italy, and comes from Metz. I have changed 1 Horn florin for expenses. I have given 3 florins to Jan Turck for Italian works of art; I gave him 12 ducats' worth of works of art for one ounce of good ultramarine. I have sold a small woodcut of the "Passion" for florins. I sold two reams and four books of Schauflein's prints for 3 florins. Have given 3 florins for two ivory salt-cellars from Calicut. Have taken 2 florins for prints; have changed 1 florin for expenses. Rudiger von Gelern gave me a snail shell, together with coins of gold and silver, with an ort. I gave him in return the three large books and an engraved "Knight;" have taken 11 stivers for prints. I gave 2 Philip's florins for "SS. Peter and Paul," which I shall present to Herr Kohler's wife. Rodrigo has given me two boxes of quince Electuary and all kinds of sweetmeats, and I gave 5 stivers for a tip, Paid 16 stivers for boxes.

Lazarus of Ravensburg gave me a sugar loaf, so I gave his boy 1 stiver. Paid 6 stivers for wood. Have eaten once with the Frenchman; twice with the Hirschvogel's Fritz, and once with Master Peter, the secretary, when Erasmus of Rotterdam also dined with us. I paid 1 stiver to be allowed to go up the tower at Antwerp, which is said to be higher than that at Strasburg. From thence I saw the whole town on all sides, which was very pleasant. Paid 1 stiver for a bath. Have changed 1 angel for expenses. The Factor Brandon of Portugal has given me two large beautiful white sugar loaves, a dishful of sweetmeats, two green pots of preserves, and four ells of black satin, so I gave the servant 10 stivers for a tip.

Paid the messenger 3 stivers. I have drawn twice in the more in silverpoint the beautiful maiden for Gerhardt. Again changed an angel for expenses; took 4 florins for prints; paid 10 stivers for Rodrigo's case. Dined with the treasurer, Herr Lorenz Sterk, who gave me an ivory whistle and a very beautiful piece of porcelain, and I have given him a whole set of prints. I also gave a whole set to Herr Adrian, the Antwerp town orator. Also I changed a Philip's florin for expenses. I presented a sitting "St. Nicolas" to the largest and richest guild of merchants at Antwerp, for which they have made me a present of 3 Philip's florins. I gave Peter Egidius the old frame of the "St. Jerome" besides 4 gulden for a frame for the treasurer's likeness. Paid 11 stivers for wood. Again changed a Philip's florin for expenses. Gave 4 stivers for a bore. Gave 3 stivers for three canes. I have handed over my bale to Jacob and Andreas Hessler to take to Nuremberg, and I am to pay them 2 florins per cwt., Nuremberg weight, and they are to take it to Herr Hans Imhof, the elder, and I have paid 2 florins on it. Moreover I have done it up in a packing case. This was in the year 1521, on the Saturday before Judicz.

Also on the Saturday before Judicz, Rodrigo gave me six large Indian cocoanuts, a very fine piece of coral, and two large Portuguese florins, one of which weighs 10 ducats, and I gave the boy 15 stivers for a tip. I have bought a lode- stone for 16 stivers. I have changed an angel for expenses. Paid 6 stivers for packing. Sent Master Hugo at Brussels an engraved "Passion" and some other prints for his little porphyry stone. I have made for Tomasin a design drawn and tinted in half-colours, from which he means to have his house painted. I painted "Jerome" in oils with care and gave it to Rodrigo of Portugal, who gave Susanna a ducat for a tip. Have changed a Philip's florin for expenses and gave 10 stivers to my Father Confessor. Gave 4 stivers for the little tortoise. I have dined with Herr Gilbert, who gave me a Calicut target made of a fish skin, and two gloves as they use them for fighting. I have given Peter 2 stivers. Gave 10 stivers for the fish fins, and 3 stivers for a tip. I have made a very good portrait in hard chalk of Cornelius, the secretary of Antwerp.

I have given 3 florins, 16 stivers, for the five silk girdles which I mean to give away, besides 20 stivers for an edging [lace?]. These six edgings I have sent as presents to the wives of Kasperi Nutzel, Franz Imhof, Straub, the two Spenglers, Loffelholz, besides a good pair of gloves to each. To Pirkheimer I have sent a large cap, a very handsome buffalo horn inkstand, a silver [medal of the] Emperor, a pound of pistachios, and three sugar canes. To Kasper Ntitzel I have sent a great elk's foot, ten large fir cones with pine kernels. To Jacob Muffel I have sent a scarlet breast cloth of one ell; to Hans Imhof's child an embroidered scarlet cap and pine kernels; to Kramer's wife four ells of taffeta, worth 4 florins. To Lochinger's wife one ell of taffeta, of 1 florin's worth; to the two Spenglers, each a bag and three fine horns; to Herr Hieronimus Holzschuher, a very large horn.

Have eaten twice with the factor; dined with Master Adrian, the secretary of the town council of Antwerp, who gave me the small painted panel made by Master Joachim [de Patinir]: it is of "Lot and his Daughters." Have taken 12 florins for prints, also I have sold some of Hans Baldung Grun's works for 1 florin. Rudiger von Gelern has given me a piece of sandalwood; I gave his boy a stiver. I have painted the portrait of Bernhard of Brussels in oils; he gave me 8 florins for it, and gave my wife a crown, and Susanna a florin worth 24 stivers. I have given 3 stivers for the Swiss jug, and 2 stivers for the ship, also 3 stivers for the case and 4 stivers to the Father Confessor. I have changed an angel for expenses; have taken 4 florins, 10 stivers for works of art: paid 3 stivers for salve; gave 12 1/2 stivers for wood; changed 1 florin for expenses; have given 1 florin for 14 pieces of French wood. I gave Ambrozio Hochstutter a "Life of Our Lady," and he gave me a model of his ship. Rodrigo gave my wife a little ring which is worth more than 5 florins. Have changed 1 florin for expenses.

I have done the portrait of Factor Brandon's secretary in charcoal; I have done the portrait of his Moorish woman in silverpoint, and I have done Rodrigo's portrait on a large sheet of paper with the brush, in black and white. I have given 16 florins for a piece of camlet measuring twenty-four ells, and it cost 1 stiver to bring home. Have paid 2 stivers for gloves. I have done Lucas of Dantzic's portrait in charcoal. He gave me 1 florin for it, and a piece of sandalwood.

VISIT TO BRUGES AND GHENT (April 6-11, 1521)

On the Saturday after Easter, with Hans Luber and Master Jan Prevost, a good painter born at Bruges, I set out from Antwerp towards Bruges by way of the Scheldt and came to Beveren, a large village. From there to Vracene, also a big village; thence we passed through some villages and came to a fine large village, where the rich farmers live, and there we breakfasted. Thence we journeyed towards St. Paul's, the rich abbey, and went through Caudenborn, a fine village; thence through the large village of Kalve, and thence to Ertvelde; there we lay the night and started early on Sunday morning and came from Ertvelde to a small town. From that we went to Ecloo, which is a mighty large village; it is plastered, and has a square; there we breakfasted. Thence we went to Maldegem, and then through other villages, and came to Bruges—which is a fine noble town. I paid 21 stivers for fare and other expenses. And arriving at Bruges, Jan Prevost took me into his house to lodge, and the same night prepared a costly meal, and asked much company to meet me.

The next day Marx, the goldsmith, invited me, and gave me a costly meal and asked many to meet me; afterwards they took me to see the Emperor's house, which is large and splendid. There I saw the chapel which Roger painted, and some pictures by a great old artist. I gave the man who showed them to us 1 stiver; afterwards I bought two ivory combs for 30 stivers. Thence they took me to St. James's and let me see the splendid paintings of Roger and Hugo, who are both great masters. Afterwards I saw the alabaster Madonna in Our Lady's Church that Michelangelo of Rome made; afterwards they took me to many churches and let me see all the fine paintings, of which there is abundance there, and when I had seen the Jan [Van Eyck] and all the other things, we came at last to the Painters' Chapel, in which there are good things. Then they prepared a banquet for me, and I went thence with them to their guildhall; there were many honourable men gathered together, goldsmiths, painters, and merchants, and they made me sup with them, and they gave me presents and sought my acquaintance and did me great honour; and the two brothers Jacob and Peter Mostaert, the town councilors, gave me twelve cans of wine, and the whole assembly, more than sixty persons, accompanied me home with many torches. I also saw in their shooting gallery the great fish tub from which they eat, which is 19 feet long, 7 high, and 7 broad.

Early on Tuesday we departed, but before that, I did Jan Prevost's portrait in silverpoint, and gave his wife 10 stivers at parting. And so we traveled to Ursel; there we breakfasted. On the way there are three villages. Then we traveled towards Ghent, again through three villages, and I paid 4 stivers for the journey, and 4 stivers for expenses; and on my arrival at Ghent, there came to me the dean of the painters and brought with him the first masters in painting; they showed me great honour, received me most courteously, and commended to me their good-will and service, and supped with me. On Wednesday early they took me to the tower of St. John's, whence I looked all over the great and wonderful town, where I had just been treated as a great person. Afterwards I saw the Jan [Van Eyck's] picture, which is a very splendid, deeply studied painting, and especially the "Eve," the "Mary," and "God the Father" were extremely good.

Then I saw the lions and drew one of them in silverpoint; also I saw on the bridge, where men are beheaded, two pictures which were made as a sign that there a son had beheaded his father. Ghent is beautiful and a wonderful town; four great waters flow through it. I gave 3 stivers as a tip to the sacristan and the lions' keeper. I saw many other remarkable things in Ghent, and the painters with their dean did not forget me, but ate with me morning and evening, and paid for everything, and were very friendly. I gave away 3 stivers at the inn on leaving. Then early on Thursday I set out from Ghent and came through various villages to the inn called "The Swan," where we breakfasted; thence we passed through a beautiful village and came to Antwerp, and I paid 8 stivers for the fare.

AT ANTWERP (April 11-May 17, 1521)

I have taken 4 florins for works of art; changed one florin for expenses. Have taken the portrait of Hans Lieber of Ulm in charcoal; he wished to pay me 1 florin, but I would not take it. Gave 7 stivers for wood and 1 stiver for bringing it; changed 1 florin for expenses. In the third week after Easter a violent fever came upon me with great weakness, nausea, and headache; and before, when I was in Zeeland, a strange illness overcame me such as I never heard of from anyone, and this illness I have still. I paid 6 stivers for a case. The monk has bound two books for me for the prints which I gave him. I have given 10 florins, 8 stivers for a piece of arras for two mantles for my mother-in-law and my wife. I gave the doctor 8 stivers, and 3 stivers to the apothecary, also changed 1 florin for expenses and spent 3 stivers in company. Paid the doctor 10 stivers; again paid the doctor 6 stivers.

During my illness Rodrigo sent me many sweetmeats; I gave the boy 4 stivers for a tip. I have drawn Master Joachim [Patinir] in silverpoint, and made him besides another likeness in silverpoint. Again changed a crown for expenses, and again 1 florin for expenses. Paid the doctor 6 stivers, and 7 stivers at the apothecary's; changed 1 florin for expenses. For packing the third bale, which I sent from Antwerp to Nuremberg by a carrier called Hans Staber, I paid 13 stivers, and I paid the carrier 1 florin for it, and I agreed with him to take it from Antwerp to Nuremberg for 1 florin, I ort, per cwt., and this bale is to be taken to Herr Hans Imhof, the elder. I have paid the doctor, the apothecary, and the barber 14 stivers. I gave Master Jacob, the surgeon, 4 florins' worth of prints. I have made a portrait in charcoal of Thomas Polonius of Rome.

My camlet cloak came to twenty-one Brabant ells, which are three finger-breadths longer than the Nuremberg ells. I have also bought four black Spanish skins, which cost 3 stivers each, and they come to 34, that makes 10 florins, 2 stivers; I paid the skinner [furrier] 1 florin to make them up, then there were two ells of velvet for trimming, 5 florins; also for silk cord and thread, 34 stivers; then the tailor's wage, 30 stivers; the camlet which is in the cloak cost 14 1/2 florins, and the boy 5 stivers for a tip.

Cross Sunday after Easter; from this I start a fresh account. Again paid the doctor 6 stivers; I have gained 53 stivers for works of art, and have taken them for expenses. On Sunday before Holy Cross Week, Master Joachim [Patinir], the good landscape painter, asked me to his wedding, and showed me all honour; there I saw two beautiful plays, the first was especially pious and devout. I again paid the doctor 6 stivers, and have changed 1 florin for expenses.

On Sunday after Our Lord's Ascension, Master Dietrich, the glass painter of Antwerp, invited me and asked many other people to meet me, and especially among them Alexander, the goldsmith, a rich, stately man, and we had a splendid dinner, and they did me great honour. I have done in charcoal the portrait of Master Marx, the goldsmith, who lives at Bruges. I bought a broad cap for 36 stivers. I paid Paul Geiger 1 florin to take my little chest to Nuremberg, and 4 stivers for the letter. I have taken the portrait of Ambrosius Hochstatter in charcoal, and I dined with him: I have dined at least six times with Tomasin. I bought some wooden dishes and platters for 3 stivers. I have given the apothecary 12 stivers. I have given two books of the "Life of Our Lady," one to the foreign surgeon, the other to Marx's house servant; I also paid the doctor 8 stivers, and gave 4 stivers for cleaning an old cap. Lost 4 stivers at play; have given 2 florins for a new cap. I have changed the old cap because it was clumsy, and have given 6 stivers more for another.

Painted a portrait of the duke in oils: have made a very fine and careful portrait in oils of the treasurer, Lorenz Sterk; it was worth 25 florins. I presented it to him, and in return he gave me 20 florins, and to Susanna 1 florin for a tip. Likewise I painted the portrait of Jobst, my host, very well and carefully in oils; he has now given me [the portrait I did of him before?] and I have done his wife again and painted her portrait in oils.

On the Friday before Whitsuntide, 1521, tidings came to me at Antwerp that Martin Luther had been so treacherously taken prisoner, for he trusted the Emperor Charles's herald, who had been granted to him with the Imperial safe conduct, but as soon as the herald had brought him near Eisenach, to an unfriendly place, he said that he would not need him any more and rode away. Immediately there appeared ten knights, who treacherously carried off the pious man, who had been betrayed; a man enlightened by the Holy Ghost, a follower of Christ and of the true Christian faith, and whether he lives yet or whether they have put him to death, I know not. If he has suffered, it is for the sake of Christian truth and because he has fought with the un-Christlike papacy, which strives with its heavy load of human laws against the redemption of Christ; and if so, it is that we may be again robbed and stripped of the fruit of our blood and sweat, that the same may be shamelessly and scandalously squandered while poor and sick men must therefore die of hunger. And this is above all most grievous to me, that God perhaps will let us remain yet under their false, blind doctrine, invented and set forth by the men whom they call "Fathers," through whom the Word of God is in many places falsely expounded or not taught at all.

[Editor's note: This form of abduction was the usual idea at the time. But Luther was really taken by the order of Frederick the Wise in order to protect him].

O God of Heaven, have pity on us, O Lord Jesus Christ, pray for Thy people. Deliver us in due time, uphold in us the right and true Christian Faith. Gather together Thy far scattered sheep by Thy voice, in the Scripture called Thy godly Word. Help us that we may know this Thy voice and may follow no other deceiving call of human error, that we may not, Lord Jesus Christ, fall away from Thee. Call together again the sheep of Thy pasture, who are still in part found in the Roman Church, and with them, too, the Indians, Muscovites, Russians, and Greeks, who have been thus cut off by the oppression and pride of the pope and by false appearance of holiness.

O God, redeem thy poor folk constrained by heavy ban and edict which it no wise willingly obeys, whereby it is bound continually to sin against its conscience if it disobeys them. O God, never hast Thou so heavily burdened a people under human laws as us poor ones beneath the Roman chair, who daily long to be free Christians ransomed by Thy blood.

O Highest Heavenly Father, pour into our hearts through Thy Son Jesus Christ such a light, that we may know thereby which messenger we are to obey, so that with good conscience we may lay aside the burdens of others, and may serve Thee, Eternal Heavenly Father, with free and joyful heart.

And if we lose this man, who has written more clearly than anyone in a hundred and forty years, and to whom Thou hast given such an evangelic spirit, we pray Thee, O Heavenly Father, that Thou give again Thy spirit to another, that he may gather together anew from all parts the holy Christian Church, that we may all live again in a pure and Christian manner, so that from our good works all unbelievers, with Turks, heathens, and Calicuts, may turn themselves to us and embrace the Christian faith.

But, Lord, Thou willest, ere Thou judgest, that as Thy Son Jesus Christ was constrained to die by the hands of the priests and rise from the dead and after to ascend to heaven, that so too, in like manner, it should be with Thy follower, Martin Luther, whose life the pope compasses, with money, treacherously towards God, him, Thou wilt quicken again. And as Thou, Lord, ordainedst that Jerusalem should be destroyed, so wilt Thou also destroy this self-assumed authority of the Roman chair. O lord, give us thereafter the new beautified Jerusalem, which descends from heaven, whereof the Apocalypse writes, the holy pure gospel which is not darkened by human doctrine.

Whoever reads Martin Luther's books may see how clear and transparent his doctrine is, for he teaches the Holy Gospel. Wherefore his writings are to be held in the greatest honour, and not to be burned; unless, indeed, his opponents, who always fight against the truth, were also cast into the fire with all their opinions, they who would make gods out of men, but then only if there were printed new Lutheran books.

"O God, if Luther be dead, who will henceforth expound the Holy Gospel so clearly to us! Ah, God, what might he not have written for us in the next ten or twenty years!" Oh, all ye pious Christian men, help me to lament this God- inspired man and pray to Him that He will send us another enlightened man.

Oh, Erasmus of Rotterdam, where wilt thou stay? Dost thou see how the unjust tyranny of worldly power and the might of darkness prevail? Hear, thou knight of Christ, ride on beside the Lord Jesus; guard the truth, win the martyr's crown! Thou art already only a little old man, and I have heard thee say that thou givest thyself but two years more in which thou mayest avail to accomplish something. Lay out the same now well for the gospel and the true Christian Faith and make thyself heard, so shall the gates of hell, the Roman Chair, as Christ says, in no wise prevail against thee: and if here, like thy Master Christ, thou were to suffer shame at the hands of the liars of this time and therefore were to die a little sooner, the sooner wouldst thou come from death into life and be glorified through Christ. For if thou drinkest out of the cup whereof He drank, with Him thou shalt reign, and judge with justice those who have dealt unrighteously.

Oh, Erasmus, hold to this, that God may be thy praise, even as it is written of David, for verily thou mayest overthrow Goliath. For God stands by the Holy Christian Church, as He only upholds the Romish Church according to His Godly will [text here corrupt]. May He help us to everlasting happiness, Who is God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, one God, Amen.

Oh, ye Christian men, pray God for help, for His judgment draws near and His justice shall appear. Then shall we behold the innocent blood which the pope, priests, bishops, and monks have shed, judged and condemned.

Apocalypse: "These are the slain who lie beneath the altar of God and cry for vengeance, to whom the voice of God answers, Await the full number of the innocent slain, then will I judge."

Again changed 1 florin for expenses, and gave the doctor 8 stivers; dined twice with Rodrigo; dined with the rich canon; changed 1 florin for expenses. I had Master Conrad, the sculptor of Mechlin, as a guest on Whitsunday; paid 18 stivers for Italian prints: again 6 stivers to the doctor. For Master Joachim I have drawn four "St. Christophers" on gray paper, heightened with white.

On the last day of Whitsuntide I was at Antwerp at the great yearly horsefair; there I saw a great number of beautiful stallions ridden, and two stallions in particular were sold for 700 florins. I have taken 1 florin, 3 ort, for prints and used the money for expenses; 4 stivers to the doctor, 3 stivers for two little books. I have dined thrice with Tomasin. I have designed three dagger grips for him, and he gave me a small alabaster bowl. I have taken the portrait in charcoal of an English nobleman, who gave me 1 florin which I changed for expenses. Master Gerhardt, the miniature painter, has a daughter about eighteen years old, called Susanna, who has illuminated a little page with a Saviour, for which I gave her 1 florin. It is very wonderful that a woman's picture should be so good. Have lost 6 stivers at play. I saw the great procession at Antwerp on Holy Trinity Day. Master Conrad has given me a beautiful pair of knives, and so I gave his little old man a "Life of Our Lady" in return. I have taken the portrait in charcoal of Johann, the Brussels goldsmith, likewise his wife's. I have received 2 florins for prints, also Master Johann, the Brussels goldsmith, paid me 3 Philip's florins for what I did for him, namely, the drawing for the seal and the two portraits.

I have given the "Veronica" which I painted in oils, and the "Adam and Eve" that Franz did to Johann, the goldsmith, in return for a jacinth and an agate with a Lucrecia engraved in it. Each of us valued his portion at 14 florins. Further, I gave him a whole set of engravings for a ring and six stones; each valued his portion at 7 florins. Gave 14 stivers for two pairs of gloves; gave 2 stivers for two small boxes; changed 2 Philip's florins for expenses. I drew three "Bearing of the Cross" and two "Mount of Olives" on five half-sheets. I have taken three portraits in black and white on gray paper; also I drew in black and white on gray paper, two Netherlandish costumes. For the Englishman I have painted his arms in colours, for which he gave me 1 florin. Besides this, one way and another, I have done many drawings and other things to serve people, and for the greater part of my work I have received nothing. Andreas of Cracow paid me 1 Philip's florin for a shield and a child's head. Changed 1 florin for expenses. Have given 2 stivers for sweeping brushes. At Antwerp I saw the great procession on Corpus Christi Day, which was very splendid. Gave in the 4 stivers for a tip and 6 stivers to the doctor; changed 1 florin for expenses; 1 stiver for a box. Have dined five times with Tomasin; paid 10 stivers to the apothecary and to his wife 14 stivers for the clyster, and 15 stivers to him for the prescription. Again changed 2 Philip's florins for expenses; 6 stivers again to the doctor, and once more 10 stivers for a clyster to the apothecary's wife, and 4 stivers to the apothecary. I gave the monk who confessed my wife 8 stivers. I have given 8 florins for a whole piece of arras, and again for fourteen ells of fine arras, 8 florins: the apothecary 32 stivers for medicines; to the messenger I have given 3 stivers and the tailor 4 stivers. I have dined once with Hans Fehler, and thrice with Tomasin. Gave 10 stivers for packing.

On the Wednesday after Corpus Christi in the year 1521, I gave over my great bale at Antwerp to be sent to Nuremberg, to the carrier, by name Kunz Metz of Schlaudersdorf, and I am to pay him for carrying it to Nuremberg 1 1/2 florins for every cwt., and I paid him 1 gulden on account, and he is to hand it over to Herr Hans Imhof, the elder. I have done the portrait of young Jacob Rehlinger at Antwerp; have dined three times with Tomasin.

On the eighth day after Corpus Christi I went with my wife to Mechlin to Lady Margaret; took 5 florins with me for expenses; my wife changed 1 florin for expenses. At Mechlin I lodged with Master Heinrich, the painter, at the sign of the Golden Head. The painters and sculptors made me their guest at my inn, and did me great honour in their gathering; and I visited the Poppenreuter's, the gun-maker's house, and found wonderful things there. And I have been to Lady Margaret's, and I let her see my Kaiser, and would have presented it to her, but she disliked it so much that I took it away again. And on Friday Lady Margaret showed me all her beautiful things, and among them I saw about forty small pictures in oils, the like of which for cleanness and excellence I have never seen. And there I saw other good works by Jan [Van Eyck] and Jacopo [de' Barbari]. I asked my lady for Jacopo's little book, but she said she had promised it to her painter; then I saw many other costly things and a fine library. Master Hans Poppenreuter invited me as his guest. I have had Master Conrad twice, and his wife once, as my guests, also the chamberlain Stephen and his wife, both as guests. 27 stivers and 2 stivers for fare. I have taken in charcoal the portrait of Stephen, the chamberlain, and Master Conrad, the carver, and on Saturday I came back from Mechlin to Antwerp. My trunk started on the Saturday after Corpus Christi week. Changed 1 florin for expenses, gave the messenger 3 stivers. Dined twice with the Augustines; dined with Alexander Imhof; paid 6 stivers at the apothecary's; dined again with the Augustines.

I have drawn in charcoal Master Jacob, and had a little panel made for it, which cost 6 stivers, and gave it to him. I have done the portrait of Bernhard Stecher and his wife, and gave him a whole set of prints, and I took his wife's portrait again, and gave 6 stivers for making the little panel, all of which I gave him, and he in return gave me 10 florins.

Master Lucas, who engraves in copper, invited me as his guest. He is a little man, born at Leyden, in Holland, and was at Antwerp. I have eaten with Master Bernhard Stecher. Gave 1 1/2 stivers to the messenger; have taken 1 florin, 1 ort, for prints. I have drawn Master Lucas von Leyden in silverpoint. I have lost 1 florin; paid the doctor 6 stivers and again 6 stivers. I gave the steward of the Augustines' Convent at Antwerp a "Life of Our Lady," and 4 stivers to his man, I have given Master Jacob a copper "Passion" and a wood "Passion," and five other pieces, and 4 stivers to his man; have changed 4 florins for expenses; gave 2 Philip's florins for fourteen fish skins; made portraits in black chalk of Art Braun and his wife. I gave the goldsmith who valued the ring for me 1 florin's worth of prints; of the three rings which I took in exchange for prints, the two smaller are valued at 13 crowns, but the sapphire at 25 crowns; that makes 54 florins, 8 stivers; and what, amongst other things, the above Frenchman took was thirty-six large books, which makes 9 florins. Have given 2 stivers for a screw knife. The man with the three rings has overreached me by a half. I understood nothing in the matter. I gave 18 stivers for a red cap for my godchild; lost 12 stivers at play; drank 2 stivers, bought three fine small rubies for 11 gold florins, 1 2 stivers; changed 1 florin for expenses. Dined again with the Augustines; dined twice with Tomasin. I gave 6 stivers for thirteen porpoise-bristle brushes, and 3 stivers for six bristle brushes.

I have made a careful portrait in black chalk on a royal sheet of the great Anthony Hainault, and I have done careful portraits in black chalk of Braun and his wife on royal sheets, and I have done another one of him in silverpoint; he has given me an angel. Changed 1 florin for expenses, paid 1 florin for a pair of shoes; gave 6 stivers for an inkstand. I gave 12 stivers for a case for packing; 21 stivers for one dozen ladies' gloves; 6 stivers for a bag; 3 stivers for three bristle brushes; changed 1 florin for expenses; gave 1 stiver for a piece of fine red leather. Anthony Hainault, whose portrait I did, has given me 3 Philip's florins, and Bernhard Stecher has made me a present of a tortoise shell; I have done the portrait of his wife's niece; dined once with her husband and he gave me 2 Philip's florins; gave 1 stiver for a tip. I have given Anthony Hainault two books; received 13 stivers for prints. I have given Master Joachim the Hans Grun woodcut. I have changed 3 Philip's florins for expenses; dined twice with Bernhard Stecher; again twice with Tomasin. I have given Jobst's wife four woodcuts; gave Friedrich, Jobst's man, two large books; gave glazier Hennick's son two books. Rodrigo gave me one of the parrots which they bring from Malacca, and I gave his man 3 stivers for a tip. Again dined twice with Tomasin; have given 2 stivers for a little cage, 3 stivers for one pair of socks, and 4 stivers for eight little boards. I gave Peter two whole sheet engravings and one sheet of woodcut. Again dined twice with Tomasin; changed 1 florin for expenses. I gave Master Art, the glass painter, a "Life of Our Lady," and I gave Master Jean, the French sculptor, a whole set of prints; he gave my wife six little glasses with rose water; they are very finely made.

Bought a packing-case for 7 stivers; changed 1 florin for expenses; have given 7 stivers for a cut [leather] bag. Cornelius, the secretary, has given me Luther's "Babylonian Captivity:" in return I gave him my three big books. I gave Peter Puz, the monk, one florin's worth of prints; to the glass painter, Hennick, I gave two large books; gave 4 stivers for a piece of glazed calico; changed 1 Philip's florin for expenses. I gave 8 florins' worth of my prints for a whole set of Lucas's engravings; again changed 1 Philip's florin for expenses. I gave 8 stivers for a bag and 7 stivers for half a dozen Netherlandish cards, and 3 stivers for a small yellow post-horn. I paid 24 stivers for meat, 12 stivers for coarse cloth, and again 3 stivers for coarse cloth. Have eaten twice with Tomasin. I gave 1 stiver to Peter; gave 7 stivers for a present and 3 stivers for sacking. Rodrigo has presented me with six ells of coarse black cloth for a cape; it cost a crown an ell. Changed 2 florins for expenses; gave the tailor's man 2 stivers for a tip. I have reckoned up with Jobst and I owe him 31 florins, which I paid him. Therein were charged and deducted two portrait heads which I painted in oils, for which he gave me five pounds of borax, Netherlandish weight.

In all my doings, spendings, sales, and other dealings in the Netherlands, in all my affairs with high and low, I have suffered loss, and Lady Margaret in particular gave me nothing for what I gave her and did for her. This settlement with Jobst was made on SS. Peter and Paul's Day. I gave Rodrigo's man 7 stivers for a tip. I have given Master Hennick an engraved "Passion;" he gave me some burning pastilles. I had to pay the tailor 25 stivers for making up the cape. I have engaged a carrier to take me from Antwerp to Cologne. I am to pay him 13 light florins, each of 24 stivers, and am to pay besides the expenses for a man and a boy. Jacob Rehlinger has given me 1 ducat for his charcoal portrait. Gerhard has given me two little pots with capers and olives, for which I gave 4 stivers as a tip. Gave Rodrigo's man 1 stiver. I have given my portrait of the Emperor in exchange for a white English cloth which Jacob, Tomasin's son-in-law, gave me.

Alexander Imhof has lent me a full hundred gold florins, on the Eve of Our Lady's Crossing the Mountains, 1521. For this I have given him my sealed signature, which he will have presented to me at Nuremberg, when I will pay him back with thanks, gave 6 stivers for a pair of shoes; paid the apothecary 11 stivers, paid 3 stivers for cord. In Tomasin's kitchen I gave away a Philip's florin in leaving gifts, and I gave his maiden daughter a gold florin on leaving. I have dined thrice with him. I gave Jobst's wife a florin and 1 florin in the kitchen for leaving gifts, also I gave 2 stivers to the packers. Tomasin has given me a small jar full of the best theriac [an antidote for poison]. Changed 3 florins for expenses; gave the house servant 10 stivers on leaving; gave Peter 1 stiver; gave 2 stivers for a tip. I gave 3 stivers to Master Jacob's man; 4 stivers for sacking; gave Peter 1 stiver; gave the messenger 3 stivers.

On Our Lady's Visitation, when I was just leaving Antwerp, the King of Denmark sent for me to come to him at once, to do his portrait; this I did in charcoal, and I did the portrait, too, of his servant Anthony, and I had to dine with the King, who showed himself very gracious to me.

I have entrusted my bale to Leonhard Tucher and given over to him my white cloth. The carrier with whom I bargained, did not take me; I fell out with him. Gerhard has given me some Italian seeds. I gave the new carrier to take home the great turtle shell, the fish shield, the long pipe, the long shield, the fish fins, and the two little casks of lemons and capers, on Our Lady's Visitation Day, 1521.

Next day we set out for Brussels on the King of Denmark's business, and I engaged a driver, to whom I gave 2 florins. I presented to the King of Denmark the best pieces of all my prints, they are worth 5 florins. Changed 2 florins for expenses; paid 1 stiver for a dish and basket. I saw, too, how the people of Antwerp wondered very much when they saw the King of Denmark, that he was such a manly, handsome man, and that he had come hither with only two companions through his enemies' country. I saw, too, how the Emperor rode forth from Brussels to meet him and received him honourably and with great pomp. Then I saw the noble costly banquet that the Emperor and Lady Margaret held next day.

Paid 2 stivers for a pair of gloves. Herr Anthony paid me 12 Horn florins, of which I gave 2 Horn florins to the painter for the little panel to paint the portrait on, and 2 Horn florins for having colours rubbed for me; the other 8 Horn florins I took for expenses.

On the Sunday before St. Margaret's Day, the King of Denmark gave a great banquet to the Emperor, Lady Margaret, and the Queen of Spain [Editor's note: probably Eleanora of Portugal, not the Spanish Queen], and invited me, and I dined there also. Paid 12 stivers for the King's frame, and I painted the King in oils—he has given me 30 florins. [Editor's note: this painting no longer exists].

I gave 2 stivers to the young man called Bartholomew, who rubbed the colours for me; I bought a little glass jar which once belonged to the King for 2 stivers. Paid 2 stivers for a tip; gave 2 stivers for the engraved goblets. I have given Master Jan's boy four half-sheets, and to the master- painter's boy an "Apocalypse" and four half-sheets. Thomas of Bologna has given me one or two Italian prints; I have also bought one for 1 stiver. Master Jobst, the tailor, invited me and I supped with him. I have paid for the hire of a room at Brussels for eight days, 32 stivers. I have given an engraved "Passion" to the wife of Master Jan, the goldsmith, with whom I dined three times. I gave another "Life of Our Lady" to Bartholomew, the painter's apprentice; I have dined with Herr Nicolas Ziegler, and gave 1 stiver to Master Jan's servant. Because of being unable to get a carriage, I have stayed on two days in Brussels; paid 1 stiver for a pair of socks.

On Friday morning early I started from Brussels, and I am to pay the driver 10 florins. I paid my hostess 5 stivers more for the single night. From there we rode through two villages and came to Louvain; breakfasted, and spent 13 stivers. Thence we journeyed through three villages and came to Thienen, which is a little town, and lay the night there, and I spent 9 stivers. From there, early on St. Margaret's Day, we traveled through two villages and came to a town which called St. Truyen, where they are building a large, well-designed church tower, quite new. From thence we went on past some poor houses and came to a little town, Tongeren; there we had our morning meal, and spent all together, 6 stivers. From thence we went through a village and some poor houses and came to Maestricht, where I lay the night, and spent 12 stivers, and 2 blanke besides, for watch money. Thence we journeyed early on Sunday to Aachen, where we ate and spent all together 14 stivers. Thence we traveled to Altenburg, taking six hours, because the driver did not know the way and went wrong; there we stayed for the night and spent 6 stivers. On Monday early we traveled through Julich, a town, and came to Bergheim, where we ate and drank, and spent 3 stivers. Thence we journeyed through three more villages and came to Cologne.



The original edition of this text was translated into English by Rudolf Tombo, Ph.D., and published by The Merrymount Press, Boston, 1913, as part of volume VI of The Humanist's Library, edited by Lewis Einstein. It has also been republished, unabridged, by Dover Publications, Inc., in 1995.

The text itself is copyright-free. This digitized version of the text was prepared by John Mamoun in December, 2000 and is copyright, but liberal permission is granted to freely copy/distribute/modify it for non-commercial purposes/contexts and/or for non-commercial academic use.


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