Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds
by Charles Mackay
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Bourdeaux, haunted house at, ii. 221.

Bourges, house of Jaques Coeur (engraving), i. 134.

Boyd, Captain, killed in a duel, ii. 293.

"Brabant Screen," the, a caricature of the South-Sea Bubble, i. 76.

Breda, siege of, i. 270.

Bremen, Nadel's escape from prison, ii. 257.

Brinvilliers, Madame de, her atrocious murders; escape from France; subsequent trial and execution, ii. 208-214; relics of her fate anxiously sought after, 305.

Brown, Sir Thomas, portrait of; his belief in witchcraft, ii. 151.

Bubble Companies, contemporaneously with the South-Sea Scheme, their extravagant character, i. 52; profits of the promoters, 53; declared unlawful, 55, 86; companies dissolved, 57.

"Bubble Cards," or Caricatures, i. 60, 61.

Buckingham, Villiers, Duke of, his rise in the favour of James I., ii. 197; portrait of, 198; suspected to have poisoned the king, 201.

Byron, Lord, his trial for the murder of Mr. Chaworth in a duel, ii. 292.

Byron, Lord, his poetical villains, ii. 259.

Cagliostro, memoir of, i. 206; his adventures in London, 209; view of his house, 215; implicated in the theft of the diamond necklace, tried and acquitted, 216-220; again in London, imprisonment and death at Rome, 220.

Cagliostro, the Countess, i. 208; his accomplice; her wit, beauty, and ingenuity, 213-216.

Cambridge University, annual sermon against witchcraft, ii. 127.

Camelford, Lord, killed in a duel, ii. 297.

Camhel, Sultan, his generosity to the Christians, ii. 84, 85.

Campbell, Major, his duel with Capt. Boyd, and execution, ii. 293.

Candlemas Eve, superstitious customs, i. 258.

Cant phrases. (See Popular follies.)

Cards. (See Fortune-telling.)

Caricatures, referring to the Mississippi Scheme (four engravings), i. 25, 29, 37, 40, 44.

Caricatures of the South-Sea Bubble (seven engravings), i. 60, 61, 68, 70, 76, 82, 84.

Casaubon, his account of Dr. Dee's intercourse with spirits, i. 155.

"Chambre Ardente," instituted by Louis XIV. for the trial of poisoners, ii. 214, 283.

Change Alley during the South-Sea Bubble (engraving), i. 60.

Charlemagne, his edicts against witches, ii. 109.

Charles I. prevents a duel, ii. 287.

Charles II., his disgraceful conduct in reference to a duel, ii. 288.

Charles VI. of France, his studies in Alchymy, i. 117; his work on that subject, 136.

Charles IX. of France, his patronage of Nostradamus, i. 246; portrait of, ii. 119; his belief in witchcraft, 120.

Chaworth, Mr., killed by Lord Byron in a duel, ii. 292.

Chemistry, its connexion with Alchymy; valuable discoveries of the Alchymists, i. 207, 221.

Children in the Crusades; their personal bravery, ii. 45; are sold to slavery, 81.

Children executed for witchcraft, ii. 163, 179, 181.

Christina, Queen of Sweden, her patronage of Alchymy, i. 183, 185.

Clermont, Urban II. preaches the Crusade there; cathedral of (engraving), ii. 9.

Cock-Lane Ghost, history of the deception; views of the "haunted house," ii. 228, 230.

Coeur, Jaques, memoir of, i. 132; his house at Bourges (engraving), 132.

Cohreddin, Sultan, his generosity to the Christians, ii. 84, 85.

Coke, Chief Justice, portrait of, ii. 199; the poisoners of Sir Thomas Overbury tried by him, 198.

Collins, Joseph, contriver of mysterious noises at Woodstock Palace, ii. 224.

Comets regarded as omens, i. 223, 225; actually dangerous, 228.

Conrad, Emperor of Germany, joins the Crusades, ii. 56; reaches Jerusalem, 60; returns to Europe, 62.

Constance, view of the town gate, ii. 116; witches executed there, 117, 160.

Constantinople during the Crusades, ii. 17, 23-26, 56, 77-80; view of, 78.

Contumacy (refusing to plead to a criminal charge); its severe punishment, ii. 199.

Cornhill at the time of the South-Sea Bubble (engraving), i. 51.

Cosmopolite, the, an anonymous alchymist, memoir of, i. 163.

Cowley's poetical description of the tulip, i. 86; his lines on relics of great men, ii. 308.

Craggs, Mr. Secretary, portrait of, i. 64; his participation in the South-Sea Bubble, 64, 71, 73, 77, 78; his death, 80.

Craggs, Mr., father of the above, his participation in the fraud; his death, i. 80.

Criminals, anxiety to possess relics of their crimes, ii. 306. (See Thieves.)

Cromwell, Sir Samuel, his persecution of "The Witches of Warbois," ii. 126.

Cross, trial or ordeal of the, ii. 264.

Cross, the true. (See Relics.)

CRUSADES, The, ii. 1-100; differently represented in history and in romance; pilgrimages before the Crusades, ii. 2; encouraged by Haron al Reschid; pilgrims taxed by the Fatemite caliphs; increase of pilgrimages in anticipation of the millenium, 3; oppressions of the Turks; consequent indignation of the pilgrims, 4; Peter the Hermit espouses their cause; state of the public mind in Europe, 5; motives leading to the Crusades, 6; Peter the Hermit stimulates the Pope; his personal appearance, 7; council at Placentia, 8; the Pope preaches the Crusade at Clermont, 9; enthusiasm of the people, 10; increased by signs and portents, 11; zeal of the women, 12; crowds of Crusaders, 13; "The truce of God" proclaimed; dissipation of the Crusaders, 14; popular leaders; Walter the Penniless, and Gottschalk, 15; conflicts with the Hungarians, 15, 16; Peter the Hermit defeated; arrives at Constantinople, 17; the Emperor Alexius; dissensions and reverses of the first Crusaders, 18; Peter the Hermit assisted by Alexius, 19; fresh hordes from Germany and France; their cruelty to the Jews, 20; defeated in Hungary; fresh leaders; Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh count of Vermandois, Robert duke of Normandy, Robert count of Flanders and Bohemund, 21; the immense number of their forces; Hugh of Vermandois imprisoned, 23; his release obtained by Godfrey of Bouillon, 24; insolence of Count Robert of Paris; weakness of Alexius, 25; the siege of Nice, 26; barbarity of the Crusaders and Musselmen; anecdote of Godfrey of Bouillon, 27; Nice surrenders to Alexius; battle of Doryloeum, 28; improvidence and sufferings of the Crusaders, 29, 30; the siege of Antioch, 29, 31; Crusaders reduced to famine, 30; Antioch taken by treachery in the garrison (engraving), 32; the city invested by the Turks, 34; increasing famine and desertion, 35; Peter Barthelemy, his pretended vision, and discovery of the "Holy Lance" (engraving), 35-37, 40; revival of enthusiasm, 38; battle of Antioch, and defeat of the Turks, 38; dissensions, 40; fate of Peter Barthelemy, 41; Marah taken by storm, 42; shrine of the nativity at Bethlehem, (engraving), 43; first sight of Jerusalem (engraving), 44; the city besieged and taken, 45; Peter the Hermit's fame revives, 46; Jerusalem under its Christian kings, 48; Godfrey of Bouillon succeeded by Baldwin; continual conflicts with the Saracens; Edessa taken by them, 50.

Second Crusade:—Society in Europe at its commencement, 52; St. Bernard's preaching; Louis VII. joins the Crusaders, 53-55; receives the cross at Vezelai (engraving), 54; is joined by Conrad emperor of Germany and a large army, 56; their reception by Manuel Comnenus, 57; losses of the German army, 58; progress to Nice, and thence to Jerusalem, 60; jealousies of the leaders; siege of Damascus, 61; further dissensions; the siege abandoned, 62.

Third Crusade:—Progress of chivalry, 62; successes of Saladin, 63; Barbarossa defeats the Saracens, 64; Crusade joined by Henry II. and Philip Augustus, 64; they meet at Gisors (engraving), 65; the Crusade unpopular, 66; delayed by war between France and England, death of Henry II.; Richard and Philip proceed to Palestine, 67; Richard attacks the Sicilians, 68; arrives at Acre, 69; siege and surrender of the city, 71; dissensions, Philip returns to France, Saladin defeated at Azotus, 72; Crusaders reach Bethlehem (engraving), retreat agreed on, 73; Jaffa attacked by Saladin and rescued by Richard, peace concluded, Richard's imprisonment and ransom, 74.

Fourth Crusade, undertaken by the Germans; its failure, 75.

Fifth Crusade:—Foulque, Bishop of Neuilly, enlists the chivalry of France; assisted by the Venetians; siege of Zara, 76; Crusaders expel Alexius III. from Constantinople, 77; Alexius IV. deposed, 78; Murzuphlis defeated by the Crusaders and Venetians, 79; Baldwin count of Flanders, elected emperor; Pilgrimages to Jerusalem; children undertaking the Crusade are betrayed to slavery, 80.

Sixth Crusade, prompted by the Pope, 81; undertaken by the King of Hungary; pursued in Egypt; Damietta taken, 82; Cardinal Pelagius and John of Brienne, 83; dissensions and reverses; Damietta abandoned, 84.

Seventh Crusade:—Undertaken by Frederick II. of Germany, 84; intrigues against him; he is excommunicated, 85; crowns himself King of Jerusalem, 86; supported by the Templars and Hospitallers (engraving), 86; returns to Germany, 87.

Eighth Crusade, commenced in France, 87: battle of Gaza; Richard earl of Cornwall; truce agreed on; the Korasmins take Jerusalem, 88; they subdue the Templars, but are extirpated by the Syrian sultans, 90.

Ninth Crusade, began by Louis IX., 90; joined by William Longsword (engraving), 91; the Crusade unpopular in England, 91-97; Damietta taken, 93; battle of Massoura; Louis taken prisoner by the Saracens; his ransom and return, 94; excitement in France, 95.

Tenth Crusade, by Louis IX. and Prince Edward of England, 95; Louis dies at Carthage, 96; Edward arrives at Acre, 97; defeats the Turks at Nazereth; is treacherously wounded; the legend of Queen Eleanor, 98; her tomb at Westminster (engraving); a truce concluded; Edward returns to England; subsequent fate of the Holy Land, 99; civilising influence of the Crusades, 100.

Currency in France, the Mississippi scheme, i. 4.

D'Aguesseau, Chancellor of France, his opposition to the Mississippi scheme, i. 11; portrait of; his financial measures, 33.

Damascus, besieged by the Crusaders (engraving), ii. 61.

Damietta besieged by the Crusaders, ii. 83, 93.

Dances of witches and toads, ii. 108, 109.

D'Ancre, the Marechale, executed for witchcraft, ii. 166.

Dandolo, Doge of Venice, his encouragement of the Crusaders, ii. 76.

D'Apone, Pietro, his studies in alchymy; his command of money; charged with heresy, is tortured, and dies in prison, i. 104; portrait of, ii. 140.

D'Argenson, French minister of finance, a supporter of the Mississippi scheme, i. 11, 42; portrait of, 42.

Dead, the. (See Raising the Dead.)

De Bouteville, a famous duellist, temp. Louis XIII., ii. 280; beheaded by the justice of Richelieu, 281.

Dee, Dr., memoir and portrait of, i. 152; his "shew-stone" in the British Museum (engraving), 154.

De Jarnac and La Chataigneraie, their famous duel, ii. 273.

Deleuze, M., his absurd theories on animal magnetism, i. 291.

Delisle, Alain, an alchymist, i. 102.

Delisle, Jean, the alchymist, memoir of, i. 189; his success in transmuting metals, attested by the Bishop of Senes, 193; his imprisonment and death, 197.

Delrio, his persecution of witches, ii. 159.

De Meung, Jean, author of the Roman de la Rose, his study of alchymy, his libel on the fair sex, i. 112.

Demons, popular belief in, ii. 105; their powers and propensities, 106, 107; their meetings or "Sabbaths," 107. (See Witchcraft and the Alchymists.)

De Nogent, his description of Peter the Hermit, ii. 7; of the enthusiasm of the first Crusaders, 12, 23.

De Rays, Marechale, the alchymist, memoir of, i. 125.

De Rohan, Cardinal, his patronage of Cagliostro, i. 213-215; his connexion with Marie Antoinette and the diamond necklace, 216-220.

D'Eslon, a pupil of Mesmer, i. 276, 280.

Desmarets, Minister of France, his belief in alchymy, i. 192.

Devil, the, old popular notions of, ii. 103; various forms assumed by him, 106, 107; presided at the witches' "Sabbath," 108; his appearance to De Rays and Agrippa, i. 129, 142.

De Villeneuve, Arnold, his skill as a physician, astrologer and alchymist (with portrait), i. 103.

D'Horn, Count, murders a broker, and steals his Mississippi bonds (engraving), i. 21; efforts to save his life, inflexibility of the Regent, his execution, 22, 23.

Diamond, famous, purchased by the Regent Orleans, i. 27.

Diamond Necklace of Marie Antoinette, history of the theft, i. 206-220.

Diamonds worn by the Count St. Germain, i. 203; his power of removing flaws in, 204.

Digby, Sir Kenelm, a believer in the virtues of "weapon-salve," i. 265.

Diseases cured by imagination, i. 262, 272; pretended influence of magnetism, 262. (See the MAGNETISERS.)

Divination, its popularity; by cards, the tea-cup, the palm of the hand, the rod, and other modes, i. 251.

"Domdaniel," or Witches' Sabbath. (See Witchcraft.)

Dorylaeum, battle of, ii. 28.

Dowston, John, an English alchymist, i. 136.

Dramas on the adventures of thieves; their popularity and evil influence, ii. 253, 257-260.

Dreams, interpretation of, i. 253.

Dreams on particular nights, i. 258.

Dream-books, their extensive sale, i. 254.

Du Pompadour, Madame, and the Count de St. Germain, i. 201.

Dupotet, M., his account of Mesmer's experiments, i. 279, 285.

Drummer of Tedworth. (See Haunted Houses.)

Du Barri, Vicomte, killed in a duel at Bath, ii. 293.

DUELS AND ORDEALS, ii. 261-301; the ordeal by combat, or trial by battle, its natural origin; authorised by law, 262; discouraged by the clergy, 263; the oath upon the Evangelists, 264; judgment by the cross, 264; fire-ordeal, 265; ordeals used by modern Hindoos, 265; water ordeal, 265; the corsned, or bread and cheese ordeal, 266; ordeals superseded by judicial combats, 267; duels of Ingelgerius and Gontran (engraving), 269; De Montfort and the Earl of Essex, 270; Du Guesclin and Troussel (engraving), 261, 271; Carrouges and Legris, 272; La Chataigneraie and De Jarnac, 273; L'Isle-Marivaut and Marolles, 276; the Dukes de Beaufort and de Nemours, 282; Count de Bussy and Bruc, 282; frivolous causes of duels, 270, 271, 276, 282, 292, 296; their prevalence in France, 276, 277, 279, 280, 282; the custom opposed by Sully and Henry IV.; council at Fontainebleau (engraving), and royal edict, 277-279; efforts of Richelieu to suppress duelling, 280; De Bouteville, a famous duellist, beheaded by the justice of Richelieu; opinion of Addison on duelling, 281; duels in Germany, 282; severe edict by Louis XIV., 283; singular laws of Malta, 284; judicial combat in the reign of Queen Elizabeth; Lord Bacon opposes duelling, 285; Lord Sanquir's duel with Turner; his execution for murder; combat between Lord Reay and David Ramsay prevented by Charles I., 287; Orders of the Commonwealth and Charles II. against the practice; Duke of Buckingham's duel with Earl Shrewsbury; disgraceful conduct of Charles II., 288; practice of seconds in duels fighting as well as principals, 280, 288; arguments of Addison, Steele, and Swift, 288; duels in England; Sir C. Deering and Mr. Thornhill; Duke of Marlborough and Earl Pawlet; Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun; trial of General Macartney, 289-292; Wilson killed by John Law, i. 3; Mr. Chaworth killed by Lord Byron, ii. 292; Vicomte Du Barri by Count Rice, the Duke of York and Colonel Lennox, 293; Irish duels, 294; Major Campbell executed for the death of Captain Boyd, 296; Macnamara and Montgomery; duels of German students, 297; Best and Lord Camelford, 297; Frederick the Great and Joseph II. of Austria opposed to duelling, 298; other European edicts; laws of America, 299; general reflections, 300.

Du Guesclin and Troussel, their duel (engraving,) ii. 261, 271.

Du Fresnoy's history of the Hermetic Philosophy, i. 95, 96.

Duncan, Gellie, and her accomplices tried for witchcraft; their absurd confessions, ii. 129-135.

Duval, Claude, popular admiration of; Butler's ode to his memory, ii. 255.

Earthquakes prophesied in London, i. 224, 230.

Edessa taken by the Crusaders, ii. 30; retaken by the Saracens, 50.

Edward I., his great seal (engraving), ii. 97.

Edward II. joins the last Crusade, ii. 95; arrives at Acre, 97; treacherously wounded, 98; his patronage of Raymond Lulli the alchymist, i. 108; its supposed motive, 135.

Edward IV., his encouragement of alchymy, i. 135.

Edward VI., his patronage of Dr. Dee, i. 152.

Egypt, the Crusaders in, ii. 83, 84, 90, 92, 93.

Elias claimed as a Rosicrucian, i. 175.

Elixir Vitae. (See Alchymists.)

Eleanor, Queen of Edward II., her tomb at Westminster (engraving), ii. 99.

Elizabeth, Queen, her patronage of Dr. Dee, i. 153, 162.

Elwes, Sir Jervis, his participation in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, his execution, ii. 194, 197, 199.

End of the world prophesied in the year 999, i. 222; by Whiston in 1736, 223.

Epigrams on John Law and the Mississippi Scheme, i. 24, 37.

Essex, Countess of, afterwards Countess of Somerset. (See Somerset.)

Executions for witchcraft. (See Witchcraft.)

Ezekiel claimed as a Rosicrucian, i. 175.

Falling stars regarded as omens, i. 223; falling stars and other meteors before the Crusades, ii. 11.

Faria, the Abbe, the magnetiser, i. 294.

Fashion of short and long hair, beards, and moustaches, i. 296-303.

Female Crusaders. (See Women.)

Feudalism at the commencement of the Crusades, ii. 5.

Fian, Dr., tortured for witchcraft, ii. 131.

Finance in France; the Mississippi scheme, i. 2, 6.

Fire-ordeal. (See Duels and Ordeals.)

Flamel, Nicholas, the alchymist, memoir of i. 113.

Florimond on the prevalence of witchcraft, ii. 115.

Flowers, fruits, and trees, their significance in dreams, i. 254.

Fludd, Robert, the father of the English Rosicrucians, memoir of, i. 173; introduces "weapon-salve" in England, 265.

Follies of great cities; cant, or slang phrases, ii. 239-248.

Fontainebleau, council held by Henry IV. and edict against duelling (engraving), ii. 278.

Food, its necessity denied by the Rosicrucians, i. 176.

Forman, Dr., his participation in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, ii. 194.

FORTUNE-TELLING, i. 242-258; presumption of man; his anxiety to penetrate futurity, 242. Judicial astrologers: Lilly, 243. Astrology in France, Louis XI., Catherine de Medicis, Nostradamus (portrait), 246; the Medici family, 247; Antiochus Tibertus, 247; horoscope of Louis XIV. 249; Kepler's excuse for astrology, 249. Necromancy, Geomancy, Augury, Divination, 250; various kinds of divination; cards, the palm, the rod, &c., 251; interpretation of dreams, 253.

Foulque, Bishop of Neuilly, promoter of the fifth Crusade, ii. 76.

France, its finances in the eighteenth century; the Mississippi scheme, i. 5, 6; the Crusade preached there, ii. 8; the cathedral of Clermont (engraving), ii. 9; executions for witchcraft, ii. 119, 122, 174; existing belief in witchcraft there, ii. 189; the slow poisoners in, ii. 208; immense rage for duelling in France, 276, 277, 279, 280; alchymy in France. (See the Alchymists, Paris, Tours, &c.)

Franklin, an apothecary, his participation in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, ii. 195, 198, 199.

Frederick the Great, his opposition to duelling, ii. 298.

Frederick II., Emperor of Germany, undertakes the Crusade, ii. 84; crowns himself king at Jerusalem, 86; returns to Germany, 87.

Frederick III. of Denmark, his patronage of alchymy, i. 183.

Gambling speculations. (See Mississippi Scheme and South-Sea Bubble.)

Garinet, Jules, his Histoire de la Magie en France, ii. 105, 109, 122, 189, 221.

Gateway of Merchant-Tailors' Hall, with South-Sea speculators (engraving), i. 62.

Gay, the poet, his shares in the South-Sea Company, i. 65.

Geber, the alchymist, memoir of, i. 96; his scientific discoveries; English translation of his work, 97.

Geomancy described, i. 250.

Geoffrey, M., his exposure of the tricks of alchymists, i. 188.

George I., his speeches and proclamation on the South-Sea Bubble, i. 47-55, 69; his grief on the death of the Earl of Stanhope, i. 75.

George III. refuses to pardon Major Campbell for the death of Capt. Boyd in a duel, ii. 293.

Germany, executions for witchcraft, ii. 118; duelling in, 282, 298; alchymy in, encouraged by the emperors, i. 119, 135, 158; the Rosicrucians in, 178; animal magnetism in, 290.

Gesner, Conrad, the first tulip cultivator, portrait of, i. 85.

Ghosts. (See Haunted Houses.)

Gibbon, Edward, grandfather of the historian, his participation in the South-Sea fraud, i. 73, 77; heavily fined, 81; his grandson's account of the proceedings, 81.

Gisors, meeting there of Henry II. and Philip Augustus (engraving), ii. 65.

Glanvill, Rev. J., his work on witchcraft, ii. 148, 224.

Glauber, an alchymist, i. 187.

Glen, Lincolnshire, belief in witches there, ii. 185.

Gnomes. (See the Rosicrucians.)

Godfrey of Bouillon, his achievements in Palestine (engraving), ii. 21-24, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 35, 38, 39, 42, 46, 48.

Gold, sought by the Alchymists. (See Alchymists.)

Gottschalk, a leader of the Crusaders, ii. 15, 20.

Gowdie, Isabel, her confession of witchcraft, ii. 136.

Grafton's Chronicle, account of Peter of Pontefract, i. 235.

Greatraks, Valentine, his wonderful cures, i. 269-272.

Great Seal of Edward I. (engraving), ii. 97.

Gregorian chant, its merit tested by the ordeal of fire, ii. 266.

Guise, the Duke of, his attempt to poison Gennaro Annese, ii. 202.

Guizot, M., his remarks on the Crusades, ii. 51.

Gustavus Adolphus an alchymist, i. 187.

Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, besieges Acre, ii. 69.

Hair, its length influenced by religious and political prejudices; legislative enactments, i. 296; short hair of the Normans (engraving), i. 297, 303; St. Wulstan's antipathy to long hair, 297; Serlo cuts off the hair of Henry I. (engraving), 296, 298; Louis VII. and his queen, 299; William "Longbeard," 300; Roundheads and Cavaliers, 301; Peter the Great taxes beards, 301.

Hale, Sir Matthew, portrait of, ii. 148; his belief in witchcraft, 157.

Hamilton, Duke of, his duel with Lord Mohun, ii. 290.

Harcouet, his receipt for the Elixir Vitae, i. 103.

Harley, Earl of Oxford, the originator of the South-Sea Company, portrait of, i. 46.

Haroun al Reschid, the Caliph, his encouragement of Christian pilgrims, ii. 3.

Hastings, recent belief in witchcraft there, ii. 187.

Hatton, Lady, her reputation for witchcraft; her house in Hatton Garden, (engraving), ii. 186.

"HAUNTED HOUSES," popular belief in, ii. 217-238; a house at Aix la Chapelle, cause of the noises discovered, ii. 218; alarm caused by a rat, 219; the monks of St. Bruno, their trick to obtain the haunted palace of Vauvert, 220; houses at Tours and Bordeaux, 221; the story of Woodstock Palace, 222; Mr. Mompesson's house at Tedworth, 224; the "Cock Lane Ghost," history of the deception; believed in by the learned (engravings), 228; the Stockwell ghost, 234; Baldarroch farm-house, 235; effect of education and civilisation, 238.

Hawkins, Mr., engravings from his Collection of Caricatures, i. 29, 44.

Haygarth, Dr., his exposure of Perkins's "Metallic Tractors," i. 289.

Hell, Father, his magnetic cures; his connexion with Mesmer, i. 283.

Henry I., his hair cut short by Serlo, his chaplain (engraving), i. 262, 264.

Henry II. joins the third crusade (engraving), ii. 64.

Henry VI. issues patents to encourage alchymy, i. 118, 135.

Henry VIII., his invitation to Cornelius Agrippa, i. 140.

Henry, Prince, son of James I. suspected to have been poisoned, ii. 200.

Henry II. of France, his patronage of Nostradamus, i. 246; said to have prohibited duelling, ii. 273, 275; his death in the lists, 276.

Henry IV. of France, portrait of, ii. 277; his opposition to duelling, 277, 279.

Hermes Trismegistus, the founder of alchymy, i. 95.

Hermetic Philosophy. (See the Alchymists.)

Heydon, John, an English Rosicrucian, i. 175.

Heywood, his life and prophecies of Merlin, i. 233.

Highwaymen. (See Thieves.)

Hogarth's caricature of the South-Sea Bubble (engraving), i. 82.

Holland, the tulip mania. (See Tulip Mania.)

Holloway's lectures on animal magnetism, i. 287.

Holt, Chief Justice, his opposition to the belief in witchcraft, ii. 152.

"Holy Lance," the, its pretended discovery (engraving), ii. 37.

Hopkins, Matthew, the "witch-finder general," his cruelty and retributive fate, (engraving), ii. 143-146.

Horoscope of Louis XIV., i. 249.

Hugh count of Vermandois imprisoned at Constantinople, ii. 21, 23; at the siege of Nice, 26; quits the Crusaders, 42.

Human remains ingredients in charms and nostrums, i. 272.

Hungary plundered by the Crusaders, ii. 15, 16, 20, 21.

Hutchinson, Dr., his work on witchcraft, ii. 123.

Imps in the service of witches. (See Demons and Witchcraft.)

Ingelgerius count of Anjou, his duel with Gontran (engraving), ii. 269.

Innocent III. and IV., promoters of the Crusades, ii. 75, 80, 81.

Innocent VIII., his bull against witchcraft, ii. 117.

Innspruck, view of (engraving), i. 181.

Invisibility pretended by the Rosicrucians, i. 169, 178.

Isaac Comnenus attacked by Richard I., ii. 69.

Isaac of Holland, an alchymist, i. 136.

Isnik, the Crusaders defeated at (with view of Isnik), ii. 19.

Italy, slow poisoning in (see Poisoning); the banditti of, ii. 256.

Jaques Coeur the alchymist, memoir of, i. 132.

Jaffa besieged by Saladin, and saved by Richard I., ii. 74; view of, ii. 89; defended by the Templars against the Korasmins, ii. 90.

James I., his belief in the virtue of "weapon salve," i. 266; portrait of, ii. 134; charges Gellie Duncan and others with witchcraft, 129; their trial, confessions and execution, 129-135; his work on "Demonology," 139; his supposed secret vices; his favoritism to the Earl of Somerset, the poisoner of Sir Thomas Overbury; himself thought to have died by poison, 193-202; his severity against duelling, 287.

Jean De Meung. (See De Meung.)

Jerusalem (and see Crusades), engravings, ii. 44, 47, 49; first pilgrims to, ii. 2; besieged and taken by the Crusaders, 45; its state under the Christian kings, 48, 49; council of the second Crusade there, 60; captured by Saladin, 63.

Jewell, Bishop, his exclamations against witchcraft, ii. 124.

Jews plundered and murdered by the Crusaders, ii. 20.

Joan of Arc, her execution (engraving), ii. 114.

John XXII. (Pope), his study of Alchymy, i. 111.

Johnson, Dr., on the "Beggar's Opera," ii. 258.

Joseph II. of Austria, his opposition to duelling, ii. 298.

Judicial astrology. (See Astrology.)

Judicial combats. (See Duels.)

Karloman, King of Hungary, his contest with the Crusaders, ii. 20.

Kelly, Edward, the Alchymist, memoir of, i. 152.

Kendal, Duchess of, her participation in the South-Sea fraud, i. 76, 77.

Kent, Mr., accused of murder by the "Cock Lane Ghost," ii. 229.

Kepler, his excuse for astrology, i. 250.

Kerbogha, leader of the Turks defeated at Antioch, ii. 34, 38, 39.

Kerr, Robert, afterwards Earl of Somerset. (See Somerset.)

Kircher abandons his belief in alchymy, i. 185, 183; his belief in magnetism as a remedy for disease, 264.

Knight, ——, Treasurer of the South-Sea Company, his apprehension and escape, i. 76.

Knox, John, portrait of; accused of witchcraft, ii. 128.

Koffstky, a Polish alchymist, i. 136.

Labourt, France, 200 witches executed, ii. 166.

La Chataigneraie and De Jarnac, their famous duel, ii. 273.

La Chaussee, the accomplice of Madame de Brinvilliers, his execution, ii. 212.

Lady-day, superstitions on, i. 258.

Lamb, Dr., the poisoner, attacked and killed in the streets (engraving), ii. 202.

"Lancashire witches" executed, ii. 141.

Laski, Count Albert, his reception by Queen Elizabeth, his studies in alchymy, i. 155; is victimised by Dee and Kelly, 157.

Lavigoreux and Lavoisin, the French poisoners executed, ii. 215.

Law, J., projector of the Mississippi scheme, his romantic history, i. 1; his house in the Rue de Quincampoix, Paris (engraving), i. 13.

Law, Wm., his participation in the Mississippi scheme, i. 9, 42.

Le Blanc, the Abbe, on the popularity of Great Thieves, ii. 251.

Lennox, Col., his duel with the Duke of York, ii. 293.

Liege, Madame de Brinvilliers arrested there, ii. 213.

Lille, singular charges of witchcraft at, ii. 169.

Lilly, the astrologer, account of, i. 243.

Lipsius, his passion for tulips, i. 86.

London, the plague of 1665, i. 228; inundation prophesied in 1524, i. 228; the Great Fire, 230. (See also Cagliostro, Change Alley, Cornhill, Merchant Taylors' Hall, Tower, Westminster.)

Longbeard, William, cause of his name, i. 300.

Longsword, William (engraving), joins the ninth Crusade, ii. 91.

Loudun, the curate of, executed for witchcraft, ii. 168.

Louis VII. cuts short his hair, and loses his queen, i. 299; joins the Crusaders, ii. 53; is consecrated at St. Denis, 55; reaches Constantinople and Nice, 58; his conflicts with the Saracens, 59; arrival at Jerusalem, 60; his sincerity as a Crusader, 61; returns to France, 62.

Louis IX. undertakes the ninth Crusade, ii. 90; his valour at the battle of Massoura, 94; taken prisoner, 94; his ransom and return, 94; his second Crusade, 95; effigy of (engraving), 220.

Louis XI., his encouragement of astrologers, i. 246.

Louis XIII., prevalence of duelling in his reign, ii. 280.

Louis XIV., his bigotry and extravagance, i. 5, 6; remonstrated with by his Parliament on his leniency to supposed witches, ii. 171; portrait of, 177; establishes the "chambre ardente" for the trial of poisoners, 214, 283; his horoscope, 249; his severe edict against duelling, 283.

Louis XV., his patronage of the Court St. Germain, i. 201, 204.

"Loup-garou" executed in France, ii. 120.

Loutherbourg, the painter, his alleged cures by animal magnetism, i. 288.

Lulli, Raymond, a famous alchymist, his romantic history, with portrait, i. 105; his treatment by Edward II., 135.

Lyons, view of, ii. 160.

Macartney, General, second to Lord Mohun, his trial for murder, ii. 292.

Mackenzie, Sir George, portrait of, ii. 138; his enlightened views on witchcraft, 137.

Macnamara and Montgomery, frivolous cause of their fatal duel, ii. 297.

MAGNETISERS, the, i. 262-295; effect of imagination in the cure of diseases, i. 262, 272. Mineral Magnetism: Paracelsus its first professor, 263; diseases transplanted to the earth; Kircher; "weapon-salve," 264; controversy on its merits, 265; Sir Kenelm Digby's "powder of sympathy," 266; other delusions, 268. Animal Magnetism: wonderful cures by Valentine Greatraks, i. 269-272; Francisco Bagnoni, Van Helmont, Gracian, Baptista Porta, &c., 272; Wirdig, Maxwell, 273; the convulsionaires of St. Medard, i. 273; Father Hell, 274; Anthony Mesmer, his history and theory, 275; Mesmer, 276-283; D'Eslon adopts his views, 278, 280, 281; encouragement to depravity afforded by his experiments, 282, 293; exposures by MM. Dupotet and Bailly, 279, 281; Marquis de Puysegur, 283; Chevalier de Barbarin, 286; Mainauduc, Holloway, Loutherbourg, 287, 288; Perkins's "Metallic Tractors" exposed by Dr. Haygarth, 289; absurd theories of Deleuze, 291; the Abbe Faria, fallacies of the theory of, 294.

Mainauduc, Dr., his experiments in animal magnetism, i. 287.

Malta, its singular laws on duelling, ii. 284.

Mansfield, Lord, trial of the "Cock-lane Ghost" conspirators before him, ii. 234.

Manuel Comnenus, his treatment of the Crusaders, ii. 56, 58, 59.

Marie Antoinette, history of the diamond necklace, i. 216-220.

Marlborough, Duke of, his duel with Earl Pawlet, ii. 289.

Massaniello, relics of his fate treasured by the populace, ii. 305.

Massoura, battle of, the Saracens defeated, ii. 94.

Mayer, Michael, his report on the Rosicrucian doctrines, i. 168.

Maxwell, William, the magnetiser, i. 273.

Medicis, Catherine di, her encouragement of astrologers, i. 246.

Medici family, predictions respecting them, i. 247.

Merchant Taylors' Hall, view of gateway, i. 62.

Merlin, his pretended prophecies, i. 232; his miraculous birth, 236; Spenser's description of his cave, 237.

Mesmer, Anthony, the founder of animal magnetism, his history and theory, i. 275; his theory and practice, 276; elegance of his house at Paris, 278; infatuation of his disciples, 282.

Metals, transmutation of. (See Alchymists.)

Meteoric phenomena, their effect in inciting to the Crusades, ii. 3, 11.

Meteors regarded as omens, i. 223.

Milan, plague of 1630 prophesied, i. 225; fear of poisoners, Mora and others executed, 226; appearance of the devil, 227.

Millenium, the, universally expected at the end of the tenth century, ii. 3.

MISSISSIPPI SCHEME, the, its history, i. 1-44; financial difficulties in France, expedients of the Regent Orleans, i. 6; official peculation and corruption, 7; John Law's propositions; his French cognomen, "Lass;" his bank established, 9; his notes at a premium; branch banks established; Mississippi trading company established; bank made a public institution; extensive issue of notes, 10; opposition of the Parliament, 11; the Regent uses coercion; Mississippi shares rise, 12; the Company of the Indies formed; magnificent promises; immense excitement and applications for shares; Law's house in the Rue de Quincampoix (engraving), 13; hunchback used as a writing-desk (engraving), 15; enormous gains of individuals, 14, 16, 19, 20, 26; Law's removal to the Place Vendome, 14; continued excitement, 15; removal to the Hotel de Soissons (engraving), 15; noble and fashionable speculators, 17; ingenious schemes to obtain shares (engraving), 18; avarice and ambition of the speculators; robberies and murders, 20; a broker murdered by Count d'Horn, and robbed of shares (engraving), 21; temporary stimulus to trade, and illusive prosperity; Law purchases estates, and turns Catholic, 24; his charity and modesty, 25; caricatures of him, as Atlas, 25; "Lucifer's new row barge," 29; in a car drawn by cocks, 40; increase of luxury in Paris, 26; the Regent purchases the great diamond, 27; symptoms of distrust; coin further depreciated, 28; use of specie forbidden, at Law's suggestion, 29; popular hatred excited, 30; fall of shares, 31; conscription for the Mississippi gold mines (engraving), 31; further issue of notes, and increased distrust and distress, 32; payment stopped, and Law dismissed from the ministry, 33; his danger from the populace, 33, 35, 38; D'Aguesseau's measures to restore credit (portrait), 34; run on the Bank, 34; fatal accidents in the crowd, 34; the Mississippi and India companies deprived of their privileges, 39; Law leaves France, 40; D'Argenson's dismissal and unpopularity, 42; Law's subsequent history and death, 43; caricatures of the scheme in its success and failure, 25, 29, 37, 40, 44.

Modern prophecies, i. 222-241.

Mohra, in Sweden, absurd charges of witchcraft, and numerous executions, ii. 177.

Mohun, Lord, his duel with the Duke of Hamilton, ii. 290.

Mompesson, Mr., his "haunted house" at Tedworth, ii. 224.

Money Mania. (See the Mississippi Scheme and South-Sea Bubble.)

Montesquieu "Esprit des Loix," ii. 262-267.

Montgomery and Macnamara, frivolous cause of their fatal duel, ii. 297.

More, Hannah, on animal magnetism, i. 287.

Mormius, the alchymist, memoir of, i. 178.

Mortlake, Dr. Dee's house at, i. 153, 162.

Moses cited by alchymists as an adept, i. 95; claimed as a Rosicrucian, 175.

Moustaches, fashion of wearing, i. 302.

Mummies, an ingredient in charms and nostrums, i. 271.

Munting's history of the tulip mania, i. 87.

Nadel, Mausch, a German robber, ii. 257.

Naiades. (See the Rosicrucians.)

Nantwich, Nixon's prophecy of its fate, i. 240.

Naples, arrest and execution of La Tophania, the slow poisoner, ii. 207.

Napoleon's willow at St. Helena and other relics, ii. 307.

Naude, Gabriel, his exposure of the Rosicrucians, i. 173.

Necromancy, its connexion with alchymy, i. 129; danger of its practice, 250.

New England, women, a child, and a dog, executed as witches, ii. 180.

Nice besieged by the Crusaders, ii. 26.

Nixon, Robert, the Cheshire prophet, i. 238.

Noah, the patriarch, a successful alchymist, i. 95.

Noises. (See Haunted Houses.)

Normandy, witches in, ii. 172.

Nostradamus, the astrologer; his prophecies (portrait), i. 246.

Oath on the Evangelists and holy relics, a test of innocence, ii. 264.

Odomare, a French alchymist, i. 136.

Official peculation in France under the Regent Orleans, i. 7.

Omens: winding-sheets, howling dogs, death-watch, "coffins," shivering, walking under ladders, upsetting salt, thirteen at table, piebald horses, sneezing, dogs, cats, bees, itching; Oriental belief in omens, i. 255. (See Comets, Falling Stars, and Meteors.)

Oneiro-criticism; interpreting dreams. (See Dreams.)

Ordeals. (See Duels and Ordeals.)

Orleans, Duke of. (Regent of France) portrait of; his patronage of the Mississippi Scheme, i. 5; his financial errors, 10, 12, 33, 41; enforces the execution of Count D'Horn for murder, 23; his purchase of the celebrated diamond, 27; his ill-treatment of Law, 33.

Orleans, Duchess of, her remarks on the Mississippi scheme, i. 5, 19, 24, 35, 36.

Ortholani, a French alchymist, i 136.

Overbury, Sir Thomas, portrait of, ii. 195; poisoned by the Earl and Countess of Somerset and their accomplices, 193-201.

Palestine. (See the Crusades.)

Palmistry. (See Fortune-Telling.)

Paper currency, introduced in France by John Law, i. 4.

Paracelsus, memoir and portrait of, i. 142; his singular doctrines, 145; the first of the magnetisers, 262.

Paris, the Palais Royal (engraving), i. 12; John Law's house, Rue de Quincampoix (engraving), 13; Hotel de Soissons (engraving), 16; incidents of the Mississippi scheme (four engravings), i. 15, 18, 21, 31; the Place de Greve (engraving), ii. 192; the Bastile (engraving), ii. 209; house of Nicholas Flamel, in the rue de Marivaux, i. 118; the Rosicrucians in, i. 170-173; Mesmer's house; his experiments, 278.

Parsons and his family, concoctors of the "Cock Lane Ghost" deception, ii. 228.

Paul's Cross, Dr. Lamb, the poisoner, attacked and killed there (engraving), ii. 202.

Persecution of alleged witches. (See Witches.)

Peter the Great taxes beards (portrait), i. 267.

Peter the Hermit. (See the Crusades.)

Peter of Lombardy, an alchymist, i. 136.

Peter of Pontefract, his false prophecies described by Grafton, i. 234.

Petronella, the wife of Nicholas Flamel, i. 116.

Philalethes, Eugenius, a Rosicrucian, i. 175.

Philip I. excommunicated, ii. 8.

Philip Augustus joins the third crusade (engraving), ii. 64, 66; his jealousy of Richard I., 69, 71; returns to France, 72.

Philip IV., portrait of, ii. 112; his persecution of the Templars, ii. 113.

Philosopher's stone, searchers for the. (See Alchymists.)

Pietro D'Apone. (See D'Apone.)

Pigray on witchcraft in France, ii. 122.

Pilgrimages to Jerusalem before the Crusades, ii. 2.

Pilgrim's staff (engraving), ii. 56.

Place de Greve (engraving), ii. 192; Madame de Brinvilliers; La Chaussee and others executed there for poisoning, 212, 213, 215.

Plague at Milan prophesied, i. 225.

Plays on the adventures of thieves, their evil influence, ii. 253, 257.

POISONING, in Greece and Rome; its spread in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; declared high treason in England, ii. 192; Sir Thomas Overbury poisoned; full history of his case, with portraits of Overbury, the Earl and Countess of Somerset, Lord Coke, and Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 193-201; suspicious death of Prince Henry, son of James I., 200; Buckingham said to have poisoned James I., 201; fate of Dr. Lamb, the poisoner (engraving), 202; slow poisoning in Italy, its general prevalence; employed by the Duke of Guise; much used by Roman ladies to poison husbands, 203; trial and execution of La Spara and others; other women punished, 204; atrocious crimes of La Tophania; the nature of her poison; protected in sanctuary by the clergy of Naples; seized by the viceroy, tried, and executed, 206-208. In France: Exili, Glaser, and Sainte Croix, the first criminals, 208; Madame de Brinvilliers and Sainte Croix; their crimes and punishment, 208-214; M. de Penautier charged with poisoning; popular mania for the crime, 214; Lavoisin and Lavigoreux executed, 215; charges against the Marshal de Luxembourg and the Countess of Soissons; recent revival of the crime in England, 216.

Pope, his sketch of Sir John Blunt, Chairman of the South-Sea Company, i. 74.

POPULAR FOLLIES OF GREAT CITIES, ii. 239-248. Cant or slang phrases: "Quoz," 240; "What a shocking bad hat," 240; "Hookey Walker," 241; "There he goes with his eye out," 242; "Has your mother sold her mangle?" 242; "Flare up," 242; "Does your mother know you're out?" 244; "Who are you?" 244. Songs: "Cherry ripe," 246; "The Sea," 247; "Jim Crow," 247.

PORTRAITS.—John Law, i. 1; the Regent Orleans, 5; D'Aguesseau, 34; D'Argenson, 42; Earl of Sunderland, 80; Harley Earl of Oxford, 46; Sir Robert Walpole, 49; Mr. Secretary Craggs, 64; Conrad Gesner, the first tulip cultivator, 85; Albertus Magnus, 100; Arnold de Villeneuve, 103; Raymond Lulli, 105; Cornelius Agrippa, 138; Panacelsus, 142; Dr. Dee, 152; Philip IV., ii. 112; Charles IX., 119; John Knox, 128; James I., 134; Sir George Mackenzie, 138; Pietro d'Apone, 140; Sir Matthew Hale, 148; Sir Thomas Brown, 151; Louis XIV., 177; Henry Andrews, the original of "Francis Moore," i. 244; Nostradamus, 246; Peter the Great, 267; Sir Thomas Overbury, ii. 195; Villiers duke of Buckingham, 198; Lord Chief Justice Coke, 199; Earl and Countess of Somerset, 200, 201; Henry IV. of France, 277; Lord Bacon, 286.

Political prejudices and enactments against long hair and beards, i. 296-303.

Poetry and romance, their obligations to the Rosicrucians, i. 179.

Powell, Chief Justice, his opposition to the belief in witchcraft, ii. 152.

PROPHECIES: Plague of Milan, i. 225; plague of London, 1665, inundation of London, 1528, 228; great fire, 1666; earthquake, 1842, 230; Mother Shipton, with view of her cottage, 232, 241; Merlin, 232-238; Peter of Pontefract, 234; Robert Nixon the Cheshire prophet, 238; almanac-makers, 240 (see Fortune-Telling); end of the world, 222, 224; earthquakes, 224. (See Modern Prophecies, the Crusades, Peter Barthelemy, &c.)

Puysegur, the Marquis de, his discovery of clairvoyance; his magnetic elm, i. 283-286.

Raising the dead and absent, a power ascribed to Cornelius Agrippa, i. 142; and Cagliostro, 217.

Raleigh, Sir Walter, an inveterate duellist, abandons the custom, ii. 297.

Raymond of Toulouse, a leader of the first crusade, ii. 21, 26, 29, 31, 34, 45, 46; his supposed collusion with Peter Barthelemy, 35, 37, 41; at the siege of Jerusalem, 46.

Raymond Lulli. (See Lulli.)

Reinaldo, a leader of the first crusade, ii. 18.

RELICS, brought by the early pilgrims from Palestine, ii. 2; swearing on, a test of innocence, 264; fragments of the true cross; bones of saints; tears of the Saviour; tears and milk of the Virgin; Santa Scala at Rome; relics of Longbeard, Massaniello, La Brinvilliers, Dr. Dodd, Fauntleroy, Thurtell, Corder, Greenacre, Thom, Shakspere, Napoleon, Waterloo, 302-308.

Religious prejudices and ordinances against long hair and beards, i. 296-303.

Rhodes, Richard I. at (engraving), ii. 69.

Rice, Count, tried for killing Du Barri in a duel, ii. 293.

Richard I. sets out for Palestine, ii. 67; attacks the Sicilians, 68; arrives at Rhodes (engraving), 69; his queen Berengaria (engraving), 70; captures Acre, 71; reaches Bethlehem (engraving), 73; his concern on being obliged to retreat, 74; his reputation in Palestine, 74.

Richelieu an alchymist, i. 198; his opposition to duelling, ii. 279, 280.

Ripley, George, the alchymist, memoir of, i. 118.

Robert duke of Normandy, a leader of the Crusades, ii. 21, 31, 39, 46.

Robert count of Flanders, a leader of the first Crusade, ii. 21, 30, 31.

Robert of Paris (Count), his insolence to the Emperor Alexius, ii. 25; killed at the battle of Dorylaeum, 29.

Robin Hood, popular admiration of, ii. 250.

Robinson, Ann, the Stockwell "Ghost," ii. 234.

Rochester, Viscount, afterwards Earl of Somerset. (See Somerset.)

Roger Bacon. (See Bacon.)

Romance and poetry, their obligations to the Rosicrucians, i. 179.

Rosenberg (Count), a patron of Dr. Dee, i. 159.

Rosicrucians, the, their romantic doctrines; history of their progress, i. 167; their poetical doctrines, sylphs, naiades, gnomes, and salamanders, 172, 179.

Rouen, view in, ii. 171; the Parliament remonstrate with Louis XIV. on his leniency to suspected witches, 172.

Rudolph (I. and II.), Emperors, their encouragement of alchymy, i. 158, 165.

Rupecissa, John de, a French alchymist, i. 136.

Russia, tax on beards imposed by Peter the Great, i. 301.

"Sabbaths," or meetings of witches and demons, ii. 107, 133. (See Witchcraft.)

Sainte Croix, the slow poisoner in France, his crimes and death, ii. 208, 211.

Saints, relics of, ii. 304.

Saladin, his military successes, ii. 63; his defence of Acre, 69, 71; defeated at Azotus, 72; and at Jaffa, 74.

"Saladin's tithe," a tax enforced by the Crusaders, ii. 65.

Salamanders. (See the Rosicrucians.)

Santa Scala, or Holy Stairs, at Rome, ii. 304.

Schinderhannes, the German robber, ii. 256.

Scotland, witchcraft in. (See Witchcraft.)

Scott, Sir Walter, his anachronisms on the Crusades, ii. 74, 98. "Scratching Fanny," or the Cock Lane Ghost; her remains in the vault of St. John's Church, Clerkenwell, ii. 230.

Seal of Edward I. (engraving), ii. 97.

Seifeddoulet, the Sultan, his reception of Alfarabi, the alchymist, i. 98.

Semlin attacked by the Crusaders, ii. 15.

Sendivogius, a Polish alchymist, i. 164, 165.

Senes, Bishop of, his report on Jean Delisle's success in alchymy, i. 193.

Serlo cuts off the hair of Henry I. (engraving), i. 296, 298.

Seton, the Cosmopolite, an alchymist; memoir of, i. 163.

Sevigne, Madame, her account of Madame de Brinvilliers, ii. 208, 213.

Shakespere's Mulberry-tree, ii. 307.

Sharp, Giles, contriver of mysterious noises at Woodstock Palace, ii. 224.

Shem, the son of Noah, an alchymist, i. 95.

Sheppard, Jack, his popularity—lines on his portrait by Thornhill, ii. 252; evil effect of a novel and melo-dramas representing his career, 253.

Sherwood Forest, and Robin Hood (engraving), ii. 249, 250.

Shipton, Mother, her prophecy of the fire of London, i. 230; her popularity, 231; view of her cottage, 241.

Simeon, the Patriarch, a promoter of the Crusades, ii. 7.

Slang phrases. (See Popular Follies.)

Slow Poisoners, the. (See Poisoning.)

Smollett, on history and the South-Sea Bubble, i. 67.

Soliman the Sultan, his conflict with the Crusaders, ii. 18.

Somerset, the Earl of (poisoner of Sir Thos. Overbury), portrait of, ii. 200; his origin and rise at court; supposed vicious connexion with James I.; his intrigue and marriage with the Countess of Essex; the murder of Overbury; the earl's trial and sentence, 193-201.

Somerset, the Countess of, her participation in the murder of Sir Thos. Overbury, with portrait, ii. 201.

Songs: on the Mississippi scheme, i. 36; on the South-Sea Bubble, 50; on famous thieves, ii. 260; on witchcraft, popular in Germany, 165; popularity of "Cherry Ripe," "The Sea," "Jim Crow," 246.

Songs, Beranger's "Thirteen at Table," i. 257.

Songs of the Rosicrucians, i. 168, 204.

Sorcery. (See Witchcraft and Alchemy.)

Sorel, Agnes, her patronage of Jacques Coeur, the alchymist, i. 132.

SOUTH-SEA BUBBLE, history of, i. 45-84; the Company originated by Harley, Earl of Oxford; its primary object, 45; visionary ideas of South-Sea trade; restrictions imposed by Spanish Government, 46; proposals to Parliament to reduce the debt; capital increased to twelve millions; success of the Company, 47; its application to take the whole state debt; counter application by the Bank of England; the former adopted by Parliament; stock rises from 130 to 300, 48; Sir R. Walpole's warning; directors' exertions to raise the prices, 49; bill passed; great demand for shares, 50; other bubble schemes started and encouraged, 51, 52; eighty-six of them dissolved, 55, 57; shares at 400; fall to 290, but raised by the directors' schemes, 51; dividend declared; increased excitement, 52; Swift' lines on Change Alley; extent of the delusion; frauds of schemers, 54; fears of the judicious; bubble companies proclaimed unlawful, 55; continued excitement; stock at 1000, 62, 63; Sir John Blunt, the chairman, sells out; stock falls; meeting of the company; Mr. Secretary Craggs supports directors, 63; increased panic; negociation with Bank of England, 64, 65; they agree to circulate the company's bonds, 66; total failure of the company; social and moral evils of the scheme, 67; arrogance of the directors; petitions for vengeance on them; King's speech to Parliament, 69; debates thereon, 69, 71; punishment resolved on, 70; Walpole's plan to restore credit; officers of the company forbidden to leave England, 71; ministers proved to have been bribed by shares, 73, 77; directors apprehended; treasurer absconds, 73; measures to arrest him, 73, 74; directors expelled from Parliament, 74; chairman's examination, 75; treasurer imprisoned at Antwerp, but escapes, 76; reports on the details of the fraud, 76; Mr. Stanhope, Secretary to Treasury, charged but acquitted; dissatisfaction thereon, 78; Mr. Aislabie, Chancellor of the Exchequer, committed to the Tower, and consequent rejoicings (engraving), 79; Sir George Caswall punished; the Earl of Sunderland acquitted; death of Mr. Secretary Craggs, and his father, participators in the fraud, 80; heavy fines on the directors; account of these proceedings by Gibbon the historian, 81; measures adopted to restore credit, 83; caricatures by Hogarth and others (seven engravings), 60, 61, 68, 70, 76, 82, 84.

South-Sea House, view of, i. 45.

Spara, Hieronyma, the slow poisoner of Rome, her trial and execution, ii. 205.

Speculations. (See Money Mania, the Mississippi Scheme, South-Sea Bubble, and Bubble Schemes.)

Spenser, his description of Merlin and his cave, i. 232, 237.

Spirits. (See Demons, Witchcraft, Cornelius Agrippa, Paracelsus, &c.)

Sprenger, a German witch-finder; his persecutions, ii. 118-159.

St. Bernard preaches the second Crusade, ii. 53, 55; his miracles, 56; failure of his prophecies, 62.

St. Dunstan and the devil, ii. 103.

St. Evremond, his account of the impositions of Valentine Greatraks, i. 270.

St. Germain (Count de), the alchymist, memoir of, i. 200; his profusion of jewels, 203; his pretensions to long life, 205.

St. John's Eve, St. Mark's Eve, St. Swithin's Eve, superstitious customs, i. 258.

Stanhope, Earl, supports the proposition to punish the directors of the South-Sea Company, i. 72, 73; is stigmatised in Parliament, and dies suddenly, 75.

Stanhope, Charles, secretary to Treasury; his participation in the South-Sea fraud, i. 77, 78; his acquittal by parliament, and consequent disturbances, 78.

Stedinger, the, a section of the Frieslanders; their independence; accused of witchcraft by the Pope, and exterminated by the German nobles, ii. 110, 111.

Stephen, king of Poland, his credulity and superstition, i. 159.

Stock jobbing. (See South-Sea Bubble.) "Stock Jobbing Cards," or caricatures of the South-Sea Bubble (two engravings), i. 60, 61.

Stonehenge ascribed to Merlin, i. 237.

Suger dissuades Louis VII. from the Crusade, ii. 55-62.

Sully, his wise opposition to duelling, ii. 279

Sunderland, Earl of, portrait of, i. 80; his participation in the South-Sea Bubble, i. 50, 77, 78; discontent at his acquittal, 80.

Superstitions on the 1st of January, Valentine Day, Lady Day, St. Swithin's Eve, St. Mark's Eve, Candlemas Eve, Midsummer, St. John's Eve, 29th February, 258.

Surrey and the fair Geraldine; the vision shewn by Cornelius Agrippa, i. 142.

Sweden, executions for witchcraft, ii. 177.

Sylphs. (See the Rosicrucians.)

Syria. (See the Crusades.)

Tancred, his achievements in the first Crusade, ii. 26, 35, 38, 39, 45.

Tax on beards imposed by Peter the Great, i. 301.

Tedworth, Wiltshire, the "haunted house" there; narrative of the deception, ii. 224.

Tempests caused by witches, ii. 102, 106, 133, 134.

Templars, Knights, subdued by Saladin, ii. 63; support Frederick II. in the seventh Crusade, 86; their subsequent reverses, 87, 90, 99; accused of witchcraft, 112; persecuted by Philip IV.; the grand master burnt, 113.

Tetenoire, a famous French thief, ii. 255.

Theatrical productions, on the lives of robbers; their pernicious influence, ii. 253-257.

THIEVES, POPULAR ADMIRATION OF GREAT, ii. 249-260; Robin Hood, ii. 250; Dick Turpin, 251; Jack Sheppard, 252; Jonathan Wild, 254; Claude Duval, 255; Aimerigot Tetenoire, 255; Cartouche; Vidocq, 256; Italian banditti, 256, 257; Schinderhannes and Nadel, 257; evil influence of the "Beggars' Opera" and other plays on the subject of thieves 253, 257, 258; Lord Byron's "Corsair" and Schiller's "Robber," 259.

Thomas Aquinas. (See Aquinas.)

Tiberias, battle of, ii. 63.

Tibertus, Antiochus, his wonderful prophecies, i. 248.

Toads dancing at the witches' "Sabbaths," ii. 108.

Tophania, La, a famous poisoner in Italy, her crimes and execution; the nature of her potions, ii. 206.

Torture, its cruelty exposed by the Duke of Brunswick, ii. 170. (See Witchcraft.)

Toulouse, witches burnt at, ii. 160.

Tournaments and judicial combats. (See Duels.)

Tours, haunted house at, ii. 221.

Tower Hill, bonfires on the committal of participators in the South-Sea Bubble (engraving), i. 79.

Tower of London, Raymond Lulli the alchymist said to have practised there, i. 109; poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, ii. 195.

Transmutation of metals. (See Alchymists.)

Trees, their significance in dreams, i. 254; susceptible of magnetic influence, 284.

Trial by Battle. (See Duels and Ordeals.)

Trithemius, the alchymist, memoir of, i. 124.

Trois-Echelles executed for witchcraft, ii. 120.

Troussel, William, his duel with the Constable Du Guesclin (engraving), ii. 261, 271.

"Truce of God," the, proclaimed by the first Crusaders, ii. 14.

"True Cross," fragments of the, ii. 3, 71. (See Relics.)

TULIP MANIA; the flower first introduced into Europe by Gesner, portrait of Gesner, i. 85; great demand for plants in Holland and Germany, introduced in England from Vienna, the flower described and eulogised by Beckmann and Cowley, 86; rage for bulbs in Holland and their enormous prices, 87; amusing errors of the uninitiated, 88; marts for the sale of bulbs, jobbing and gambling, ruinous extent of the mania and immense profits of speculators, 89; "tulip-notaries" appointed, sudden loss of confidence and fall of prices, meetings, deputation to the government, 90; unfulfilled bargains repudiated by the law courts, 91; the mania in England and France, 91; subsisting value of choice bulbs, 92.

Tunis invaded by the Crusaders, ii. 96.

Tunbridge Wells, a witch doctor there in 1830, ii. 189.

Turner, Mrs. her participation in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, ii. 194, 198, 199.

Turpin, Dick, popular admiration of, ii. 251.

Undines. (See the Rosicrucians.)

Urban II. preaches the Crusade (frontispiece), ii. 7.

Valentine, Basil, the alchymist, memoir of, i. 119.

Valentine's Day superstitions, i. 258.

Vauvert, the ruined palace at, haunted, ii. 220.

Vezelais, cathedral of (engraving), ii. 54.

Villars, Marshal, his opposition to the Mississippi scheme, i. 16.

Vulgar phrases. (See Popular Follies.)

Visions, pretended. (See Barthelemy, Agrippa, and Dr. Dee.)

Waldenses, the, persecuted and burnt at Arras, ii. 115.

Walpole, Sir Robert, his warning of the evils of the South-Sea bubble, portrait of him, i. 49-55; his measures to restore credit, 70, 71.

Walter the Penniless, a leader of the first Crusade, ii. 15, 18.

Warbois, the witches of, absurd charges against them, their execution, ii. 125.

"Water of Life," searchers for. (See Alchymists.)

Water ordeal. (See Duels and Ordeals.)

"Weapon-salve," controversy respecting, i. 265.

"Wehr-wolves" executed, ii. 120, 168.

Westminster Abbey, Raymond Lulli, the alchymist, said to have practised there, i. 109; tomb of Queen Eleanor (engraving), ii. 99.

Weston, Richard, an accomplice in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury, ii. 194, 198, 199.

Wharton, Duke of, his speeches on the South-Sea Bubble, i. 50, 75.

Whiston, his prophecy of the end of the world, i. 223.

William of Tyre preaches the Crusade, ii. 63, 65.

Wilson, ——, killed in a duel by John Law, i. 3.

Wirdig, Sebastian, the magnetiser, i. 273.

WITCHCRAFT:—Account of the witch mania, ii. 101-191; popular belief in witches, ii. 102; their supposed compacts with the devil; popular notions of the devil and demons, 103; witches could secure their services, 107; their meetings or "Sabbaths," 107, 133, 166, 169, 171; frequent persecution on the pretext of witchcraft, 110; the Stedinger, a section of the Frieslanders, exterminated on that charge, 110; the Templars accused of witchcraft; the Grand Master and others burnt; execution of Joan of Arc (engraving), 113; combined with heresy as a charge against religious reformers, 114; the Waldenses persecuted at Arras; their confessions under torture; belief common to Catholics and Reformers; Florimond on the prevalence of witchcraft, 115; witches executed at Constance; Bull of Pope Innocent VIII.; general crusade against witches, 117; Sprenger's activity in Germany; Papal commissions, 118; executions in France; sanctioned by Charles IX., 119, 122; Trois Echelles, his confessions and execution, 120; "men-wolves," executed, 121; English statutes against witchcraft, 123; Bishop Jewell's exclamations, 124; the witches of Warbois; absurd charges and execution of the victims, 125; annual sermon at Cambridge, ii. 127; popular belief and statutes in Scotland, 127, 154; charges against the higher classes; against John Knox, 128; numerous executions; trial of Gellie Duncan and others, 129; James I., his interest in the subject; Dr. Fian tortured (engraving), 131; confessions of the accused, 132; their execution; further persecution, 135; case of Isabel Gowdie, 136; opinions of Sir George Mackenzie (portrait), 136, 155; death preferred to the imputation of witchcraft, 137, 139; King James's "Demonology," 139; the "Lancashire witches" executed, 141; Matthew Hopkins, the "witch-finder general" (engraving), 143; his impositions, cruelty, and retributive fate, 148; "common prickers" in Scotland, 146; Mr. Louis, a clergyman, executed, 147; Glanville's Sadducismus Triumphatus, 148; witches tried before Sir Matthew Hale (portrait); Sir Thomas Brown's evidence (portrait); conviction and execution, 148-152; trials before Chief Justices Holt and Powell, 152, 153; the last execution in England, in 1716, 153; Scotch laws on the subject, 154; various trials in Scotland 155-158; last execution in Scotland, in 1722, 158; proceedings of Sprenger in Germany, Bodinus and Delrio in France, 159; executions at Constance, Toulouse, Amsterdam, and Bamberg, 160-162; numerous executions at Wurtzburg, including many children, 163; others at Lendheim, 164; the "Witches' Gazette," a German ballad, 165; the Marechale D'Anere executed, 166; 200 executions at Labourt, 166; "weir-wolves," belief in, 168; Urbain Grandier, curate of Loudun, executed, 169; singular cases at Lisle, 169; the Duke of Brunswick's exposure of the cruelty of torture, 170; diminution of charges in Germany, 171; singular remonstrance from the French Parliament to Louis XIV. on his leniency to witches, 171; executions at Mohra, in Sweden, 177; atrocities in New England; a child and a dog executed, 180; the last execution in Switzerland in 1652, 182; the latest on record, in 1749, at Wurtzburg, 184; witches ducked in 1760, 185; Lady Hatton's reputation for witchcraft; her house in Cross Street, Hatton Garden, (engraving), 186; the horse-shoe a protection against witches, 187; belief in witchcraft recently and still existing, 187; witch-doctors still practising, 189; prevalence of the superstition in France, 189; "floating a witch" (engraving), 191.

Women accompanying the Crusades in arms, ii. 12, 57, 67.

Woodstock Palace a "haunted house;" account of the noises, and their cause, ii. 222; view of, 217.

Wulstan, Bishop, his antipathy to long hair, i. 297.

Wurtzburg, numerous executions for witchcraft, ii. 162, 184; view in, 183.

York, Duke of, his duel with Col. Lennox, ii. 293.

Zara besieged by the Crusaders, ii. 76.

Zachaire, Denis, the Alchymist, his interesting memoir of himself, i. 146.



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