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Manures and the principles of manuring
by Charles Morton Aikman
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Mode of Application.

Like all manures, it is desirable to apply it in as fine a condition as possible, so as to ensure as thorough a mixture with the soil-particles as practicable. In order, furthermore, to prevent any risk of loss through volatilisation of the ammonia, as well as to ensure even distribution, it is best applied mixed with dry earth, ashes, sand, or some other substance,—not lime, however. The custom of applying along with the guano common salt, has been proved by numerous experiments to be highly beneficial to the action of the guano as a manure. The exact nature of the action of salt as an adjunct to manures is a point which has elicited much discussion. Its action is probably to be ascribed to a number of causes. For one thing, it probably acts as an antiseptic in retarding the fermentative action which has a tendency to go on so rapidly in such manures as guano. It further increases the power of the manure to attract moisture from the air—a most important property in the case of drought. Some experiments by Dr Voelcker illustrate this in a striking manner. Two lots of guano—one pure and one mixed with salt—were exposed to the action of the air for a month, and were then tested as to the amount of water they contained, when it was found that the lot containing the salt had absorbed 2 per cent more water than the other.

Much stress has been laid on the importance of having the guano buried a certain depth in the soil; and many experiments have been carried out to prove how much better it acts when so applied. This is probably due to the prevention of any loss of volatile ammonia, and the mixture of the manure with the soil-particles before it comes in contact with the plant-roots. This last precaution is an important one, for it has been found that the raw material is apt to have a bad effect on the seed or the plant's roots. This has been found to be especially the case in regard to potatoes, the quality of which has been found to suffer when the guano is brought into direct contact with the tubers. As guano is a manure which is speedily available, it is desirable to apply it as shortly before it is required by the plant as possible. It is therefore generally best applied in spring, shortly before seed-time, or indeed at the same time. Where farmyard manure is used, the guano has been recommended to be used as a top-dressing in small quantities. In the majority of cases it will be advisable, however, not to apply it as a top-dressing, for the various reasons above-mentioned.

Quantity to be used.

As to the quantity to be used, this of course will depend on the soil, the crop, and the amount and nature of the other manures employed: 1 to 4 cwt. per acre have been the usual limits, but even heavier dressings have been commonly resorted to, especially in Scotland, where 6 to 8 or even 9 cwt. for turnips are often used. Sir J. B. Lawes and Sir James Caird long ago, shortly after the introduction of guano, estimated, from the experiments they carried out, that the application of 2 cwt. per acre to the wheat crop gave an increase of 8 to 9 bushels in grain, and added a fourth to the quantity of straw. The former authority recommends 2 to 3 cwt. per acre for wheat, to be sown broadcast and harrowed into the land before sowing the seed. We have already stated that it may be used in all soils and for all kinds of crops. While this is so, it has been found to have specially favourable results when applied to the turnip crop, when it may be used in larger quantities than in the case of cereals. When applied to the turnip crop, it is well to use the more phosphatic guanos or to supplement it with superphosphates. By applying it in two lots, the larger portion before seed-time and the rest between the drills after the turnips are up, excellent results have been obtained. It has also proved an admirable manure for mangels. On the whole, it gives best results on heavy soils and in a dampish climate.

Adulteration of Guano.

Probably no artificial manure has been subjected to greater adulteration in the past than guano. This has been due to the fact that the practice of selling guano on analysis—especially among retail buyers—did not largely obtain in the early years of the trade. A good deal of this adulteration was probably caused by ignorant prejudice on the part of the farmer, to whom the pungency of its smell and its colour were too apt to be ranked as its most important properties. The variation in the quality of different kinds of guano was too often not sufficiently realised by the buyer, who not unfrequently was made to pay as high a price for guano of an inferior quality as he ought to have paid for that of the best quality. Indeed no manure illustrates the importance of chemical analysis more than guano. Among the different forms of adulteration practised may be mentioned the addition of such substances as sawdust, rice-meal, chalk, sulphates of lime and magnesia, common salt, sand, earth, peat, ashes of various kinds, and water. There can be no doubt, however, that such adulteration has now long ceased to be practised to any extent. Nevertheless, it may be of use to draw attention to one or two of the tests by means of which some of the commoner forms of adulteration may be detected. One or two are extremely easily detected—as, for example, adulteration with sand or other mineral substances. In such a case, the percentage of ash left on burning a small portion of the guano will be found to be excessive. The percentage of ash in a sample of genuine Peruvian guano should not exceed from 50 to 60 per cent. The colour of the ash is another important point, and may serve as a further indication of adulteration. In the case of genuine guano, this should be whitish or greyish. Red-coloured ash generally points to the adulteration of the guano with some mineral substance containing iron—such, e.g., as Redonda phosphate, a mineral phosphate of iron and alumina. Where the ash is white, but excessive in quantity, adulteration with common salt, sulphate of magnesia, gypsum, or chalk, may be suspected. The last-named substance is easily detected by treating it with any of the common acids, when brisk effervescence, due to the liberation of the carbonic acid, will ensue.[198] A further point of importance with regard to the ash is its solubility in water and in acids. A large insoluble residue may be taken as indicating adulteration with sand. Adulteration with water is also easily detected by heating a sample to the boiling temperature and determining the loss it sustains. Of course the amount of water varies in different samples. The appearance of the guano will serve fairly well to detect whether it is abnormally moist. It may be added, in conclusion, that Peruvian guano is extremely light; and while this by itself is not a sufficient test of genuineness, it may serve to confirm other tests.

III.—SO-CALLED GUANOS.

Before concluding this chapter, reference may be made to certain manures which are commonly known under the name of guanos—such as "fish-guano," "flesh-guano," "meat-meal-guano," and "bat-guano,"—as well as to manures which may more conveniently be described here—viz., "fowl and pigeon dung."

Fish-Guano.

The application of fish, not suited for other purposes, to the fields as a manure is a practice which has obtained in certain parts of the country for a number of years. In many districts on the sea-coast, where fishing is the chief industry, the only way in the past of disposing of a superabundant catch of herrings, for example, has been to utilise them as a manure. From such a practice has sprung up what is now an important and ever-increasing trade—viz., the manufacture of fish-guano.

This manufacture was first started, and is still most largely practised, in Norway. The guano obtained varies very considerably in quality according to the nature of the process employed, and as to whether the guano is made from whole fish or merely from fish-offal. The latter source is the common one. The manufacture is carried on at the fish-curing stations, and the quality of the guano made from this source is somewhat different from that made from whole fish, as a large proportion of the fish-offal is made up of bones and heads. Large quantities of Norwegian fish-guano are exported to various parts of Europe.

The best quality of this guano may contain as much as 10 per cent of nitrogen, but as a rule it is nearer 8 per cent. A very considerable variation in the amount of phosphoric acid occurs for the reason above stated, the guano made from fish-scrap being naturally much richer in this ingredient than whole-fish guano. The phosphoric acid may be said to range from 4 to 15 per cent, and there is also a small quantity of potash present.

Guano is also manufactured in Norway from the carcasses of whales. Such guano contains from 7-1/2 to 8-1/2 per cent of nitrogen, and about 13-1/2 per cent of phosphoric acid.

In America fish-guano is manufactured to a considerable extent—one important source being the menhaddo, a coarse sort of herring. This fish is caught for the sake of its oil, which is extracted by boiling, the residue being manufactured, after pressing and drying, into guano.

In this country the manufacture of fish-guano is carried out to a considerable and increasing extent. Formerly it was imported from Norway to a larger extent than is now the case, the present annual imports amounting only to 1000 or 2000 tons. The total annual production in the United Kingdom is probably 7000 or 8000 tons.

Value of "Fish-Guano."

That fish-guano is a valuable manure there can be no doubt. What, however, impairs its value is the fact that, as a rule, it contains a certain amount of oil. The effect of this oil is to retard fermentation and decomposition when the guano is applied to the soil, and thus render its action slower than would otherwise be the case.

When applied to the soil, therefore, every opportunity ought to be given to promote its fermentation. It is best applied some time before it is likely to be used. It ought to be well mixed with the soil-particles, and not allowed to lie on the top of the soil. Its best effect will be on light well-cultivated soils, which permit of the access both of sufficient moisture and of sufficient air for rapid fermentation. Its value as a manure for hops, vines, grass, and strawberries has been found to be considerable. It has been recommended to be applied along with farmyard manure; and such a mode of application is no doubt well suited to promote its decomposition. It has also been used for mixing with superphosphate of lime. Professor Storer has advocated a more general use of fish as a manure than is at present the case. He suggests that even fish not suitable for edible purposes might be caught for the purpose of conversion into manure. The difficulty of preserving fish, however, is considerable; and he suggests the use of potash salts, such as muriate of potash, or lime for this purpose. The benefit of using potash would be twofold. In addition to acting as a preservative, it would considerably enhance the value of the resulting guano as a manure. There is much truth in Professor Storer's views; and no doubt, as our sources of artificial nitrogenous manures grow more limited, the manufacture of fish-guano will be carried on in the future on a larger and more systematic scale than hitherto.

Meat-meal Guano.

What is called "meat-meal guano" is generally that made from the refuse of the carcasses of cattle after they have been treated for their meat-extract according to Liebig's process. The meat-meal is used both for feeding and manurial purposes. Considerable quantities[199] of this guano are imported annually into this country from South America, Queensland, and New Zealand,—that coming from Frey Bentos, in Uruguay, being best known. It is a valuable manure, especially so for its nitrogen, which varies from 4 to 8 per cent, while it contains of phosphoric acid from 13 to 20 per cent. Some meat-meal guanos contain as much nitrogen as 11 per cent.

In some parts of the world, more especially in Germany, the carcasses of horses, as well as cattle, dogs, pigs, &c., which have died of disease, are converted into a guano. They are subjected to treatment by steam in digestors, by which means the fat and gelatine are separated and utilised, while the remaining portion of the animal is converted into guano. Other processes are also employed. The resulting manure contains from 6 to 10 per cent of nitrogen, and from 6 to 14 per cent of phosphoric acid.

Value of Meat-meal Guano.

Meat-meal guano is a valuable nitrogenous manure. The same remarks apply to it as to fish-guano, although it ferments probably very much more quickly than the latter, and is undoubtedly a more valuable manure.

Bat Guano.

In conclusion, we may consider bat guano. Bat guano, which is really a very rare curiosity, has been found accumulated in hot climates in caves.

The samples which have been analysed have differed very much in quality, some containing as much as 9 per cent of nitrogen and 25 per cent of phosphoric acid. Provided it could be obtained in any quantity, and of a quality even approximating to the above analysis, it need scarcely be pointed out that bat guano would be a most valuable manure.

A singular point about its composition is, that it has been found to contain a considerable proportion of its nitrogen (as much as 3 per cent) in the form of nitrates.

Pigeon and Fowl Dung.

Pigeon dung is a manure which historically is of great importance. The dung of pigeons was used as a manure by the ancient Romans; and even in modern times, more especially in France, it was considered a most important fertiliser. Despite these facts, pigeon dung is by no means a rich manure, and its composition compares most unfavourably with that of the guanos we have just been considering. According to Storer,[200] it only contains from 1-1/4 to 2-1/2 per cent of nitrogen, and from 1-1/2 to 2 per cent of phosphoric acid, and a little over 1 per cent of potash.

The dung of poultry is just about as poor, fowl dung containing from .8 to 2 per cent of nitrogen, 1-1/2 to 2 per cent of phosphoric acid, and a little under 1 per cent of potash; while that of ducks and geese is even poorer.[201]

From these statements it will be seen that the excrements of pigeons, hens, and ducks do not form a rich manure. One thing about pigeon dung which is to be noticed, is the fact that it ferments very quickly.

None of the pseudo-guanos, however rich they may be in manurial ingredients, can be regarded as equal in their action to the genuine article, for reasons which we have gone into already when considering the action of guano.

FOOTNOTES:

[183] Bones, it is true, were in use long before guano; but popular as they deservedly were, they had not been used, at the time of the importation of guano, to any very considerable extent.

[184] The total annual imports at present may be taken at under 30,000 tons, whereas in 1855 they amounted to over 200,000 tons. For statistics on this point the reader is referred to the Appendix, Note I., p. 327.

[185] With regard to the origin of certain guano deposits, which are of very recent date—e.g., Angamos and Ichaboe—there can be no doubt whatever, because we can witness the process of formation still taking place. It is not so, however, with regard to older deposits, for which some have been inclined to claim mineral origin. The best proof that such deposits owe their origin mainly to bird excrements is the comparatively large quantity of uric acid they contain. On the other hand, the evidence in support of the belief that they are also formed from the remains of the birds themselves and other animals, is to be found in the large proportion of phosphates they contain, and the presence in the deposits of feathers and the fossilised skeletons of the animals above mentioned.

[186] A complete list of the various deposits will be found in the Appendix, Note II., p. 327. It may be noticed that nearly all the deposits lie within 10 deg. to 20 deg. north and south of the Equator.

[187] See Chapter on Farmyard Manure, p. 257.

[188] According to Nesbit, some of the cargoes of this guano contained hard saline lumps of very little manurial value—over 50 per cent being common salt.

[189] The salt exports were made in 1868.

[190] For analyses of these nodules and crystals, see Appendix, Note III., p. 328.

[191] See Heiden, vol. ii. p. 356.

[192] See Appendix, Note IV., p. 329.

[193] The Ichaboe guano at present exported is a fresh deposit, and is annually collected for shipment.

[194] Further chemical changes have occurred in certain cases between the guano and the limestone rock beneath, resulting in the formation of what is called a "crust" guano. Such guanos form a soft phosphatic rock, and are extremely rich in phosphates. As examples of these "crust" guanos may be mentioned Sombrero, Curacao, Aruba, Mexico, and Navassa phosphates.

[195] The presence in the old Peruvian guano of concretionary nodules has already been referred to.

[196] According to Vogel the nitrogen as urates is converted by the sulphuric acid into ammonia salts.

[197] See Appendix, Note VI. p. 330.

[198] It must be remembered, however, that even genuine guano contains a certain quantity of carbonate of lime, and will give a slight amount of effervescence when so treated.

[199] The annual imports may be stated at from 3000 to 4000 tons.

[200] Agricultural Chemistry, vol. i. p. 367.

[201] See Appendix, Note VII., p. 331.



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER VIII.

NOTE I. (p. 297).

PERUVIAN GUANO IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM, 1865-1893.

Year. Tons. Year. Tons. 1865 213,024 1881 33,393 1870 247,028 1882 27,382 1871 144,735 1883 36,713 1872 74,964 1884 15,802 1873 135,895 1885 - 1874 94,346 1886 28,733 1875 86,042 1887 5,784 1876 158,674 1888 16,446 1877 111,835 1889 17,000 1878 127,813 1890 19,000 1879 45,475 1891 11,000 1880 58,631 1892 14,000

NOTE II. (p. 298).

GUANO DEPOSITS OF THE WORLD.

SOUTH AMERICA—

Peru.—In various islands off the coast—viz., Chincha, Guanape, Ballestas, Macabi, Lobos, and Patillos; and on different parts of the coast—viz., Pabellon de Pica, Chipana, Huanillos, Punta de Patillos, Independence Bay, and Lobos de Afuera.

Columbia.—In different parts of the States of Venezuela, New Granada, and Ecuador. Guano coming from these parts is often known as Columbian guano, or according to the name of the State in which it is found. Maracaibo and Monks guanos come from the coast of Venezuela. Deposits are also found on the Galapagos Islands, to the west of Ecuador.

Bolivia.—Mejillones, Patagonia, Leon's.

NORTH AMERICA—Deposits have been found on the coasts of Mexico and California; on the Raza and Patos Islands; and on the coasts of Labrador. They have also been found on the Islands of Curacao, Aruba, and Navassa in the Gulf of Mexico.

AFRICA—On the west coast deposits have been found at Algoa Bay, Saldanha Bay, and on the Island of Ichaboe.

AUSTRALIA—Shark's Bay and Swan Island.

WEST INDIES—Sombrero, Aves, and Cuba.

PACIFIC OCEAN—On the Islands of Baker, Jarvis, Howland, Malden, Starbuck, Fanning, Enderbury, Lacepede, Browse, Huon, and Surprise.

ASIA—Deposits at Kuria Muria on the Arabian coast, and on the Sandwich Islands. (See Heiden's 'Duengerlehre,' vol. ii. p. 349.)

NOTE III. (p. 303).

COMPOSITION OF CONCRETIONARY NODULES.

(Analyses by Karmrodt.)

No. 1.

Potassium sulphate 7.49 " phosphate 9.52 Sodium " 9.08 Ammonium " 7.57 Calcium sulphate 3.40 Ammonium urate 4.09 " oxalate 41.28 Nitrogenous organic matter 10.17 Water 7.40 ——- 100.00 ——— Nitrogen 14.84

No. 2.

Potassium sulphate 45.64 Sodium " 13.22 Ammonium " 10.23 " oxalate 9.14 Basic ammonium phosphate 12.09 Precipitated ammonium phosphate 4.78 Organic matter .94 Insoluble 1.90 Water 2.06 ——— 100.00 ———

NOTE IV. (p. 306).

The following analyses, being the average of a large number of different samples analysed from time to time in the chemical laboratory of the Pommritz Agricultural Experimental Station, show the gradual deterioration of Peruvian guano, as regards its percentage of nitrogen, during the years 1867-81:—

Nitrogen. Nitrogen. 1867 13.16 1873 9.16 1868 11.98 1874 9.83 1869 13.66 1878 7.10 1870 12.37 1879 6.95 1871 10.04 1880 7.07 1872 10.72 1881 6.93

NOTE V. (p. 309).

COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT GUANOS.

The following is a list of the more common nitrogenous and phosphatic guanos which have been used in the past or are at present in use. Those printed in italics are still being worked. As their value depends on their nitrogen and phosphoric acid, these alone have been given. The percentages must be taken as mere approximations, as the quality of different cargoes from the same deposits varies very much. The table may be found useful for reference.

Nitrogenous Guanos. Phosphoric } { Tricalcic Nitrogen = Ammonia. acid } = { phosphate. per cent. per cent. per cent. per cent. Angamos 20 24 5 11 Chincha 14 17 13 28 Ballestas 12 15 12 26 Egyptian 11 13 19 41 Guanape 11 13 - - Macabi 11 13 12 26 Corcovado 11 13 15 33 Saldanha Bay 9 11 9 20 Ichaboe 8 10 9 20 Independence Bay 7 9 12 26 Pabellon de Pica 7 9 14 31 Punta de Lobos 4 5 15 33 Huanillos 6 7 18 28 Penguin 5 6 11 24 Patagonian 4 5 18 39 Falkland Islands 4 5 14 31

Phosphatic Guanos.

Phosphoric } { Tricalcic acid } = { phosphate. per cent. per cent. Maracaibo, or Monks 42 92 Raza Island 40 87 Curacao 40 87 Baker Island 39 85 Starbuck 38 83 Enderbury 37 81 Californian 35 76 Aves 34 74 Fanning Island 34 74 Howland 34 74 Sidney Island 34 74 Mejillones 33 72 Lacepede Island 33 72 Malden Island 32 70 Sombrero 32 70 Browse Island 31 68 Huon Island 28 61 Patos Island 24 52 Jarvis Island 20 44 Cape Vert 11 24

NOTE VI. (p. 314).

It may be of interest to refer to a theory put forward by Liebig as to the action of oxalic acid in guano. This, he considered, had the effect of gradually rendering the insoluble calcium phosphate soluble, and giving rise to the formation of ammonium phosphate and calcium oxalate. Such an action would probably take place were the guano allowed to ferment by itself. We know, however, that when it is brought in contact with the soil-particles, all its soluble phosphate is converted into precipitated phosphate.

NOTE VII. (p. 326).

ANALYSES OF DUNG OF FOWLS, PIGEONS, DUCKS, AND GEESE. (Storer's 'Agricultural Chemistry,' vol. i. p. 367.)

Fowls. Pigeons. Ducks. Geese. Water 56.00 52.00 56.60 77.10 Organic matter 25.50 31.00 26.20 13.40 Nitrogen 1.60 1.75 1.00 .55 Phosphoric acid 1.5-2.00 1.5-2.00 1.40 .54 Potash .80-.90 1.0-1.25 .62 .95 Lime 2.00-2.50 1.5-2.00 1.70 .84 Magnesia .75 .50 .35 .20

According to a computation by a Belgian farmer, a pigeon yields about 6 lb. of dung in a year, a hen about 12 lb., a turkey or goose about 25 lb., and a duck 18 lb.



CHAPTER IX.

NITRATE OF SODA.

Nitrate of soda,[202] or, as it is more correctly designated from a chemical point of view, sodium nitrate, now forms the chief artificial nitrogenous manure in use. Along with sulphate of ammonia, it has taken the place once held in the manure markets by the older Peruvian guano, and may without doubt be reckoned, at present prices, one of the cheapest and most valuable of the artificial sources of nitrogen for the plant. It is some sixty-two years ago since it was first exported from South America into this country. The total exports in that year amounted to about 800 tons, and some indication of the enormous extent to which the use of this valuable fertiliser has been developed since then will be obtained from the statement that the total exports at present amount to little less than 1,000,000 tons per annum, representing a monetary value of 6 to 7 millions sterling. Of this quantity about 120,000 tons are imported into Britain.[203] While its chief use is for manurial purposes, it must not be imagined that it is only used for this purpose. A certain amount is used in connection with various chemical manufactures—for instance, that of nitric and sulphuric acid—and also in the manufacture of saltpetre, the chief constituent of gunpowder.

Date of Discovery of Nitrate Deposits.

The exact date of the discovery of the nitrate deposits seems to be a point of considerable dubiety. The earliest published description of them was written by Bollaert about the year 1820, in which year, it is stated, the first shipment was made to England. It was not, however, till some ten or twelve years later that the Peruvian Government, to whom they then belonged,[204] seems to have recognised their value. The most important deposits are found in the vicinity of the town of Iquique, which is the chief nitrate port of South America. It is a somewhat striking fact that this substance, which has conclusively proved itself to be the most potent of all known artificial agents in the promotion of vegetable growth, should be found in a district utterly lacking the slightest traces of vegetation of any kind. Lest such a statement should seem to savour of irony, we hasten to explain that the singular barrenness of this part of the country is largely due to the character of its climate, the deposits occurring in the midst of sandy deserts,[205] on which rain never falls.

Their Origin.

The origin of these nitrate-fields is a geological problem of very considerable interest, the difficulty of which is greatly enhanced by their altitude—3000 to 4000 feet above the sea-level—and their distance inland, which amounts in some cases to eighty or ninety miles from the sea-coast. The nitrate deposits are not the only saline deposits found in Chili. According to the late David Forbes,[206] they are not to be confused with other saline formations, which appear at intervals scattered over the whole of that portion of the western coast, on which no rain falls. The latter stretch from north to south for a distance of more than 550 miles—their greatest development being between latitudes 19 deg. and 25 deg. south. The depth to which they extend downwards varies considerably. Most of them, however, are of a very superficial character, and "they always show signs of their existence by the saline efflorescence seen on the surface of the ground, which often covers vast plains as a white crystalline incrustation, the dust from which, entering the nostrils and mouth of the traveller, causes much annoyance, whilst at the same time the eyes are equally suffering from the intensely brilliant reflection of the rays of a tropical sun." These saline incrustations, or salinas, as they are generally called, are chiefly composed of salts of lime, soda, magnesia, alumina, and of boracic acid. Their composition would lead one to attribute their origin to the evaporation of salt water; for, with the single exception of boracic acid,[207] all the mineral substances are such as would be obtained by the evaporation of sea-water, or by the mutual reactions of its salts with the constituents of the adjacent rocks. As there is "indisputable evidence of the recent elevation of the whole of this coast," volcanic upheaval might be reasonably held to explain their altitude. Their comparative proximity to the coast would seem further to favour this theory. On these grounds, therefore, Forbes is inclined to think that they owe their origin to the evaporation, under the influence of a tropical sun, of lagoons of salt water, the communication of which with the sea had been cut off by the rising of the land.

Forbes and Darwin on the Theory of their Origin.

The obvious difficulty of accounting for the formation of the larger deposits by such a theory he meets by saying that it is only necessary to suppose that, even after the partial isolation of the lagoons by the elevations of the coast, they might still have maintained tidal or occasional communication with the sea by means of lateral openings in the chain of hills separating them from the ocean. In such cases there would be a gradual accumulation of salts, very much greater in amount than that due simply to the evaporation of the water originally contained in the lagoons. The above theory of the origin of the lower saline deposits may go to explain the mode of formation of the nitrate-fields; but in this case several difficulties present themselves. One is the much greater altitude of the latter, as well as their greater distance inland. This difficulty, however, may be met by assuming that they are of older origin than the lower deposits, and have been subjected to a correspondingly greater amount of volcanic upheaval. There is abundance of proof that this part of the continent has been the scene in the past of such volcanic upheaval. Forbes is of opinion that there is the fullest evidence to prove that, even since the arrival of the Spaniards, a very considerable elevation of the land has taken place over the greater part, if not the whole extent, of the line of coast; while Darwin states that he has convincing proof that this part of the continent has been elevated from 400 to 1200 feet since the epoch of existing shells. Furthermore, elevations of the coast-line, amounting in many cases to several feet, are known to have happened within recent times, while earthquakes and volcanic disturbances of a less striking nature are still of common occurrence. Successive lines, indicative of old sea-beaches, can be distinctly traced stretching inland, one behind the other; and patches of sea-sand and water-worn stone, found at a great distance from the coast, both in valleys and at altitudes much greater even than 4000 feet, point to the same conclusion.[208] The difficulty, therefore, of altitude and distance from the coast cannot be regarded as insuperable.

Source of Nitric Acid.

A difficulty, however, which is not so easily met, is afforded by the presence of the nitric acid which, in combination with the soda, forms the nitrate of soda. It is scarcely necessary to inform our readers that nitrogen—except, of course, in small quantities in the free state—is not a normal constituent of salt water. The question, therefore, of greatest interest in connection with the formation of these nitrate-beds is, Whence has the nitric acid been derived? Several theories have been put forward to account for it.

Guano Theory.

One is to the effect that it owes its origin to huge guano deposits, originally covering the shores of the large salt lakes which, by the subsequent overflowing of their shores, effected the mixture of the guano with the salts. In this way, by a slow process of decomposition, nitrate of soda would be ultimately formed.[209] This theory, apart from other considerations, seems at first sight extremely plausible, more especially when we remember that it is on this very coast that the greatest guano deposits have been found, and that the famous Chincha Islands, which alone have yielded over 10 million tons of this valuable fertiliser, are comparatively near the scene of the nitrate deposits. What seems further to support this theory, is the actual occurrence in the nitrate-fields themselves of small quantities of guano. But however plausible it may appear at first sight, it does not bear closer criticism. One very serious objection is the absence in these deposits of phosphate of lime, which is the largest constituent of guano. If they were really due to guano, how does it happen that the insoluble phosphate of lime should have disappeared, while the easily soluble nitrate of soda should alone be preserved? Again, assuming this theory to be correct, we should naturally expect to be still able to find evidence of the chemical changes which would under such circumstances have taken place, in the shape of portions of the guano in the transition stage. Such evidence, however, the most careful investigations have failed to detect. Apart, however, from the above objections, there seems to be little doubt, from evidence afforded by traces of birds' nests, &c., that the guano found in the nitrate-beds was deposited subsequent to the formation of the nitrate of soda.

Nitric Acid derived from Sea-weed.

The most probable theory seems to be that put forward by Noellner. The origin of the nitric acid is, according to him, to be ascribed to the decay of great masses of sea-weed, which, by means of hurricanes such as are still prevalent in these districts, were driven into the lagoons. The chief difficulty in the way of accepting this theory is the enormous quantity of sea-weed required to produce the millions of tons of nitric acid these deposits contain. It must be remembered, however, as bearing upon this point, that the occurrence of gigantic masses of sea-weed in the Pacific Ocean[210] is by no means uncommon even at the present time. If, to understand the formation of coal, we must suppose the Carboniferous period to be one during which exceptionally luxuriant growth of vegetation took place, we may be permitted to suppose a similar luxuriant growth of sea-weed during the formation of the nitrate deposits. Very strong confirmation of the truth of this theory is further afforded by the presence in large quantities, in the raw nitrate of soda, of iodine, a substance characteristic of sea-weed; while pieces of sea-weed still undecomposed are met with here and there. On the whole, therefore, this theory, while not free from difficulties, seems to be the most worthy of acceptance as regards the origin of the nitrate deposits.[211]

Appearance of Nitrate-fields.

Having thus discussed the origin of the nitrate-fields, we may now give a more detailed description of their appearance. The chief deposits at present being worked are those lying in the Pampa de Tamarugal, in the province of Tarapaca. They stretch to a distance of thirty or forty miles inland, from Pisagua southwards to somewhat beyond the town of Iquique. This huge desert, as has been already indicated, seems to be entirely destitute of all vegetation and animal life. Even in the immediately adjoining country the only kind of vegetation that seems to grow is a species of acacia. The few streams that are found in this neighbourhood are entirely fed by the melting snow from the Cordilleras. Darwin describes the appearance presented by these pampas as resembling "a country after snow, before the last dirty patches are thawed." The caliche, or raw nitrate of soda, is not equally distributed over the pampas. The most abundant deposits are situated on the slopes of the hills which probably formed the shores of the old lagoons. An expert can tell from the external appearance of the ground where the richest deposits are likely to be found. The caliche itself is not found on the surface of the plain, but is covered up by two layers. The uppermost, known technically as chuca, is of a friable nature, and consists of sand and gypsum; while the lower, the costra, is a rocky conglomerate of clay, gravel, and fragments of felspar. The caliche varies in thickness from a few inches to 10 or 12 feet, and rests on a soft stratum of earth called cova.

The Method of mining the Nitrate.

The mode in which the caliche is excavated is as follows: A hole is bored through the chuca, costra, and caliche layers till the cova or soft earth is reached below. It is then enlarged until it is wide enough to admit of a small boy being let down, who scrapes away the earth below the caliche so as to form a little hollow cup. Into this a charge of gunpowder is introduced, and subsequently exploded. The caliche is then separated by means of picks from the overlying costra and carried to the refinery.

Composition of Caliche.

Both in appearance and composition it varies very much. In colour it may be snow-white, sulphur, lemon, orange, violet, blue, and sometimes brown like raw sugar.

The caliche found in the Pampa de Tamarugal contains generally about 30 to 50 per cent pure nitrate of soda; that in the province of Atacama contains from 25 to 40 per cent. The subsequent refining processes, which consist in crushing it by means of rollers and then dissolving it, need not here be described. It may be sufficient to mention that the process used is that known as systematic lixiviation, and is analogous to the method introduced by Shanks in the manufacture of soda. The chief impurity in the raw material is common salt: gypsum, sulphates of potassium, sodium, and magnesium, along with insoluble matters, are the other impurities. The manufacture of iodine, which, as has been already noticed, is found in the nitrate-beds, is also carried on at these oficinas.

Extent of the Nitrate Deposits.

The question of the extent of the nitrate of soda deposits is naturally one of very great interest, especially from the agricultural point of view. M. Charles Legrange, a French writer, estimated a few years ago that they still contained about 100,000,000 tons of pure nitrate of soda. Opinions on this point differ very considerably, and it seems wellnigh impossible to arrive at any very accurate estimate.

The number of years they will last will depend, of course, on the amount of annual exportation. This, at present, falls little short of 1,000,000 tons. If this amount is maintained, they should last, according to experts, some twenty or thirty years at least. A consideration which has an important influence on this question, is the price obtained for the article. If this should be increased, it may be possible to treat the larger quantities of the inferior raw material (which at present prices are allowed to accumulate) at a profit. Undoubtedly this is what will ultimately take place, when the richer quality of the caliche has been exhausted.

Composition and Properties of Nitrate of Soda.

As has already been pointed out, commercial nitrate of soda contains about 95 per cent of pure nitrate of soda, or about 15-1/2 per cent of nitrogen, which, if calculated as ammonia, would equal 19 per cent. It is, next to sulphate of ammonia (which contains 24-1/2 per cent of ammonia), the most concentrated nitrogenous manure, and further, contains its nitrogen in the form most readily available for the plant's use. Its most characteristic property is its great solubility, and consequent speedy diffusion in the soil, and the inability of the soil-particles to fix its nitrogen. In the latter respect it differs very considerably from other forms of nitrogen. Ammonia salts, though practically quite as soluble, do not diffuse in the soil so rapidly as nitrate of soda does; for the ammonia is more or less tenaciously fixed by the soil-particles, and retained till converted by the process of nitrification into nitrates.

Nitrate of Soda applied as a Top-dressing.

On this account nitrate of soda is chiefly employed—and rightly so—as a top-dressing. The risk of loss by drainage is thus minimised, and the valuable nitrogen finds its rightful destination—viz., in the plant's roots.

Encourages deep Roots.

A special benefit which the diffusibility of nitrate of soda has been held to confer on the plant, is to encourage the growth of deep roots, by inducing the growing plant to send down its roots into the lower layers of the soil after the nitrate of soda. The benefit of deep roots is, of course, very great. They enable the plant to withstand the action of drought, and at the same time increase the area whence the plant may derive its nourishment. Although the value of the manure is practically entirely due to the nitrogen it contains, it has been urged that the soda exercises a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of the soil, by increasing its power of absorbing moisture, and in also rendering it more compact. This would partly explain how its results in dry seasons are so much better than those obtained from sulphate of ammonia. This mechanical action of nitrate can scarcely be very great when we remember the comparatively small quantity applied. Even in the driest of seasons there will always be sufficient moisture to secure the diffusion of the nitrate of soda, while the risk of loss by drainage will be reduced to a minimum. Much ignorance, as well as prejudice, has existed in the past as to the true nature of the action of nitrate of soda. Nor is this prejudice even yet entirely dispelled.

Is Nitrate an exhausting Manure?

The common charge brought against it is, that it is what has been termed an exhausting manure. This objection, to have any weight, must mean that nitrate of soda produces a crop which takes out of the soil an abnormal quantity of fertilising matter. But, so far as the writer is aware, no scientific evidence has ever been brought forward to support this contention. That the indiscriminate use of a manure may produce a crop in which the stem and leaves are unduly developed at the expense of the grain, or in which the quality of the crop may suffer from too rapid growth, is, of course, a well-known fact. But as this could also be produced by an overdose of soluble phosphoric acid as well as ammonia salts, it is not a property that belongs exclusively to nitrate of soda. Probably nitrate of soda has in the past been often used in this indiscriminate way so as to produce such results. The fault, therefore, lies not in the manure, but in the mode of its application. A few remarks, therefore, on this most important subject may prove serviceable.

Crops for which it is suited.

Opinions will naturally differ as to the crops to which it is profitable to apply nitrate of soda. Its value as a manure for cereals is pretty generally admitted. Its value as a manure for roots is not, however, so universally admitted. Experiments would seem to show that such a crop as the mangold derives just as much benefit as do the cereals; while in Germany practical experience on a very large scale has demonstrated its value as a manure for beetroots. It may be generally recommended as a manure for all crops, except, perhaps, the so-called leguminous crops, such as clover, beans, peas, &c, whose ability to obtain nitrogen for themselves renders the application of expensive artificial nitrogenous manures unadvisable.

An interesting point with regard to nitrate of soda is the curious effect it seems to have on the colour of the leaves of plants. This interesting fact has been strikingly demonstrated at the Rothamsted Experimental Station, in the contrast in the colour of the leaves of different experimental grass-plots, manured with nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia respectively—the plots manured with nitrate of soda being distinctly darker in hue, obviously owing to the greater production of chlorophyll or green matter. Such a depth of colour would seem to indicate a more healthy development.

Method of Application.

While opinions, therefore, will naturally differ as to the crops to which nitrate of soda will be most profitably applied, little difference of opinion exists as to the method of its application. The inability of the soil-particles to retain it, the frequency of rain, the costly nature of the manure itself, and its immediate availability as a plant-food, all point to the extreme advisability of using it as a top-dressing. Even when used as a top-dressing, it may be advisable not to apply the entire quantity all at one time. By applying it in instalments, little risk is run that, through inclemency of weather, the manure will be lost. Another point of importance in applying nitrate of soda is to secure uniform distribution. This of course is applicable to all artificial manures, but in a very special degree to nitrate of soda, because of its great value and the comparatively small quantity applied.

As the uniform distribution of one cwt. of any material over an acre of soil is by no means an easy task, the mixing of nitrate of soda with some diluent, such as dry loam, is consequently highly advisable. Common salt is often applied along with nitrate of soda. The indirect value of salt as a manure is considerable, and when applied along with nitrate, ensures its more speedy diffusion in the soil, by increasing the soil's capacity for absorbing moisture from the air.

Must be a Sufficiency of other Fertilising Constituents.

A third point of importance in applying nitrate of soda, is to see that the soil is sufficiently supplied with the other plant-foods—phosphates and potash. This is a sine qua non, if the nitrate is to get a fair chance. If it is desired to apply nitrate of soda along with superphosphate of lime, a word of caution is necessary against making the mixture long before it is used. The reason of this is, that a chemical action is apt to ensue, resulting in the loss of the nitric acid in the nitrate of soda. The nature of the soil is another important consideration to be taken into account. In the case of extremely loose and sandy soils, it is scarcely to be recommended as the most suitable form in which to apply nitrogen. If applied to such soils, especial care ought to be taken to minimise risk of loss. No hard-and-fast rules can be laid down as to the quantity in which it ought to be applied. This must be regulated very much by the crop, the nature of the soil, and the quantity of other manures employed. From 1 to 1-1/4 cwt. may be recommended as a suitable quantity for corn crops which are otherwise liberally manured. On strong clay soils this quantity may be judiciously increased up to 2 cwt. Dr Bernard Dyer, who has experimented largely on its use as a manure for mangolds, is of opinion that an application of from 3 to 4 cwt. an acre is likely to prove thoroughly profitable; and the present writer has found in his experiments with turnips that a top-dressing of 1 cwt. amply repaid itself.

Conclusions drawn.

In conclusion, the nature and characteristics of nitrate of soda as a manure may be briefly summed up as follows:—

1. It is a whitish, crystalline salt, extremely soluble, and is quickly diffused in the soil. It should contain 95 per cent of pure nitrate of soda—i.e., 15-1/2 per cent of nitrogen, equal to about 19 per cent of ammonia.

2. Next to sulphate of ammonia, it is the most concentrated nitrogenous manure; the relative quantities of nitrogen these two manures contain being as three is to four.

3. It contains its nitrogen in the most valuable and readily assimilable form—i.e., as nitric acid, the form into which all other forms of nitrogen have first to be converted before they become available for the plant's uses.

4. That, at present market prices, nitrate of soda may be safely affirmed to be the cheapest form of nitrogenous manure.

5. That nitrate of soda, in addition to its direct value as a manure, probably exercises a slight influence on the mechanical properties of the soil, by increasing its compactness and water-absorbing capacities; that it further tends to promote deep roots, and thus to increase the soil area whence the plant may derive its nourishment, at the same time rendering the plant more able to withstand the injurious influence of drought.

6. That a plentiful supply of the other manurial constituents should be present in the soil, if nitrate of soda is to exercise its full value.

7. That it may be profitably applied in the case of nearly all kinds of crops, but that great care should be taken as to the mode of its application. That this should be almost invariably as a top-dressing, and that it should be applied in several doses if possible.

8. That its effects can be regarded as lasting only during the first year after application.

FOOTNOTES:

[202] This substance is also largely known under the name Chili saltpetre, to distinguish it from potassium nitrate or common saltpetre.

[203] See Appendix, p. 351.

[204] We may remind our readers that these nitrate deposits were largely the cause of the late war between Chili and Peru, which resulted in the cession to Chili by Peru of the province of Tarapaca, where the most important deposits are situated.

[205] The other nitrate deposits are found in the provinces of Antofagasta and Atacama, and a certain amount of the refined article is exported from these places. The amount, however, is inconsiderable as compared with that which comes from the province of Tarapaca.

[206] See his elaborate article on the Geology of Bolivia and Peru, published in the 'Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society' for November 1860.

[207] The source of the boracic acid is probably volcanic.

[208] A friend of the present writer, who has visited this part of the west coast of South America, informs him that at one point of the coast at Mejillones (in Bolivia) he could trace the remains of no fewer than twelve distinct sea-beaches, situated at different distances from the sea, and rising to an altitude of 2500 feet.

[209] In this change, lime derived from the sea-shells would play an important part. Modern researches have shown, as we have already said in a previous chapter, that, in the conversion of organic nitrogen into nitrates, the presence of carbonate of lime is a necessary condition.

[210] The Gulf weed is an instance in point. Huge masses of floating sea-weed are sometimes found, 500 to 600 miles in length, forming the so-called Saragossa Sea.

[211] A difficulty which has not been referred to is the belief entertained by geologists that "there has been a change of climate in Northern Chili, and that there must have been more rain there formerly than there is at present. Traces of human habitations are found high up in the Cordilleras to-day. Cobs of Indian corn, axes and knives of copper tempered to exceeding sharpness, arrow-heads of agate, even pieces of cloth, are dug up in arid plains now without any trace of water for many leagues in or around them" (Russell, 'The Nitrate-Fields of Chili,' p. 290).



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER IX.

NITRATE OF SODA.

Total Shipments from South America, 1830-1892.

Year. Tons. Year. Tons. Year. Tons. 1830 800 1870 131,400 1886 437,500 1835 6,200 1875 321,000 1887 680,600 1840 10,100 1880 217,300 1888 745,700 1845 16,800 1881 344,600 1889 930,000 1850 22,800 1882 477,800 1890 1,030,000 1855 41,800 1883 572,400 1891 790,000 1860 55,200 1884 540,900 1892 790,000 1865 109,000 1885 423,100

The following tables exhibit the total imports into Europe, and into the United Kingdom from the years 1873-92:—

NITRATE OF SODA, 1873-1892.

Imports into Europe. Imports into United Kingdom.

Year. Tons. Year. Tons. 1873 225,000 1873 124,000 1874 230,000 1874 108,200 1875 280,000 1875 164,900 1876 300,000 1876 166,800 1877 208,000 1877 69,600 1878 250,000 1878 104,400 1879 205,000 1879 55,300 1880 140,000 1880 48,300 1881 230,000 1881 54,800 1882 335,000 1882 96,000 1883 440,000 1883 103,700 1884 505,000 1884 103,700 1885 380,000 1885 109,400 1886 330,000 1886 75,100 1887 440,000 1887 83,100 1888 640,000 1888 103,100 1889 760,000 1889 120,000 1890 784,000 1890 114,000 1891 851,000 1891 121,000 1892 795,000 1892 115,000



CHAPTER X.

SULPHATE OF AMMONIA.

Value of Ammonia as a Manure.

The value of ammonia salts as a manure has been long recognised; indeed till recently ammonia was thought to be the most valuable form in which nitrogen could be applied as a plant-food—a view, we may mention, held by Liebig. While the plant, no doubt, can absorb its nitrogen in the form of ammonia,[212] as well as in other forms, as we have already pointed out in previous chapters, it is now fully recognised that ammonia salts, when applied to the soil, are converted into nitrates. Nitric acid, then, must be regarded as the most valuable, inasmuch as it is the most rapidly assimilated form of nitrogen for the plant; but next to nitric acid in value comes ammonia. Of the different forms of ammonia available for manurial purposes, the only one used to a large extent is sulphate.

Sources of Sulphate of Ammonia.

The oldest, and what is still the chief source of this valuable salt, is the gas-works, where it is obtained as one of the bye-products in the manufacture of gas. It is also obtained to a lesser extent from shale, iron, coke, and carbonising works. Bones, horn, leather, and certain other animal substances rich in nitrogen, when subjected to dry distillation, as is the case in certain manufactures, such as the manufacture of bone-charcoal for use in sugar-refineries, and the distillation of horn, &c., in the manufacture of prussiate of potash, also constitute less abundant sources.

Ammonia from Gas-works.

Coal contains on an average from a half to one and a half per cent of nitrogen. When it is subjected to dry distillation, as is done in the gas-works, the nitrogen which it contains is chiefly converted into ammonia, and, in the process of purification of the gas, is removed in the "gas-liquor,"[213] which contains about one per cent of ammonia. The ammonia recovered from this liquor by distillation is then absorbed in sulphuric acid. It may be pointed out that nothing like all the nitrogen contained in the coal is recovered as sulphate of ammonia. It has been calculated that only from a fifth to a tenth is actually recovered, and many processes have been patented with a view to increasing the yield of ammonia in gas manufacture. The total production of ammonia from gas-works may be placed at little over 100,000 tons per annum for Great Britain. Mr L. Mond, F.R.S., recently drew attention to the possibility of largely increasing our supply of sulphate of ammonia from coal. As indicating what an enormous source of sulphate of ammonia we have in coal, Mr Mond calculated that its annual consumption in this country (estimated at 150,000,000 tons) would yield as much as 5,000,000 tons of sulphate of ammonia.

Other Sources.

While the ammonia produced in the manufacture of gas has long been collected, it is only of recent years that the other sources of ammonia have been developed. Next to the gas-works, the shale-works of Scotland form in this country the chief source of this valuable manure. In these works the ammonia is obtained in distilling the paraffin shale by a method somewhat similar to that in use in the gas-works. The amount of sulphate of ammonia obtained from this source is between 20,000 and 30,000 tons per annum. Recently the ammonia has been recovered from the blast-furnace gases in iron-works—some 6000 tons being annually obtained in this way; while from coke and carbonising works the annual production is about half that amount. The combined annual production from all these sources may be put down at 140,000 tons, the total production in Europe being probably little more than 200,000 tons. In the Appendix further statistics will be found.[214]

Composition, &c., of Sulphate of Ammonia.

Pure sulphate of ammonia is a whitish crystalline salt, extremely soluble in water. The commercial article, however, is generally greyish or brownish in colour, owing to the presence of slight quantities of impurities. The pure salt should contain 25.75 per cent of ammonia; but the commercial article is generally sold on a basis of 24.5 per cent. A useful test of its purity is the fact that when subjected to a red-heat it should almost entirely volatilise, leaving very little residue. The chief impurities which it is likely to contain are an excess of moisture, free acid, or the presence of insoluble matter. Certain samples contain small quantities of ammonium sulphocyanate, an extremely poisonous substance for plants. The presence of this dangerous impurity is easily detected by adding ferric chloride, which, in presence of the sulphocyanate, produces a blood-red colour. Sulphate of ammonia is thus the most concentrated of all nitrogenous manures in common use, and is for that reason the most expensive.

Application.

For this reason, as well as from the fact that it contains a speedily available form of nitrogen, sulphate of ammonia should only as a rule be applied in comparatively small quantities—100 to 125 lb. per acre.[215] It should also be applied before, but not too long before, the crop is likely to require it. The reason of this is to give it time to be converted into nitrates. The ability of the soil to retain ammonia has already been pointed out. It is not safe, however, to rely too much on the retentive power of the soil for ammonia, the conversion of ammonia into nitrates going on very quickly under favourable circumstances. It is most profitably used as a manure for cereals, and it has been found by Lawes and Gilbert in their experiments, that an increase of one bushel of wheat and a corresponding increase of straw have been obtained for every 5 lb. of ammonia added to the soil. As has been pointed out in the previous chapter, the respective merits of sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda depend largely on the nature of the season during which they are used. In wet seasons the sulphate is rather more favourable than the nitrate, but, on an average, nitrate of soda is probably the more valuable manure—i.e., due regard being had to the quantity of nitrogen the two manures respectively contain. In one respect sulphate of ammonia is a much more useful manure than nitrate of soda, as the nature of its action when applied to the soil permits of it being used as an ingredient of mixed manures.

Like nitrate of soda, but even to a greater extent, its most favourable action is obtained when it is applied along with other manurial ingredients. It should be applied at least a month earlier than nitrate. It has been shown that in the case of chalky soils a certain loss of ammonia in sulphate of ammonia is apt to take place, due to the action of the lime; and this leads us to point out that, in preparing mixed manures, care ought to be taken that it is not mixed with any compound containing free lime or caustic alkali, as otherwise loss of ammonia will ensue. It should never, for example, be used along with basic slag.

FOOTNOTES:

[212] From experiments by Lehmann and others with buckwheat and maize, it would seem that certain plants may prefer, at certain stages of their growth, ammonia to nitrates. In the case of maize, ammonia may be preferred in the early stages of growth, while nitrates are preferred as it becomes more mature. In view, however, of our present knowledge of nitrification, it may well be doubted whether the conclusions arrived at from Lehmann's experiments can be accepted.

[213] As the expense of converting the ammonia present in the ammoniacal liquor is considerable, the practice of using the liquor itself as a manure has been advocated; but as an objection to this it must be urged that, besides being so bulky a manure, the liquor contains various substances poisonous to plant-life.

[214] See Appendix, p. 358.

[215] Some crops, however, may with advantage be treated with larger quantities of sulphate of ammonia, such as mangels and potatoes.



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER X.

NOTE (p. 355).

The following table will exhibit the production of sulphate of ammonia in this country from 1870 to 1892:—

Year. Tons. Year. Tons. 1870 40,000 1882 72,000 1871 41,000 1883 75,000 1872 42,000 1884 87,000 1873 43,000 1885 97,000 1874 45,000 1886 106,500 1875 46,000 1887 113,700 1876 48,000 1888 122,800 1877 52,000 1889 132,000 1878 55,000 1890 140,000 1879 57,000 1891 143,500 1880 60,000 1892 157,000 1881 65,000

The following table exhibits the sources, and the respective quantities from each source, of the last seven years' production:—

1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892.

Gas-works 82,500 85,000 93,000 100,000 102,150 107,950 112,000 Iron-works 4,000 5,000 5,300 6,000 5,050 6,300 12,000 Shale-works 18,000 21,000 22,000 23,000 24,750 26,600 28,000 Coke and carbonising works 2,000 2,700 2,500 3,000 2,300 2,800 5,000



CHAPTER XI.

BONES

Early Use of Bones.

A most important manure, and one to the history of which very peculiar interest attaches, is Bones. Employed first in 1774, their use has steadily increased ever since, and their popularity as a phosphatic manure is among farmers in this country quite unrivalled. Like guano, although to a less extent, the early practice of using bones has done much to arouse interest in the problems of manuring, and to bring home to farmers the principles underlying that practice. It was from bones that Liebig first made superphosphate of lime, and the distinguished veteran experimenter, Sir John Bennet Lawes, has told us that the benefit accruing from the use of bones on the turnip crop first drew his attention to the interesting problem connected with the application of artificial manures. Bones were first used in Yorkshire. Shortly afterwards they were applied to exhausted pastures in Cheshire. Soon their use became so popular that the home supply was found inadequate; and they were imported from Germany and Northern Europe, Hull being the port of disembarkation. So largely were they used by English farmers, that Baron Liebig considered it necessary to raise a warning protest against their lavish application. "England is robbing all other countries of the condition of their fertility. Already, in her eagerness for bones, she has turned up the battle-fields of Leipzig, of Waterloo, and of the Crimea; already from the catacombs of Sicily she has carried away the skeletons of many successive generations. Annually she removes from the shores of other countries to her own the manurial equivalent of three millions and a half of men, whom she takes from us the means of supporting, and squanders down her sewers to the sea. Like a vampire, she hangs upon the neck of Europe—nay, of the entire world!—and sucks the heart-blood from nations without a thought of justice towards them, without a shadow of lasting advantage to herself."[216]

Different Forms in which Bones are used.

It may be pointed out that bones have done much to alter our system of farming, by helping to develop turnip culture. Used at first in comparatively large pieces, experience gradually showed that a finer state of division facilitated their action. Yet it was long before the prejudice in favour of rough bones disappeared; and it was not till 1829 that Mr Anderson of Dundee introduced machinery for preparing 1/2-inch and 1/4-inch bones and bone-dust. In the early days of their use, bones were fermented before being used, in order to render their action more speedy when applied to the soil; and this practice still obtains to the present day in some parts of the country among farmers. This fermentation was often effected simply by mixing the bones with water, and allowing the heap to lie for a week or two. In other cases the bones were mixed with urine or other refuse matter. The most important step, however, in the history of the treatment of bones for manure was the discovery in 1840, by Liebig, of the action of sulphuric acid on them—a discovery which led to the institution of the manufacture of superphosphate of lime by Sir John Lawes. The nature of this action will be explained in the following chapter, so that we need only say here that the efficacy of the manure by treatment with sulphuric acid is more than doubled. Bones have thus been used, and still are used, in a variety of conditions, such as in the raw or green state, bruised, boiled, steamed, fermented, burned, dissolved, and broken or ground into various states of fineness, to which the names of 1/2-inch, 1/4-inch bones, bone-meal, bone-dust, and floated bones are given. We shall now proceed to discuss the composition of bones, and investigate more exactly the nature of their action.

Composition of Bones.

The composition of bone-tissue varies considerably, and depends on the age and kind of animal to which it belongs, as well as to the part of the animal frame from which it is taken. Bones are made up of an organic and an inorganic part. By steeping a piece of bone in a dilute acid solution, the inorganic portion of the bone is dissolved out, and the organic portion, which forms the framework of the bone, is alone left. On the other hand, by submitting a bone to the action of great heat, the organic portion of the bone is driven off, and all that remains is a quantity of ash. The proportion of the organic to the inorganic matter varies considerably in different bones. The bones of young animals contain more organic matter than those of old animals. In compact bones, also, the organic matter is greater than in spongy bones. The thigh-bone, of all the bones, contains most inorganic matter. In short, bones which have to bear the greatest strain are richest in inorganic matter. Of the bones of animals, fish-bones exhibit the greatest variety of composition, some being almost entirely made up of organic matter, while others are similar in their composition to the bones of quadrupeds.

The Organic Matter of Bones.

The organic portion of bones is almost entirely made up of a substance to which the name ossein has been given, and which, when boiled for a long time, is converted into gelatine. This ossein, which forms on an average from 25 to 30 per cent of the weight of bones, is extremely rich in nitrogen, containing over 18 per cent.

Inorganic Portion of Bones.

The inorganic portion, which forms about 70 per cent, is made up chiefly of phosphate of lime. The dry leg-bones of oxen and sheep, according to Heintz, have the following percentage composition:—

Per cent. Phosphate of lime 58 to 63 Carbonate of lime 6 to 7 Phosphate of magnesia 1 to 2 Fluoride of calcium 2 Organic matter 25 to 30

According to Payen and Boussingault, raw bones contain 6-1/4 per cent of nitrogen and 8 per cent of water. Pure bones are thus seen to contain about 29 per cent of phosphoric acid and 6-1/4 per cent of nitrogen. The composition of the commercial article, however, differs very widely. This is due to the fact that bones collected from India and America, where they have been long exposed to atmospheric influences, have lost much of their organic matter. The amount of sand and earthy impurities also varies very considerably.

Treatment of Bones.

Bones are used for the manufacture of glue and gelatine. These are extracted from them by steaming the bones. The bones after treatment are used as a manure. The improvement noted in the action of the bones thus treated led to the introduction of the use of steamed bones as a manure. Raw bones are now rarely used. The fat present in raw bones retards their decomposition in the soil. Probably, as has been suggested, it forms along with lime an insoluble soap which prevents the mineral matter in the bone being dissolved by the carbonic acid of the soil. In the process of boiling or steaming a certain loss of nitrogen takes place, greater or less, according to the length of time they are boiled or steamed, and in the latter case the pressure applied. A more economical method for extracting the fat has been introduced by using benzine, but this process is not used to any extent. The loss of nitrogen in the former case is more than compensated for by their more speedy action as a manure when applied to the soil. Bone-meal of good quality contains from 45 to 55[217] per cent of phosphate of lime, and 3-1/2 per cent of nitrogen. Our present total consumption of bones is probably little less than 100,000 tons per annum, of which about half is obtained from home collections, over 20,000 tons being annually collected in and around London alone.

Action of Bones.

It is well known that bones are a slow-acting manure. They may be said to possess both a mechanical and chemical action when applied to the soil. When they putrefy, their nitrogen is slowly converted into ammonia, and carbonic acid as well as various organic acids are formed, which, acting upon the insoluble mineral matter in the bones, renders it available for plant uses. Bones thus, when applied in large quantities, may not merely act directly as suppliers of plant-food, but in the course of their putrefaction may act upon a certain amount of the inert fertilising matter of the soil and render it available. The more readily, then, bones putrefy, the more speedy will be their effect. As we have already pointed out, bones, in order to increase their efficiency, are often fermented before application. The removal of the fat is another means of increasing the rate of their action, but the fineness to which they are ground determines this more than anything else. Much ingenuity has been expended in perfecting machinery for grinding bones. At one time in Germany they were pounded in stamps similar to those used for ore. In America what has been called "floated bone" has been prepared. This bone is so fine that it actually floats in the air like flour-dust, and is made by whirling the bones against one another. The action of bones prepared in this way is of course very speedy, but the difficulty of applying a manure in such a fine state of division to the soil is great. The expense of the process also is considerable.

The ease with which bones when ground into a fine state of division putrefy, is evidenced by the fact that bone-flour has to be salted in order to enable it to keep. Another condition which determines the rate at which the fertilising matters in bones become available is the nature of the soil. Fermentation, as we have already seen, requires a plentiful supply of air, and a certain amount, but not too much, of moisture. Consequently bones act best in medium soils—soils which are "neither too light and dry, nor too close and wet." There can be no doubt that what gives to bones a peculiar value in the eyes of the farmer is the fact that they form a manure of a lasting character. They give what has been termed backbone to a soil. But the tendency of modern agricultural practice is to use quick-acting manures rather than slow. This has been admirably put by Professor Storer in the following words: "The old notion, that those manures are best which make themselves felt through a long series of years, is now recognised to be an error. The adage, that 'one cannot eat the cake and have the cake' is conspicuously true in agriculture; and just as it is the part of prudence in household or maritime economy to abstain from laying in at any one time more provisions than can be properly disposed of in a year or during a voyage, so should the farmer refrain from bringing to the land an unnecessary excess of plant-food. Such food is liable to spoil withal in the soil, as well as other kinds of provisions that are kept too long in store. A just proportion of food, properly prepared, is the point to be aimed at always."

In view, therefore, of what has just been said, it might seem best to use bones in the form in which they are most speedily available—viz., as dissolved bones. This would be so if bones were the only source we possessed for the manufacture of superphosphate of lime; but we now have, in the various mineral phosphates, abundant and cheaper sources of this valuable manure. The opinion of leading agriculturists and agricultural chemists is rather in favour of applying bones in the undissolved condition. For one thing, it seems far from economical to utilise an expensive material such as bones for manufacturing an article which can be equally well manufactured from cheaper materials; for once the phosphate of lime is dissolved, it is equally valuable from whatever source it may be derived. Of course this is not tantamount to saying that dissolved bones as a manure are no more valuable than superphosphate. In dissolved bones we have, in addition to soluble phosphate, a considerable proportion of undissolved bone-tissue, containing a certain quantity of nitrogen and organic matter; but so far as the soluble phosphate is concerned, it seems only rational to conclude that its efficacy is equally great, whether it be derived from bone or mineral phosphate. Another reason is, that much of the characteristic action of bones is lost by treating them with sulphuric acid. As Dr Aitken has pointed out, the germ life in the soil and in the bones gradually converts them into a form available for the nourishment of plants; but to dissolve bones with sulphuric acid is to kill out the germ life and retard the decay of any nucleus of bone in the dissolved manure.

Dissolved Bones.

Dissolved bones, however, are still manufactured. Formerly the manure called dissolved bones was often a mixture of mineral superphosphate along with undissolved bone-meal, but recent legislation has stopped the continuance of this practice. The composition of dissolved bones varies somewhat, the percentage of soluble phosphate being about 20 to 23 per cent, the insoluble amounting to from 9 to 10 per cent, and the nitrogen from 2-1/2 to 3-1/2 per cent.[218] Another reason against dissolving bones is to be found in the difficulty experienced in dissolving their phosphate. Bones, especially when raw, are not easily acted upon by acids.

Crops suited for Bones.

Bones are commonly regarded as being specially beneficial to pasture-land, to which they are applied as a top-dressing. Turnips, tobacco, potatoes, vines, and hops are also much benefited by the application of bones. In America, mixed with wood-ashes (the chief manurial constituent of which is potash), they have been extensively used as a substitute for farmyard manure, and have been applied at the rate of 5 to 6 cwt. per acre. In Saxony, according to Professor Storer, 1 cwt. of fine bone-meal is worth as much as 25 to 30 cwt. of farmyard manure.

Bone-ash.

The ash which is left on burning bones used to be an article of considerable manurial importance. It is still imported from South America in some quantity, and is used chiefly in the pottery industry. It is occasionally still used to a limited extent for the manufacture of high-class superphosphates. It is extremely rich in phosphate of lime, of which it contains between 70 and 80 per cent; but of course it is devoid of nitrogen.[219] Bone-ash is best used in the dissolved form, as it possesses no characteristic action such as is possessed by bones.

Bone-char or Bone-black.

When heated in a closed retort, bones are not converted into bone-ash, but into a body called bone-char. This body is similar in composition to bone-ash, except for a certain percentage of charcoal—amounting, on an average, to 10 per cent. It contains but little nitrogen and other organic matter. Bone-black or bone-char is an article which is prepared in enormous quantities for use in sugar-refineries, where it is used in the purification of sugar. After use it may be renovated by submitting it to heat; but as this process gradually lessens the percentage of carbon it contains, after a certain period it becomes too poor in this substance for efficiently acting as a filter. When this takes place it is technically known as spent char, and is used for the manufacture of superphosphates. Spent char is a highly phosphatic substance, being very little poorer than bone-ash, and containing about 70 per cent of phosphate of lime.[220]

FOOTNOTES:

[216] It is only fair to Liebig to say that when he wrote these words the practically boundless supply of mineral phosphates which we now know to exist in many parts of the world was little dreamt of.

[217] See Appendix, Note I., p. 371.

[218] See Appendix, Note II., p. 371.

[219] See Appendix, Note III., p. 372.

[220] See Appendix, Note IV., p. 372.



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XI.

NOTE I. (p. 364).

The following analysis will serve to show the composition of bone-meal:—

Moisture 10.43 *Organic matter 32.30 Phosphate of lime 48.40 Carbonate of lime, magnesia, &c. 7.20 Insoluble siliceous matter 1.67 ——— 100.00 ——— *Containing:— Nitrogen 3.71 Equal to ammonia 4.51



NOTE II. (p. 368).

COMPOSITION OF DISSOLVED BONES.

The accompanying analysis may be taken as representing the average composition of dissolved bones:—

Moisture 10.10 *Organic matter and water of combination 29.34 Monobasic phosphate of lime 11.23 (Equal to tricalcic phosphate rendered "soluble" 17.58) Phosphate soluble in ammonium citrate 14.02 Insoluble phosphate of lime 1.88 Calcium sulphate, magnesia, alkalies, &c. 30.23 Sand 3.20 ——— 100.00 ——— *Containing:— Nitrogen 2.62 Equal to ammonia 3.18

COMPOSITION OF COMPOUND BONES.

The following analysis illustrates the composition of compound bones:—

Moisture 8.10 *Organic matter and water of combination 37.22 Monobasic phosphate of lime 13.68 (Equal to tricalcic phosphate rendered "soluble" 21.42) Insoluble phosphate of lime 10.48 Calcium sulphate, magnesia, alkalies, &c. 26.02 Sand 4.50 ——— 100.00 ——— *Containing:— Nitrogen 1.90 Equal to ammonia 2.30

NOTE III. (p. 369).

As showing the composition of bone-ash, the following analysis may be quoted:—

Moisture .25 Organic matter .85 *Phosphoric acid 35.56 Lime 47.09 Magnesia, alkalies, &c. 9.80 Sand 6.45 ——— 100.00 ——— *Equal to tricalcic phosphate 77.63

NOTE IV. (p. 370).

Composition of bone-char (on dry sample):—

Carbon 10.51 Calcium and magnesium phosphates, calcium fluoride, &c. 80.21 Calcium carbonate 8.30 Calcium sulphate .17 Ferric oxide .12 Silica .34 Alkaline salts .35 ——— 100.00 ———



CHAPTER XII.

MINERAL PHOSPHATES.

In this chapter we shall give an account of the more commonly occurring mineral phosphates. In Chapter V., where we discussed the position of phosphoric acid in agriculture, it was pointed out that mineral phosphates were very abundant, and that large deposits of them were found in many parts of the world.

Coprolites.

Reference may first be made to the so-called coprolites or phosphatic nodules which have been found in great abundance in the greensand formation, in the crag of the eastern counties, and in the chalk formation of the southern counties. These coprolites are rounded nodules, and are composed of the fossil excrements and remains of ancient animals. They are found in large quantities in Cambridgeshire, and were discovered by Dr Buckland many years ago. The history of their discovery is not a little curious. The manurial properties of road-scrapings in parts of Cambridgeshire were noticed, and on being examined were found to be in part composed of phosphate of lime, derived from phosphatic nodules dug out of the underlying greensand, and used for the purpose of repairing roads. Professor Henslow first drew attention to them at a meeting of the British Association held in Cambridge in 1845, and pointed out that they contained about 60 per cent of phosphate of lime. They were also found in enormous quantities in Suffolk, Norfolk, Bedfordshire, and Essex, and were for a long time largely used in the manufacture of superphosphate, but of late years have not been used to anything like the same extent, owing to the fact that there are richer and cheaper sources of phosphate of lime available. In 1887 about 20,000 tons of coprolites were raised. The richest were those obtained in Cambridge, while those got from Bedfordshire were about the poorest. Deposits have also been found in France and other countries. The average amount of phosphate of lime in English coprolites is between 50 and 60 per cent, while the French contain about 45 per cent.

Canadian Apatite or Phosphorite.

We have already referred in Chapter V. to large deposits of apatite or phosphorite found in Canada. The Canadian mines commenced to be worked about fifteen years ago, and the output now amounts to nearly 25,000 tons per annum.[221] A portion of this goes to the United States; the rest, amounting to about 20,000 tons, being shipped to England, whence it is again exported to Hamburg and other places.[222] It contains from 70 to 80 per cent of phosphate. Deposits are also found at Estremadura in Spain, and in Norway.

Estremadura or Spanish Phosphates.

Large deposits of phosphate have long been known to exist at Estremadura in Spain, and the mines at Caceres have been worked on a large scale for seventeen years, and about half a million tons have been raised. In 1882 the imports into this country amounted to over 56,000 tons; but latterly they have only been about a fourth of this amount. Dr Dauberry visited the deposits in 1843, and wrote a most interesting account of them. They do not seem, however, to have been imported for purposes of superphosphate manufacture till a number of years afterwards. Of Estremadura phosphate there are three classes, containing respectively 50, 60, and 70 per cent of phosphate of lime, the lowest quality being the commonest.[223]

Norwegian Apatite.

This apatite has ceased to be imported of late years, owing to a duty on exportation.

Charleston or South Carolina Phosphate.

For a number of years these deposits have formed the chief source of phosphate of lime used in the manufacture of mineral superphosphates in this country (in fact they have furnished two-thirds of our phosphate supply during recent years). Discovered twenty-five years ago, some four to five million tons have already been shipped. About half a million tons were raised in 1886 from these mines, which are the most abundant in the world. There are two kinds—the so-called "land" and "river" phosphates. The former contains more oxide of iron and alumina, and is therefore less pure than the latter, in which the iron and alumina do not exceed 2 per cent. The river phosphate is dredged from the Bull, Coosaw, and Beaufort rivers. Of phosphate of lime it contains from 50 to 60 per cent. It is generally sold in three grades—50 to 52 per cent, 55 to 56 per cent, and 58 to 60 per cent of phosphate of lime. It will thus be seen to be incapable of producing very high-class superphosphates —i.e., containing more than 30 per cent "soluble" phosphate. This point will be more intelligible when we describe the manufacture of superphosphate. The demand for these phosphates in the United States has increased enormously in recent years, owing to the increase in the quantity of manure used.

Belgian Phosphate.

Another very important source of mineral phosphates are deposits discovered some years ago in Belgium near Mons. These phosphates are of different qualities, and are found, some in layers near the surface in pockets forming the richest class, and containing from 45 to 65 per cent of phosphate, and some in the form of a friable phosphatic rock, the so-called craie-grise (phosphatic chalk), containing from 25 to 35 per cent of phosphate of lime. The higher quality of Belgian phosphate is pretty well exhausted, and it is the second class that forms the bulk of the ordinary Belgian phosphate at present exported. The commercial article contains about 35 to 40 per cent of phosphate, and about 45 per cent of carbonate of lime. The fact of its poor quality, together with the large percentage of carbonate of lime it contains, renders its adoption alone in the manufacture of superphosphate unsuitable. Attempts have been made to get rid of a portion of this carbonate of lime and to raise the percentage of phosphate. For this purpose the phosphate has been calcined, but this was soon found to be a great mistake. Other means have been adopted, with the result that the percentage has been increased to 50 per cent. It is consequently used in small quantities as a drier, for which it is peculiarly suited on account of its carbonaceous nature, along with the higher-class phosphates. In the year 1886 about 145,000 tons of this phosphate were raised, of which about 45,000 tons were imported into the United Kingdom.

Somme Phosphate.

Still more recently a discovery of phosphate deposits has been made in the Somme and Pas de Calais departments in the north of France, adjoining, and similar in character to, the Belgian deposits. The only difference between Belgian and French phosphates is, that the latter is of a higher quality, and contains from 50 to 80 per cent of phosphate of lime. A very large demand for these phosphates sprang up, and in 1888, although they had only been worked for some two years, no less than 150,000 tons had been raised, of which about one-half contained from 70 to upwards of 75 per cent. There are four grades in the market, containing 55 to 60, 60 to 65, 70 to 75, and 75 to 80 per cent of phosphate of lime. The highest quality furnishes the chief material for the manufacture of high-grade superphosphates.

Florida Phosphate.[224]

During the last few years large quantities of phosphates have been imported from Florida. These are of different qualities, the land rocks now imported containing from 70 to 80 per cent of phosphate of lime, and the river phosphate about 60 per cent. The latter class are similar in composition to the best South Carolina river-phosphates, which they much resemble.

Lahn Phosphate.

Phosphate deposits were found at Nassau in Germany in 1864; but as the phosphate contained a considerable proportion of iron and alumina, they are not used in this country now, although they are in Germany for double superphosphate manufacture.

Bordeaux or French Phosphate.

Similar in quality to Lahn phosphate is that obtained in the neighbourhood of Bordeaux.

Algerian Phosphate.

Excellent phosphates are now being sent from Algeria—some cargoes being as rich as 70 per cent.

Crust Guanos.

We have already referred to the guanos in the chapter on Guano. They are also known under the name of Caribbean phosphates, and come from the West India Islands. The chief kinds are Aruba, Curacao, Sombrero, and Navassa, the Great Cayman, Redonda, and Alta Vela. Most of them are of high quality, containing from 60 to 80 per cent of phosphate, and are thus suited for the manufacture of high-class superphosphates. Some of them, however, contain a considerable proportion of iron and alumina, and are not suitable for this purpose. The Redonda and Alta Vela phosphates consist chiefly of phosphate of alumina.

Value of Mineral Phosphates as a Manure.

While it is commonly regarded as unadvisable to use mineral phosphates directly as phosphatic manures, it may well be questioned how far such an opinion is warranted by actual experience. Professor Jamieson of Aberdeen, in his interesting and valuable experiments, has drawn attention to the fact that coprolites in a fine state of division are an extremely valuable source of phosphoric acid for crops, and are a more quickly available source than is commonly supposed. Experiments conducted elsewhere with ground coprolites and other mineral phosphates corroborate Professor Jamieson's conclusions. The successful use of Thomas-phosphate has drawn attention to the possibility of profitably applying undissolved mineral phosphate to the soil; and no doubt the practice may in future years be increased. At present, however, with the exception of Thomas-phosphate, mineral phosphates alone are used for conversion into superphosphate.

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