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Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition
by James A. Moss
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Omit last paragraph.

187. Unload: Take the position of load, turn the safety lock up and move the bolt alternately backward and forward until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed by pressing the follower down with the fingers of the left hand, to engage it under the bolt, and then thrusting the bolt home. The trigger is pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the belt and the piece is brought to the order.

189. [Last paragraph]. To continue the firing: 1. AIM, 2. SQUAD, 3. FIRE.

Each command is executed as previously explained. Load is executed by drawing back and thrusting home the bolt with the right hand, leaving the safety lock at the "Ready."

194. Cease firing: Firing stops; pieces are loaded and locked; the sights are laid down and the piece is brought to the order. Cease firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of position or to steady the men.

Company Inspection

646. Being in line at halt: 1. OPEN RANKS, 2. MARCH.

At the command march the front rank executes right dress; the rear rank and the file closers march backward 4 steps, halt, and execute right dress; the lieutenants pass around their respective flanks and take post, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of the center of their respective platoons. The captain aligns the front rank, rear rank, and file closers, takes post 3 paces in front of the right guide, facing to the left and commands: 1. FRONT, 2. PREPARE FOR INSPECTION.

At the second command the lieutenants carry saber; the captain returns saber and inspects them, after which they face about, order saber, and stand at ease; upon the completion of the inspection they carry saber, face about, and order saber. The captain may direct the lieutenants to accompany or assist him, in which case they return saber and, at the close of the inspection, resume their posts in front of the company, draw and carry saber.

Having inspected the lieutenants, the captain proceeds to the right of the company. Each man, as the captain approaches him executes inspection arms.

The captain takes the piece, grasping it with his right hand just below the lower band, the man dropping his hands; the captain inspects the piece, and, with the hand and piece in the same position as in receiving it, hands it back to the man, who takes it with the left hand at the balance and executes order arms.

As the captain returns the piece the next man executes inspection arms, and so on through the company.

Should the piece be inspected without handling, each man executes order arms as soon as the captain passes to the next man.

The inspection is from right to left in front, and from left to right in rear of each rank and of the line of file closers.

When approached by the captain the first sergeant executes inspection saber. Enlisted men armed with the pistol execute inspection pistol by drawing the pistol from the holster and holding it diagonally across the body, barrel up, and 6 inches in front of the neck, muzzle pointing up and to the left. The pistol is returned to the holster as soon as the captain passes.

Upon completion of the inspection the captain takes post facing to the left in front of the right guide and on line with the lieutenants and commands: 1. CLOSE RANKS, 2. MARCH.

At the command march the lieutenants resume their posts in line; the rear rank closes to 40 inches, each man covering his file leader; the file closers close to 2 paces from the rear rank.



CHAPTER III

MANUAL OF PHYSICAL TRAINING

(EXTRACTS)

METHODS

825. In the employment of the various forms of physical training it is necessary that well-defined methods should be introduced in order that the object of this training may be attained in the most thorough and systematic manner. Whenever it is possible this work should be conducted out of doors. In planning these methods the following factors must be considered:

(a) The condition and physical aptitude of the men.

(b) The facilities.

(c) The time.

The question of the physical aptitude and general condition, etc., of the men is a very important one, and it should always determine the nature and extent of the task expected of them; never should the work be made the determining factor. In general, it is advisable to divide the men into three classes, viz., the recruit class, the intermediate class, and the advanced class. The work for each class should fit the capabilities of the members of that class and in every class it should be arranged progressively.

Facilities are necessarily to be considered in any plan of instruction, but as most posts are now equipped with better than average facilities the plan laid down in this Manual will answer all purposes.

Time is a decidedly important factor, and no plan can be made unless those in charge of this work know exactly how much time they have at their disposal. During the suspension of drills five periods a week, each of 45 minutes duration, should be devoted to physical training; during the drill period a 15-minute drill in setting-up exercises should be ordered on drill days. The time of day, too, is important. When possible, these drills should be held in the morning about two hours after breakfast, and at no time should they be held immediately before or after a meal.

Insist upon accurate and precise execution of every movement. By doing so those other essential qualities, besides strength and endurance—activity, agility, gracefulness, and accuracy—will also be developed.

Exercises which require activity and agility, rather than those that require strength only, should be selected.

It should be constantly borne in mind that these exercises are the means and not the end; and if there be a doubt in the mind of the instructor as to the effect of an exercise, it is always well to err upon the side of safety. Underdoing is rectifiable; overdoing is often not. The object of this work is not the development of expert gymnasts, but the development of physically sound men by means of a system in which the chances of bodily injury are reduced to a minimum. When individuals show a special aptitude for gymnastics they may be encouraged, within limits, to improve this ability, but never at the expense of their fellows.

The drill should be made as attractive as possible, and this can best be accomplished by employing the mind as well as the body. The movements should be as varied as possible, thus constantly offering the men something new to make them keep their minds on their work. A movement many times repeated presents no attraction and is executed in a purely mechanical manner, which should always be discountenanced.

Short and frequent drills should be given in preference to long ones, which are liable to exhaust all concerned, and exhaustion means lack of interest and benefit. All movements should be carefully explained, and, if necessary, illustrated by the instructor.

The lesson should begin with the less violent exercises, gradually working up to those that are more so, then gradually working back to the simpler ones, so that the men at the close of the drill will be in as nearly a normal condition as possible.

When one portion of the body is being exercised, care should be taken that the other parts remain quiet as far as the conformation of the body will allow. The men must learn to exercise any one part of the body independent of the other part.

Everything in connection with physical training should be such that the men look forward to it with pleasure, not with dread, for the mind exerts more influence over the human body than all the gymnastic paraphernalia that was ever invented.

Exercise should be carried on as much as possible in the open air; at all times in pure, dry air.

Never exercise the men to the point of exhaustion. If there is evidence of panting, faintness, fatigue, or pain, the exercise should be stopped at once, for it is nature's way of saying "too much."

By constant practice the men should learn to breathe slowly through the nostrils during all exercises, especially running.

A fundamental condition of exercise is unimpeded respiration. Proper breathing should always be insisted upon; "holding the breath" and breathing only when it can no longer be held is injurious. Every exercise should be accompanied by an unimpeded and, if possible, by an uninterrupted act of respiration, the inspiration and respiration of which depends to a great extent upon the nature of the exercise. Inhalation should always accompany that part of an exercise which tends to elevate and distend the thorax—as raising arms over head laterally, for instance; while that part of an exercise which exerts a pressure against the walls of the chest should be accompanied by exhalation, as for example, lowering arms laterally from shoulders or overhead.

If after exercising, the breathing becomes labored and distressed, it is an unmistakable sign that the work has been excessive. Such excessiveness is not infrequently the cause of serious injury to the heart and lungs or to both. In cases where exercise produces palpitation, labored respiration, etc., it is advisable to recommend absolute rest, or to order the execution of such exercises as will relieve the oppressed and overtaxed organ. Leg exercises slowly executed will afford great relief. By drawing the blood from the upper to the lower extremities they equalize the circulation, thereby lessening the heart's action and quieting the respiration.

Never exercise immediately after a meal; digestion is more important at this time than extraneous exercise.

Never eat or drink immediately after exercise; allow the body to recover its normal condition first, and the most beneficial results will follow. If necessary, pure water, not too cold, may be taken in small quantities, but the exercise should be continued, especially if in a state of perspiration.

Never, if at all possible, allow the underclothing to dry on the body. Muscular action produces an unusual amount of bodily heat; this should be lost gradually, otherwise the body will be chilled; hence, after exercise, never remove clothing to cool off, but, on the contrary, wear some wrap in addition. In like manner, be well wrapped on leaving the gymnasium.

Cold baths, especially when the body is heated, as in the case after exercising violently, should be discouraged. In individual instances such baths may appear apparently beneficial, or at least not injurious; in a majority of cases, however, they can not be used with impunity. Tepid baths are recommended. When impossible to bathe, the flannels worn while exercising should be stripped off; the body sponged with tepid water, and then rubbed thoroughly with coarse towels. After such a sponge the body should be clothed in clean, warm clothing.

Flannel is the best material to wear next to the body during physical drill, as it absorbs the perspiration, protects the body against drafts and, in a mild manner, excites the skin. When the conditions permit it the men may be exercised in the ordinary athletic costume, sleeveless shirt, flappers, socks, and gymnasium shoes.

COMMANDS—SETTING-UP EXERCISES

COMMANDS

826. There are two kinds of commands:

The preparatory indicates the movement to be executed.

The command of execution causes the execution.

In the command: 1. Arms forward, 2. RAISE, the words Arms forward constitute the preparatory command, and RAISE the command of execution. Preparatory commands are printed in bold face, and those of execution in CAPITALS.

The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a loudness proportioned to the number of men for whom it is intended.

The various movements comprising an exercise are executed by commands and, unless otherwise indicated, the continuation of an exercise is carried out by repeating the command, which usually takes the form of numerals the numbers depending upon the number of movements, that an exercise comprises. Thus, if an exercise consists of two movements, the counts will be one, two; or if it consists of eight movements, the counts will be correspondingly increased; thus every movement is designated by a separate command.

Occasionally, especially in exercises that are to be executed slowly, words rather than numerals are used, and these must be indicative of the nature of the various movements.

In the continuation of an exercise the preparatory command is explanatory, the command of execution causes the execution and the continuation is caused by a repetition of numerals denoting the number of movements required, or of words describing the movements if words are used. The numerals or words preceding the command halt should always be given with a rising inflection on the first numeral or word of command of the last repetition of the exercise in order to prepare the men for the command halt.

For example:

1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. Thrust arms upward, 4. EXERCISE, ONE, TWO, ONE, TWO, ONE, HALT; the rising inflection preparatory to the command halt being placed on the "one" preceding the "halt."

Each command must indicate, by its tone, how that particular movement is to be executed; thus, if an exercise consists of two movements, one of which is to be energized, the command corresponding to that movement must be emphasized.

Judgment must be used in giving commands, for rarely is the cadence of two movements alike; and a command should not only indicate the cadence of an exercise, but also the nature of its execution.

Thus, many of the arm exercises are short and snappy; hence the command should be given in a smart tone of voice, and the interval between the commands should be short.

The leg exercises can not be executed as quickly as those of the arms; therefore, the commands should be slightly drawn out and follow one another in slow succession.

The trunk exercises, owing to the deliberateness of execution, should be considerably drawn out and follow one another in slow succession.

The antagonistic exercises, where one group of muscles is made to antagonize another, tensing exercises, the commands are drawn still more. In these exercises words are preferable to numerals. In fact it should be the object of the instructor to convey to the men, by the manner of his command, exactly the nature of the exercise.

All commands should be given in a clear and distinct tone of voice, articulation should be distinct, and an effort should be made to cultivate a voice which will inspire the men with enthusiasm and tend to make them execute the exercises with willingness, snap, and precision. It is not the volume, but the quality, of the voice which is necessary to successful instruction.

THE POSITION OF ATTENTION

827. This is the position an unarmed dismounted soldier assumes when in ranks. During the setting-up exercises, it is assumed whenever the command attention is given by the instructor.

Having allowed his men to rest, the instructor commands: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. Figs. A and B.



The words class, section, or company may be substituted for the word "squad."

At the command attention, the men will quickly assume and retain the following position:

Heels on same line and as near each other as the conformation of the man permits.

Feet turned out equally and forming an angle of about 45 degrees.

Knees straight without stiffness.

The body erect on the hips, the spine extended throughout its entire length.

The shoulders falling naturally, are forced back until they are square.

Chest arched and slightly raised.

The arms hang naturally; thumbs along seams of trousers; back of hands out and elbows turned back.

Head erect, chin drawn in so that the axis of the head and neck is vertical; eyes straight to the front and, when the nature of the terrain permits it, fixed on an object at their own height.

Too much attention can not be given to this position, and instructors are cautioned to insist that the men accustom themselves to it. As a rule, it is so exaggerated that it not only becomes ridiculous, but positively harmful. The men must be taught to assume a natural and graceful position, one from which all rigidity is eliminated and from which action is possible without first relaxing muscles that have been constrained in an effort to maintain the position of attention. In other words, cooerdination rather than strength should be depended upon.

In the position described the weight rests principally upon the balls of the feet, the heels resting lightly upon the ground.

The knees are extended easily, but never locked.

The body is now inclined forward until the front of the thighs is directly over the point of the toes; the hips are square and the waist is extended by the erection of the entire spine, but never to such a degree that mobility of the waist is lost.

In extending the spine, the chest is naturally arched and the abdomen is drawn in, but never to the extent where it interferes with respiration.

In extending the spinal column, the shoulders must not be raised, but held loosely in normal position and forced back until the points of the shoulders are at right angles with an anterior-posterior plane running through the shoulders.

The chin should be square; i. e., horizontal and forced back enough to bring the neck in a vertical plane; the eyes fixed to the front and the object on which they are fixed must be at their own height whenever the nature of the terrain permits it.

When properly assumed, a vertical line drawn from the top of the head should pass in front of the ear, just in front of the shoulder and of the thigh, and find its base at the balls of the feet.

All muscles should be contracted only enough to maintain this position, which at all times should be a lithesome one, that can be maintained for a long period without fatigue—one that makes for activity and that is based upon a correct anatomical and physiological basis.

Instructors will correct the position of attention of every man individually and they will ascertain, when the position has been properly assumed, whether the men are "on their toes," i. e., carrying the weight on the balls of the feet, whether they are able to respire properly, and whether they find a strain across the small of the back, which should be as flat as possible. This should be repeated until the men are able to assume the position correctly without restraint or rigidity.

At the command rest or at ease the men, while carrying out the provisions of the drill regulations, should be cautioned to avoid assuming any position that has a tendency to nullify the object of the position of attention; standing on leg for instance; allowing the shoulders to slope forward; drooping the head; folding arms across chest, etc. The weight should always be distributed equally upon both legs; the head, trunk, and shoulders remain erect and the arms held in a position that does not restrict the chest or derange the shoulders. The positions illustrated here have been found most efficacious. Figs. C. and D.



FORMATIONS

828. The men form in a single or double rank, the tallest men on the right.

The instructor commands: 1. Count off.

At this command, all except the right file execute "eyes right" and, beginning on the right, the men in each rank count 1, 2, 3, 4; each man turns his head and eyes to the front as he counts.

The instructor then commands: 1. Take distance, 2. MARCH, 3. Squad, 4. HALT.

At the command march, No. 1 of the front rank moves straight to the front; Nos. 2, 3, and 4 of the front and Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the rear rank in the order named move straight to the front, each stepping off, so as to follow the preceding man at four paces; the command halt is given when all have their distances.

If it is desired that a less distance than four paces be taken, the distance desired should be indicated in the preparatory command. The men of the squad may be caused to cover No. 1 front rank by command cover.

The instructor then commands: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE, 3. COVER.

At these commands the men face in the direction indicated and cover in file.

To assemble the squad the instructor commands: 1. Right (left), 2. FACE, 3. Assemble, 4. MARCH.

After facing and at command march, No. 1 of the front rank stands fast, the other members of both ranks resuming their original positions, or for convenience in the gymnasium they may be assembled to the rear, in which case the assemblage is made on No. 4 of the rear rank.

Unless otherwise indicated, the guide is always right.

SPECIAL TRAINING

829. In addition to the regular squad or class work instructors should, when they notice a physical defect in any man, recommend some exercise which will tend to correct it.

The most common physical defects and corresponding corrective exercises are noted here.

DROOPING HEAD

830. Exercise the muscles of the neck by bending, turning, and circling the head, muscles tense.

ROUND AND STOOPED SHOULDERS

831. Stretch arms sideward from front horizontal, turning palms upward, muscles tense.

Swing arms forward and backward, muscles relaxed.

Circle arms forward and backward slowly, energize backward motion, muscles tense; forward motion with muscles relaxed.

Circle shoulders backward, move them forward first, then raise them, then move them backward as far as possible in the raised position, muscles tense, and then lower to normal position, muscles relaxed.

WEAK BACK

832. Bend trunk forward as far as possible and erect it slowly.

Bend trunk forward, back arched and head thrown back.

Bend trunk sideward, without moving hips out of normal position, right and left.

Lie on floor, face down, and raise head and shoulders.

WEAK ABDOMEN

833. Circle trunk right or left.

Bend trunk backward or obliquely backward.

Bend head and trunk backward without moving hips out of normal plane.

Lie on floor, face up, and raise head and shoulders slightly; or to sitting position or raise legs slightly; or to a vertical position.

To increase depth and width of chest

Arm stretchings, sideward and upward, muscles tense.

Same, with deep inhalations.

Arm swings and arm circles outward, away from the body.

Raise extended arms over head laterally and cross them behind the head.

Breathing exercises in connection with arm and shoulder exercises.

STARTING POSITIONS

834. In nearly all the arm exercises it is necessary to hold the arms in some fixed position from which the exercises can be most advantageously executed, and to which position the arms are again returned upon completing the exercise. These positions are termed starting positions; and though it may not be absolutely necessary to assume one of them before or during the employment of any other portion of the body, it is advisable to do so, since they give to the exercise a finished, uniform, and graceful appearance.

In the following positions, at the command down, resume the attention. Practice in assuming the starting position may be had by repeating the commands of execution, such as raise, down.

835. While the exercises given below have been grouped for convenient reference, into arm exercises, trunk exercises, leg exercises, etc., one entire group must not be given and then the next and so on.

Always bear in mind that the best results are obtained when those exercises which affect the extensor muscles chiefly are followed by those affecting the flexors; i. e., flexion should always be followed by extension, or vice versa. It is also advisable that a movement requiring a considerable amount of muscular exertion should be followed by one in which this exertion is reduced to a minimum. As a rule, especially in the setting-up exercises, one portion of the body should not be exercised successively; thus, arm exercises should be followed by a trunk exercise, and that in turn by a leg, shoulder, and neck exercise.

ARM EXERCISES

836. Intervals having been taken and attention assumed, the instructor commands:

1. Arms forward, 2. RAISE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN. Fig. 1.



At the command raise, raise the arms to the front smartly, extended to their full length, till the hands are in front of and at the height of the shoulders, palms down, fingers extended and joined, thumbs under forefingers. At Arms, DOWN, resume position of attention.

1. Arms upward 2. RAISE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN. Fig. 2.



At the command raise, raise the arms from the sides, extended to their full length, with the forward movement, until they are vertically overhead, backs of hands turned outward, fingers as in 1.

This position may also be assumed by raising the arms laterally until vertical. The instructor cautions which way he desires it done.

1. Arms backward, 2. CROSS, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN. Fig. 3.



At the command cross, the arms are folded across the back; hands grasping forearms.

1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN. Fig. 4.



At the command raise, raise the forearms to the front until horizontal, elbow forced back, upper arms against the chest, hands tightly closed, knuckles down.

1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. Arms, 4. DOWN. Fig. 5.



At the command place, place the hands on the hips, the finger tips in line with trouser seams; fingers extended and joined, thumbs to the rear, elbows pressed back.

Combination of arm exercises

1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. THRUST ARMS FORWARD; SWING THEM SIDEWARD, FORWARD, AND BACK TO POSITION.

Four counts; repeat 8 to 10 times.

The arms are thrust forward, then relaxed and swung sideward, then forward and finally brought back to position, pressing elbows well to the rear; execute moderately fast; exhale on the first and third and inhale on the second and fourth counts.

SETTING-UP EXERCISES

837. As has been stated previously, the setting-up exercises form the basis upon which the entire system of physical training in the service is founded. Therefore too much importance can not be attached to them. Through the number and variety of movements they offer it is possible to develop the body harmoniously with little if any danger of injurious results. They develop the muscles and impart vigor and tone to the vital organs and assist them in their functions; they develop endurance and are important factors in the development of smartness, grace, and precision. They should be assiduously practiced. The fact that they require no apparatus of any description makes it possible to do this out of doors or even in the most restricted room, proper sanitary conditions being the only adjunct upon which their success is dependent. No physical training drill is complete without them. They should always precede the more strenuous forms of training, as they prepare the body for the greater exertion these forms demand.

At the discretion of instructors these exercises may be substituted by others of a similar character. Instructors are cautioned, however, to employ all the parts of the body in every lesson and to suit the exercise as far as practicable to the natural function of the particular part of the body which they employ.

In these lessons only the preparatory command is given here; the command of execution, which is invariably Exercise, and the commands of continuance, as well as the command to discontinue, having been explained are omitted.

Every preparatory command should convey a definite description of the exercise required; by doing so long explanations are avoided and the men will not be compelled to memorize the various movements.

RECRUIT INSTRUCTION

First Series

Position of attention, from at ease and rest.

Starting position, Figs. 1 to 5.

TRUNK EXERCISES

838. 1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. QUARTER BEND TRUNK FORWARD.

Two counts; repeat 8 to 10 times, Fig. 6.



The trunk is inclined forward at the waist about 45 deg. and then extended again; the hips are as perpendicular as possible; execute slowly; exhale on first and inhale and raise chest on second count.

By substituting the words half or full for the word quarter in the command, the half bend, Fig. 7, and full bend exercise can be given.



1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. BEND TRUNK BACKWARD.

Two counts; repeat 6 to 8 times, Fig. 8.



The trunk is bent backward as far as possible; head and shoulders fixed; knees extended; feet firmly on the ground; hips as nearly perpendicular as possible; in recovering care should be taken not to sway forward; execute slowly; inhale on first and exhale on second count.

1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. BEND TRUNK SIDEWARD, RIGHT OR LEFT.

Two counts; repeat 6 to 8 times, Fig. 9.



The trunk, stretched at the waist, is inclined sideward as far as possible; head and shoulders fixed; knees extended and feet firmly on the ground; execute slowly; inhale on first and exhale on second count.

If an additional exercise is desired, by commanding: CIRCLE TRUNK RIGHT or LEFT a combination of the above trunk exercises is obtained.

LEG EXERCISES

839. 1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. QUARTER BEND KNEES.

Two counts; repeat 8 to 10 times, Fig. 10.



The knees are flexed until the point of the knee is directly over the toes; whole foot remains on ground; heels closed; head and body erect; execute moderately fast, emphasizing the extension; breathe naturally.

By substituting the words half or full for the word quarter in the command the half bend and full bend, Fig. 11, exercises can be given.



1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE, 3. RAISE KNEE.

Two counts; repeat 10 to 12 times. Fig. 12.



The thigh and knee are flexed until they are at right angles, thigh horizontal: toes depressed; the right knee is raised at one and the left at two; trunk and head erect; execute in cadence of quick time; breathe naturally.

SHOULDER EXERCISE

840. 1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. MOVE SHOULDERS FORWARD, UP, BACK, AND DOWN.

Four counts; repeat 8 to 10 times.

The shoulders are relaxed and brought forward; in that position they are raised: then they are forced back without lowering them; and then they are dropped back to position; execute slowly; exhale on the first; inhale on the second and third and exhale on the last count.

NECK EXERCISE

841. 1. Arms to thrust, 2. RAISE, 3. TURN HEAD RIGHT, OR LEFT.

Two counts; repeat 6 to 10 times, Fig. 13.



The head, chin square, is turned to the right, or left as far as possible, muscles of the neck being stretched; shoulders remain square; execute slowly: breathe naturally.

To vary this exercise the head may be bent forward and to the rear by substituting the proper commands.

BREATHING EXERCISE

842. 1. Breathing exercise, 2. INHALE, 3. EXHALE.

At inhale the arms are stretched forward overhead and the lungs are inflated; at exhale the arms are lowered laterally and the lungs deflated; execute slowly; repeat four times.

TOE EXERCISE

843. 1. Arms backward, 2. CROSS, 3. RISE ON TOES.

Two counts; repeat 8 to 10 times, Fig. 14.



The body is raised smartly until the toes and ankles are extended as much as possible; heels closed; head and trunk erect; in recovering position heels are lowered gently; breathe naturally.

COMBINATION EXERCISE

844. This exercise brings into play practically all of the muscles that have been used in the preceding exercises.

1. LEANING REST IN FOUR COUNTS.

Repeat 6 to 8 times, Figs. 15, 16.



At one knees are bent to squatting position, hands on the ground between knees; at two the legs are extended backward to the leaning rest; at three the first position is resumed, and at four the position of attention; hands should be directly under shoulders; back arched; knees straight; head fixed; execute moderately fast; breathe naturally.

WALKING AND MARCHING

845. The length of the full step in quick time is 30 inches, measured from heel to heel, and the cadence is at the rate of 120 steps per minute.

Proper posture and carriage have ever been considered very important in the training of soldiers. In marching, the head and trunk should remain immobile, but without stiffness; as the left foot is carried forward the right forearm is swung forward and inward obliquely across the body until the thumb, knuckles being turned out, reaches a point about the height of the belt plate. The upper arm does not move beyond the perpendicular plane while the forearm is swung forward, though the arm hangs loosely from the shoulder joint. The forearm swing ends precisely at the moment the left heel strikes the ground; the arm is then relaxed and allowed to swing down and backward by its own weight until it reaches a point where the thumb is about the breadth of a hand to the rear of the buttocks. As the right arm swings back, the left arm is swung forward with the right leg. The forward motion of the arm assists the body in marching by throwing the weight forward and inward upon the opposite foot as it is planted. The head is held erect; body well stretched from the waist; chest arched; and there should be no rotary motion of the body about the spine.

As the leg is thrown forward the knee is smartly extended, the heel striking the ground first.

The instructor having explained the principles and illustrated the step and arm swing, commands: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH—and to halt the squad he commands: 1. Squad, 2. HALT.

In executing the setting-up exercises on the march the cadence should at first be given slowly and gradually increased as the men become more expert; some exercises require a slow and others a faster pace; it is best in these cases to allow the cadence of the exercise to determine the cadence of the step.

The men should march in a single file at proved intervals. The command that causes and discontinues the execution should be given as the left foot strikes the ground.

On the march, to discontinue the exercise, command: 1. Quick time, 2. MARCH, instead of HALT, as when at rest.

All of the arm, wrist, finger, and shoulder exercises, and some of the trunk and neck, may be executed on the march by the same commands and means as when at rest.

The following leg and foot exercises are executed at the command march; the execution always beginning with the left leg or foot.

1. 1. On toes, 2. MARCH. 2. 1. On heels, 2. MARCH. 3. 1. On right heel and left toe, 2. MARCH. 4. 1. On left heel and right toe, 2. MARCH. 5. 1. On toes with knees stiff, 2. MARCH. 6. 1. Swing extended leg forward, ankle high, 2. MARCH. 7. 1. Swing extended leg forward, knee high, 2. MARCH. 8. 1. Swing extended leg forward, waist high, 2. MARCH. 9. 1. Swing extended leg forward, shoulder high, 2. MARCH. 10. 1. Raise heels, 2. MARCH. 11. 1. Raise knees, thigh horizontal, 2. MARCH. 12. 1. Raise knees, chest high, 2. MARCH. 13. 1. Circle extended leg forward, ankle high, 2. MARCH. 14. 1. Circle extended leg forward, knee high, 2. MARCH. 15. 1. Circle extended leg forward, waist high, 2. MARCH. 16. 1. Swing extended leg backward, 2. MARCH. 17. 1. Swing extended leg sideward, 2. MARCH. 18. 1. Raise knee and extend leg forward, 2. MARCH. 19. 1. Raise heels and extend leg forward, 2. MARCH.

DOUBLE TIMING

846. The length of the step in double time is 36 inches; the cadence is at the rate of 180 steps per minute. To march in double time the instructor commands: 1. Double time, 2. MARCH.

If at a halt, at the first command shift the weight of the body to the right leg. At the command march raise the forearms, fingers closed; to a horizontal position along the waist line; take up an easy run with the step and cadence of double time, allowing a natural swinging motion to the arms inward and upward in the direction of the opposite shoulder.

In marching in quick time, at the command march, given as either foot strikes the ground, take one step in quick time, and then step off in double time.

When marching in double time and in running the men breathe as much as possible through the nose, keeping the mouth closed.

A few minutes at the beginning of the setting-up exercises should be devoted to double timing. From lasting only a few minutes at the start it may be gradually increased, so that daily drills should enable the men at the end of five or six months to double time 15 or 20 minutes without becoming fatigued or distressed.

After the double time the men should be marched for several minutes at quick time; after this the instructor should command:

1. Route step, 2. MARCH.

In marching at route step, the men are not required to preserve silence nor keep the step; if marching at proved intervals, the latter is preserved.

To resume the cadence step in quick time, the instructor commands: 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION.

Great care must be exercised concerning the duration of the double time and the speed and duration of the run. The demands made Upon the men should be increased gradually.

When exercise rather than distance is desired, the running should be done on the balls of the feet, heels raised from the ground.

DOUBLE TIMING EXERCISES

While the men are double timing the instructor may vary the position of the arms by commanding:

1. 1. Arms forward, 2. RAISE. 2. 1. Arms sideward, 2. RAISE. 3. 1. Arms upward, 2. RAISE. 4. 1. Hands on hips, 2. PLACE. 5. 1. Hands on shoulders, 2. PLACE. 6. 1. Arms forward, 2. CROSS. 7. 1. Arms backward, 2. CROSS.

At the command down, the double-time position for the arms and hands is resumed.

RIFLE EXERCISES

847. The object of these exercises, which may also be performed with wands or bar bells, is to develop the muscles of the arms, shoulders, and back so that the men will become accustomed to the weight of the piece and learn to wield it with that "handiness" so essential to its successful use. When these exercises are combined with movements of the various other parts of the body, they serve as a splendid, though rather strenuous, method for the all-round development of the men. As the weight of the piece is considerable, instructors are cautioned to be reasonable in their demands. Far better results are obtained if these exercises are performed at commands than when they are grouped and performed for spectacular purposes.

All the exercises start from the starting position, which is the low extended arm horizontal position in front of the body, arms straight; the right hand grasping the small of the stock and the left hand the barrel; the knuckles turned to the front and the distance between the hands slightly greater than the width of the shoulders. Fig. 17.



This position is assumed at the command: 1. Starting, 2. POSITION; at the command position the piece is brought to the port and lowered to the front horizontal snappily.

To recover the position of order, command: 1. Order, 2. Arms; the piece is first brought to the port and then to the order.

RIFLE DRILL COMBINATION

The following exercises consist of four movements, the third position always corresponding to the first position and the fourth to the starting position. When performed as a musical drill, the instructions laid down in that lesson are applicable here.

All exercises begin and end with the first or starting position. Fig. 17.

The form of command is, for example:

(Being at the starting position)

1. First group, 2. FIRST, EXERCISE;

1. Second group, 2. THIRD, EXERCISE;

Etc., Etc.

FIRST GROUP

848. First Exercise

Counts

1-2. Raise piece to bent arm front horizontal, shoulder high, and stride forward right, Fig. 18;



3-4. Face to the left on both heels and extend piece upward, Fig. 19;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

849. Second Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to extended high horizontal, and stride sideward right, Fig. 20;



3-4. Bend right knee and lower piece to left horizontal, Fig. 21;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

850. Third Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to high side perpendicular on the left, left hand up, and stride backward right, Fig. 22;



3-4. Face about on heels and swing piece down and up to high side perpendicular on the right, Fig. 23;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

851. Fourth Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to extended high horizontal, and stride obliquely forward right, Fig. 24;



3-4. Face about on heels and lower piece to horizontal on shoulders; Fig. 25;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

SECOND GROUP

852. First Exercise

1-2. Lower piece to front extended horizontal and bend trunk forward, Fig. 26;



3-4. Lunge obliquely forward right and raise piece to right oblique, left hand at shoulder, Fig. 27;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

853. Second Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to high perpendicular on the left, left hand up, and bend trunk sideward right, Fig. 28;



3-4. Lunge sideward right and swing piece down and up to right high perpendicular, right hand up, Fig. 29;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

854. Third Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to high extended arm horizontal and bend trunk backward, Fig. 30;



3-4. Lunge forward right, and swing piece to side horizontal, left hand to the rear, Fig. 31;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

855. Fourth Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to right high perpendicular and side step position left, Fig. 32;



3-4. Lunge sideward left and swing piece to left high perpendicular, Fig. 33;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

THIRD GROUP

856. First Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to front bent horizontal, arms crossed, left over right; lunge sideward right and bend trunk sideward right, Fig. 34;



3-4. Extend right knee and bend trunk to the left, bending left knee and recrossing arms, left over right, Fig. 35;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

857. Second Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to bent arm horizontal; face right and lunge forward right and bend trunk forward, Fig. 36;



3-4. Raise trunk and turn to the left on both heels and extend piece overhead, Fig. 37;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

858. Third Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to left high horizontal; lunge forward right, Fig. 38;



3-4. Bend trunk forward and swing piece to extended low horizontal, Fig. 39;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

859. Fourth Exercise

1-2. Raise piece to high extended horizontal and hop to side straddle position, Fig. 40;



3-4. Bend trunk forward and swing piece to extended low horizontal, left hand between legs, right hand forward, Fig. 41;



5-6. Resume first position;

7-8. Resume starting position.

Repeat left, right, left.

GYMNASTIC CONTESTS

860. These exercises are those in which the benefits are lost sight of in the pleasure their attainment provides, which in the case of these contests is the vanquishing of an opponent. The men are pitted against each other in pairs; age, height, weight, and general physical aptitude being the determining factors in the selection.

In the contests in which superiority is dependent upon skill and agility no restrictions need be placed upon the efforts of the contestants; but in those that are a test of strength and endurance it is well to call a contest a "draw," when the men are equally matched and the contest is likely to be drawn out to the point of exhaustion of one or both contestants.

It is recommended that these contests be indulged in once or twice a month and then at the conclusion of the regular drill.

Contests that require skill and agility should alternate with those that depend upon force and endurance. In order to facilitate the instruction a number of pairs should be engaged at the same time.

1. Cane wrestling: The cane to be about an inch in diameter and a yard long, ends rounded. It is grasped with the right hand at the end, knuckles down, and with the left hand, knuckles up, inside of and close to the opponent's right hand. Endeavor is then made to wrest the cane from the opponent. Loss of grip with either hand loses the bout.

2. Cane twisting. Same cane as in 1. Contestants grasp it as in 1, only the knuckles of both hands are up, and the arms are extended overhead. Object: The contestants endeavor to make the cane revolve in their opponent's hand without allowing it to do so in their own. The cane must be forced down.

3. Cane pulling: Contestants sit on the ground, facing each other, legs straight and the soles of the feet in contact. The cane is grasped as in 2 but close to the feet. Object: To pull the opponent to his feet. The legs throughout the contest must be kept rigid.

4. "Bucked" contest: Contestants sit on the ground "bucked"; i. e., the cane is passed under the knees, which are drawn up, and the arms passed under the cane with the fingers laced in front of the ankles. Object: To get the toes under those of the opponent and roll him over.

5. Single pole pushing: Contestants grasp end of pole, 6 feet long and 2 inches thick, and brace themselves. Object: To push the opponent out of position.

6. Double pole pushing: The poles are placed under the arms close to the arm pits, ends projecting. Object: Same as in 5.

7. Double pole pulling: Position as in 6 but standing back to back. Object: To pull the opponent out of position.

8. "Cock fight": Contestants hop on one leg with the arms folded closely over the chest. Object: by butting with the fleshy part of the shoulder without raising the arms, or by dodging to make the opponent change his feet or touch the floor with his hand or other part of his body.

9. One-legged tug of war: Contestants hop on one leg and grasp hands firmly. Object: To pull the opponent forward or make him place the raised foot on the floor.

10. The "siege": One contestant stands with one foot in a circle 14 inches in diameter, the other foot outside, and the arms folded as in 8. Two other contestants, each hopping on one leg, endeavor to dislodge the one in the circle by butting him with the shoulder. The besieged one is defeated in case he raises the foot in the circle, or removes it entirely from the circle. The besiegers are defeated in case they change feet or touch the floor as in 8. As soon as either of the latter is defeated his place is immediately filled, so that there are always two of them. The besieged should resort to volting, ducking, etc., rather than to depend upon his strength.

11. One-armed tug: Contestants stand facing each other; right hands grasped, feet apart. Object: Without moving feet, to pull the opponent forward. Shifting the feet loses the bout.

12. "Tug royal": Three contestants stand facing inward and grasp each other's wrists securely with their feet outside a circle about three feet in diameter. Object: by pulling or pushing to make one of the contestants step inside of the circle.

13. Indian wrestling: Contestants lie upon the ground face up, right shoulders in close contact, right elbows locked; at one the right leg is raised overhead and lowered, this is repeated at two, and at three the leg is raised quickly and locked with the opponent's right leg. Object: to roll him over by forcing his leg down.

14. Medicine ball race. Teams of five or six men are organized and a track for each team is marked out. This track consists of marks on the floor or ground at distances of 4 yards. On each of these marks stands a man with legs apart, the team forming a column of files. At "ready," "get set," the contestants prepare for the race, and at "go," the first man in the column rolls a medicine ball, which he has on the floor in front of him, through his legs to No. 2, he in turn rolls it to 3, etc., when it reaches the last man he picks it up and runs to the starting place with it and, the others all having shifted back one mark, the rolling is repeated. This continues until the first man brings the ball back to the starting place and every man is in his original position. The ball should be kept rolling: each man, as it comes to him, pushing it on quickly. Any ball about 9 inches in diameter will answer; it may be made of strong cloth and stuffed with cotton waste.



CHAPTER IV

SIGNALING

Signals and Codes

General Service Code. (International Morse Code.)

861. Used for all visual and sound signaling, radiotelegraphy, and on cables using siphon recorders, used in communicating with Navy.

A . - B - . . . C - . - . D - . . E . F . . - . G - - . H . . . . I . . J . - - - K - . - L . - . . M - - N - . O - - - P . - - . Q - - . - R . - . S . . . T - U . . - V . . . - W . - - X - . . - Y - . - - Z - - . .

NUMERALS

1 . - - - - 2 . . - - - 3 . . . - - 4 . . . . - 5 . . . . . 6 - . . . . 7 - - . . . 8 - - - . . 9 - - - - . 0 - - - - -

PUNCTUATION

Period . . . . . . Comma . - . - . - . Interrogation . . - - . .

THE MORE IMPORTANT CONVENTIONAL FLAG SIGNALS

For communication between the firing line and the reserve or commander in rear. In transmission, their concealment from the enemy's view should be insured. In the absence of signal flags the headdress or other substitute may be used.

(See par. 96 for the signals.)

Wigwag

Signaling by flag, torch, hand lantern, or beam of searchlight (without shutter)[6]

862. 1. There is one position and there are three motions. The position is with flag or other appliance held vertically, the signalman facing directly toward the station with which it is desired to communicate. The first motion (the dot) is to the right of the sender, and will embrace an arc of 90 deg., starting with the vertical and returning to it, and will be made in a plane at right angles to the line connecting the two stations. The second motion (the dash) is a similar motion to the left of the sender. The third motion (front) is downward directly in front of the sender and instantly returned upward to the first position. This is used to indicate a pause or conclusion.

2. The beam of the searchlight, though ordinarily used with the shutter like the heliograph, may be used for long-distance signaling, when no shutter is suitable or available, in a similar manner to the flag or torch, the first position being a vertical one. A movement of the beam 90 deg. to the right of the sender indicates a dot, a similar movement to the left indicates a dash; the beam is lowered vertically for front.

3. To use the torch or hand lantern, a footlight must be employed as a point of reference to the motion. The lantern is more conveniently swung out upward to the right of the footlight for a dot, to the left for a dash, and raised vertically for front.

4. To call a station, make the call letter until acknowledged, at intervals giving the call or signal of the calling station. If the call letter of a station is unknown, wave flag until acknowledged. In using the searchlight without shutter throw the beam in a vertical position and move it through an arc of 180 deg. in a plane at right angles to the line connecting the two stations until acknowledged. To acknowledge a call, signal "Acknowledgment (or) I understand (——front)" followed by the call letter of the acknowledging station.

Notes on Wig-wagging

5. In order to avoid the flag wrapping itself about the staff, stand facing the receiving station, with feet apart. Hold the staff with the left hand at butt and right hand 24 inches from end. In moving flag to the right, bring it down with an outward and inward sweep, and then return it to the vertical. When the tip is farthest down the staff inclines to the right front and as the flag is brought upward it is swept inward and upwards and as it approaches the vertical position it sweeps forward slightly. In moving to the left the motion is similar,—at the lowest point the staff inclines to the left front. A combination of right and left is made with a figure-of-eight motion.

In making "front" the flag is lowered and moved very slightly to the left front and then swept slightly to the right front, making a figure-of-eight.

The body should be twisted and bent at the waist in making the light and left motions.

Care should be exercised in keeping the flag in front of the body in making "front," the figure-of-eight is necessarily very flat.

Do not make letters in a careless slipshod manner.

The Two-arm Semaphore Code

(See Plates I and II)

863. Semaphore signaling may be done with or without flags. Without flags it is rarely dependable beyond 600 yards.

In sending stand with feet apart, squarely facing the receiver.

In making letters which require the use of both arms on the same side of body, twist the body to that side and bend at waist, so as to throw both arms well away from body. But be careful to keep arms in plane of original position of body.

When a letter repeats—bring both hands (if a two-armed letter) to chest after first, then make second.

Do not try to send rapidly so as to exhibit your ability. Remember that the receiver's ability determines the speed to be used. Anyone can send faster than he himself can receive. If you want to display your skill have some one send rapidly to you.

In receiving, if you miss a letter—let it go and get the others. If you miss a word signal—"O" (waving flags or arms) and signal the last word you have received.

Rapidity is secondary to accuracy.

Take the positions for the various letters accurately. The horizontal position should not incline upward nor downward. In making an "L," for example, if the left arm is midway between its proper position and the horizontal it is difficult to tell whether it is L or M.

In making D, J, K, P, T, and V, the arm in the vertical position should be brought exactly in front of the body by carrying the shoulder in almost under the chin, twisting the elbow in until it is directly before the eyes, and the forearm held in the vertical position with the palm to the rear. When so done there is no possibility of this position being mistaken for any other.

"Manila Milkman" may be sent without changing the position of the right hand. In making I, be sure to twist body well to the right in order that the left arm may be seen in the upper slanting position to the right. City and similar words may be so made.

D may be made with either hand.

Be sure how next letter is made before moving hands. Make no false motions.

Acquire accuracy; then try for speed.

"CHOP-CHOP." The "chop-chop" signal is made by placing both arms at the right horizontal (that is, by bringing the left arm up to the position of the right arm as in the figure for letter "B"), and then moving each up and down, several times, in opposite direction, making a cutting motion.

END OF WORD. After each word the "Interval" signal is made.

END OF SENTENCE. After each sentence the chop signal is made twice.

END OF MESSAGE. At the end of a message the chop signal is made three times.

ERROR. Signal "A" several times quickly, followed by interval; then repeat the word.

TO BREAK IN. Signal "Attention."

NUMERALS. Numbers are always preceded by the signal, "Numerals." After "Numerals" has been signaled, everything that follows will be numbers until "Interval" is signaled, after which what follows will be letters.



Signaling with heliograph, flash lantern, and searchlight (with shutter)[7]

864. 1. The first position is to turn a steady flash on the receiving station. The signals are made by short and long flashes. Use a short flash for dot and a long steady flash for dash. The elements of a letter should be slightly longer than in sound signals.

2. To call a station, make the call letter until acknowledged, at intervals the call or signal of the calling station.

3. If the call letter of a station be unknown, signal a series of dots rapidly made until acknowledged. Each station will then turn on a steady flash and adjust. When the adjustment is satisfactory to the called station, it will cut off its flash, and the calling station will proceed with its message.

4. If the receiver sees that the sender's mirror needs adjustment, he will turn on a steady flash until answered by a steady flash. When the adjustment is satisfactory, the receiver will cut off his flash and the sender will resume his message.

5. To break the sending station for other purposes, turn on a steady flash.

Sound Signals[7]

865. 1. Sound signals made by the whistle, foghorn, bugle, trumpet, and drum may be used in a fog, mist, falling snow, or at night. They may be used with the dot and dash code.

2. In applying the code to whistle, foghorn, bugle, or trumpet, one short blast indicates a dot and one long blast a dash. With the drum, one tap indicates a dot and two taps in rapid succession a dash. Although these signals can be used with a dot and dash code, they should be so used in connection with a preconcerted or conventional code.

Morse Code. (American Morse Code)[7]

866. Used only by the army on telegraph lines, on short cables, and on field lines, and on all commercial lines in the United States.

A . - B - . . . C . . . D - . . E . F . - . G - - . H . . . . I . . J - . - . K - . - L — M - - N - . O . . P . . . . . Q . . - . R . . . S . . . T - U . . - V . . . - W . - - X . - . . Y . . . . Z . . . . & . . . .

NUMERALS

1 . - - . 2 . . - . . 3 . . . - . 4 . . . . - 5 - - - 6 . . . . . . 7 - - . . 8 - . . . . 9 - . . - 0 —-

PUNCTUATION

Period . . - - . . Comma . - . - Interrogation - . . - .

FOOTNOTES:

[6] Extracts from Signal Book, United States Army.

[7] Extracts from Signal Book, United States Army.



PART II

COMPANY COMMAND



CHAPTER I

THE GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF A COMPANY

867. The proper performance of the duty of COMPANY COMMANDER, like the proper performance of any other duty, requires work and attention to business.

The command of a company divides itself into two kinds of duty: government and administration.

The government includes the instruction, discipline, contentment, and harmony of the organization, involving, as it does, esprit de corps, rewards, privileges, and punishments.

The administration includes the providing of clothing, arms, ammunition, equipage, and subsistence; the keeping of records, including the rendition of reports and returns; and the care and accountability of Government and company property, and the disbursement of the company fund.

System and care are prerequisites of good administration.

The efficient administration of a company greatly facilitates its government.

THE CAPTAIN

868. With regard to his company the captain stands in the same light as a father to a large family of children. It is his duty to provide for their comfort, sustenance, and pleasure; enforce strict rules of obedience, punish the refractory and reward the deserving.

He should be considerate and just to his officers and men and should know every soldier personally and make him feel that he so knows him.

He should by word and act make every man in the company feel that the captain is his protector.

The captain should not be indifferent to the personal welfare of his men, and when solicited, being a man of greater experience, education, and information, he should aid and counsel them in such a way as to show he takes an interest in their joys and sorrows.

When any men are sick he should do everything possible for them until they can be taken care of by the surgeon. He can add much to the comfort and pleasure of men in the hospital by visiting them from time to time and otherwise showing an interest in their condition.

In fact, one of the officer's most important duties is to look after the welfare of his men—to see that they are well fed, well clothed and properly cared for in every other way—to see that they are happy and contented. The officer who does not look after the welfare of his men to the best of his ability, giving the matter his earnest personal attention, neglects one of the principal things that the Government pays him to do.

The soldier usually has a decided feeling for his captain, even though it be one of hatred. With regard to the higher grade of officers, he has respect for them according to regulations; otherwise, for the most part, he is indifferent. At the very most, he knows whether his post or regimental commander keeps him long at drill, and particularly whether he has any peculiar habits. The average soldier looks upon his captain as by far the most important personage in the command.

There is no other position in the Army that will give as much satisfaction in return for an honest, capable and conscientious discharge of duty, as that of captain. There is a reward in having done his full duty to his company that no disappointment of distinction, no failure, can deprive him of; his seniors may overlook him in giving credits, unfortunate circumstances may defeat his fondest hopes, and the crown of laurel may never rest upon his brow, but the reward that follows upon the faithful discharge of his duty to his company he can not be deprived of by any disaster, neglect or injustice.

He is a small sovereign, powerful and great, within his little domain.

869. Devolution of Work and Responsibility. The company commander should not attempt to do all the work—to look after all the details in person—he should not try to command directly every squad and every platoon. The successful company commander is the one who distributes work among his subordinates and organizes the help they are supposed to give him. By War Department orders, Army Regulations and customs of the service, the lieutenants and noncommissioned officers are charged with certain duties and responsibilities. Let every one of them carry the full load of their responsibility. The company commander should not usurp the functions of his subordinates—he should not relieve them of any of their prescribed or logical work and responsibility. On the contrary, he should give them more, and he should see that they "deliver the goods." Skill in distributing work among subordinates is one of the first essentials of leadership, as is the ability to get work out of them so that they will fill their functions to the full within the limits of their responsibility. Not only does devolution of work and responsibility cause subordinates to take more interest in their work (it makes them feel less like mere figure-heads), but it also teaches them initiative and gives them valuable experience in the art of training and handling men. Furthermore, it enables the company commander to devote more time to the larger and more important matters connected with the discipline, welfare, training, instruction and administration of the company.

The captain who allows his lieutenants to do practically nothing makes a mistake—he is doing something that will rob his lieutenants of all initiative, cause them to lose interest in the company, and make them feel like nonentities—like a kind of "fifth wheel"—it will make them feel they are not, in reality, a part of the company—it will prevent them from getting a practical, working knowledge of the government and administration of a company.

By allowing his lieutenants to participate to the greatest extent possible in the government and administration of the company, and by not hampering and pestering them with unnecessary instructions about details, the captain will get out of his lieutenants the very best that there is in them.

The captain should require RESULTS from his lieutenants, and the mere fact that a lieutenant is considered inefficient and unable to do things properly, is no reason why he should not be required to do them. The captain is by Army Regulations responsible for the efficiency and instruction of his lieutenants regarding all matters pertaining to the company, and he should require them to perform all their duties properly, resorting to such disciplinary measures as may be considered necessary. The lieutenant who can not, or who will not, perform his duties properly is a drag on the company, and such a man has no business in the Army, or in the Organized Militia.

THE LIEUTENANT

870. To be able to perform well the duties of captain when the responsibility falls upon him, should be the constant study and ambition of the lieutenant.

He is the assistant of the captain and should be required by the captain to assist in the performance of all company duties, including the keeping of records and the preparation of the necessary reports, returns, estimates and requisitions. The captain should give him lots to do, and should throw him on his own responsibility just as much as possible. He should be required to drill the company, attend the daily inspection of the company quarters, instruct the noncommissioned officers, brief communications, enter letters in the Correspondence Book, make out ration returns, reports, muster and pay rolls, etc., until he shows perfect familiarity therewith.

Whenever told to do a thing by your captain, do it yourself or see personally that it is done. Do not turn it over to some noncommissioned officer and let it go at that. If your captain wants some noncommissioned officer to do the thing, he himself will tell him to do it—he will not ask you to do it.

It is customary in the Army to regard the company as the property of the captain. Should the lieutenant, therefore, be in temporary command of the company he should not make any changes, especially in the reduction or promotion of noncommissioned officers without first having consulted the captain's wishes in the matter.

It is somewhat difficult to explain definitely the authority a lieutenant exercises over the men in the company when the captain is present. In general terms, however, it may be stated the lieutenant can not make any changes around the barracks, inflict any punishment or put men on, or relieve them from, any duty without the consent of the captain. It is always better if there be a definite understanding between the captain and his lieutenants as to what he expects of them, how he wishes to have certain things done and to what extent he will sustain them.

If the lieutenant wants anything from the company in the way of working parties, the services of the company artificer or company clerk, the use of ordnance stores or quartermaster articles, he should always speak to the captain about the matter.

THE CAPTAIN AND THE LIEUTENANTS

871. The company officers should set an example to their men in dress, military bearing, system, punctuality and other soldierly qualities. It should be remembered that the negligence of superiors is the cue for juniors to be negligent.

If the men of a company are careless and indifferent about saluting and if they are shabby and lax in their dress, the company commander is to blame for it—company officers can always correct defects of this kind, if they will only try.

The character and efficiency of officers and the manner in which they perform their duties are reflected in the conduct and deportment of their men.

Of course, courage is a prerequisite quality for a good officer, and every officer should seek to impress his men that he would direct them to do nothing involving danger that he would not himself be willing to do under similar circumstances.

If a company officer be ignorant of his duties, his men will soon find it out, and when they do they will have neither respect for, nor confidence in, him.

Company officers should take an active interest in everything that affects the amusement, recreation, happiness and welfare of their men.

An officer just joining a company should learn without delay the names of all the men. A roll of the organization should be gotten and studied.

While an officer can gruffly order a soldier to do a thing and have his orders obeyed, it should be remembered that, as a rule, human nature, especially American human nature, responds best to an appeal to pride, fairness, justice, reason, and the other nobler instincts of man. It is only in rare instances that the average man will give the best there is in him under coercion or pressure of authority.

There are but few men who have not some good in them, and this good can generally be gotten at, if one only goes about it in the right way. Study your men and try to arouse in them pride and interest in their work.

The soldier first learns to respect, then to honor and finally to love the officer who is strict but just; firm but kind—and this is the officer who will draw out of his men the very best there is in them.

872. Treat your men like men, and remember there is nothing that will so completely take the spirit out of a man as to find fault with him when he is doing his best.

Young officers sometimes run to one of two extremes in the treatment of their men—they either, by undue familiarity, or otherwise, cultivate popularity with the men; or they do not treat them with sufficient consideration—the former course will forfeit their esteem; the latter, ensure their dislike, neither of which result is conducive to commanding their respect.

Treat your soldiers with proper consideration, dignity, and justice—remember they are members of your profession, the difference being one of education, rank, command, and pay—but they are men, like yourself, and should be treated as such.

Under no circumstances should you ever swear at a soldier—not only is this taking a mean, unfair advantage of your position, but it is also undignified, ungentlemanly, and unmilitary. It is even more improper for you to swear at a soldier than it is for a superior to swear at you—in the latter case the insult can be properly resented; in the former, it must be borne in humiliating silence.

Remember, that if by harsh or unfair treatment you destroy a man's self-respect, you at the same time destroy his usefulness.

Familiarity is, of course, most subversive of discipline, but you can treat your men with sympathetic consideration without being familiar with them.

In dealing with enlisted men, do not use the same standard of intellect and morals that apply in the case of officers. And remember, too, that a thing that may appear small and trivial to an officer may mean a great deal to an enlisted man—study your men, learn their desires, their habits, their way of thinking, and then in your dealings with them try to look at things from their standpoint also. In other words in your treatment of your men be just as human as possible.

The treatment of soldiers should be uniform and just, and under no circumstances should a man be humiliated unnecessarily or abused. Reproof and punishment must be administered with discretion and judgment, and without passion; for the officer who loses his temper and flies into a tantrum has failed to obtain his first triumph in discipline. He who can not control himself can not control others.

Every officer should study himself carefully, he should analyze himself, he should place himself under a microscopic glass, so as to discover his weak points—and he should then try with his whole might and soul to make these weak points strong points. If, for instance, you realize that you are weak in applied minor tactics, or that you have no "bump of locality," or that you have a poor memory, or that you have a weak will, do what you can to correct these defects in your make-up. Remember "Stonewall" Jackson's motto: "A man can do anything he makes up his mind to do."

The Progress Company, Chicago, Ill., publishes "Mind Power," "Memory," "The Will," "The Art of Logical Thinking" (all by W. W. Atkinson), and several other books of a similar nature, that are both interesting and instructive. "The Power of the Will," by Haddock, for sale by Albert Lewis Pelton, Meriden, Conn., is an excellent book of its kind.

THE FIRST SERGEANT

873. It has been said the captain is the proprietor of the company and the first sergeant is the foreman.

Under supervision of the captain, he has immediate charge of all routine matters pertaining to the company.

In some companies in the Regular Army, it is customary for soldiers, except in cases of emergency, to get permission from the first sergeant to speak to the company commander at any time. In other organizations soldiers who wish to speak to the company commander away from the company quarters must first obtain the first sergeant's permission, but it is not necessary to get this permission to speak to the company commander when he is at the barracks.

The first sergeant is sometimes authorized to place noncommissioned officers in arrest in quarters and privates in confinement in the guardhouse, assuming such action to be by order of the captain, to whom he at once reports the facts. However, with regard to the confinement of soldiers by noncommissioned officers, attention is invited to the Army Regulations on the subject.

THE NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS

(The status, duties, etc., of noncommissioned officers are covered in greater detail in Noncommissioned Officers' Manual, by the author. General agents: George Banta Publishing Co., Menasha, Wis.)

874. The efficiency and discipline of a company depend to such an extent on the noncommissioned officers that the greatest care and judgment should be exercised in their selection. They should be men possessing such soldierly qualities as a high sense of duty, cheerful obedience to orders, force of character, honesty, sobriety and steadiness, together with an intelligent knowledge of drills, regulations, and orders.

They should exact prompt obedience from those to whom they give orders, and should see that all soldiers under them perform their military duties properly. They must not hesitate to reprove them when necessary, but such reproof must not be any more severe than the occasion demands.

The company officers must sustain the noncommissioned officers in the exercise of their authority, except, of course, when such authority is improperly or unjustly exercised. If they do wrong, they should be punished the same as the privates, but if it be simply an error of judgment they should merely be admonished. A noncommissioned officer should never be admonished in the presence of privates.

Judicious praising of noncommissioned officers in the presence of privates is not only gratifying to the noncommissioned officer, but it also tends to enhance the respect and esteem of the privates for him.

In addition to dividing the company into squads, each squad being under a noncommissioned officer as required by the Army Regulations, the company should also be divided into sections, each section being in charge of a sergeant. The squads and sections should, as far as possible, be quartered together in barracks, and the chiefs of squads and the chiefs of sections should be held strictly responsible for the conduct, dress, cleanliness, and the care of arms of the members of their respective squads and sections. Not only does this throw the corporals and the sergeants upon their own responsibility to a certain extent, but it also impresses upon them the importance of their position, and gets the privates in the habit of realizing and appreciating the authority exercised by noncommissioned officers.

When practicable, the noncommissioned officers should have separate rooms or tents, and should mess together at tables separate from the privates; for, everything that conduces to familiarity with inferiors tends to lower the dignity of the noncommissioned officers' position.

Throw your noncommissioned officers upon their own responsibility—throw them into deep water, so to speak, where they will either have to swim or sink. You can never tell what a man can really do until you have given him a chance to show you—until you have put him on his mettle—until you have tried him out. And very often men who seem to have nothing in them, men who have never before been thrown upon their own responsibility, will surprise you.

Do all you can to make your noncommissioned officers realize and appreciate the importance of their position. Consult them about different matters—get their opinions about various things. When going through the barracks at Saturday morning inspection, for instance, as you come to the different squads, have the squad leaders step to the front and follow you while you are inspecting their respective squads. If you find anything wrong with a man's bunk, speak to the squad leader about it. Also ask the squad leaders various questions about their squads.

Not only does such treatment of noncommissioned officers make them appreciate the importance, responsibility and dignity of their position, but it also gives them more confidence in themselves and raises them in the eyes of the privates.

Noncommissioned officers should always be addressed by their titles, by both officers and soldiers.

Noncommissioned officers are forbidden by regulations to act as barbers, or as agents for laundries, or in any other position of a similar character.

Everything possible should be done by the company officers to instruct the noncommissioned officers properly in their duties.[8]

So far as the company is concerned, the noncommissioned officers are expected to assist the company commander in carrying out his own orders and those of his superiors—they should see that all company orders are obeyed and that the known wishes of the captain are carried out. If, for instance, the captain should tell the first sergeant that the men in the company may play cards among themselves, but that noncommissioned officers are not to play with privates and that men from other companies are not allowed to take part in, or to be present at the games, then it is the duty of the first sergeant to see that these instructions are carried out—it is his duty to make frequent inspections of the tables at which the men may be playing to see that no noncommissioned officers are playing and that no outsiders are present. The first sergeant who confined himself to publishing the order to the company and then doing nothing more, would be neglectful of his proper duty.

Noncommissioned officers clothed in the proper uniform of their grade are on duty at all times and places for the suppression of disorderly conduct on the part of members of the company in public places. Men creating disorder will be sent to their quarters in arrest and the facts reported to the company commander without delay.

Noncommissioned officers can do much to prevent the commission of offenses by members of their commands, both when on and when off duty, and such prevention is as much their duty as reporting offenses after they are committed; in fact, it is much better to prevent the offense than to bring the offender to trial.

Company commanders should drill their noncommissioned officers thoroughly in the principles of discipline.

875. Noncommissioned Officers Authorized to Confine Enlisted Men. A company or detachment commander may delegate to his noncommissioned officers the authority to confine enlisted men in the guardhouse and to place them in arrest in quarters, provided the case is immediately reported to the company or detachment commander, who confirms the act of the noncommissioned officer and adopts it as his own.—W. D. decision, December, 1905.

876. Reduction and Resignation. A noncommissioned officer should never be reduced to ranks, except for grave and sufficient reasons. Nothing demoralizes the noncommissioned officers of a company so much and upsets discipline to such an extent as the feeling that upon the slightest pretext or fancy one is to be sent back to the ranks, to associate with the privates he has been required to discipline.

In some regiments noncommissioned officers are permitted to send in formal resignations, while in other regiments they are not, but, with the approval of the company commander, they may ask for reduction, giving proper, satisfactory and specific reasons. Of course, resignations submitted in a spirit of accepted insubordination or pique should not be considered, nor should they ever be in substitution for deserved disciplinary punishment. If a noncommissioned officer has good reasons for requesting reduction and the granting of the request would not result in detriment to the company, there is no reason why his application should not be favorably considered. However, in such a case, the noncommissioned officer should consult his company commander before submitting his request in writing. It is thought the preponderance of custom is against considering formal resignations.

Contentment and Harmony

877. The officers of the company should do everything possible to make the organization contented and harmonious. Contentment and harmony are not only conducive to good discipline and efficiency, but they also make the government of the company easy and reduce desertions to a minimum.

The showing of favoritism on the part of the captain is always a cause of great dissatisfaction amongst the soldiers in the company. Soldiers do not care how strict the captain is, just so he is fair and impartial, treating all men alike.

878. The Mess. The captain should give the mess his constant personal attention, making frequent visits to the kitchen and dining-room while the soldiers are at meals so as to see for himself what they are getting, how it is served, etc.

It is not saying too much to state that, in time of peace, a good mess is the real basis of the contentment of a company.

Ascertain what the soldiers like to eat and then gratify their appetites as far as practicable.

Be careful that the cook or the mess sergeant doesn't fall into a rut and satiate the soldiers day after day with the same dishes.

Give the ration your personal attention—know yourself what the company is entitled to, how much it is actually getting, what the savings amount to, etc.

879. Library and Amusement Room. A library and an amusement room, supplied with good books, magazines, papers, a billiard or pool table, and a phonograph, are a source of much pleasure and contentment.

880. Athletic Apparatus. A judicious investment of the company fund in baseballs, bats, dumb bells, Indian clubs, boxing gloves and other athletic goods, and the encouragement of baseball, basketball, quoits, etc., are in the interest of harmony and happiness.

Rewards and Privileges

881. 1. Deny all passes and requests for privileges of men whose conduct is not good, and on the other hand grant to men whose conduct is good, as many indulgences as is consistent with discipline.

2. Judicious praise in the presence of the first sergeant, a few noncommissioned officers, or the entire company, depending upon circumstances, very often accomplishes a great deal. After the according of such praise, let your action toward the man show that his good conduct is appreciated and that it has raised him in your estimation, and make him feel you are keeping your eye on him to see whether he will continue in his well doing.

3. Publication of commendatory orders, desirable special duty details, etc.

4. Promotion, and extra duty details which carry extra pay.

5. Meritorious conduct of importance should be noted in the soldier's military record and also on his discharge.

6. At the weekly company inspection, each chief of squad picks out the neatest and cleanest man in his squad—the captain then inspects the men so selected, the neatest and cleanest one being excused from one or two tours of kitchen police, or some other disagreeable duty; or given a two days' pass.

NOTE: Some officers do not think that good conduct should be especially rewarded, but that if all soldiers be held strictly accountable for their actions by a system of strict discipline, good conduct attains its own reward in the immunities it enjoys.

882. Company punishment. It is neither necessary nor desirable to bring every dereliction of duty before a court-martial for trial. In fact, the invariable preferring of charges for minor[9] offenses will, as a rule, injure rather than help the discipline of a command. The 104th Article of War states, "The commanding officer of any detachment, company, or higher command may, for minor offenses not denied by the accused, impose disciplinary punishments upon persons of his command without the intervention of a court-martial, unless the accused demands trial by court-martial." The disciplinary punishments authorized may include admonition, reprimand, withholding of privileges, extra fatigue, and restriction to certain specified limits, but shall not include forfeiture of pay or confinement under guard. (Par. 333, Manual for Courts-Martial.)

Some Efficacious Forms of Company Punishment

883. 1. Extra fatigue under the Company Supply Sergeant or the noncommissioned officer in charge of quarters, cleaning up around and in the company quarters, scrubbing pots, scouring tin pans, polishing stoves, cutting wood, policing the rears, cutting grass, pulling weeds, polishing the brass and nickel parts in the water closets and bath rooms, washing and greasing leather, cleaning guns, boiling greasy haversacks, and in camp, digging drains and working around slop holes.

If the work be done well the offender may be let off sooner—if the work be not done well, he may be tried for it.

2. Men may not be allowed to leave the immediate vicinity of the barracks for periods ranging from one to ten days, during which time they are subject to all kinds of disagreeable fatigue, and required to report to the N. C. O. in charge of quarters at stated hours.

3. Breaking rocks for a given number of days. For every man so punished, a private of the same company is detailed as a sentinel and for every four men a corporal is detailed in addition—the idea being to cause every man in each organization to take an interest in preventing his own comrades from violating rules and regulations.

4. When two soldiers get into a row that is not of a serious nature, a good plan is to set them at work scrubbing the barrack windows—one on the outside and one on the inside, making them clean the same pane at the same time. They are thus constantly looking in each other's faces and before the second window is cleaned they will probably be laughing at each other and part friends rather than nursing their wrath.

5. Confinement to barracks, reporting to the noncommissioned officer in charge of quarters once every hour, from reveille to, say, 9 P. M.

NOTE: Some company commanders follow, for moral effect, the practice of publishing to their companies all summary court convictions of soldiers belonging to the organization.

Withholding of Privileges

1. Withholding of passes and of credit at the post exchange.

2. Withholding of furloughs.

884. Control of Drunken and Obscene Men. In order to control drunken and obscene men, they have been bucked and gagged until sufficiently sober to regain self-control and quiet down. The use of a cold water hose in such cases has been known to accomplish good results. Great care and judgment, however, should be exercised and no more force used than is absolutely necessary.

It may also be said that persistently filthy men have been washed and scrubbed.

885. Saturday morning and other company inspections are intended to show the condition of the organization regarding its equipment, military appearance and general fitness for service, and the condition of the quarters as regards cleanliness, order, etc. Usually everyone except the guard, one cook, and others whose presence elsewhere can not be spared, are required to attend inspections, appearing in their best clothes, their arms and accouterments being shipshape and spick and span in every respect.

A man appearing at inspection with arms and equipments not in proper shape, especially if he be a recruit or if it be his first offense, may be turned out again several hours later, fully armed and equipped, for another inspection, instead of being tried by summary court.

Property Responsibility

886. Special attention should be given to the care and accountability of all company property.

1. All property (tents, axes, spades, chairs, hatchets, etc.) should be plainly marked with the letter of the company.

2. Keep a duplicate copy of every memorandum receipt given for property, and when such property is turned in or another officer's memorandum receipt is given covering the property, don't fail to get your original memorandum from the quartermaster.

3. See that the quartermaster gives you credit for all articles turned in, or property accounted for on statement of charges, proceedings of a surveying officer or otherwise.

4. Have a settlement with the quartermaster at the end of every quarter as required by Army Regulations, taking an inventory of all property held on memorandum receipt and submitting to the quartermaster a statement of charges and a certified list of the china and glassware unavoidably broken during the quarter.

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