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Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition
by James A. Moss
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Colors are said to be cased when furled and protected by the oil cloth covering. (767)

660. Regimental and national colors—salutes by. The regimental color salutes in the ceremony of escort of the color, and when saluting an officer entitled to the honor, but in no other case.

If marching, the salute is executed when at 6 paces from the officer entitled to the salute; the carry is resumed when 6 paces beyond him.

The national color renders no salute. (768)

The Color Guard

661. Composition of color guard; carrying of regimental and national colors. The color guard consists of two color sergeants, who are the color bearers, and two experienced privates selected by the colonel. The senior color sergeant carries the national color; the junior color sergeant carries the regimental color. The regimental color, when carried, is always on the left of the national color, in whatever direction they may face. (769)

662. Formation and marching of color guard. The color guard is formed and marched in one rank, the color bearers in the center. It is marched in the same manner and by the same commands as a squad, substituting, when necessary, guard for squad. (770)

663. Color company defined; color guard remains with it. The color company is the center or right center company of the center or right center battalion. The color guard remains with that company unless otherwise directed. (771)

664. Post of color guard in various formations. In line, the color guard is in the interval between the inner guides of the right and left center companies.

In line of columns or in close line, the color guard is midway between the right and left center companies and on line with the captains.

In column of companies or platoons, the color guard is midway between the color company and the company in rear of the color company and equidistant from the flanks of the column.

In close column, the color guard is on the flank of the color company.

In column of squads, the color guard is in the column between the color company and the company originally on its left.

When the regiment is formed in line of masses for ceremonies, the color guard forms on the left of the leading company of the center (right center) battalion. It rejoins the color company when the regiment changes from line of masses. (772)

665. In battle color guard joins reserve. The color guard, when with a battalion that takes the battle formation, joins the regimental reserve, whose commander directs the color guard to join a certain company of the reserve. (773)

666. Loadings, firings, manual of arms, and movements by color guard. The color guard executes neither loadings nor firings; in rendering honors, it executes all movements in the manual; in drill, all movements unless specially excused. (774)

To Receive the Color

667. Receiving the color by color guard. The color guard, by command of the senior color sergeant, presents arms on receiving and parting with the color. After parting with the color, the color guard is brought to order arms by command of the senior member, who is placed as the right man of the guard. (775)

668. Receiving the color by color company. At drills and ceremonies, excepting escort of the color, the color, if present, is received by the color company after its formation.

The formation of the color company completed, the captain faces to the front; the color guard, conducted by the senior sergeant, approaches from the front and halts at a distance of 10 paces from the captain, who then faces about, brings the company to the present, faces to the front, salutes, again faces about and brings the company to the order. The color guard comes to the present and order at the command of the captain, and is then marched by the color sergeant directly to its post on the left of the color company. (776)

669. Escorting color to office or quarters of colonel. When the battalion is dismissed the color guard escorts the color to the office or quarters of the colonel. (777)

Manual of the Color

670. At the carry, the heel of the pike rests in the socket of the sling; the right hand grasps the pike at the height of the shoulder.

At the order, the heel of the pike rests on the ground near the right toe, the right hand holding the pike in a vertical position.

At parade rest, the heel of the pike is on the ground, as at the order; the pike is held with both hands in front of the center of the body, left hand uppermost.

The order is resumed at the command attention.

The left hand assists the right when necessary.

The carry is the habitual position when the troops are at a shoulder, port, or trail.

The order and parade rest are executed with the troops.

The color salute: Being at a carry, slip the right hand up the pike to the height of the eye, then lower the pike by straightening the arm to the front. (778)

Manual of the Saber

671. Drawing saber; position of carry saber dismounted; unhooking scabbard before mounting; on foot carrying scabbard hooked up.

1. Draw, 2. SABER.

At the command draw, unhook the saber with the thumb and first two fingers of the left hand, thumb on the end of the hook, fingers lifting the upper ring; grasp the scabbard with the left hand at the upper band, bring the hilt a little forward, seize the grip with the right hand, and draw the blade 6 inches out of the scabbard, pressing the scabbard against the thigh with the left hand.

At the command saber, draw the saber quickly, raising the arm to its full extent, to the right front, at an angle of about 45 deg. with the horizontal, the saber, edge down, in a straight line with the arm; make a slight pause and bring the back of the blade against the shoulder, edge to the front, arm nearly extended, hand by the side, elbow back, third and fourth fingers back of the grip; at the same time hook up the scabbard with the thumb and first two fingers of the left hand, thumb through the upper ring, fingers supporting it; drop the left hand by the side.

This is the position of carry saber dismounted.

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber unhook the scabbard before mounting; when mounted, in the first motion of draw saber they reach with the right hand over the bridle hand and without the aid of the bridle hand draw the saber as before; the right hand at the carry rests on the right thigh.

On foot the scabbard is carried hooked up. (782)

672. Holding of saber in publishing orders, etc.; use of saber knot. When publishing orders, calling the roll, etc., the saber is held suspended from the right wrist by the saber knot; when the saber knot is used it is placed on the wrist before drawing saber and taken off after returning saber. (783)

673. Presenting saber from carry or order; execution of the salute in rendering honors.

Being at the order or carry: 1. Present, 2. SABER (or ARMS).

At the command present, raise and carry the saber to the front, base of the hilt as high as the chin and 6 inches in front of the neck, edge to the left, point 6 inches farther to the front than the hilt, thumb extended on the left of the grip, all fingers grasping the grip.

At the command saber, or arms, lower the saber, point in prolongation of the right foot and near the ground, edge to the left, hand by the side, thumb on left of grip, arm extended. If mounted, the hand is held behind the thigh, point a little to the right and front of the stirrup.

In rendering honors with troops, officers execute the first motion of the salute at the command present, the second motion at the command arms; enlisted men with the saber execute the first motion at the command arms and omit the second motion. (784)

674. Coming to order from carry; executing order or carry from present, depending upon command; coming to order saber when arms are brought to order.

Being at a carry: 1. Order, 2. SABER (or ARMS).

Drop the point of the saber directly to the front, point on or near the ground, edge down, thumb on back of grip.

Being at the present saber, should the next command be order arms, officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber order saber; if the command be other than order arms, they execute carry saber.

When arms are brought to the order, the officers or enlisted men with saber drawn order saber. (785)

675. Position of saber in giving commands, etc.; bringing saber to carry from order. The saber is held at the carry while giving commands, marching at attention, or changing position in quick time.

When at the order, sabers are brought to the carry when arms are brought to any position except the present or parade rest. (786)

676. Parade rest from order. Being at the order: 1. Parade, 2. REST.

Take the position of parade rest except that the left hand is uppermost and rests on the right hand, point of saber on or near the ground in front of the center of the body, edge to the right.

At the command attention, resume the order saber and the position of the soldier. (787)

677. Position of saber at double time. In marching in double time the saber is carried diagonally across the breast, edge to the front; the left hand steadies the scabbard. (788)

678. On duty under arms sabers to be drawn and returned without command; commands given with saber drawn. Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber, on all duties under arms draw and return saber without waiting for command. All commands to soldiers under arms are given with the saber drawn. (789)

679. Returning saber from carry. Being at a carry: 1. Return, 2. SABER.

At the command return, carry the right hand opposite to and 6 inches from the left shoulder, saber vertical, edge to the left; at the same time unhook and lower the scabbard with the left hand and grasp it at the upper band.

At the command saber drop the point to the rear and pass the blade across and along the left arm; turn the head slightly to the left, fixing the eyes on the opening of the scabbard, raise the right hand, insert and return the blade; free the wrist from the saber knot (if inserted in it), turn the head to the front, drop the right hand by the side; hook up the scabbard with the left hand, drop the left hand by the side.

Officers and noncommissioned officers armed with the saber, when mounted, return saber without using the left hand; the scabbard is hooked up on dismounting. (790)

680. Enlisted men with saber drawn at inspection. At inspection enlisted men with the saber drawn execute the first motion of present saber and turn the wrist to show both sides of the blade, resuming the carry when the inspector has passed. (791)



Shelter Tents

681. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands: FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks form a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the company; blank files are filled by the file closers, or by men taken from the front rank; the remaining guide, or guides, and file closers form on a convenient flank.

Before forming column or platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the size of each. (792)

682. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as described in the School of the Squad (See par. 156.), and commands: PITCH TENTS.

At the command pitch tents, each man steps off obliquely to the right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the butt of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front, barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each front-rank man then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground by the outside of the right heel.

Equipments are unslung, packs opened, shelter half and pins removed; each man then spreads his shelter half, small triangle to the rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, the rear-rank man's half on the right. The halves are then buttoned together; the guy loops at both ends of the lower half are passed through the buttonholes provided in the lower and upper halves; the whipped end of the guy rope is then passed through both guy loops and secured, this at both ends of the tent. Each front-rank man inserts the muzzle of his rifle under the front end of the ridge and holds the rifle upright, sling to the front, heel of butt on the ground, beside the bayonet. His rear-rank man pins down the front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching the tent taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye of the front guy rope and drives the pin at such a distance in front of the rifle as to held the rope taut; both men go to the rear of the tent, each pins down a corner, stretching the sides and rear of the tent before securing; the rear-rank man then inserts an intrenching tool, or a bayonet in its scabbard, under the rear end of the ridge inside the tent, the front-rank man pegging down the end of the rear guy ropes; the rest of the pins are then driven by both men, the rear-rank man working on the right.

The front flaps of the tent are not fastened down, but thrown back on the tent.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges his equipment and the contents of his pack in the tent and stands at attention in front of his own half on line with the front guy-rope pin.

To have a uniform slope when the tents are pitched, the guy ropes should all be of the same length.

In shelter-tent camps, in localities where suitable material is procurable, tent poles may be improvised and used in lieu of the rifle and bayonet or intrenching tool as supports for the shelter tent. (793)

683. When the pack is not carried, the company is formed for shelter tents, as prescribed in par. 681, intervals are taken, arms are laid aside or on the ground, the men are dismissed and proceed to the wagon, secure their packs, return to their places, and pitch tents as heretofore described, in par. 682. (794)

684. Double shelter tents may be pitched by first pitching one tent as heretofore described, then pitching a second tent against the opening of the first, using one rifle to support both tents, and passing the front guy ropes over and down the sides of the opposite tents. The front corner of one tent is not pegged down, but is thrown back to permit an opening into the tent. (795)

Single Sleeping Bag

685. Spread the poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet, buttoned side to the left; fold the blanket once across its short dimension and lay it on the poncho, folded side along the right side of the poncho; tie the blanket together along the left side by means of the tapes provided; fold the left half of the poncho over the blanket and button it together along the side and bottom. (For the position, number, and length of tapes with which blankets should be provided, see Par. II, G. O. 11; W. D. '12—Author.) (796)

Double Sleeping Bag

686. Spread one poncho on the ground, buttoned end at the feet, buttoned side to the left; spread the blankets on top of the poncho; tie the edges of the blankets together with the tapes provided; spread a second poncho on top of the blankets, buttoned end at the feet, buttoned side to the right; button the two ponchos together along both sides and across the end. (797)

To Strike Shelter Tents

687. The men standing in front of their tents: STRIKE TENTS.

Equipments and rifles are removed from the tent; the tents are lowered, packs made up, and equipments slung, and the men stand at attention in the places originally occupied after taking intervals. (798)

To Pitch All Types of Tents, Except Shelter and Conical Wall

688. To pitch all types of Army tents, except shelter and conical wall tents: Mark line of tents by driving a wall pin on the spot to be occupied by the right (or left) corner of each tent. For pyramidal tents the interval between adjacent pins should be about 30 feet, which will give a passage of two feet between tents. Spread tripod on the ground where the center of tent is to be, if tripod is used. Spread the tent on the ground to be occupied, door to the front, and place the right (or left) front wall loop over the pin. The door (or doors, if more than one) being fastened and held together at the bottom, the left (or right) corner wall loop is carried to the left (or right) as far as it will go and a wall pin driven through it, the pin being placed in line with the right (or left) corner pins already driven. At the same time the rear corner wall loops are pulled to the rear and outward so that the rear wall of the tent is stretched to complete the rectangle. Wall pins are then driven through these loops. Each corner pin should be directly in rear of the corresponding front corner pin, making a rectangle. Unless the canvas be wet, a small amount of slack should be allowed before the corner pins are driven. According to the size of the tent one or two men, crawling under the tent if necessary, fit each pole or ridge or upright into the ring or ridge pole holes, and such accessories as hood, fly, and brace ropes are adjusted. If a tripod be used an additional man will go under the tent to adjust it. The tent steadied by the remaining men, one at each corner guy rope, will then be raised. If the tent is a ward or storage type, corner poles will now be placed at the four corners. The four corner guy ropes are then placed over the lower notches of the large pins driven in prolongation of the diagonals at such distance as to hold the walls and ends of the tent vertical and smooth when the guy ropes are drawn taut. A wall pin is then driven through each remaining wall loop and a large pin for each guy rope is driven in line with the corner guy pins already driven. The guy ropes of the tent are placed over the lower notches, while the guy ropes of the fly are placed over the upper notches, and are then drawn taut. Brace ropes when used, are then secured to stakes or pins suitably placed. (709)

Conical Wall Tent

689. Drive the door pin and center pin 8 feet 3 inches apart. Using the hood lines, with center pin as center, describe two concentric circles with radii 8 feet 3 inches and 11 feet 3 inches. In the outer circle drive two door guy pins 3 feet apart. At intervals of about 3 feet drive the other guy pins.

In other respects conical tents are erected practically as in the case of pyramidal tents, as explained in par. 688. (801)

To Strike Common, Wall, Pyramidal, and Conical Wall Tents

690. STRIKE TENTS.

The men first remove all pins except those of the four corner guy ropes, or the four quadrant guy ropes in the case of the conical wall tent. The pins are neatly piled or placed in their receptacle.

One man holds each guy, and when the ground is clear the tent is lowered, folded, or rolled and tied, the poles or tripod and pole fastened together, and the remaining pins collected. (802)

To Fold Tents

691. For folding common, wall, hospital, and storage tents: Spread the tent flat on the ground, folded at the ridge so that bottoms of side walls are even, ends of tents forming triangles to the right and left; fold the triangular ends of the tent in toward the middle, making it rectangular in shape; fold the top over about 9 inches; fold the tent in two by carrying the top fold over clear to the foot; fold again in two from the top to the foot; throw all guys on tent except the second from each end; fold the ends in so as to cover about two-thirds of the second cloths; fold the left end over to meet the turned-in edge of the right end, then fold the right end over the top, completing the bundle; tie with two exposed guys.

For folding pyramidal tents: The tent is thrown toward the rear and the back wall and roof canvas pulled out smooth. This may be most easily accomplished by leaving the rear corner wall pins in the ground with the wall loops attached, one man at each rear-corner guy, and one holding the square iron in a perpendicular position and pulling the canvas to its limit away from the former front of the tent. This leaves the three remaining sides of the tent on top of the rear side, with the door side in the middle.

Now carry the right-front corner over and lay it on the left-rear corner. Pull all canvas smooth, throw guys toward square iron, and pull bottom edges even. Then take the right-front corner and return to the right, covering the right-rear corner. This folds the right side of the tent on itself, with the crease in the middle and under the front side of the tent.

Next carry the left-front corner to the right and back as described above; this, when completed, will leave the front and rear sides of the tent lying smooth and flat and the two side walls folded inward, each on itself.

Place the hood in the square iron which has been folded downward toward the bottom of tent, and continue to fold around the square iron as a core, pressing all folds down flat and smooth, and parallel with the bottom of the tent. If each fold is compactly made and the canvas kept smooth, the last fold will exactly cover the lower edge of the canvas. Lay all exposed guys along the folded canvas except the two on the center-width, which should be pulled out and away from bottom edge to their extreme length for tying. Now, beginning at one end, fold toward the center on the first seam (that joining the first and second widths) and fold again toward the center so that the already folded canvas will come to within about three inches of the middle width. Then fold over to the opposite edge of middle width of canvas. Then begin folding from opposite end, folding the first width in half, then making a second fold to come within about 4 or 5 inches of that already folded, turn this fold entirely over that already folded. Take the exposed guys and draw them taut across each other, turn bundle over on the under guy, cross guys on top of bundle drawing tight. Turn bundle over on the crossed guys and tie lengthwise.

When properly tied and pressed together this will make a package 11 by 23 by 34 inches, requiring about 8,855 cubic inches to store or pack.

Stencil the organization designation on the lower half of the middle width of canvas in the back wall. (803)

Warning Calls

692. First call, guard mounting, full dress, overcoats, drill, stable, water, and boots and saddles precede the assembly by such interval as may be prescribed by the commanding officer.

Mess, church, and fatigue, classed as service calls, may also be used as warning calls.

First call is the first signal for formation for roll call and for all ceremonies except guard mounting.

Guard mounting is the first signal for guard mounting.

The field music assembles at first call and guard mounting.

In a mixed command, boots and saddles is the signal to mounted troops that their formation is to be mounted; for mounted guard mounting or mounted drill, it immediately follows the signal guard mounting or drill.

When full dress or overcoats are to be worn, the full dress or overcoat call immediately follows first call, guard mounting, or boots and saddles. (804)

Formation Calls

693. Assembly: The signal for companies or details to fall in.

Adjutant's call: The signal for companies to form battalion; also for the guard details to form for guard mounting on the camp or garrison parade ground; it follows the assembly at such interval as may be prescribed by the commanding officer.

It is also used as a signal for the battalions to form regiment, following the first adjutant's call at such interval as the commanding officer may prescribe.

To the color: Is sounded when the color salutes. (805)

Alarm Calls

694. Fire call: The signal for the men to fall in, without arms, to extinguish fire.

To arms: The signal for the men to fall in, under arms, on their company's parade grounds as quickly as possible.

To horse: The signal for mounted men to proceed under arms to their horses, saddle, mount and assemble at a designated place as quickly as possible. In extended order this signal is used to remount troops. (806)

Service Calls

695. Tattoo, taps, mess, sick, church, recall, issue, officers', captains', first sergeants', fatigue, school, and the general.

The general is the signal for striking tents and loading wagons preparatory to marching.

Reveille precedes the assembly for roll call; retreat follows the assembly, the interval between being only that required for formation and roll call, except when there is parade.

Taps is the signal for extinguishing lights; it is usually preceded by call to quarters by such interval as prescribed by Army Regulations.

Assembly, reveille, retreat, adjutant's call, to the color, the flourishes, ruffles, and the marches are sounded by all the field music united; the other calls, as a rule, are sounded by the musician of the guard or orderly musician; he may also sound the assembly when the musicians are not united.

The morning gun is fired at the first note of reveille, or, if marches be played before reveille, it is fired at the commencement of the first march.

The evening gun is fired at the last note of retreat. (807)

APPENDIX A

War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, December 2, 1911.

The Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, have been prepared for the use of troops armed with the United States magazine rifle, model 1903. For the guidance of organizations armed with the United States magazine rifle, model 1898, the following alternative paragraphs are published and will be considered as substitute paragraphs for the corresponding paragraphs in the text: 75 (in part), 96, 98, 99, 134, 139, 141, 142, 148 and 150.

By order of the Secretary of War: LEONARD WOOD, Major General, Chief of Staff.

Note. The paragraph numbers 75, 96, 98, etc., given above, follow the paragraphs below.

696. * * * Third.

The cut-off is kept turned down, except when using the magazine. (75)

* * * * *

697. Being at order arms: 1. Unfix, BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Take the position of parade rest, grasp the handle on the bayonet firmly with the right hand, press the spring with the forefinger of the left hand, raise the bayonet until the handle is about 6 inches above the muzzle of the piece, drop the point to the left, back of hand toward the body, and glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but not in cadence. (96)

698. Being at order arms: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS.

At the second command, take the position of port arms. (TWO.) With the right hand open the magazine gate, turn the bolt handle up, draw the bolt back and glance at the magazine and chamber. Having found them empty, or having emptied them, raise the head and eyes to the front. (98)

699. Being at inspection arms: 1. Order (Right shoulder, port), 2. ARMS.

At the preparatory command, push the bolt forward, turn the handle down, close the magazine gate, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command arms, complete the movement ordered. (99)

700. Pieces being loaded and in the position of load, to execute other movements with the pieces loaded: 1. Lock, 2. PIECES.

At the command pieces turn the safety lock fully to the right.

The safety lock is said to be at the "ready" when turned to the left, and at the "safe" when turned to the right.

The cut-off is said to be "on" when turned up and "off" when turned down. (134)

701. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. With dummy (blank or ball) cartridges, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front-rank man or skirmisher faces half right and carries the right foot to the right, about one foot, to such position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock, muzzle at the height of the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a cartridge between the thumb and first two fingers and places it in the receiver; places palm of the hand against the back of the bolt handle; thrusts the bolt home with a quick motion, turning down the handle, and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear-rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right of his front-rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down) are designated as that of load. (139)

702. FILL MAGAZINE.

Take the position of load, if not already there, open the gate of the magazine with the right thumb, take five cartridges from the box or belt, and place them, with the bullets to the front, in the magazine, turning the barrel slightly to the left to facilitate the insertion of the cartridges; close the gate and carry the right hand to the small of the stock.

To load from the magazine the command from magazine will be given preceding that of load; the cut-off will be turned up on coming to the position of load.

To resume loading from the belt the command from belt will be given preceding the command load; the cut-off will be turned down on coming to the position of load.

The commands from magazine and from belt, indicating the change in the manner of loading, will not be repeated in subsequent commands.

The words from belt apply to cartridge box as well as belt.

In loading from the magazine care should be taken to push the bolt fully forward and turn the handle down before drawing the bolt back, as otherwise the extractor will not catch the cartridge in the chamber, and jamming will occur with the cartridge following.

To fire from the magazine, the command magazine fire may be given at any time. The cut-off is turned up and an increased rate of fire is executed. After the magazine is exhausted the cut-off is turned down and the firing continued, loading from the belt.

Magazine fire is employed only when, in the opinion of the platoon leader or company commander, the maximum rate of fire becomes necessary. (141)

703. UNLOAD.

All take the position of load, turn the cut-off up, if not already there, turn the safety lock to the left, and alternately open and close the chamber until all the cartridges are ejected. After the last cartridge is ejected the chamber is closed and the trigger pulled. The cartridges are then picked up, cleaned, and returned to the box or belt, and the piece brought to the order. (142)

704. CLIP FIRE.

Turn the cut-off up; fire at will (reloading from the magazine) until the cartridges in the piece are exhausted; turn the cut-off down; fill magazine; reload and take the position of suspend firing. (148)

705. CEASE FIRING.

Firing stops; pieces not already there are brought to the position of load, the cut-off turned down if firing from magazine, the cartridge is drawn or the empty shell is ejected, the trigger is pulled, sights are laid down, and the piece is brought to the order.

Cease firing is used for long pauses to prepare for changes of position or to steady the men. (150)

APPENDIX B

War Department, Office of the Chief of Staff, Washington, December 2, 1911.

Paragraphs 747, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, and 798, Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops equipped with the Infantry Equipment, model 1910. For troops equipped under General Orders, No. 23, War Department, 1906, and orders amendatory thereof, the alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.

By order of the Secretary of War: LEONARD WOOD, Major General, Chief of Staff.

Note. The paragraph numbers 747, 792, etc., given above, follow the paragraphs below.

706. If the inspection is to include an examination of the blanket rolls, the captain, before dismissing the company and after inspecting the file closers, directs the lieutenants to remain in place, closes ranks, stacks arms, dresses the company back to four paces from the stacks, takes intervals, and commands: 1. Unsling, 2. PACKS, 3. Open, 4. PACKS.

At the second command, each man unslings his roll and places it on the ground at his feet, rounded end to the front, square end of shelter half to the right.

At the fourth command, the rolls are untied, laid perpendicular to the front with the triangular end of the shelter half to the front, opened, and unrolled to the left; each man prepares the contents of his roll for inspection and resumes the attention.

The captain then returns saber, passes along the ranks and file closers as before, inspects the rolls, returns to the right, draws saber and commands: 1. Close, 2. PACKS.

At the second command each man, with his shelter half smoothly spread on the ground with buttons up and triangular end to the front, folds his blanket once across its length and places it upon the shelter half, fold toward the bottom edge one-half inch from the square end, the same amount of canvas uncovered at the top and bottom. He then places the parts of the pole on the side of the blanket next the square end of shelter half, near and parallel to the fold, end of pole about 6 inches from the edge of the blanket; nests the pins similarly near the opposite edge of the blanket and distributes the other articles carried in the roll; folds the triangular end and then the exposed portion of the bottom of the shelter half over the blanket.

The two men in each file roll and fasten first the roll of the front and then of the rear rank man. The file closers work similarly two and two, or with the front rank man of a blank file. Each pair stands on the folded side, rolls the blanket roll closely and buckles the straps, passing the end of the strap through both keeper and buckle, back over the buckle and under the keeper. With the roll so lying on the ground that the edge of the shelter half can just be seen when looking vertically downward, one end is bent upward and over to meet the other, a clove hitch is taken with the guy rope first around the end to which it is attached and then around the other end, adjusting the length of rope between hitches to suit the wearer.

As soon as a file completes its two rolls each man places his roll in the position it was in after being unslung and stands at attention.

All the rolls being completed, the captain commands: 1. Sling, 2. PACKS.

At the second command the rolls are slung, the end containing the pole to the rear.

The company is assembled, takes arms, and the captain completes the inspection as before. (747)

707. Being in line or in column of platoons, the captain commands: FORM FOR SHELTER TENTS.

The officers, first sergeant, and guides fall out; the cooks form a file on the flank of the company nearest the kitchen, the first sergeant and right guide fall in, forming the right file of the company; blank files are filled by the file closers or by men taken from the front rank; the remaining guide or guides, and file closers form on a convenient flank.

Before forming column of platoons, preparatory to pitching tents, the company may be redivided into two or more platoons, regardless of the size of each. (792)

708. The captain then causes the company to take intervals as described in the School of the Squad, and commands: PITCH TENTS.

At the command pitch tents, each man steps off obliquely to the right with the right foot and lays his rifle on the ground, the butt of the rifle near the toe of the right foot, muzzle to the front, barrel to the left, and steps back into his place; each front-rank man then draws his bayonet and sticks it in the ground by the outside of the right heel. All unsling and open the blanket rolls and take out the shelter half, poles, and pins. Each then spreads his shelter half, triangle to the rear, flat upon the ground the tent is to occupy, rear-rank man's half on the right. The halves are then buttoned together. Each front-rank man joins his pole, inserts the top in the eyes of the halves, and holds the pole upright beside the bayonet placed in the ground; his rear-rank man, using the pins in front, pins down the front corners of the tent on the line of bayonets, stretching the canvas taut; he then inserts a pin in the eye of the rope and drives the pin at such distance in front of the pole as to hold the rope taut. Both then go to the rear of the tent; the rear-rank man adjusts the pole and the front-rank man drives the pins. The rest of the pins are then driven by both men, the rear-rank man working on the right.

As soon as the tent is pitched each man arranges the contents of the blanket roll in the tent and stands at attention in front of his own half on line with the front guy rope pin.

The guy ropes, to have a uniform slope when the shelter tents are pitched, should all be of the same length. (793)

709. When the blanket roll is not carried, intervals are taken as described above; the position of the front pole is marked with a bayonet and equipments are laid aside. The men then proceed to the wagon, secure their rolls, return to their places, and pitch tents as heretofore described. (794)

710. To pitch double shelter tent, the captain gives the same commands as before, except Take half interval is given instead of Take interval. In taking interval, each man follows the preceding man at 2 paces. The captain then commands: PITCH DOUBLE TENTS.

The first sergeant places himself on the right of the right guide and with him pitches a single shelter tent.

Only the odd numbers of the front rank mark the line with the bayonet.

The tent is formed by buttoning together the square ends of two single tents. Two complete tents, except one pole, are used. Two guy ropes are used at each end, the guy pins being placed in front of the corner pins.

The tents are pitched by numbers 1 and 2, front and rear rank; and by numbers 3 and 4, front and rear rank; the men falling in on the left are numbered, counting off if necessary.

All the men spread their shelter halves on the ground the tent is to occupy. Those of the front rank are placed with the triangular ends to the front. All four halves are then buttoned together, first the ridges and then the square ends. The front corners of the tent are pinned by the front-rank men, the odd number holding the poles, the even number driving the pins. The rear-rank men similarly pin the rear corners.

While the odd numbers steady the poles, each even number of the front rank takes his pole and enters the tent, where, assisted by the even number of the rear rank, he adjusts the pole to the center eyes of the shelter halves in the following order: (1) The lower half of the front tent; (2) the lower half of the rear tent; (3) the upper half of the front tent; (4) the upper half of the rear tent. The guy ropes are then adjusted.

The tents having been pitched, the triangular ends are turned back, contents of the rolls arranged, and the men stand at attention, each opposite his own shelter half and facing out from the tent. (795)

FOOTNOTES:

[1] No. 1 of the first squad.

[2] Ordinarily about 20 yards wide.

[3] By Fire Direction is meant prescribing and generally directing the firing.—Author.

[4] The "pack" includes blanket, poncho, and shelter tent.

[5] With a 4-foot white and red regimental signal flag.



CHAPTER II

MANUAL OF THE BAYONET

(The numbers following the paragraphs are those of the Manual of the Bayonet, U. S. Army.)

711. The infantry soldier relies mainly on fire action to disable the enemy, but he should know that personal combat is often necessary to obtain success. Therefore, he must be instructed in the use of the rifle and bayonet in hand-to-hand encounters. (1)

712. The object of this instruction is to teach the soldier how to make effective use of the rifle and bayonet in personal combat; to make him quick and proficient in handling his rifle; to give him an accurate eye and a steady hand; and to give him confidence in the bayonet in offense and defense. When skill in these exercises has been acquired, the rifle will still remain a most formidable weapon at close quarters should the bayonet be lost or disabled. (2)

713. Efficiency of organizations in bayonet fighting will be judged by the skill shown by individuals in personal combat. For this purpose pairs or groups of opponents, selected at random from among recruits and trained soldiers, should engage in assaults, using the fencing equipment provided for the purpose. (3)

714. Officers and specially selected and thoroughly instructed noncommissioned officers will act as instructors. (4)

715. Instruction in bayonet combat should begin as soon as the soldier is familiar with the handling of his rifle and will progress, as far as practicable, in the order followed in the text. (5)

716. Instruction is ordinarily given on even ground, but practice should also be had on uneven ground, especially in the attack and defense of intrenchments. (6)

717. These exercises will not be used as a calisthenic drill. (7)

718. The principles of the commands are the same as those given in paragraphs 58, 64, and 87. Intervals and distances will be taken as in paragraphs 156 and 158, except that, in formations for bayonet exercises, the men should be at least four paces apart in every direction. (8)

719. Before requiring soldiers to take a position or execute a movement for the first time, the instructor executes the same for the purpose of illustration, after which he requires the soldiers to execute the movement individually. Movements prescribed in this manual will not be executed in cadence as the attempt to do so results in incomplete execution and lack of vigor. Each movement will be executed correctly as quickly as possible by every man. As soon as the movements are executed accurately, the commands are given rapidly, as expertness with the bayonet depends chiefly upon quickness of motion. (9)

720. The exercises will be interrupted at first by short and frequent rests. The rests will be less frequent as proficiency is attained. Fatigue and exhaustion will be specially guarded against as they prevent proper interest being taken in the exercises and delay the progress of the instruction. Rests will be given from the position of order arms in the manner prescribed in Infantry Drill Regulations. (10)

THE BAYONET

NOMENCLATURE AND DESCRIPTION

721. The bayonet is a cutting and thrusting weapon consisting of three principal parts, viz, the blade, guard, and grip. (11)



722. The blade has the following parts: Edge, false edge, back, grooves, point, and tang. The length of the blade from guard to point is 16 inches, the edge 14.5 inches, and the false edge 5.6 inches. Length of the rifle, bayonet fixed, is 59.4 inches. The weight of the bayonet is 1 pound; weight of rifle without bayonet is 8.69 pounds. The center of gravity of the rifle, with bayonet fixed, is just in front of the rear sight. (12)

I. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE RIFLE

723. The instructor explains the importance of good footwork and impresses on the men the fact that quickness of foot and suppleness of body are as important for attack and defense as is the ability to parry and deliver a strong point or cut. (13)

724. All foot movements should be made from the position of guard. As far as practicable, they will be made on the balls of the feet to insure quickness and agility. No hard and fast rule can be laid down as to the length of the various foot movements; this depends entirely on the situations occurring in combat. (14)

725. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor commands:

1. Bayonet exercise, 2. GUARD.

At the command guard, half face to the right, carry back and place the right foot about once and a half its length to the rear and about 3 inches to the right, the feet forming with each other an angle of about 60 deg., weight of the body balanced equally on the balls of the feet, knees slightly bent, palms of hands on hips, fingers to the front, thumbs to the rear, head erect, head and eyes straight to the front. (15)

726. To resume the attention, 1. Squad, 2. ATTENTION. The men take the position of the soldier and fix their attention. (16)

727. ADVANCE. Advance the left foot quickly about once its length follow immediately with the right foot the same distance. (17)

728. RETIRE. Move the right foot quickly to the rear about once its length, follow immediately with the left foot the same distance. (18)

729. 1. Front, 2. PASS. Place the right foot quickly about once its length in front of the left, advance the left foot to its proper position in front of the right. (19)

730. 1. Rear, 2. PASS. Place the left foot quickly about once its length in rear of the right, retire the right foot to its proper position in rear of the left.

The passes are used to get quickly within striking distance or to withdraw quickly therefrom. (20)

731. 1. Right, 2. STEP. Step to the right with the right foot about once its length and place the left foot in its proper relative position. (21)

732. 1. Left, 2. STEP. Step to the left with the left foot about once its length and place the right foot in its proper relative position.

These steps are used to circle around an enemy, to secure a more favorable line of attack, or to avoid the opponent's attack. Better ground or more favorable light may be gained in this way. In bayonet fencing and in actual combat the foot first moved in stepping to the right or left is the one which at the moment bears the least weight. (22)

II. INSTRUCTION WITH THE RIFLE

733. The commands for and the execution of the foot movements are the same as already given for movements without the rifle. (23)

734. The men having taken intervals or distances, the instructor commands:

1. Bayonet exercise, 2. GUARD.

At the second command take the position of guard (see par. 15); at the same time throw the rifle smartly to the front, grasp the rifle with the left hand just below the lower band, fingers between the stock and gun sling, barrel turned slightly to the left, the right hand grasping the small of the stock about 6 inches in front of the right hip, elbows free from the body, bayonet point at the height of the chin. (24) (See Fig. 2)

735. 1. Order, 2. ARMS.

Bring the right foot up to the left and the rifle to the position of order arms, at the same time resuming the position of attention. (25)

736. During the preliminary instruction, attacks and defenses will be executed from guard until proficiency is attained, after which they may be executed from any position in which the rifle is held. (26)

ATTACKS

737. 1. THRUST.

Thrust the rifle quickly forward to the full length of the left arm, turning the barrel to the left, and direct the point of the bayonet at the point to be attacked, butt covering the right forearm. At the same time straighten the right leg vigorously and throw the weight of the body forward and on the left leg, the ball of the right foot always on the ground. Guard is resumed immediately without command.



The force of the thrust is delivered principally with the right arm, the left being used to direct the bayonet. The points at which the attack should be directed are, in order of their importance, stomach, chest, head, neck, and limbs. (27)

738. 1. LUNGE.

Executed in the same manner as the thrust, except that the left foot is carried forward about twice its length. The left heel must always be in rear of the left knee. Guard is resumed immediately without command. Guard may also be resumed by advancing the right foot if, for any reason, it is desired to hold the ground gained in lunging. In the latter case, the preparatory command forward will be given. Each method should be practiced. (28)

739. 1. Butt, 2. STRIKE.

Straighten right arm and right leg vigorously and swing butt of rifle against point of attack, pivoting the rifle in the left hand at about the height of the left shoulder, allowing the bayonet to pass to the rear on the left side of the head. Guard is resumed without command.

The points of attack in their order of importance are, head, neck, stomach, and crotch. (29)



740. 1. Cut, 2. DOWN.

Execute a quick downward stroke, edge of bayonet directed at point of attack. Guard is resumed without command. (30)

741. 1. Cut, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).

With a quick extension of the arms execute a cut to the right (left), directing the edge toward the point attacked. Guard is resumed without command.

The cuts are especially useful against the head, neck, and hands of an enemy. In executing left cut it should be remembered that the false, or back edge, is only 5.6 inches long. The cuts can be executed in continuation of strokes, thrusts, lunges, and parries. (31)

742. To direct an attack to the right, left, or rear the soldier will change front as quickly as possible in the most convenient manner, for example: 1. To the right rear, 2. Cut, 3. DOWN; 1. To the right, 2. LUNGE; 1. To the left, 2. THRUST, etc.

Whenever possible the impetus gained by the turning movement of the body should be thrown into the attack. In general this will be best accomplished by turning on the ball of the right foot.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement. (32)

743. Good judgment of distance is essential. Accuracy in thrusting and lunging is best attained by practicing these attacks against rings or other convenient openings, about 3 inches in diameter, suitably suspended at desired heights. (33)



744. The thrust and lunges at rings should first be practiced by endeavoring to hit the opening looked at. This should be followed by directing the attack against one opening while looking at another. (34)

745. The soldier should also experience the effect of actual resistance offered to the bayonet and the butt of the rifle in attacks. This will be taught by practicing attacks against a dummy. (35)

746. Dummies should be constructed in such a manner as to permit the execution of attacks without injury to the point or edge of the bayonet or to the barrel or stock of the rifle. A suitable dummy can be made from pieces of rope about 5 feet in length plaited closely together into a cable between 6 and 12 inches in diameter. Old rope is preferable. Bags weighted and stuffed with hay, straw, shavings, etc., are also suitable. (36)



DEFENSES

747. In the preliminary drills in the defenses the position of guard is resumed, by command, after each parry. When the men have become proficient, the instructor will cause them to resume the position of guard instantly without command after the execution of each parry. (37)

748. 1. Parry, 2. RIGHT.

Keeping the right hand in the guard position, move the rifle sharply to the right with the left arm, so that the bayonet point is about 6 inches to the right. (38)

749. 1. Parry, 2. LEFT.

Move the rifle sharply to the left front with both hands so as to cover the point attacked. (39)

750. 1. Parry, 2. HIGH.

Raise the rifle with both hands high enough to clear the line of vision, barrel downward, point of the bayonet to the left front.

When necessary to raise the rifle well above the head, it may be supported between the thumb and forefinger of the left hand. This position will be necessary against attacks from higher elevations, such, as men mounted or on top of parapets. (40)



751. 1. Low parry, 2. RIGHT (LEFT).

Carry the point of the bayonet down until it is at the height of the knee, moving the point of the bayonet sufficiently to the right (left) to keep the opponent's attacks clear of the point threatened.

752. These parries are rarely used, as an attack below the waist leaves the head and body exposed. (41)



753. Parries must not be too wide or sweeping, but sharp, short motions, finished with a jerk or quick catch. The hands should, as far as possible, be kept in the line of attack. Parries against butt strike are made by quickly moving the guard so as to cover the point attacked. (42)

754. To provide against attack from the right, left, or rear the soldier will change front as quickly as possible in the most convenient manner, for example, 1. To the left rear, 2. Parry, 3. HIGH; 1. To the right, 2. Parry, 3. RIGHT, etc.

These movements constitute a change of front in which the position of guard is resumed at the completion of the movement.

In changing front for the purpose of attack or defense, if there is danger of wounding a comrade, the rifle should first be brought to a vertical position. (43)

III. INSTRUCTION WITHOUT THE BAYONET

755. 1. Club rifle, 2 SWING.

Being at order arms at the preparatory command quickly raise and turn the rifle, regrasping it with both hands between the rear sight and muzzle, barrel down, thumbs around the stock and toward the butt; at the sane time raise the rifle above shoulder farthest from the opponent, butt elevated and to the rear, elbows slightly bent and knees straight. Each individual takes such position of the feet, shoulders, and hands as best accords with his natural dexterity. SWING. Tighten the grasp of the hands and swing the rifle to the front and downward, directing it at the head of the opponent and immediately return to the position of club rifle by completing the swing of the rifle downward and to the rear. Repeat by the command. SWING.

The rifle should be swung with sufficient force to break through any guard or parry that may be interposed.

Being at club rifle, order arms is resumed by command.

The use of this attack against dummies or in fencing is prohibited. (44)



756. The position of club rifle may be taken from any position of the rifle prescribed in the Manual of Arms. It will not be taken in personal combat unless the emergency is such as to preclude the use of the bayonet. (45)

IV. COMBINED MOVEMENTS

757. The purpose of combined movements is to develop more vigorous attacks and more effective defenses than are obtained by the single movements; to develop skill in passing from attack to defense and the reverse. Every movement to the front should be accompanied by an attack, which is increased in effectiveness by the forward movement of the body. Every movement to the rear should ordinarily be accompanied by a parry and should always be followed by an attack. Movements to the right or left may be accompanied by attacks or defenses. (46)

758. Not more than three movements will be used in any combination. The instructor should first indicate the number of movements that are to be combined as two movements or three movements. The execution is determined by one command of execution, and the position of guard is taken upon the completion of the last movement only.

EXAMPLES

Front pass and LUNGE. Right step and THRUST. Left step and low parry RIGHT. Rear pass, parry left and LUNGE. Lunge and cut RIGHT. Parry right and parry HIGH. Butt strike and cut DOWN. Thrust and parry HIGH. Parry high and LUNGE. Advance, thrust and cut RIGHT. Right step, parry left and cut DOWN. To the left, butt strike and cut DOWN. To the right rear, cut down and butt STRIKE. (47)

759. Attacks against dummies will be practiced. The approach will be made against the dummies both in quick time and double time. (48)

V. PRACTICAL BAYONET COMBAT

760. The principles of practical bayonet combat should be taught as far as possible during the progress of instruction in bayonet exercises. (49)

761. The soldier must be continually impressed with the extreme importance of the offensive due to its moral effect. Should an attack fail, it should be followed immediately by another attack before the opponent has an opportunity to assume the offensive. Keep the opponent on the defensive. If, due to circumstances, it is necessary to take the defensive, constantly watch for an opportunity to assume the offensive and take immediate advantage of it. (50)

762. Observe the ground with a view to obtaining the best footing. Time for this will generally be too limited to permit more than a single hasty glance. (51)

763. In personal combat watch the opponent's eyes if they can be plainly seen, and do not fix the eyes on his weapon nor upon the point of your attack. If his eyes can not be plainly seen, as in night attacks, watch the movements of his weapon and of his body. (52)

764. Keep the body well covered and deliver attacks vigorously. The point of the bayonet should always be kept as nearly as possible in the line of attack. The less the rifle is moved upward, downward, to the right, or to the left, the better prepared the soldier is for attack or defense. (53)

765. Constantly watch for a chance to attack the opponent's left hand. His position of guard will not differ materially from that described in paragraph 24. If his bayonet is without a cutting edge, he will be at a great disadvantage. (34)

766. The butt is used for close and sudden attacks. It is particularly useful in riot duty. From the position of port arms a sentry can strike a severe blow with the butt of the rifle. (55)

767. Against a man on foot, armed with a sword, be careful that the muzzle of the rifle is not grasped. All the swordsman's energies will be directed toward getting past the bayonet. Attack him with short stabbing thrusts, and keep him beyond striking distance of his weapon. (56)

768. The adversary may attempt a greater extension in the thrust and lunge by quitting the grasp of his piece with the left hand and advancing the right as far as possible. When this is done, a sharp parry may cause him to lose control of his rifle, leaving him exposed to a counter-attack, which should follow promptly. (57)

769. Against odds a small number of men can fight to best advantage by grouping themselves so as to prevent their being attacked from behind. (58)

770. In fighting a mounted man armed with a saber every effort must be made to get on his near or left side, because here his reach is much shorter and his parries much weaker. If not possible to disable such an enemy, attack his horse and then renew the attack on the horseman. (59)

771. In receiving night attacks the assailant's movements can be best observed from the kneeling or prone position, as his approach generally brings him against the sky line. When he arrives within attacking distance rise quickly and lunge well forward at the middle of his body. (60)

VI. FENCING EXERCISES

772. Fencing exercises in two lines consist of combinations of thrusts, parries, and foot movements executed at command or at will, the opponent replying with suitable parries and returns. (61)

773. The instructor will inspect the entire fencing equipment before the exercise begins and assure himself that everything is in such condition as will prevent accidents. (62)

774. The men equip themselves and form in two lines at the order, facing each other, with intervals of about 4 paces between files and a distance of about 2 paces between lines. One line is designated as number 1; the other, number 2. Also as attack and defense. (63)

775. The opponents being at the order facing each other, the instructor commands: SALUTE.

Each man, with eyes on his opponent, carries the left hand smartly to the right side, palm of the hand down, thumb and fingers extended and joined, forearm horizontal, forefinger touching the bayonet. (Two) Drop the arm smartly by the side.

This salute is the fencing salute.

All fencing exercises and all fencing at will between individuals will begin and terminate with the formal courtesy of the fencing salute. (64)

776. After the fencing salute has been rendered the instructor commands: 1. Fencing exercise, 2. GUARD.

At the command guard each man comes to the position of guard, heretofore defined, bayonets crossed, each man's bayonet bearing lightly to the right against the corresponding portion of the opponent's bayonet. The position is known as the engage or engage right. (65)

777. Being at the engage right: ENGAGE LEFT.

The attack drops the point of his bayonet quickly until clear of his opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward and to the right; bayonets are crossed similarly as in the engaged position, each man's bayonet bearing lightly to the left against the corresponding portion of the opponent's bayonet. (66)

778. Being at engage left: ENGAGE RIGHT.

The attack quickly drops the point of his bayonet until clear of his opponent's rifle and describes a semicircle with it upward and to the left and engages. (67)

779. Being engaged: ENGAGE LEFT AND RIGHT.

The attack engages left and then immediately engages right. (68)

780. Being engaged left: ENGAGE RIGHT AND LEFT.

The attack engages right and then immediately engages left. (69)

781. 1. Number one, ENGAGE RIGHT (LEFT); 2. Number two, COUNTER.

Number one executes the movement ordered, as above; number two quickly drops the point of his bayonet and circles it upward to the original position. (70)

782. In all fencing while maintaining the pressure in the engage, a certain freedom of motion of the rifle is allowable, consisting of the play, or up-and-down motion, of one bayonet against the other. This is necessary to prevent the opponent from divining the intended attack. It also prevents his using the point of contact as a pivot for his assaults. In changing from one engage to the other the movement is controlled by the left hand, the right remaining stationary. (71)

783. After some exercise in engage, engage left, and counter, exercises will be given in the assaults. (72)

ASSAULTS

784. The part of the body to be attacked will be designated by name as head, neck, chest, stomach, legs. No attacks will be made below the knees. The commands are given and the movements for each line are first explained thoroughly by the instructor; the execution begins at the command assault. Number one executes the attack, and number two parries; conversely, at command, number two attacks and number one parries. (73)

785. For convenience in instruction assaults are divided into simple attacks, counter-attacks, attack on the rifle, and feints. (74)

SIMPLE ATTACKS

786. Success in these attacks depends on quickness of movement. There are three simple attacks—the straight, the disengagement, and the counter disengagement. They are not preceded by a feint. (75)

787. In the straight the bayonet is directed straight at an opening from the engaged position. Contact with the opponent's rifle may, or may not, be abandoned while making it. If the opening be high or low, contact with the rifle will usually be abandoned on commencing the attack. If the opening be near his guard, the light pressure used in the engage may be continued in the attack.

Example: Being at the engage right, 1. Number one, at neck (head, chest, right leg, etc.), thrust; 2. Number two, parry right; 3. ASSAULT. (76)

788. In the disengagement contact with the opponent's rifle is abandoned and the point of the bayonet is circled under or over his bayonet or rifle and directed into the opening attacked. This attack is delivered by one continuous spiral movement of the bayonet from the moment contact is abandoned.

Example: Being at the engage right, 1. Number one, at stomach (left chest, left leg, etc.), thrust, 2. Number two, parry left (etc.); 3. ASSAULT. (77)

789. In the counter disengagement a swift attack is made into the opening disclosed while the opponent is attempting to change the engagement of his rifle. It is delivered by one continuous spiral movement of the bayonet into the opening.

Example: Being at the engage right, 1. Number two, engage left; 2. Number one, at chest, thrust; 3. Number two, parry left; 4. ASSAULT.

Number two initiates the movement, number one thrusts as soon as the opening is made, and number two then attempts to parry. (78)

790. A counter-attack or return is one made instantly after or in continuation of a parry. The parry should be as narrow as possible. This makes it more difficult for the opponent to recover and counter parry. The counter-attack should also be made at, or just before, the full extension of the opponent's attack, as when it is so made, a simple extension of the arms will generally be sufficient to reach the opponent's body.

Example: Being at engage, 1. Number two, at chest, lunge; 2. Number one, parry right, and at stomach (chest, head, etc.), thrust; 3. ASSAULT. (79)

ATTACKS ON THE RIFLE

791. These movements are made for the purpose of forcing or disclosing an opening into which an attack can be made. They are the press, the beat, and the twist. (80)

792. In the press the attack quickly presses against the opponent's bayonet or rifle with his own and continues the pressure as the attack is delivered.

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, press, and at chest, thrust; 2. Number two, parry right; 3. ASSAULT. (81)

793. The attack by disengagement is particularly effective following the press.

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, press, and at stomach, thrust; 2. Number two, low parry left; 3. ASSAULT. (82)

794. The beat is an attack in which a sharp blow struck against the opponent's rifle for the purpose of forcing him to expose an opening into which an attack immediately follows. It is used when there is but slight opposition or no contact of rifles.

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, beat and at stomach (chest, etc.), thrust; 2. Number two, parry left; 3. ASSAULT. (83)

795. In the twist the rifle is crossed over the opponent's rifle or bayonet and his bayonet forced downward with a circular motion and a straight attack made into the opening. It requires superior strength on the part of the attack.

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, twist, and at stomach, thrust; 2. Number two, low parry, left; 3. ASSAULT. (84)

FEINTS

796. Feints are movements which threaten or simulate attacks and are made with a view to inducing an opening or parry that exposes the desired point of attack. They are either single or double, according to the number of such movements made by the attack. (85)

797. In order that the attack may be changed quickly, as little force as possible is put into a feint.

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, feint head thrust at stomach, lunge; 2. Number two, parry right and low parry right; 3. ASSAULT.

Number one executes the feint and then the attack. Number two executes both parries. (86)

798. In double feints first one part of the body and then another is threatened and a third attacked.

Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, feint straight thrust at chest; disengagement at chest; at stomach, lunge; 2. Number two, parry right, parry left, and low parry left; 3. ASSAULT. (87)

799. An opening may be offered or procured by opposition, as in the press or beat. (88)

800. In fencing exercises every feint should at first be parried. When the defense is able to judge or divine the character of the attack the feint is not necessarily parried, but may be nullified by a counter feint. (89)

801. A counter feint is a feint following the opponent's feint or following a parry of his attack and generally occurs in combined movements. (90)

COMBINED MOVEMENTS

802. When the men have become thoroughly familiar with the various foot movements, parries, guards, attacks, feints, etc., the instructor combines several of them and gives the commands in quick succession, increasing the rapidity and number of movements as the men become more skillful. Opponents will be changed frequently.

1. Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, by disengagement at chest, thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, right step (left foot first), and lunge; 3. ASSAULT.

2. Example: Being at engage left, 1. Number one, press and lunge; 2. Number two, parry right, left step, and thrust; 3. ASSAULT.

3. Example: Being at the engage, 1. Number one, by disengagement at chest, thrust; 2. Number two, parry left, front pass, and at head butt strike; 3. Number one, right step; 4. ASSAULT. (91)

803. Examples 1 and 2 are typical of movements known as cross counters, and example No. 3 of movements known as close counters. (92)

804. A chancery is an attack by means of which the opponent is disarmed, which causes him to lose control of his rifle, or which disables his weapon. (93)

805. When the different combinations are executed with sufficient skill the instructor will devise series of movements to be memorized and executed at the command assault. The accuracy and celerity of the movements will be carefully watched by the instructor, with a view to the correction of faulty execution. (94)

806. It is not intended to restrict the number of movements, but to leave to the discretion of company commanders and the ingenuity of instructors the selection of such other exercises as accord with the object of the drill. (95)

VII. FENCING AT WILL

807. As satisfactory progress is made the instructor will proceed to the exercises at will, by which is meant assaults between two men, each endeavoring to hit the other and to avoid being hit himself. Fencing at will should not be allowed to degenerate into random attacks and defenses. (96)

808. The instructor can supervise but one pair of combatants at a time. Frequent changes should be made so that the men may learn different methods of attack and defense from each other. (97)

809. The contest should begin with simple, careful movements, with a view to forming a correct opinion of the adversary; afterwards everything will depend on coolness, rapid and correct execution of the movements and quick perception of the adversary's intentions. (98)

810. Continual retreat from the adversary's attack and frequent dodging to escape attacks should be avoided. The offensive should be continually encouraged. (99)

811. In fencing at will, when no commands are given, opponents facing each other at the position of order arms, salute. They then immediately and simultaneously assume the position of guard, rifles engaged. Neither man may take the position of guard before his opponent has completed his salute. The choice of position is decided before the salute. (100)

812. The opponents being about two paces apart and the fencing salute having been rendered, the instructor commands, 1. At will, 2. ASSAULT, after which either party has the right to attack. To interrupt the contest the instructor will command HALT, at which the combatants will immediately come to the order. To terminate the contest the instructor will command, 1. Halt, 2. SALUTE, at which the combatants will immediately come to the order, salute, and remove their masks. (101)

813. When men have acquired confidence in fencing at will, one opponent should be required to advance upon the other in quick time at charge bayonet, from a distance not to exceed 10 yards, and deliver an attack. As soon as a hit is made by either opponent the instructor commands, HALT, and the assault terminates. Opponents alternate in assaulting. The assailant is likewise required to advance at double time from a distance not exceeding 20 yards and at a run from a distance not exceeding 30 yards. (102)

814. The instructor will closely observe the contest and decide doubtful points. He will at once stop the contest upon the slightest indication of temper. After conclusion of the combat he will comment on the action of both parties, point out errors and deficiencies and explain how they may be avoided in the future. (103)



815. As additional instruction, the men may be permitted to wield the rifle left handed, that is on the left side of the body, left hand at the small of the stock. Many men will be able to use this method to advantage. It is also of value in case the left hand is wounded. (104)

816. After men have fenced in pairs, practice should be given in fencing between groups, equally and unequally divided. When practicable, intrenchments will be used in fencing of this character.

In group fencing it will be necessary to have a sufficient number of umpires to decide hits. An individual receiving a hit is withdrawn at once from the bout, which is decided in favor of the group having the numerical superiority at the end. The fencing salute is not required in group fencing. (105)

RULES FOR FENCING AT WILL

817. 1. Hits on the legs below the knees will not be counted. No hit counts unless, in the opinion of the instructor, it has sufficient force to disable.

2. Upon receiving a hit, call out "hit."

3. After receiving a fair hit a counter-attack is not permitted. A position of engage is taken.

4. A second or third hit in a combined attack will be counted only when the first hit was not called.

5. When it is necessary to stop the contest—for example, because of breaking of weapons or displacement of means of protection—take the position of the order.

6. When it is necessary to suspend the assault for any cause, it will not be resumed until the adversary is ready and in condition to defend himself.

7. Attacks directed at the crotch are prohibited in fencing.

8. Stepping out of bounds, when established, counts as a hit. (106)

SUGGESTIONS FOR FENCING AT WILL

818. When engaging in an assault, first study the adversary's position and proceed by false attacks, executed with speed, to discover, if possible, his instinctive parries. In order to draw the adversary out and induce him to expose that part of the body at which the attack is to be made, it is advisable to simulate an attack by a feint and then make the real attack. (107)

819. Return attacks should be frequently practiced, as they are difficult to parry, and the opponent is within easier reach and more exposed. The return can be made a continuation of the parry, as there is no previous warning of its delivery, although it should always be expected. Returns are made without lunging if the adversary can be reached by thrusts or cuts. (108)

820. Endeavor to overcome the tendency to make a return without knowing where it will hit. Making returns blindly is a bad habit and leads to instinctive returns—that is, habitual returns with certain attacks from certain parries—a fault which the skilled opponent will soon discover. (109)

821. Do not draw the rifle back preparatory to thrusting and lunging (110)

822. The purpose of fencing at will is to teach the soldier as many forms of simple, effective attacks and defenses as possible. Complicated and intricate movements should not be attempted. (111)

HINTS FOR INSTRUCTORS

823. The influence of the instructor is great. He must be master of his weapon, not only to show the various movements, but also to lead in the exercises at will. He should stimulate the zeal of the men and arouse pleasure in the work. Officers should qualify themselves as instructors by fencing with each other. (112)

LESSONS OF THE EUROPEAN WAR

824. Modification of our system of bayonet combat suggested. The above gives, in toto, the system of bayonet exercises and combat at present prescribed by the War Department in the Manual of the Bayonet. However, the use of the bayonet in the present European war, which has given that weapon an importance and prominence heretofore unheard of, suggests, as indicated below, certain modifications of our system.

(a) Attack not to be directed against chest. The attack should be directed at the adversary's neck or stomach, and not against his chest; for, if the bayonet is driven into the chest, there will probably be difficulty in withdrawing it, and while your bayonet is being so held, imbedded in your adversary's chest, you are at the mercy of any other enemy soldier free to strike you.

(b) Melee on parapet. When the first wave of an attacking line reaches the enemy's trench, it is usually met outside the trench, the melee taking place on the parapet, and fortunate is the man who is skilled in handling his bayonet. Such a man has a much greater chance to live through the melee than the one who is not skillful in using his bayonet. In the excitement and confusion of this melee the greatest possible care must be taken not to stab some of your own men in the back.

(c) Position of feet. The British have been teaching their men to keep both feet pointing toward the enemy instead of having the right foot turned to the right, as in our system. Note the position of the feet in Figs. 15-18.

(d) The "Short point" (or "Short thrust") and the "Jab." There are two attacks used by European troops which we might learn with profit. They are the "Short point" (or "Short thrust") and the "Jab."

POSITION OF GUARD



(e) The short point (or short thrust). The short point (or short thrust) is taken from the position of guard (Fig. 14), by slipping the left hand up to the grip of the bayonet, grasping it and the barrel, as shown in this figure:



The rifle is then drawn back to the fullest extent of the right arm, thus:



and a vigorous thrust is made at the objective (Fig. 15), immediately after which the bayonet is withdrawn vigorously, the left hand relaxed and the position of guard (Fig. 14) is resumed by pushing the rifle smartly forward until the left hand is in its proper place.

It should be practiced on sand bags or other targets in positions at the height of the rifle, above it and below it.

(f) The jab. The jab is taken from the first position of the "Short point" (Fig. 15), by slipping the right hand up to the left as the rifle is drawn back to make the "Short thrust" (Fig. 17).



Then make a vigorous upward thrust (Fig. 18) which should be aimed at the adversary's throat.



This may be practiced combined with the short thrust or the ordinary thrust. It may also be practiced with a run toward the target. It is a useful attack at close quarters.

(g) The butt. The rifle butt is used with great effect at close quarters, the blows being directed against an adversary's jaw or in the region of the heart.

(h) Tripping adversary. The men are taught how to trip up an enemy and how to use their knees in throwing their opponents off their balance.

(i) Withdrawing the bayonet. After driving the bayonet into an opponent, then the first consideration is to get it out of his body. This may be done by slipping the left hand up to the bayonet grip and exerting a vigorous pull, which is immediately followed by a return to the position of guard.

(j) Points in training. In the first stages of training, special attention is paid to a firm grip and proper handling of arms; then the greatest attention is given to "direction" when thrusting, lunging, and parrying.

Until these essentials have been thoroughly mastered, quickness should not be insisted upon.

Confidence comes after continued practice, and quickness and vigor will come with confidence.

After the men are taught to make all the attacks as individuals they should be given practice in them as groups.

Sandbags with discs marked on them to provide targets are used in instructing the British armies.

These bags are suspended from trees or trestles, or are put into trenches or pits, and are also placed on the ground.

An excellent scheme is used in teaching the men what the shock of a charge is like. The men are divided into two or more groups and are equipped with fencing outfits. One group is designated as the defense and is placed in trenches. The other groups are the attackers. They may be sent forward in waves or in one line. To make their advance more realistic they have to get over or around obstacles. To take in all phases the attackers are made stronger than the defense and the defense retires—whereupon the attackers endeavor to disable them by thrusting at the kidneys. Likewise the defense is made strong enough to drive off the offense.

In the charge the men are taught to run at the "High Port" (the rifle is held as in "Port arms," but is carried well above the head). The rifle is brought down to guard just before the enemy is met.

APPENDIX D

SEPTEMBER 15, 1917

INFANTRY DRILL REGULATIONS, 1911.

Paragraphs 120, 143, 146, 185, 187, 189, 194, 646, Infantry Drill Regulations, 1911, apply only to troops armed with the United States rifle, Model 1903. For troops armed with the United States rifle, Model 1917 (Enfield), the alternative paragraphs published herewith will govern.

By order of the Secretary of War:

120. The following rules govern the carrying of the piece:

First. The piece is not carried with cartridges in either the chamber or the magazine except when especially ordered. When so loaded, or supposed to be loaded, it is habitually carried locked; that is, with safety lock turned to the "Safe." At all other times it is carried unlocked, with the trigger pulled.

Second. Whenever troops are formed under arms, pieces are immediately inspected at the commands: 1. INSPECTION, 2. ARMS, 3. ORDER (Right shoulder port), 4. ARMS.

A similar inspection is made immediately before dismissal.

If cartridges are found in the chamber or magazine they are removed and placed in the belt.

Third. The bayonet is not fixed except in bayonet exercise, on guard, or for combat.

Fourth. Fall in is executed with the piece at the order arms. Fall out, rest, and at ease are executed as without arms. On resuming attention the position of order arms is taken.

Fifth. If at the order, unless otherwise prescribed, the piece is brought to the right shoulder, at the command MARCH, the three motions corresponding with the first three steps. Movements may be executed at the trail by prefacing the preparatory command with the words at trail; as 1. AT TRAIL, FORWARD, 2. MARCH. The trail is taken at the command MARCH.

When the facings, alignments, open and close ranks, taking interval or distance, and assemblings are executed from the order, raise the piece to the trail while in motion and resume the order on halting.

Sixth. The piece is brought to the order on halting. The execution of the order begins when the halt is completed.

Seventh. A disengaged hand in double time is held as when without arms.

143. Being at order arms: 1. UNFIX, 2. BAYONET.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the belt: Execute parade rest; grasp the handle of the bayonet firmly with the right hand, pressing the spring with the forefinger of the left hand; raise the bayonet until the handle is about 12 inches above the muzzle of the piece; the point to the left, back of the hand toward the body, and glancing at the scabbard, return the bayonet, the blade passing between the left arm and the body; regrasp the piece with the right hand and resume the order.

If the bayonet scabbard is carried on the haversack: Take the bayonet from the rifle with the left hand and return it to the scabbard in the most convenient manner.

If marching or lying down, the bayonet is fixed and unfixed in the most expeditious and convenient manner and the piece returned to the original position.

Fix and unfix bayonet are executed with promptness and regularity, but not in cadence.

146. Being at inspection arms: 1. ORDER (Right shoulder, port), 2. ARMS.

At the preparatory command press the follower down with the fingers of the left hand, then push the bolt forward just enough to engage the follower, raise the fingers of the left hand, push the bolt forward, turn the handle down, pull the trigger, and resume port arms. At the command ARMS, complete the movement ordered.

To Load

185. Being in line or skirmish line at halt: 1. WITH DUMMY (Blank or ball) CARTRIDGES, 2. LOAD.

At the command load each front rank man or skirmisher faces half right and carries the right foot to the right, about 1 foot, to such a position as will insure the greatest firmness and steadiness of the body; raises or lowers the piece and drops it into the left hand at the balance, left thumb extended along the stock and muzzle at the height of the breast. With the right hand he turns and draws the bolt back, takes a loaded clip and inserts the end in the clip slots, places the thumb on the powder space at the top cartridge, the fingers extending around the piece and tips resting on the magazine floor plate; forces the cartridges into the magazine by pressing down with the thumb; without removing the clip, thrusts the bolt home, turning down the handle; turns the safety lock to the "Safe" and carries the hand to the small of the stock. Each rear rank man moves to the right front, takes a similar position opposite the interval to the right of his front rank man, muzzle of the piece extending beyond the front rank, and loads.

A skirmish line may load while moving, the pieces being held as nearly as practicable in the position of load.

If kneeling or sitting, the position of the piece is similar; if kneeling, the left forearm rests on the left thigh; if sitting, the elbows are supported by the knees. If lying down, the left hand steadies and supports the piece at the balance, the toe of the butt resting on the ground, the muzzle off the ground.

For reference, these positions (standing, kneeling, and lying down) are designated as that of load.

186. For purposes of simulating firing, 1. SIMULATE, 2. LOAD, raise the bolt handle as in the preceding paragraph, draw the bolt back until the cocking piece engages, then close the bolt, and turn the bolt handle down.

The recruits are first taught to simulate loading and firing; after a few lessons dummy cartridges are used. Later, blank cartridges may be used.

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