Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition
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Such means are used very frequently in rapid sketching, on account of the time that they save.

By reference to the map of Fort Leavenworth, the meaning of all its symbols is at once evident from the names printed thereon; for example, that of a city, woods, roads, streams, railroad, etc.; where no Conventional Sign is used on any area, it is to be understood that any growths thereon are not high enough to furnish any cover. As an exercise, pick out from the map the following conventional signs: Unimproved road, cemetery, railroad track, hedge, wire fence, orchard, streams, lake. The numbers on the various road crossings have no equivalent on the ground, but are placed on the maps to facilitate description of routes, etc. Often the numbers at road crossings on other maps denote the elevation of these points.

Visibility

1875. The problem of visibility is based on the relations of contours and map distances previously discussed, and includes such matters as the determination of whether a point can or can not be seen from another; whether a certain line of march is concealed from the enemy; whether a particular area is seen from a given point.

On account of the necessary inaccuracy of all maps it is impossible to determine exactly how much ground is visible from any given point—that is, if a correct reading of the map shows a certain point to be just barely visible, then it would be unsafe to say positively that on the ground this point could be seen or could not be seen. It is, however, of great importance for one to be able to determine at a glance, within about one contour interval, whether or not such and such a point is visible; or whether a given road is generally visible to a certain scout, etc. For this reason no effort is made to give an exact mathematical solution of problems in visibility further than would be useful in practical work with a map in the solution of map problems in patrolling.

In the solution of visibility problems, it is necessary that one should thoroughly understand the meaning of profiles and their construction. A profile is the line supposed to be cut from the surface of the earth by an imaginary vertical (up and down) plane. (See Fig. 21.) The representation of this line to scale on a sheet of paper is also called a profile. Figure 21 shows a profile on the line D—y (Figure 20) in which the horizontal scale is the same as that of the map (Figure 20) and the vertical scale is 1 inch = 40 feet. It is customary to draw a profile with a greater vertical than horizontal scale in order to make the slopes on the profile appear to the eye as they exist on the ground. Consequently, always note especially the vertical scale in examining any profile; the horizontal scale is usually that of the map from which the profile is taken.

A profile is constructed as follows: (Fig. 21): Draw a line D'—y' equal in length to D—y on the map. Lay off on this line from D' distances equal to the distances of the successive contours from D on the map. At each of these contour points erect a perpendicular equal to the elevation of this particular contour, as shown by the vertical scale (960, 940, 920, etc.) on the left. Join successively these verticals by a smooth curve, which is the required profile. Cross section paper with lines printed 1/10 inch apart horizontally and vertically simplifies the work of construction, by avoiding the necessity of laying off each individual distance.

1876. Visibility Problem. To determine whether an observer with his eye at D can see the bridge at XX (Figure 20). By examining the profile it is seen that an observer, with his eye at D, looking along the line D—XX, can see the ground as far as (a) from (a) to (b), is hidden from view by the ridge at (a); (b) to (c) is visible; (c) to (d) is hidden by the ridge at (c). By thus drawing the profiles, the visibility of any point from a given point may be determined. The work may be much shortened by drawing the profile of only the observer's position (D) of the point in question, and of the probable obstructing points (a) and (c). It is evidently unnecessary to construct the profile from D to x, because the slope being concave shows that it does not form an obstruction.

The above method of determining visibility by means of a profile is valuable practice for learning slopes of ground, and the forms of the ground corresponding to different contour spacings.

Visibility of Areas

1877. To determine the area visible from a given point the same method is used. First mark off as invisible all areas hidden by woods, buildings, high hills, and then test the doubtful points along lines such as D—XX, Figure 20. With practice the noncommissioned officer can soon decide by inspection all except the very close cases.

This method is a rapid approximation of the solution shown in the profile. In general it will not be practicable to determine the visibility of a point by this method closer than to say the line of sight pierces the ground between two adjoining contours.

CHAPTER II

MILITARY SKETCHING

(While this chapter presents the principal features of military sketching in a simple, clear manner, attention is invited to the fact that the only way that any one who has never done any sketching can follow properly the statements made, is to do so with the instruments and the sketching material mentioned at hand. In fact, the only way to learn how to sketch is to sketch.)

1878. A military sketch is a rough map showing the features of the ground that are of military value.

Military sketching is the art of making such a military sketch.

Military sketches are of three kinds:

Position sketches, Fig. 1;

Outpost sketches;

All kinds of military sketches are intended to give a military commander detailed information of the ground to be operated over, when this is not given by the existing maps, or when there are no maps of the area.

The general methods of sketching are:

(1) The location of points by intersection.

(2) The location of points by resection.

1879. Location of points by intersection. To locate a point by intersection proceed as follows: Set up, level and orient the sketching board (Par. 1872), at A, Fig. 1. The board is said to be oriented when the needle is parallel to the sides of the compass trough of the drawing board, Fig 2. (At every station the needle must have this position, so that every line on the sketch will be parallel to the corresponding line or direction on the ground.) Assume a point (A) on the paper, Fig. 1 Y, in such a position that the ground to be sketched will fall on the sheet. Lay the ruler on the board and point it to the desired point (C), all the while keeping the edge of the ruler on the point (A), Fig. 1 Y. Draw an indefinite line along the edge. Now move to (B), Fig. 1 X, plotted on the map in (b), Fig. 1 X, and having set up, leveled and oriented as at (A), Fig. 1 Y, sight toward (C) as before. The intersection (crossing) of the two lines locates (C) on the sketch at (c), Fig. 1 X.

1880. Locating points by resection. A sketcher at an unknown point may locate himself from two visible known points by setting up and orienting his sketching board. He then places his alidade (ruler) so that it points at one of the known points, keeping the edge of the alidade touching the corresponding point on the sketch. He then draws a ray (line) from the point toward his eye. He repeats the performance with the other visible known point and its location on the map. The point where the rays intersect is his location. This method is called resection. However, local attractions for the compass greatly affect this method.

1881. The location of points by traversing. To locate a point by traversing is done as follows: With the board set up, leveled and oriented at A, Fig. 1 Y, as above, draw a line in the direction of the desired point B, Fig. 1 X, and then move to B, counting strides, keeping record of them with a tally register, Fig. 3, if one is available. Set up the board at B, Fig. 1 X, and orient it by laying the ruler along the line (a)-(b), Fig. 1 X, and moving the board until the ruler is directed toward A, Fig. 1 Y, on the ground; or else orient by the needle as at A. With the scale of the sketcher's strides on the ruler, lay off the number of strides found from A, Fig. 1 Y, to B, Fig. 1 X, and mark the point (b), Fig. 1 X. Other points, such as C, D, etc., would be located in the same way.

1882. The determination of the heights of hills, shapes of the ground, etc., by contours. To draw in contours on a sketch, the following steps are necessary:

(a) From the known or assumed elevation of a located station as A, Fig. 1 Y, (elevation 890), the elevations of all hill tops, stream junctures, stream sources, etc, are determined.

(b) Having found the elevations of these critical points the contours are put in by spacing them so as to show the slope of the ground along each line such as (a)-(b), (a)-(c), etc., Fig. 1 Y, as these slopes actually are on the ground.

To find the elevation of any point, say C (shown on sketch as c), proceed as follows:

Read the vertical angle with slope board, Fig. 2, or with a clinometer, Fig. 4. Suppose this is found to be 2 degrees; lay the scale of M. D.[22] (ruler, Fig. 2) along (a)-(c), Fig. 1 Y, and note the number of divisions of -2 degrees (minus 2 deg.) between (a) and (c). Suppose there are found to be 5-1/2 divisions; then, since each division is 10 feet, the total height of A above C is 55 feet (5-1/2 x 10). C is therefore 835 ft. elev. which is written at (c), Fig. 1 Y. Now looking at the ground along A-C, suppose you find it to be a very decided concave (hollowed out) slope, nearly flat at the bottom and steep at the top. There are to be placed in this space (a)-(c), Fig. 1 Y, contours 890, 880, 870, 860 and 850, and they would be spaced close at the top and far apart near (c), Fig. 1 Y, to give a true idea of the slope.

The above is the entire principle of contouring in making sketches and if thoroughly learned by careful repetition under different conditions, will enable the student to soon be able to carry the contours with the horizontal locations.

1883. In all maps that are to be contoured some plane, called the datum plane, must be used to which all contours are referred. This plane is usually mean sea level and the contours are numbered from this plane upward, all heights being elevations above mean sea level.

In a particular locality that is to be sketched there is generally some point the elevation of which is known. These points may be bench marks of a survey, elevation of a railroad station above sea level, etc. By using such points as the reference point for contours the proper elevations above sea level will be shown.

In case no point of known elevation is at hand the elevation of some point will have to be assumed and the contours referred to it.

Skill in contouring comes only with practice but by the use of expedients a fairly accurate contoured map can be made. In contouring an area the stream lines and ravines form a framework or skeleton on which the contours are hung more or less like a cobweb. These lines are accurately mapped and their slopes determined and the contours are then sketched in.

If the sketcher desires he may omit determining the slopes of the stream lines and instead determine the elevations of a number of critical points (points where the slope changes) in the area and then draw in the contours remembering that contours bulge downward on slopes and upward on streams lines and ravines.

If time permits both the slopes of the stream lines and the elevation of the critical points may be determined and the resulting sketch will gain in accuracy.

Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 show these methods of determining and sketching in contours.

1884. Form lines. It frequently happens that a sketch must be made very hastily and time will not permit of contouring. In this case form lines are used. These lines are exactly like contours except that the elevations and forms of the hills and depressions which they represent are estimated and the sketcher draws the form lines in to indicate the varying forms of the ground as he sees it.

1885. Scales. The Army Regulations prescribe a uniform system of scales and contour intervals for military maps, as follows:

Road sketches and extended positions; scale 3 inches to a mile, vertical (or contour) interval, 20 feet.

Position or outpost sketches; scale 6 inches to a mile, vertical (or contour) interval, 10 feet.

This uniform system is a great help in sketching as a given map distance, Par. 1867a, represents the same degree of slope for both the 3 inch to the mile or the 6 inch to the mile scale. The map distances once learned can be applied to a map of either scale and this is of great value in sketching.

Construction of Working Scales

1886. Working scale. A working scale is a scale used in making a map. It may be a scale for paces or strides or revolutions of a wheel.

1887. Length of pace. The length of a man's pace at a natural walk is about 30 inches, varying somewhat in different men. Each man must determine his own length of pace by walking several times over a known distance. In doing this be sure to take a natural pace. When you know your length of pace you merely count your paces in going over a distance and a simple multiplication of paces by length of pace gives your distance in inches.

In going up and down slopes one's pace varies. On level ground careful pacing will give you distances correct to within 3% or less.

The following tables give length of pace on slopes of 5 degrees to 30 degrees, corresponding to a normal pace on a level of 30.4 inches:

+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Slopes 0 deg. 5 deg. 10 deg. 15 deg. 20 deg. 25 deg. 30 deg. + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ Length of step ascending 30.4 27.6 24.4 22.1 19.7 17.8 15.0 Length of step descending 30.4 29.2 28.3 27.6 26.4 23.6 19.7 + -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+ -+

For the same person, the length of step decreases as he becomes tired. To overcome this, ascertain the length of pace when fresh and when tired and use the first scale in the morning and the latter in the afternoon.

The result of the shortening of the pace due to fatigue or going over a slope, is to make the map larger than it should be for a given scale. This is apparent when we consider that we take more paces in covering a given distance than we would were it on a horizontal plane and we were taking our normal pace.

In going up or down a slope of 3 or 4 we actually walk 5 units, but cover only 4 in a horizontal direction. Therefore, we must make allowance when pacing slopes.

In counting paces count each foot as it strikes. In counting strides count only 1 foot as it strikes. A stride is two paces.

In practice it has been found that the scale of strides is far more satisfactory than a scale of paces.

1888. How to make a scale of paces. Having determined the length of our pace, any one of the following three methods may be used in making a working scale:

1st method. The so-called "One thousand unit rule" method is as follows:

Multiply the R. F. (representative fraction) by the number of inches in the unit of measure multiplied by 1000; the result will be the length of line in inches necessary to show 1000 units.

For example, let us suppose that we desire a graphic scale showing 1000 yards, the scale of the map being 3 inches equal 1 mile:

Multiply 1/21120 (R. F.) by 36 (36 inches in 1 yard, the unit of measure) by 1000,—that is,

(1/21120) x 36 x 1000 = 36000/21120 = 1.7046 inches.

Therefore, a line or graphic scale 1.7 inches in length will represent 1000 yards.

If we desire a working scale of paces at 3 inches to the mile, and we have determined that our pace is 31 inches long, we would have (1/21120) x 31 x 1000 = 31000/21120 = 1.467 inches.

We can now lay off this distance and divide it into ten equal parts, and each will give us a 100-pace division.

2nd method. Lay off 100 yards; ascertain how many of your paces are necessary to cover this distance; multiply R. F. by 7,200,000, and divide by the number of paces you take in going 100 yards. The result will be the length of line in inches which will show 2000 of your paces.

3rd method. Construct a scale of convenient length, about 6 inches, as described in Par. 1863, to read in the units you intend to measure your distance with (your stride, pace, stride of a horse, etc.), to the scale on which you intend to make your sketch.

For example, suppose your stride is 66 inches long (33 inch pace) and you wish to make a sketch on a scale of 3 inches = 1 mile. The R. F. of this scale is 3 inches/1 mile = 3 inches/63360 inches = 1/21120. That is 1 inch on your sketch is to represent 21120 inches on the ground. As you intend to measure your ground distances by counting your strides of 66 inches length, 1 inch on the sketch will represent as many of your strides on the ground as 66 is contained into 21120 = 320 strides. For convenience in sketching you wish to make your scale about 6 inches long. Since 1 inch represents 320 strides, 6 inches will represent 6 x 320 = 1,920 strides. As this is an odd number, difficult to divide into convenient subdivisions of hundreds, fifties, etc., construct your scale to represent 2,000 strides, which will give it a length slightly in excess of 6 inches—6.25. Lay off this length and divide it into ten main divisions of 200 strides each, and subdivide these into 50 stride divisions as explained in Par. 1862.

1889. Position sketching. The following are the instruments used in position sketching:

1. Drawing board with attached compass (Fig. 2);

2. Loose ruler, on board (Fig. 2);

3. Rough tripod or camera tripod;

4. Scale of M. D.'s (shown on ruler, Fig. 2);

5. Scale of sketchers, strides or paces (at six inches to one mile), on ruler;

6. Clinometer (not necessary if board has slope board, Fig. 6);

7. Scale of hundreds of yards shown on ruler;

8. Scale of paces.

Methods to be used

(1) Select a base line,—that is, a central line 1/4 to 1/2 mile long in the area to be sketched. It should have at its ends some plainly marked objects, such as telegraph poles, trees, corners of buildings, etc., and from its ends, and intermediate points, a good view of the area should be possible. The base line selected should be capable of being measured.

(2) Set up, level and orient the drawing board at one end of the base (A), Fig. 1, Y, for example. Draw a meridian on the sheet parallel to the position of the magnetic needle. Assume a point (A), Fig. 1, Y, corresponding to the ground point (A), 890, on the sheet, in such a position that the area to be sketched will lie on the sheet.

(3) Sight at hilltops, stream junctures, stream heads, etc., to begin the locations of these points by intersection, labelling each ray so as to be able to identify it later.

(4) Traverse to (b) and complete the locations by intersection as previously explained. If the base line is not accurately measured, the map will be correct within itself in all of its proportions, but its scale will not necessarily be the scale desired.

(5) Draw the details of the country between A and B and in the vicinity of this line, using the conventional signs for roads, houses, etc.

(6) The lines from station (b), Fig. 1, X, to any of the other located points may now be used as a new base line to carry the work over additional area.

(7) In case parts of the area are not visible from a base line, these parts are located by traversing as before explained.

(8) Having learned by several repetitions the above steps, the sketcher will then combine contouring with his horizontal locations.

1890. Outpost sketching. The same instruments are used as in position sketching, and so are the methods the same, except that the sketcher cannot advance beyond the outpost line, toward the supposed position of the enemy. It is often possible to select a measurable base line well in rear of the line of observation,—for instance, along the line of resistance. Secondary base lines may then be taken on or near the line of observation, from the extremities of which additional base lines may be selected, if necessary, and points toward the enemy's position located by intersection. Details are sketched in as in position sketching. For obvious reasons, no traversing should be done along the line of observation.

1891. Road sketching. The following are the instruments used in road sketching:

1. Drawing board or sketching case;

2. Loose ruler;

3. Scale of strides, or paces, if made dismounted; scale of time trotting or walking, if mounted;

4. Scale of hundreds of yards, at three inches to 1 mile;

5. Scale of M. D.'s;

6. Slope board (if clinometer is not available).

Methods to be used

(1) At station 1, Fig. 10, orient the board as described in par. 1872, holding the board in the hands, in front of the body of the sketcher, who faces toward station 2.

(2) Important points in the vicinity, such as the railroad bridge, the stream juncture, hilltops, are sighted for intersections, lines drawn as shown and the sketcher traverses to station 2.

(3) At station 2 he locates and draws in all details between station 1 and 2, to include about 300 yards on each side of the road.

(4) The traverse is then continued forward as described for 1 and 2.

(5) After some practice of horizontal sketching, as just described, the sketcher will be able to take up contouring in combination. The methods are as described in the paragraph on contouring.

(6) When the traverse runs off the paper as at A, Fig. 10, the following method is followed: Reorient the board so that the road forward will lie across the long dimensions of the paper; draw a meridian parallel to the compass needle and assume a point on the new sheet corresponding to the last point (A) plotted on the first sheet.

(7) On completion of the sketch various sections will be pasted together, so that all the meridians are parallel.

1892. Combined sketching. Let us suppose that we have the rectangle W, X, Y, Z, Fig. 11, assigned to us to map and that we have been given four sketching parties, and that the locations and elevations of A and B have been previously determined by triangulation and are plotted to scale on our rectangle.

A logical step would be to carefully plot the line a' b', and then the lines c' c" and c" d.

If the area is densely wooded we run "line of level" by using the slope board or clinometer and by taking elevations at points arbitrarily selected. Our lines will look something like this:

Each party will be given its rectangle with the traverses sketched in. They will each then run similar traverses over the other two sides of their area and then fill in. In this manner the whole work is tied up to the original lines.

Another method

The line A B, Fig. 12, is carefully plotted. Each of the four sketching parties has two sketching groups. One group of party No. 1 traverses line a' Y; then the other group of the party traverses the line a" y'. The first group of party of No. 2 accompanies them. The second group of party No. 2 traverses the line c" d, accompanied by the first group of party No. 3; the second group of party No. 3, and the first group of party No. 4 traverse b" z', and the second group of party No. 4 traverses b' Z. When the first group of party No. 1 arrives at Y, it traverses Y y'. The second group of party No. 1, arriving at y', cuts the sheet along traverse and gives the first group of party No. 2 the part which shows their area; and then traverses toward Y from y'. Upon meeting the first group of party No. 1, they join forces and proceed to fill in their area.

In the same manner areas W X a' b' are filled in.

The method described above is useful in working over country which is densely wooded, and in which a general view cannot be obtained, for example, in mapping jungles.

An additional article of the sketcher's equipment is a holder for his pencils, alidade, eraser, knife, pins, etc. This consists of a series of small pockets sewed on to a piece of canvas about 7 inches by 4 inches. This can be attached to the left breast of the sketcher's coat or shirt by means of two pins. In addition to keeping all of his implements in a handy place the holder prevents the loss of the several articles. Nothing is so discouraging to the sketcher as to look for his pencil, eraser, knife or even alidade and find that he has left it several hundred yards back where he sat down last to sketch in details. By using the holder the sketcher gets into the habit of replacing articles after they are used and consequently always has them with him when needed. These holders ready made can be obtained from the Secretary, Army Service Schools at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

In sketching a good quality of paper should always be used as erasures will be frequent. A specially prepared paper that has the appearance of oiled paper can be obtained commercially and is excellent for sketching in damp weather. It has considerable resistance to rain. Sheets of celluloid prepared for sketching are invaluable in sketching in the rain. These are a part of the equipment of the case of sketching instruments supplied battalions in the regular army. These sheets may be procured at most any dealers.

Points for Beginners to Remember

1893. 1. Always keep your pencils sharpened and have an eraser handy. No one but an expert can sketch with a dull pencil.

2. Use hard pencils when learning to sketch—4H to 6H—and go over your work afterwards with a softer pencil—2H.

3. Do not try to put down on your sketch a mass of small details that are too small to be shown on the scale at which you are sketching. For example, if you are making a sketch on a scale of 3 inches = 1 mile, do not try to show each house in a row of houses; simply indicate that there is a row of houses, by putting down several distinct conventional signs for houses in a row; nor should you try to show every little "cut" through which the road may run. Only use about one sign to the inch of telegraph or telephone lines, for wire fences, etc.

4. When first practicing sketching only plot the route over which you walk, indicating it by a single line. When you can do this with facility, go back over one of these plotted routes and fill in the woods, houses, streams and the other large features.

5. The beginner should sketch the same ground several times over—at least three or four times. Practice alone will make perfect.

6. Always try to compare your finished sketch with an accurate map of the ground, if one is obtainable. Try to practice on ground of which you can obtain a map.

7. Make each course (the distance you go between points where the direction of your route changes) as long as possible.

8. Do not try to contour until you are expert at making a sketch showing all the flat details (roads, streams, woods, houses, etc.).

9. Never try to "sketch in" the contours until you have plotted the stream lines or the direction of the valleys, ravines, etc. The contours are fitted to or sketched around the drainage system; not the drainage system to the contours.

10. Always "size up" ground before you sketch it; that is, take a general view of it, noticing the drainage system (the direction in which the streams flow or ravines run), the prominent hills and ridges, the direction the roads run, etc.

11. Above all things, DON'T FAKE ANY PART OF YOUR MAP.

If the man using your map happens to strike the faked portion, he immediately condemns your whole map as incorrect. Every other part may be highly accurate, but your whole map is discredited because the user strikes the bad part first. You will naturally put little faith in the man who has told you something you know to be untrue. You will always suspect him. So it is with maps. Don't put down anything that you don't know to be correct. If any guess work is to be done, let the man using the map do it,—he knows that he is guessing and will be governed accordingly, but if you do the guessing, he doesn't know where the guessing begins and the accurate work leaves off. Don't fudge. Your name is on the map,—don't have any questionable work hitched up to your name.

FOOTNOTES:

[22] Sheets of working scales reading in paces, strides, minutes, etc, at a scale of 3 and 6 inches to the mile can be obtained at little cost from the Secretary, Army Service Schools, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas

INDEX

(The numbers refer to paragraphs)

A Par. No.

Abatis 1176

1. About, 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH 229

About, turning by mounted officer 74

Abstract of clothing 905

Abstract record of memorandum receipts 901

Adjutant, formation of battalion 307; 308

Adjutant of general officer, post of 73

ADVANCE BY RUSHES: Commands 259 Company as whole led by captain 260 Position, fire 293 When impossible for company to advance as a whole 258

ADVANCE GUARD: Commander with 542 Connecting files 584 Machine guns 553 Meeting engagement 542; 543

ADVANCE OF: Battalion acting as part of firing line 343 Company into an engagement 249-257 Firing line 346

ADVANCING: Improvised formations for 257 In succession of thin lines 255; 256 The attack 467; 471

Aerial mines 1200

Aides, post of 73

Aim, commands for 189

Aiming and sighting 1350

Aiming exercise 1368

Aiming point 1357

AIMING POINT: Announced before or after range 181 Designations, practice in repeating 201 Once designated not changed unless ordered 182 Use 284

ALIGNMENT: Battalion, rectifying 310; 312 Command of captains in battalion drill at command guide right (left) 301 Company 218 Definition 24 Deployed lines preserve general alignment 240 Dressing companies in formation of battalion in line 308 Placing left hand on hip 70 Position of captain and platoon leaders in prolongation 218 Position of captains in dressing companies in battalion drill 302 Preservation while marching 155 Rules for guides in close order 210; 211 Squad 154

AMMUNITION: Bandoleers 573 Combat train and major's responsibility for ammunition in belts 572 Destination of combat wagons when refilled 571 Expenditure of 432; 433 For company, husbanding and distribution 286 Issue before deployment of battalion 269 Issue upon deployment of battalion 331 Men not to be sent back from firing line for ammunition 574 Of dead and wounded 572 Rendezvous for each brigade 570 Replenishment of ammunition after engagement 575 Sent forward with reinforcements 574 Supply 360; 569-575 Thirty rounds in right pocket section 573

Amusement room 879

Appearance of objects in firing 1396

Appendices, Infantry Drill Regulations 696-710 and pp. 192 a b c d

Arm, disengaged, position at double time 121 (eighth)

Arm signals 92; 401

Arrangement of companies in battalion formation 297

Art of instruction on varied ground 933

Art of war, definition 943

ARTILLERY: Action of infantry in case enemy has powerful artillery 418 Change of target by infantry warranted in case of flanking fire against artillery 424 Communication with firing line 402 Covering deployment of artillery in meeting engagement 541 Deployment of troops when exposed to hostile artillery 463 Effect on deployed infantry usually unimportant 345 Infantry against 597-600 Infantry passing through deployed artillery 470 In pursuit 494 In withdrawal from action 546 Part played in pursuit 491; 494 Supported by infantry 434-437 Use against machine guns 555 Use in delaying action 533 Withdrawal of attacking troops covered by artillery 489

ARTILLERY SUPPORTS: Charged only with protection of artillery 605 Detailing of supports 602 Formation and location in action 604 Formation on march 603 Purpose 601

Asphyxiating gases 1194

Asphyxiation, first aid 1478

ASSEMBLE FROM: Deployment Battalion 326 Company 248 Squad 173 Distances 159 Intervals 157 Platoon or squad columns 254

Assembled skirmishers not while marching to rear 173

ASSEMBLY: Arm signals 92 Call 693 Point indicated by company flag 95

AS SKIRMISHERS: Action of squad leaders at preparatory command 237 Deployment squad 170 Deployment in oblique direction 245 Deployment to flank or rear 246 From a column of twos or files 244 From platoon or squad column 253 Guide right (left or center) (being in column of squads) 244 Guide right (left or center) (being in line) 243 Rules for deployment 236-247 To increase or decrease intervals 172

'As you were' 64

AT EASE: Applicable to any marching formation 233 Extended order executed at ease 55 (b) How executed 100 To march 233 With arms, executed as without arms 121 (fifth)

Athletic apparatus, company 880

ATTACK: Advancing 467-471 Battalion in 342-356 Company in 249-294 Deployment for 463-466 Enveloping 461; 462 Feint 502 Fire attack 258-261; 414-438 Flank 459-462 Fortifications 495-498 Frontal 457; 462 General principles 456-502 Holding attack 499-502 Machine guns 555 Opening fire 417 Pursuit 490-494 Range 344; 426 The charge 478-489 Unit, the battalion 342

ATTENTION: Command for 82 Drills at are disciplinary exercises 55 (a) Forced at first word of command note of bugle or whistle 82 From parade rest 138 From rest and at ease resumed at order 121 (fifth) From route step or at ease 233 Position of 99

At trail (command) 121 (sixth)

At will fire 190

Automatic alarms trenches 1192

Auxiliary aiming points 1431

B

Back Step (backward march) 115

Bacon can, care of 1308

Balance position of left hand 122 (first)

Ballistic qualities of rifle 1410

BAND: In reviews 623; 624 Post of 71; 72; 299

Bandoleers ammunition in to be used first 573

Base company in advancing by rushes 348

Base, definition 25

Base squad in deployment 236-329; 243-245

BATTALION COMMANDERS: Duty regarding reconnaissance 412-413 Equipped with different tone of whistle 83 Responsibility regarding ammunition 570 Signal to rear when ready to charge 480 See "Major" under "Battalion"

Battalion drill 300-363

Battalion inspection 650-654

Battalion staff officers, training in patrolling and reconnaissance 579

BATTLE: Integrity of squads in 151 Separated officers and others placing themselves under order of nearest higher commander 390; 391

Battlefields, bugle signals used on 90

Battle order 392

Battle sight 26; 1352 (c)

BAYONET: Charge in combat 356 Confidence in 485 Fixing 142 Habitually not fixed 121 (fourth) Order to fix in combat given by major 355-361 Position at charge 144 Unfixing 143 When fixed in combat 355; 361; 590

Beaten zone 1413

Bite of dog 1480

Bite of snake 1480

Blank cartridges, use 273

Bleeding, first aid 1481

Books and records, company 887-909

Bombs from air craft 1202

Bore of rifle, care 1322-1324; 1328; 1330

Bridges 1111-1125

BRIGADE: Commander, action in deployment 440 Review 628; 629

Broken bones 1483

Bruises, first aid 1487

Brush work, field engineering 1117

Bugle calls, explanation 692-695

BUGLE SIGNALS: Communication between firing line and rear 401 Those used on and off battlefields 90

Bunks, camping 1251

Burning clothes 1486

Burns, first aid 1485

By platoon (squad, etc.), from right (left) rush 259

"By the numbers" 122 (fifth)

By the right (left) flank, how executed 117

By the right (left) flank in forming skirmish line 237

C

CADENCE OF: Manual of arms 122 (fourth) Marching 108

CALLS: Alarm 694 Formation 693 Service 695 Warning 692

CAMPS: Camping on fordable stream 1237 Desirable sites 1231 Form and dimensions of camps 1233 Making camp 1234 Making tent poles and pegs fast in loose soil 1239 Parade ground 1236 Retreat in camp 1235 Sanitation. See "Camp Sanitation" Selection of site 1230 Trees in camp 1240 Undesirable sites 1232 Windstorms 1238 See "Camp Sanitation"

CAMP SANITATION: Avoiding old camp sites 1249 Bunks 1251 Camp expedients 1242 Canteen, care 1311 Changing camp site 1250 Definition 1241 Drainage 1248 Incinerators 1247 Kitchens 1245 Kitchen pits 1246 Latrines 1243 Rules of sanitation 1254 Urinal tubs 1244 Water 1253 Wood 1252 Your camp, your home 1255

CAPTAIN: Directs the fire 285; 286 Duties, etc. 868; 871 Indicates point on which base squad marches in deployment 238 Leads depleted company as platoon 209 Leads company as whole in rushes 260 Position at alignment 218; 302 Post during firings 269; 306 Responsible for instruction 202

CARE OF: Clothing 1277 Equipment 1276 Feet 1229 Rifle 1321 Shoes 1292

Cartridges not to be carried in piece 121 (first)

Cased colors, defined 659

Cat and mouse contest 1089

CAVALRY: Infantry against 591-596 In pursuit 494 In withdrawal from action 546 Patrols 411

CEASE FIRING: Bugle signal for 90 How executed 194 Krag rifle 705

Center company, defined 298

Center, definition 27

Center of impact 1412

CEREMONIES: Battalion parade 636 Battalion review 631 Escorts of— Funeral 640-645 Honor 639 The Color 637-639 Formation of battalion 308 General rules 614-616 Mounted enlisted men formed into detachment 76 Parades, general rules 634; 635 Post of dismounted noncommissioned staff officers 77 Reviews, general rules 617-630

Ceremonies and drills at attention teach precision, etc. 55 (a)

CHALLENGING ON: Guard 1746 Outpost 1103

Chancroid 1466

Change elevation; signal for 92

CHANGE OF DIRECTION: Battalion 317-319 Company 219; 223; 224 Partial 67 Squad 164; 165

Change step, how executed 119

CHARGE, THE: Additional force for pursuit 483 Avoiding too dense a mass 481 Battalion commanders signal commanders of line when ready to charge 480 Bayonet, confidence in ability to use 485 Charging without authority from rear 484 Counter attack, preparations to meet 487 Fire superiority, what it accomplishes 478 Line to be strengthened by prolongations 482 Not to be made without sufficient troops 481 Premature charges to be avoided 484 Psychological moment for charge determined by tactical instinct 478 Pursuing fire 486 Pursuing troops 487 Pursuit, disordered units not to participate in 486 Reorganization of charging line 487 Reserves give impetus to charge 481 Steps to be taken in case of temporary set back 488 Steps to be taken if attack is abandoned 489 Strength of charging line 449 To be made simultaneously 480 To be made with approval of commander of attacking line 480 When and distance over which charge should be made 479 Without fire preparation 497

Charge bayonet 144

Charges, preferring 882

Cheerfulness, factor in training 930

Cheveaux de frise 1179; 1189

Chiggers 1488

Choking, first aid 1489

"Chop-chop" signal 863

Clap 1466

Classes of firing 278-280

Clearness in instruction 922

CLIP FIRE: How executed 192 Krag rifle 704 Use 280

Clock system of target designation 1446; 1447

Clock system of wind designation 1391

Close on first (fourth) company 320

CLOSE ORDER: Advantage of formation 539 Battalion 300; 326 Company 210 Double rank, habitual formation 70 Firings in 269 Necessity for 379

Close packs 648

Close range 275

Close ranks 648

Cloth equipment, care 1301

Clothing, care of 1277

Cohesion and order in combat 376

Cold, effect on shooting 1397

COLOR: Escort of 637; 638 Manual of 670 Receiving 667-669 Regimental saluting 622 Saluting in reviews 618 With reserve in battle 665 See "The Color"

COLOR COMPANY: Defined 663 Receiving the colors 668

COLOR GUARD: Carrying of color 661 Composition 661 Escorting color to office or quarters of colonel 670 Formation and marching 662 In battle joins reserve 665 Loadings and firings 666 Manual of the color 670 Manual of arms 660 Movements executed 666 Post in various formations 664 Receiving the color 667-669 Remains with color company 663

Colors and standards 1575

Column, definition 28

Column half right (left) 67

Columns of companies to form successively to right or left 315

Column of squads, first (fourth) company forward (from close line) 324

Column of squads, first (fourth) company, squads right (from close column) 323

Column of squads, habitual column of route 233; 276

Column of subdivisions, full distance defined 69

Column, rectifying (battalion) 312

Column, right (left) (battalion) 317; 319

Column, right (company) 224

COMBAT EXERCISES: Definition 55 (d) Effective method of conducting 371 Explained 1408 To be conducted under assumed tactical situations 370 To be followed by brief drill at attention 55 (d)

Combat, modern, demands upon infantry 365

Combats offering no chance of valuable results to be avoided 374

Combat patrols to protect flanks of company acting alone 268

Combat practice 1404

COMBAT PRINCIPLES: Battalion 327 Summary 550

Combat reconnaissance 403

Combat tactics, general 364

Combined sights 1430

Combined sketching 1892

Commander of the guard 1603

Commanding officer accountable for training 51

Commanding officer, guard duty 1591

COMMANDS: Battalion and higher commanders repeat commands of superiors 88 Battalion largest unit executing movement at command of its commander 88 Definition 86 Facing troops and avoiding indifference when giving commands 89 For guides, repeated by captains at battalion drill 301 How given 86; 89 Loading and firing 179 Of executions 87 Preparatory 57; 87 Repetition by: Battalion and higher commanders 88 Captains at battalion drill 300 Leaders of subdivisions when necessary 83 Platoon leaders and platoon drill 214 Use in battalion combat 328 When used 80

Commander's post in fight 383

Commence firing, bugle signal for 90

Common tents 688; 690

Communication between firing line and reserve 96

Communicating trenches 1157

Communication, how maintained, etc. 398-402

Communication in fire control and direction 1447 (b)

COMPANY: Abstract of clothing 905 Abstract record of memorandum receipts 901 Acting alone 267; 268 Arrangement in battalion formation 297; 614 Arrangement of men according to height 203 Athletic apparatus 880 Base 329-348 Books and records 887-909 Captain, duties etc. 868; 871 Center 298 Certain movements executed by company and platoons as prescribed in school of the Soldier and the squad 208 Close order drill 210 Column right (being in column of squads) 224 Companies to be consolidated to provide war strength organizations 55 (a) Company attention, from route step or at ease 233 Company fund book 892 Company return 908 Company musicians carry company flags 402 Company right 219 Complete equipment carried into action 382 Completion of task, rejoining command after 390 Contentment and harmony 877 Correspondence book 893 Delinquency record 895 Depleted company led as platoon 209 Deployment as skirmishers 241; 243; 244 Deployment in oblique direction 245 Descriptive card of animals 898 Descriptive list 897 Designation in battalion formation 297 Devolution of work and responsibility 869 Division into platoons 204 Division into squads 205 Document file 894 Dressing 218 Drill 202 Duty roster 890 Establishing outpost 1080 Extended order drill 236 Files of orders 891 First Sergeant duties 873 First sergeant's report when company is formed 215 Flags 94; 95; 401 Formations in single rank 216 Formed in double rank 203 Forms of company punishment 883 Half right 67; 219 Inspection 646-649 Inspections, object of 88 Instruction. See "Training and instruction" In support 262-266 Largest unit executing extended order 55 (b); 328 Library and amusement room 879 Lieutenants, duties, etc. 870; 871 Lieutenants taking post when company is formed 215 Memorandum receipts 900 Mess 878 Morning report 888 Muster 655-657 Noncommissioned officers 874 Noncommissioned officers confining enlisted men 875 Paperwork 887 Platoons, assignment 206 Platoons, designation 205 Property responsibility 886; 896 Protection against surprise 268 Punishment 882 Ration return 909 Record of rifles 902 Record of size of clothing 906 Reduction and resignation of noncommissioned officers 876 Retained copies of rolls, etc. 899 Rewards and privileges 881 Right 219 School of 210-294 Sick report 889 Squads designation 205 Statement of clothing charged to enlisted men 904 Summary Court records 903 Target records 907 To be kept closed in on center on firing line 354 To dismiss 217 To form 215-216 Training. See "Training and instruction" Treatment of soldiers 872 Trials by court martial 882 Withholding privileges 884

Compass, points of 1084

Complaints to captain 1528

COMPLICATED MANEUVERS: Impracticable 365 To be avoided 375

Compliments from guards 1782

Compliments not paid on marches 1227

Composition of infantry and other units 1858

Concealment and dodging, training in 1087

Condiment can, care 1309

Cone of fire or dispersion 1411

Conical wall tent 689

Connecting Files at night 584

Consolidation of organizations to provide war strength 55 (d)

Contentment and harmony in company 877

Contentment, factor in training 931

Contours 1882; 1866

Cooking individual 1256

Contract 249; 403-413

Conventional signs 1874

Cooeperation between frontal and enveloping attacks 462

Cooeperation of subordinates 387

Corduroying 1116

Corporal of the Guard 1666

Correction of errors, staying of execution of movements for 63-64

Correspondence book 893

COUNTER ATTACK: Battalion 363 General principles 525-530 Preparations 487

Countermining 1211

Countersigns and paroles 1769

Counting off 153; 203

Courage 927

COVER: Skirmishers take advantage of, on halting 240 Use 195-199; 420 Training in use of 939

Covering fire, rushes made under 349

Cover trenches 1155

Crawling, advance of firing line 261

Cup, care 1310

"Cut off" habitually turned off 218 (third)

Cuts, first aid, 1490

Courtesy. See "Military courtesy"

D

Daily sick report 889

Datum plane 1883

Decreasing intervals 247

DEFENSE: Action when target disappears 294 Active defense 527 Battalion on 357 Counter attack: Communicating and cover trenches head cover, etc., construction 505 Cover, utilization 504 Importance of counter-attack 527 Manner of making 529 Minor 530 Post of troops 528 Delaying action: Important considerations 531 Purposes of support and reserve 532 Thin firing line to be used 532 Value of artillery 533 Deployment: Advance posts and other dispersion to be avoided 520 Assignment of front to units 516 Battalions to be kept intact 518 Dead space to be covered by adjoining section or machine guns 519 Density 509; 510 Division of positions into sections 517 Fire alone unable to stop attack; use of bayonet 522 Night attack, steps to be taken if expected 523 Position not to be fully occupied until infantry attack begins 521 Reserve, detaching part of, to protect opposite flank 515 Reserve posts 513; 514 Sections, divisions of positions into 517 Size of units occupying sections 518 Short range fire and bayonet in night attack 524 Strength in rear to be increased when change from defensive to offensive is contemplated 511 Supports, post and cover 512 Dummy trenches 506 Field works: Construction 504 Location, extent, garrison, etc. 507 Machine guns 556; 566 Obstacles, construction 504 Opening fire 360; 418 Passive 525 Position and intrenchments 503-508 Requisites of defensive position 503 Trenches, outlining trace in combat exercises 508

Deflection 1384

Deflection and elevation connection drills 1383

Deliberate intrenchments 1147

Delinquency record 895

Delivery of messages 958; 1530

Density of firing line 446-453; 532

Deploy, definition 29

Deployed line, faces to front and takes advantage of cover on halting 239

Deployed lines, alignment 239

DEPLOYMENT: Action of brigade and regimental commanders in deployment of division 440 As skirmishes 65; 92; 170; 239-246 Battalion, depth of 334 Battalions furnish firing lines and support 455 Company, rules for 236 Companies and detachments taking their places 334 Dense, well directed and controlled fire gives fire superiority 446 Density of charging line 449 Density of one man per yard 447 Density of whole deployment varies with size of command 451 Division of battle line into battle districts 452 Each commander to guard his command against surprise 442 Extent of front occupied by unit depends upon security of flanks 453 For attack: Distance for hostile position at which deployment is made 463 Each unit to deploy on its own direction line 463 Foreground to be cleared of hostile detachments before deployment 463 Intervals between battalions 465 Moving well forward and deploying at night 464 Post of reserve 466 Reserve charged with flank protection 466 Formations of troops before and during 439 In defense. See "Deployment" under "Defense" In oblique direction 245 Length of firing line employed by whole force 449 Mechanism taught by extended order 55 (b) Occupation of only sections of long lines 447 Of squads when company is deployed 239 On wrong lines, avoided by reconnaissance 403 Orders for 392 Personal reconnaissance before deployment 441 Premature to be avoided 332; 443 Rectification of deployments in wrong direction 444 Reserves, how employed 455 Reserves furnished by units larger than battalion 441 Rules for 236-242 Side by side of regiments, battalions and companies 454 Strength of support and reserves 449; 450 Supports furnished by battalion 455 To flank or rear 246 Troops deployed vary from 1 to 10 men per yard 450 Use of thin firing lines 448 When made 463

Deportment, military 1523

Depth, definition 30

Descriptive card of animals 898

Descriptive list 897

DESIGNATION OF: Companies in battalion formation 298 Squads and platoons 205

Designation of targets 1445-1147 a

Designation of winds 1391

Details and roster of guards 1585

Details to be left to subordinates 384; 385

Determination, factor in warfare 924

Deviation from orders 388

Devolution of work and responsibility 869

Diarrhoea 1491

Diminish intervals 172

Directions given subordinates through immediate superiors 397

DISCIPLINE: Definition 910 General principles 916 Importance 912 Methods of attaining good discipline 911; 914 Punishment 915 Sound system 913

Disciplinary exercises—drills at attention and ceremonies 55 a

Discipline and training necessary 379

Discipline, fire 291; 430; 431

Dislocations, first aid 1492

DISMISSING: Battalion 309 Company 217 Squad 147

Dismounted noncommissioned staff officers, posts 77; 78

Dismounting, before addressing dismounted superior 1558

Dismounting before saluting dismounted senior 75

DISTANCE: Between firing line and support 338 Between front and rear rank 153 Between units in column of subdivisions 69 Definition 31 Plates showing distances: Battalion near, 300 Company near, 207 Taken by file closers in "take distance" and "take interval" 213

DISTANCE TAKING: Action of guides 213 How executed 158

Distant range 275

Distance to target, determination of 276

Distribution of fire 1441-1444

Distribution of fire and target 282; 283; 427

Division of battalion into firing line and support 335

Document file 894

Dog's bite 1480

Do something 386

DOUBLE RANK: Company to be formed in 203 Habitual close order formation 70 Kneeling and lying down in 178 Rear rank loading and firing 179

Double sleeping bag 686

DOUBLE TIME: Adding preparatory command 109 Any movement executed in, unless excepted 60 Cadence 108 Command for 111 Command for precedes command of execution 60 Dropping hands by side upon halting 116 Half step, length 113 In successive movements, base unit marches in quick time 61 Position of disengaged hand 111; 121 To hasten movements begun in quick time 177 To the rear 118

Drainage, camping, 1248

Drainage of trenches 1167

Draw saber 671

Dress, appearance 1523

DRESSING: Battalion 310; 311 Company 218 Companies, position of captain 218; 302 Deployed lines 240 Drill at attention after combat exercises 55 (d) Squad (right or left) 154 Verify both ranks 154

DRILL: Battalion 295-363 Company 202-294 Squad 148-202

Drills at attention and ceremonies designed to teach precision, etc. 55 (a)

Drill regulations furnished as guide, providing principles for training, etc. 53

Drill regulations, interpretation of 53

Drowning 1493

Drum major at battalion inspection 650

Dugouts, trenches 1156

Dummy trenches 1163

Duties of infantry, many and difficult 366

Duties of officers and noncommissioned officers in battle 389

Duty roster 890

E

Earache 1494

Ear, foreign body in 1495

Echelon definition 49

Effect of fire 1410

Effect of heat, light, etc. 1397-1403

Effectiveness of fire 1416

Effective range 275

Efficiency dependent upon thorough and uniform training 51

Elastic formations essential to correct battle training 52

Electric shock 1496

Element, definition 32

Elevation, change of 92

Encroachment upon functions of subordinates 396

Endurance, limit of, exacted 380

Enemy—imaginary outlined and represented 56; 370

Entrenching at night 1099

ENVELOPING ATTACK: Advantages 459; 461 Resulting in local frontal attack 461 To be started at considerable distance from enemy 462

Envelopment of both flanks, when allowable 460

EQUIPMENT: Carried into action 382 Display for inspection 682

EQUIPMENT, CARE OF: Cloth equipment: General instructions 1301 Intrenching tools 1312 Shelter tent 1303 Washing 1302 Clothing: Grease spots 1285; 1289 Ink stains 1287 Leggins 1280 Paint spots 1290 Rust 1286 Stains 1284 Importance 1276 Leather equipment: Cleaning 1316 Cleaning materials 1315 New equipment 1318 Oiling 1317; 1319 Points to be remembered 1320 Mess outfit: Bacon can 1308 Canteen 1311 Condiment can 1309 Cup 1310 Fork 1305 Knife 1304 Meat can 1307 Spoon 1306 Rifle 1321 Shoes: Care 1292 Polishing 1295; 1299; 1300 Repairing 1294 Selection 1293 Wet shoes 1297

Equipment. See "Care and preservation"

Errors staying execution of movement, for correction of 63; 64

ESCORTS OF: Funeral 640-645 Honor 639 The Color 637; 638

Establishing outpost by company 1080

Estimate of situation 950

Estimating distance 1393-1395

Estimating distances, training in 201

Estimators of ranges 278

Exercises in fire control and direction 1450

EXTENDED ORDER: Certain movements executed as in close order 241 Company 236-268 Company largest unit executing 55 (b) Company largest unit to execute movements by prescribed commands 328 Exercises to be in nature of combat exercise 370 Purpose 55 (b) Squad 170 To be executed at ease 55 (b)

Extended on first (fourth) company 321

Eye, foreign body in 1497

Eyes left, when post of reviewing officer is on left of column 626

EYES RIGHT: How executed 103 Battalion review 631; 632

Eyesight in scouting 1083

Eyes, use of 200

F

Facings 104

Facing about to give commands, staff stands fast 74

Facing about, mounted officer turns to left 74

Facing troops when giving commands 89

Fainting, first aid 1498

"Fall in" 100; 153

"Fall in" executed at order 121 (fifth)

"Fall out" 100

"Fall out" executed as without arms 121 (fifth)

Falling in with hands on hips 70

Fascines 1117; 1118

Faster, command for increasing rate of fire 191

Fear 926

Feet, care of 1229

Feint attacks 502

Field efficiency of organization 51

FIELD ENGINEERING: Bridges: Double lock 1114 Roadway of spar 1115 Single lock 1113 Spar 1112 Brush work 1117 Corduroying 1116 Fascines 1117; 1118 Gabions 1121-1123 Hurdles 1119 Knots: Bowline 1130 Clove hitch 1128 Eye splice 1135 Long splice 1134 Sheep shank 1132 Short splice 1133 Square or reef 1126 Timber hitch 1129 Two-half hitches 1127 Lashings 1136-1139 Revetments 1124; 1125

Field exercises, definition 55 (c); 56

FIELD FORTIFICATIONS: Classification 1142 Communicating trenches 1157 Concealment of trenches 1162 Cover trenches 1155 Deliberate intrenchments 1147 Drainage 1167 Dugouts 1156 Dummy trenches 1163 Example of trench system 1160 Fire trenches 1148 Hasty intrenchments 1143 Head cover 1152 Illumination of foreground 1170 Kneeling trench 1145 Latrines 1169 Length of trench 1164 Location of trenches 1161 Lookouts 1158 Loopholes and notches 1153 Lying trench 1144 Notches and loopholes 1153 Object 1140 Overhead cover 1154 Parados 1151 Preparation of foreground 1165 Revetments 1166 Siege works 1172 Sortie steps 1150 Standing trench 1146 Supporting points 1159 Telephones 1171 Traverses 1149 Trench recesses 1150 Water supply 1168

Field officers, habitually mounted 73

File definition 33

FILE CLOSER: Darting through column of squads 221 Execution of loadings and manual of arms 212 On the right (left) flank 211 Post in column of squads 221 Post in route marches 325 To correct mistakes 71

Files of orders, company 891

Fill magazine 702

Finding way in strange country 1084

Fine sight 1353 (b)

Finger system of target designation 1447 (a)

FIRE: By volley 189; 278 Classes of 179; 194; 278-280 Clip 192; 280 Commands for 179; 189; 194 Delay opening as long as possible 344 In deployment controlled by platoon leaders 269 Long range, when effective 416 Observation of 428; 429 Opening in attack 344; 417 Opening in defense 417 Purpose and nature 414; 415 Rate of 191; 292 To be directed against hostile infantry 345

Fire action 269

FIRE ATTACK: Fire superiority sought at first firing position and to be maintained until charging point is reached 472 Futility of advancing without fire superiority 473 General principles 258; 472 Intrenching 475 Retiring under fire suicidal 475 Signs that fire superiority has been gained 474 Size of rushing units 472 Supports and reserves occupying trenches vacated by firing line to improve same 476

FIRE AT WILL: How executed 190 Use 279

Fire control, company 287-290

Fire direction, company 285; 286

FIRE CONTROL AND DIRECTION: General considerations 416 Signals 431

Fire direction and control 1434-1440

Fire discipline 291; 430; 431

Fire discipline, definition 1406

Fire distribution 427; 1441-1444

Fire fight, where and when to begin, indicated by major 341

FIRE OF POSITION: Use of machine guns 555 When used 438

FIRE SUPERIORITY: Futility of advancing without 473 Purpose and nature 414 Signs that it has been gained 474 Sought at first firing position 472 To be maintained until charging point is reached 472 What it accomplishes 478

Fire trenches 1148

Fire unit, platoon 287

Firing at night 1101

Firing at stationary targets 1428

Firing by sentries at night 1104

Firing, classes of 278-280

FIRING LINE: Advance 258-261; 346 Advance as far as possible before opening fire 467 Advanced elements not to open fire on main position 471 Companies to be kept closed in on center 354 Control by signals 55 (d) Controlled by commander when whole line has been absorbed 383 Density 446-453 Furnished by battalion 455 Placing entire battalion or regiment into 339 Premature formation to be avoided 443 Reenforcement by major 359 To advance as far as possible before opening fire 467

Firing line and support, division of battalion 335

Firings in close order 269

First aid packet 1521

First aid to sick and injured 1478

FIRST SERGEANT: Accompanies captain when company is deployed 207 Assists in fire control in case of depleted company 209 Duties 873 Never assigned as guide 207 Post 207 Report when company is formed 215

Fish hook, first aid 1499

Fits, first aid 1500

Fix bayonets, how executed 142

Fix bayonet order, given by major 355

Fixed forms covering all cases impossible 369

FIXED PIVOT, TURN ON: Company 219-221 Squad 165 When used 66

FLAG: Company signal carried by company musicians (now buglers) 401 Defined 1575 Of general officers, post of 73; 618 Respect paid to 1574; 1575 Signals 94; 400; 401 Signaling to artillery 437 To outline enemy 371

Flag-stealing contest 1090

FLANK: By the right, how executed 117 Definition 35; 54 Deployment as skirmishers 246 Movements executed towards either, explained toward but one flank 58 Unit to begin rush 348

FLOURISHES AT: Funeral 641 Review 624

Fly, disease carrier 1460

Folding tents 691

FOLLOW ME: In forming skirmish line 237 In rushes 259 To follow corporal 169

Footmarks, following 1088

Forced marches 1225

Fork, care 1305

FORM: Column of companies 315 Column of squads 316 For shelter tents 181

Formation calls 693

Formation definition 36

FORMATIONS FOR: Advancing improvised 257 Support 262

FORMATION OF: Battalion 307; 308 Company 215 Squad 153

Form lines 1884

Forms of speech 1526

Fortifications, attack 495-498

FORWARD MARCH: From half step, halt and mark time 113 From halt 110 From oblique 163 Pieces brought to right shoulder from order, at command 121 (sixth)

Fractures 1483

Fraise 1178

Freezing, first aid 1502

Front, definition 37

Front, extent of in deployment 446-453

FRONT OF: Deployed battalion 334-337 Deployed squad 171

Frontal attacks, when they may be successful 457

FRONT INTO LINE: Battalion 314 Company 231

Frost-bite, first aid 1503

Full distance, definition 69

Full sight 1353 (c)

Full step, length and cadence 108

Funeral escort 640-645

G

Gabions 1121-1123

Gallery practice 1385

Gangrene 1482

Gases, asphyxiating 1194

GENERAL COMMON SENSE PRINCIPLES OF APPLIED MINOR TACTICS: Art of war, definition 943 Estimating the situation 950 Maneuvers 947; 949 Map problems 945; 949 Mission, defined 950 Noncommissioned officers, responsibilities in time of war 944 Orders, tactical, preparation 952 Terrain exercises 945; 949 War game 946; 949

General officers habitually mounted 73

General plan to be furthered by subordinates 386

GENERAL RULES FOR: Ceremonies 614-616 Drills and formations 57-79 Parades 634; 635 Reviews 617-630

Gentle reverse slopes 1427

Germs 1452

Gonorrhoea 1466

Grazing fire 1423

Grease spots, how removed 1285; 1289

Ground, use of 420; 421

GUARD DUTY: Challenging 1746 Classification of guards 1584 Commander of the guard 1603 Commanding officer 1591 Compliments from guard 1782 Corporal of the guard 1666 Countersigns and paroles 1769 Details and roster 1585 Duty of sentinels 1578 General rules concerning guard duty 1792 Guarding prisoners 1797 Guard mounting: Formal 1840 Informal 1847 Guard patrols 1778 Importance 1576 Musicians of the guard 1700 Officer of the day 1593 Orderlies and color sentinels 1702 Orders for sentinels 1716 Paroles and countersigns 1769 Privates of the guard 1715 Relieving old guard 1850 Respect for sentinels 1577 Reveille and retreat gun 1837 Sentinels of troops stable guard 1825 Sentinels' orders 1716 Sergeant of the guard 1642 Special orders for sentinels at post of guard 1759 Stable guards 1806 Troop stable guards 1808 Watchmen 1781

GUARD MOUNTING: Formal 1840 Informal 1847

Guard patrols 1778

Guarding prisoners 1797

GUIDE: Announcing before executing platoons right (left) 220 Definition 38 In deployment 236 In successive formations 65 Right (left) 155 What it is, unless otherwise announced 65 When given in connection with movement, follows command of execution 65

GUIDES: Alignment of battalion 311 Assignment to platoons 206 Battalion formed in line 308 Battalion marching in column of companies or platoons 325 Battalion parade 636 Close on first (fourth) company 320 Column of companies, first company, squads right 315 Column right (left) battalion 317 Dressing company when battalion is in line 302 Duties in battle 389 Duties in fire fight 289 Equipped with whistles 83 Execution of loading and manual of arms as file closers 212 First Sergeant never assigned as 207 Guide 65 Guide of leading subdivision charged with step and direction in column of subdivisions 69 In successive formation guide is toward base 65 Manual of arms, execution by file closers 212 Partial changes of direction 67 Platoon guides 210 Platoon guides accompany leader when platoon is deployed 206 Positions shown in plates of company and battalion 166 Post in column of squads 211 Post of file closers in route marches 325 Rectifying column (battalion) 313 Repeating signals 83 Taking intervals and distances 213 Taking place in front rank at command about face 229 To change guides to opposite flank 211

Guide center designate left guide of center company 301

Guide right (left) command 155

H

Half step (command) 113

HALT: Any movement executed from, unless otherwise prescribed 59 Firing executed at 179 From half step and mark time 113 How executed 116 Piece brought to the order 121 (seventh)

Halting, skirmishers face to the front and take advantage of cover 240

Halts on marches 1222

HAND: Disengaged, position at double time 111; 121 (Eighth) Left, position at balance 122 (First) On hip falling in with 70 Salute 106

Harmony and contentment in company 877

Hasty intrenchments 1143

HEALTH, CARE OF: Chancroid 1466 Clap 1466 Five ways of catching disease 1453 Fly, disease carrier 1460 Germs 1452 Gonorrhoea 1466 Importance 1451 Malaria fever 1469 Mosquito, carrier of disease 1469 Syphilis 1466 Vegetables, distributer of disease 1458 Venereal disease 1466 Water, distributer of disease 1457 Yellow fever 1469

Hearing at night 1095

Hearing in scouting 1083

Heat, effect on shooting 1397

Heat exhaustion 1505

Height, men to fall in according to 203

Heliographing 864

Helmets, steel 1205

Hits, percentage 1417

Holding attack 499-502

Horizontal clock face system of target designation 1446

Horizontal equivalents 1867

Hostile Infantry, target 345

Human element in training and instruction 925

Hurdles 1119

Hygiene. See "Personal hygiene"

I

Illumination of foreground of trenches 1170

Imaginary enemy, definition 56; 370

Incinerators, camp 1247

"Incline to the right (left)" 67

INCREASING INTERVALS: Company 247 Squad 172

INDIVIDUAL COOKING: Fire, how to make 1257 Importance 1256 Recipes 1258-1275

Individual intelligence, factor in warfare 924

INFANTRY: Against artillery: Action against artillery limbering or coming into action 600 Action against guns out of ammunition 599 Flank attack 598 Frontal attack usually futile 597 Machine guns 597 Wheel horses best targets 600 Against Cavalry: Cavalry charge against infantry usually futile 591 Infantry attacking dismounted cavalry 596 Measures to check charges from front and flanks 592 Meeting of cavalry charge by infantry in column 595 Rifle fire main dependence of infantry 594 Standing position, best to meet charge 593 Demands upon it by modern combat 365 Duties many and difficult 366 Good Infantry can defeat superior troops of poor quality 368 Modern war requires good infantry 366 Moving to attack, passing through deployed artillery 470 Requisites of good infantry 368 Trained to bear heaviest burdens 368

Infantry Drill Regulations 24

Influence of ground 1420

Initial combat order 394

Initiative in warfare 923

Initiative of subordinates not to be hampered 384; 385; 386

Ink stains, how removed 1287

"In place halt" 63

INSPECTION: Band 650; 653 Battalion 650; 654 Company 646-649 Display of equipment 682 Equipment 648 Of pieces when troop are formed and when dismissed 121 (Second) Pistol 646 Prepare for 646; 649-651; 653 Quarters 647; 654 Saber 646; 680 Seniority at 630; 650

Inspection and port arms when dismissing squad 147

Inspection arms from order 145

Inspection arms, Krag rifle 698

Inspections, object of 885

INSTRUCTION: Captain's responsibility for 202 Commanding officers accountable for 51 In use of signals 81 Of battalion, major responsible for 295 Of recruits 97-98 (a); 120 Without arms 98 (a)

Instruction given subordinates through immediate superiors 397

Instruction. See "Training and instruction"

Integrity of squads in battle 151

Intelligence, factor in warfare 924

Interest in training and instruction 922

Intermingling of units in firing line 389

Interpretations of Drill Regulations, spirit to govern 53

INTERVAL: Action of guides in taking 213 Battalion in deployment 454; 465 Between companies in deployment 354; 447 Between files obtained by placing hands on hip 70 Between platoon columns 252 Between regiments in deployment 454 Between skirmishers 171 Definition 40 Increasing or decreasing between skirmishers 172; 247 Of file closers in column of squads 221 Plates showing intervals: Battalion near, 300 Company near, 207 To take 156

Intrenching tools, care 1312

INTRENCHMENTS: Construction in action 475 Order of importance of operations in construction 606 Intrenchments. See "Field Fortifications"

Introduction 50-79; 364-371

Inundations, trenches 1186

Invisibility best protection while advancing 468

J

"Jab," bayonet 824 (d)

K

Kitchen pits, camping 1246

Kitchens, camp 1245

KNEEL: From lying down 177 From standing 174 Position of piece 185 To aim 189 Use of position 178

Kneeling trench 1145

Knife, care of 1304

Knots 1126-1135

Knowledge of subordinates 378

Krag rifle (Infantry Drill Regulations) 696

L

Landmarks, observing 1086

Largest unit executing extended order 55 (b); 328

Lashings 1136

Latitude allowed subordinates 384; 385

Latrines, camping 1243

Latrines in trenches 1169

LEADERSHIP: General consideration 372-384 Necessary to success in battle 365

LEADING: Company 209; 260 Platoon 250; 251; 259 Rush 260 Squad 150; 169; 237; 259; 289

LEATHER EQUIPMENT: Cleaning 1316 Cleaning materials 1315 Oiling 1317; 1319

Left arm, position when piece is "diagonally across the body" 122 (Second)

Left, definition 41

Left foot, stepping off with 107

Left hand, position at balance 122 (First)

LEFT SHOULDER FROM: Order 136 Port 136 Present 136 Right shoulder 136

Leggins, how cleaned 1280

Length of steps 107-115

Library, company 879

LIEUTENANTS: Assisting captain in fire control of depleted company 209 Assignment of platoons to 206 Duties, etc., 870; 871 Fire control 270; 287-289 Intermingling of units in firing line 389 Leading in charges 356 Posts of 71 Rushes by platoons 259; 293 Suspending fire when target disappears 294 Taking post when company is formed 215 Training 369

LIEUTENANT COLONEL: Salute in ceremonies 615

Light, effect on shooting 1399

Lightning, struck by 1507

Line, definition 42

Line of platoons, companies, etc., definition 68

Line of skirmishers 169-172; 236-247

Lines of information 398-402

Liquid fire 1196

Listening posts, trenches 1191

Litters, improvised 1522

Loaded pieces not to be carried 121 (First)

Local successes necessary to general success 367

Location of trenches 1426

Lock pieces 700

Long blast of whistle 193; 271

Long range 275

Long-range fire 1414

Long-range fire, when effective 416

Lookouts in trenches 1158

Loopholes and notches 1153

Loose pieces 161

Lost, what to do 1085

Lying down 175; 185; 189

Lying down position, use 178

Lying trench 1144

M

MACHINE GUNS: Concealment 564 Covering dead spaces on defensive 519 Covering withdrawal 546; 557 Effectiveness against skirmish line 559 Fire of position 438; 555 In attack 555 In defense 555 In infantry attack against artillery 597 In meeting engagements 553 Lessons of European war 561-568 Location on defense 566 Methods of transportation 563 Not to form part of firing line of attack 558 Silencing of machine guns by infantry 560 To be used for short periods 552 Use in villages 565 Weapons of emergency 551 With advance guard 553 With rear guard 554 With reserve 557

MACHINE GUN COMPANY: Post in formations 71; 72 Post when attached to battalion 299

MAJOR: Apportions target 340 Controls support 263 Duties and responsibilities as battalion commander 295 Duty regarding protection of flanks 412; 413 Gives order to charge 356 Gives order to fix bayonets 355 Indicates where or when fire fight begins 341 Locates trenches and obstacles 358 Order making disposition of battalion for combat 329 Orders bayonets fixed on defense 361 Post during attack 352 Post in route march 325 Reenforces firing line 359 Responsibility regarding ammunition 570 See "Battalion commander"

Malarial fever 1469

Maneuvers 947; 949

Maneuvers effective method of conducting 371

MANUAL OF: Arms: "By the numbers" 122 (Fifth) Cadence 122 (Fourth) Carrying rifle in any position 122 (Sixth) Executed by color guard 666 General principles and the manual 120-147 Regular positions assume without regard to previous ones 122 (Sixth) "Without the numbers" 122 (Fifth) Bugle 692-695 Color 658-670 Saber 671-680 Tent pitching 681-691 The color 670

MANUAL OF BAYONET: Bayonet combat 760 Combined movements 802 Fencing at will 807 Fencing exercises 772 General remarks 711 Guard 725 Hints for instructors 823 Instruction with rifle 734 Instruction without bayonet 755 Instruction without rifle 723 Jab 824 (d) Lessons of European war 824 Nomenclature 721 Short point 824 (d)

Map, definition 1859

Map distances 1867

Map problems 945; 949

Map problems, instruction in 954

MAP READING: Contours 1866 Conventional signs 1874 Definition of map 1859 Determination of positions of points on map 1871 Horizontal equivalents 1867 Map distances 1867 Meaning of map reading 1860 Meridians 1870 North star 1873 Orientation 1872 Problems in scales 1864 Scale of map distances 1867 (a) Scales 1861-1863 Scaling distances from map 1865 Slopes 1868 True meridian 1873 Visibility problem 1875

Map sketching. See "Military map sketching"

MARCH: At funeral 641 Played as honor 624

MARCHES: A successful march 1215 At night 1102 Care of feet and fitting of shoes 1229 Compliments not paid on marches 1227 Conduct on march 1220 Crossing bridges and fords 1223 Elongation of column 1224 Fitting shoes and care of feet 1229 Forced matches 1225 Halts 1222 Hardening new troops 1213 Long march not to be made with new troops 1214 Marching capacity 1221 Marching, principal occupation of troops in campaign 1212 Night marches 1226 No compliments paid on 1564 Physical training 1213 Preparation for march 1216-1218 Protection on march 1228 Rate of march 1220 Starting on march 1219 Straggling 1224

Marching, any movement executed when, unless otherwise prescribed 59

Marching to rear, skirmishes, not assembled 173

Marchings and steps 107-119

MARK TIME: Executed from half step, halt and mark time 113 How executed 112 While obliquing 163

Mass formation, battalion 320

Meat can, care 1307

Mechanism of deployment taught by extended order 55 (b)

Meeting engagements: Action of advance guard prior to receipt of order 543 Action of column 542 Action of the leading troops 541 Advantage accrues to side deploying the faster 539 Afford ideal opportunity to certain commanders 537 Boldness and determination of commander 536 Characteristics of 534 First troops deploying have advantage 539 Function of advance guard 542 General action 535 Machine guns, use 552 Main body not to be put into action piece meal 544 Meagerness of information 536 Mission determines method of attack 538 Post of commander 542

Memorandum receipts, company 900

Meridians 1870

Mess, company 878

Mess outfit care 1304

Messages, delivery 1530

Messages, instruction in delivering 958

Metal fouling, removing from bore 1327

Method in training and instruction 918

Military appearance and deportment 1523

MILITARY COURTESY: Colors and standards 1575 Headdress not raised in saluting 1569 National anthem 1572 National anthems of other nations 1573 Nature and origin of salutes 1533; 1534 Prisoners do not salute 1567 Soldier walking with officer 1566 Unmilitary salutes 1568 Usual mistakes in saluting 1571 When and how to salute: At meals 1543 At work 1547 Bringing command to present before commander salutes 1563 Commanders of detachments or other commands 1561 Dismounting before addressing, superior not mounted 1558 General rule 1539 How to salute in uniform 1551 Indoors 1545 In public places and conveyances 1560 Man addressed in formation 1559 No compliments paid at drill, on march, etc. 1564 No saluting at double time, trot or gallop 1565 Officer approaching number of soldiers in open 1546 Officer entering room occupied by soldiers 1542 Officer passing in rear of troops 1562 Passing officer on staircase 1549 Riding in wagon 1548 Rifle salute 1552 Saber salute 1553 Saluting distance 1541 Saluting in civilian dress 1555 Saluting in military manner 1556 Sentinels on post 1554 Several officers together 1557 Soldier addressing or being addressed by officer 1550 When making and receiving reports 1540 When seated 1544 Whom to salute: Army officers 1535 Foreign, naval and military attaches 1538 Navy, Marine Corps, Volunteer and National Guard officers 1536 Reserve Corps officers 1537

MILITARY MAP SKETCHING: Combined sketching 1892 Contours 1882 Datum plane 1883 Different methods of sketching 1878 Form lines 1884 Kinds of military sketches 1878 Location of points by intersection 1879 Location of points by resection 1880 Location of points by traversing 1881 Outpost sketching 1890 Points for beginners to remember 1893 Position sketching 1889 Road sketching 1891 Scales 1885; 1888

Military organization 1858

Military pits 1184

Military training object of 50

Mine warfare. See, "Trench and mine warfare"

MINOR WARFARE: Camp or bivouac protection 612 Dividing marching column into two or more detachments 611 Formations in close country 610 Formation in open country 609 Irregular operations 607 March and bivouac formations to admit of rapid action in any direction 608 Night operations frequently advisable 613 Regular operations 606 Selection of site for camp or bivouac 612 What it embraces 606

Mirage 1400

Mission, defined 950

Mistakes, staying execution of movement for correction of 63; 64

Modern combat, demands upon infantry 365

Modern war requires good infantry 366

Moisture, effect on shooting 1398

Morning report 888

Morse code 866

Mosquito, carrier of disease 1469

Mounted enlisted men formed into a detachment for ceremonies 76

Mounted officer in making about face, turns to left 74

MOUNTED SCOUTS: Battalion staff officers, training in patrolling and reconnaissance 579 Dismounted patrolling 578 How used 576 Post when attached to battalion 299 To be trained in patrolling and reconnaissance 576 Use for reconnoitering 577; 578

Mouse and cat contest 1089

Movement, any executed in double time unless excepted 60

MOVEMENTS: Begun in quick time, hastened by command, "Double time" 62 Executed toward either flank, explained toward but one flank 58 General rules 57; 63 May be executed from halt or when marching 59

MOVING PIVOT, TURNING ON: Company 222; 227 Squad 164 When used 66

Moving targets, firing at 1432

MUSICIANS: (now buglers) Duties during firing 272 Equipped with whistles and repeating signals 83 Join their companies at battalion inspection 650 Post 207 To carry signal flags 94; 401 To repeat signal to fix bayonet and charge 355; 356

Musicians (now buglers) of the Guard 1700

Muster 655-657

N

NATIONAL AIR: At funeral 641 Playing as honor at review 624

National Anthem 1572

National color does not salute 660

Next to last motion in resuming order from any position 122 (Third)

Night firing 1433

Night marches 1226

NIGHT OPERATIONS: Advance and rear guards 584 Approaching charging point under cover of darkness 496 Attack, time of making 588 Bayonet use 583; 586; 589 Challenging 1103 Connections 1107 Defense, measures taken to resist night attacks 590 Deployment at night 464 Equipment 1100 Finding bearings 1096 Fire action to be avoided 583 Fire not effective beyond 50 yards 590 Formations 581; 586; 589 Hearing 1095 Importance 1091 Individual training 1093 Marches 1102 Marking route outguards to supports 1105 Moving in dark 1097 Night advance followed by attack by day 585 Night entrenching 1099 Night fencing 1098 Night firing 1101 Night matches 584 Outposts 1103 Practice in offensive and defensive operations 581 Preparation 1108 Purposes 580 Readiness for action 1106 Reconnaissance 587 Secrecy 583 Sentries firing 1104 Surprise 587 Trained troops necessary 586 Training of company 1092 Unfriendly guides 583 Vision 1094 White rag, tying around muzzle of rifle 590

Nomenclature of rifle 1342

Noncommissioned officer commanding platoon or company carrying of piece and taking of post 79

Noncommissioned officers, post of 71

Noncommissioned officers to be obeyed and respected 1525

Noncommissioned officers, company, duties 874

Noncommissioned officers confining men 875

Noncommissioned officers; instructions in map problems 954

Noncommissioned officers; reduction and resignation 876

Noncommissioned officers; responsibilities in time of war 944

"Normal" forms covering all cases impossible 369

Normal sight 1353 (a)

North star 1873

Nose, foreign body in 1507

Notches and loopholes 1153

Number of troops to be deployed in beginning 445

"Numbers, by the" 122 (fifth)

O

Obedience 1524

Object of military training 150

OBJECTIVE— Announced before or after range 181 Once designated not changed unless ordered 182

Oblique deployment as skirmishers 245

Oblique march 162-163

Observation 200-201

Observation of target and fire 428-429

OBSTACLES: Abatis 1176 Against cavalry 1180 Automatic alarms 1192 Barricades 1185 Cheveaux de frise 1179; 1189 Fraise 1178 Guarding obstacles 1190 In front of outguards 1187 Inundations 1186 Kinds 1176 Lessons from European War 1188 Listening posts 1191 Location 1175 Military pits 1184 Necessity for 1174 Object 1173 Palisade 1177 Search lights 1193 Trous de loup 1184 Wire entanglements 1181; 1182; 1188 Wire fence 1183

Obstacles located by Major 358

Occupation of ground 1426

Offensive necessary for decisive results 367

Office, how to enter 1527

Officer of the Day 1593

OFFICERS: Posts of 71 To be true leaders 377 To comply with spirit of orders 377

Oil, use on rifle 1330; 1339

ON RIGHT (LEFT) INTO LINE: Battalion 313 Company 230

Open packs 648

Open ranks 646

Open sight 1352 (a)

Opening fire on defense 360

ORDER: Assumed in resuming attention from rest or at ease 121 (fifth) Piece brought to, upon halting 121 (seventh) Piece striking ground gently 122 (third) Position in next to last motion 122 (third) Position of piece at 123

Order and cohesion in combat 376

Order, close, definition 43

Order, extended, definition 44

ORDER FROM: Inspection 146 Left shoulder 136 Port 128 Present 128 Right shoulder 130 Trail 140

ORDERLIES: Carrying signal flags 400 Do not change position when commander faces about to give command 74 Posts of 73; 78

ORDERS: Battle 392 Brigade and division, usually written 392 Compliance with spirit of 377 Composition of combat order 395 Definition 85 Deployment 392 Deviation from 388 Encroaching upon functions of subordinates, prohibited 396 Given subordinates through immediate superiors 397 Reconnaissance to precede issuing of initial combat orders 394 Regiment, usually verbal 393 Repetition of 83 To be definite 396 Use in battalion combat 328 Verbal 393 When used 80; 85

Orders, files of, company 891

Orders for sentinels 1716

Orders, tactical preparation 952

Organization, military 1858

Orientation 1872

Outlined enemy 56; 273; 370; 371

Outpost, establishing by company 1080

Outpost sketching 1890

Outposts at night 1103

P

Pace, definition 45

PACK: Close 648 Display of contents for inspection 682 Laid aside in action 382 Open 648

Packs, unslinging, old equipment 706

Paint spots, how removed 1290

Paperwork, company 887

PARADE REST: With arms 137 Without arms 101

PARADES: Battalion 636 General rules 634; 635 Post of color guard 663; 664

Paroles and countersigns 1769

Partial changes of direction, commander of 67

Patrolling. See, "Scouting and patrolling"

Payment of soldier 1529

Peep sight 1352 (b)

Percentage of hits 1417

Periscopes 1207

Personal hygiene 1470

PERSONAL RECONNAISSANCE: Deployment 441 Formation of plan 394

PHYSICAL TRAINING: Commands 826 Double timing 846 Methods 825 Rifle exercises 847 Setting up exercises 826; 837 Starting positions 834 Walking and marching 845

PIECE: Carrying in any position 122 (Sixth) "Diagonally across the body" 122 (Second) Loading before deployment 269 Not to be carried loaded 121 (First) Once loaded, so kept until command to unload 180 Rules governing carrying 121 To strike ground gently in coming to order 122 (Third) Use as single loader 186

Pitching tents 684

PLAN: Of battle preceded by personal reconnaissance 394 Of combat, adherence to original 373

PLATES: Battalion near, 300 Company near, 207 Equipment near, 646

PLATOON COLUMN: Assembly from 254 Deployment 253 How executed 250 Use in advancing 249-252

PLATOON DRILL: Assembling from deployment 248 Column right (left) (company being in column of platoon) 223 Extended order 242 On right into line (being in column of platoons) 230 Platoons column right (left) (company being in column of squad) 225 Platoon light (left) 220 Platoons right (left) by squads (being in line) 227 Platoons right (left) front into line 232 Squads right about (being in line of platoons) 228 Squads right (left), platoons column right (left) (being in line) 227

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