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Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition
by James A. Moss
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1732. A sentinel will not divulge the countersign (Pars. 1769 to 1777) to anyone except the sentinel who relieves him, or to a person from whom he properly receives orders, on such person's verbal order given personally. Privates of the guard will not use the countersign except in the performance of their duties while posted as sentinels.

No. 7: To talk to no one except in line of duty. (171)

1733. When calling for any purpose, challenging, or holding communication with any person, a dismounted sentinel, armed with a rifle or saber, will take the position of "port" arms or saber. At night a dismounted sentinel, armed with a pistol, takes the position of raise pistol in challenging or holding communication. A mounted sentinel does not ordinarily draw his weapon in the daytime when challenging or holding conversation; but if drawn, he holds it at advance rifle, raise pistol, or port saber, according as he is armed with a rifle, pistol, or saber. At night, in challenging and holding conversation, his weapon is drawn and held as just prescribed, depending on whether he is armed with a rifle, pistol, or saber.

No. 8: In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm. (172)

1734. In case of fire, a sentinel will call, "Fire No. (—)," adding the number of his post; if possible, he will extinguish the fire himself. In case of disorder, he will call: "The Guard, No. (—)," adding the number of his post. If the danger be great, he will, in either case, discharge his piece before calling.

No. 11: To salute all officers and all colors and standards not cased. (173)

1735. When not engaged in the performance of a specific duty, the proper execution of which would prevent it, a member of the guard will salute all officers who pass him. This rule applies at all hours of the day or night, except in the case of mounted sentinels armed with a rifle or pistol, or dismounted sentinels armed with a pistol, after challenging. (See Par. 1742.) (174)

1736. Sentinels will salute as follows: A dismounted sentinel armed with a rifle or saber, salutes by presenting arms; if otherwise armed, he salutes with the right hand.

A mounted sentinel, if armed with a saber and the saber be drawn, salutes by presenting saber; otherwise he salutes in all cases with the right hand. (175)

1737. To salute, a dismounted sentinel, with piece at a right shoulder or saber at a carry, halts and faces toward the person to be saluted when the latter arrives within thirty paces.

The limit within which individuals and insignia of rank can be readily recognized is assumed to be about 30 paces, and, therefore, at this distance cognizance is taken of the person or party to be saluted. (176)

1738. The salute is rendered at 6 paces; if the person to be saluted does not arrive within that distance, then when he is nearest. (177)

1739. A sentinel in a sentry box, armed with a rifle, stands at attention in the doorway on the approach of a person or party entitled to salute, and salutes by presenting arms according to the forgoing rules.

If armed with a saber, he stands at a carry and salutes as before. (178)

1740. A mounted sentinel on a regular post halts, faces, and salutes in accordance with the foregoing rules. If doing patrol duty, he salutes, but does not halt unless spoken to. (179)

1741. Sentinels salute, in accordance with the foregoing rules, all persons and parties entitled to compliments from the guard (Pars. 1787, and 1788): officers of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps; military and naval officers of foreign powers; officers of volunteers, and militia officers when in uniform. (180)

1742. A sentinel salutes as just prescribed when an officer comes on his post; if the officer holds communication with the sentinel, the sentinel again salutes when the officer leaves him.

During the hours when challenging is prescribed, the first salute is given as soon as the officer has been duly recognized and advanced. A mounted sentinel armed with a rifle or pistol, or a dismounted sentinel armed with a pistol, does not salute after challenging.

He stands at advance rifle or raise pistol until the officer passes. (181)

1743. In case of the approach of an armed party of the guard, the sentinel will halt when it is about 30 paces from him, facing toward the party with his piece at the right shoulder. If not himself relieved, he will, as the party passes, place himself so that the party will pass in front of him; he resumes walking his post when the party has reached 6 paces beyond him. (182)

An officer is entitled to the compliments prescribed, whether in uniform or not. (183)

1744. A sentinel in communication with an officer will not interrupt the conversation to salute. In the case of seniors the officer will salute, whereupon the sentinel will salute. (184)

1745. When the flag is being lowered at retreat, a sentinel on post and in view of the flag will face the flag, and, at the first note of the "Star Spangled Banner" or to the color will come to a present arms. At the sounding of the last note he will resume walking his post.

No. 12: To be especially watchful at night and during the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post, and to allow no one to pass without proper authority. (185)

1746. During challenging hours, if a sentinel sees any person or party on or near his post, he will advance rapidly along his post toward such person or party and when within about 30 yards will challenge sharply, "HALT. Who is there?" He will place himself in the best possible position to receive or, if necessary, to arrest the person or party. (186)

1747. In case a mounted party be challenged, the sentinel will call, "HALT. DISMOUNT. Who is there?" (187)

1748. The sentinel will permit only one of any party to approach him for the purpose of giving the countersign (Pars. 1769 to 1777), or if no countersign be used, of being duly recognized. When this is done the whole party is advanced, i. e., allowed to pass. (188)

1749. In all cases the sentinel must satisfy himself beyond a reasonable doubt that the parties are what they represent themselves to be and have a right to pass. If he is not satisfied, he must cause them to stand and call the corporal of the guard. So, likewise, if he have no authority to pass persons with the countersign, or when the party has not the countersign, or gives an incorrect one. (189)

1750. A sentinel will not permit any person to approach so close as to prevent the proper use of his own weapon before recognizing the person or receiving the countersign. (190)

1751. When two or more persons approach in one party, the sentinel on receiving an answer that indicates that someone in the party has the countersign, will say, "Advance one with the countersign," and, if the countersign is given correctly, will then say, "Advance (So and so)," repeating the answer to his challenge. Thus, if the answer be, "Relief (friends with the countersign, patrol, etc.)," the sentinel will say, "Advance one with the countersign"; then, "Advance relief (friends, patrol, etc.)." (191)

1752. If a person having the countersign approach alone, he is advanced to give the countersign. Thus, if the answer be, "Friend with the countersign (or officer of the day, or etc.)," the sentinel will say, "Advance, friend (or officer of the day, or etc.), with the countersign"; then, "Advance, friend (or officer of the day, or etc.)." (192)

1753. If two or more persons approach a sentinel's post from different directions at the same time, all such persons are challenged in turn and required to halt and to remain halted until advanced.

The senior is first advanced, in accordance with the foregoing rules. (193)

1754. If a party is already advanced and in communication with a sentinel, the latter will challenge any other party that may approach; if the party challenged be senior to the one already on his post, the sentinel will advance the new party at once. The senior may allow him to advance any or all of the other parties; otherwise, the sentinel will not advance any of them until the senior leaves him. He will then advance the senior only of the remaining parties, and so on. (194)

1755. The following order of rank will govern a sentinel in advancing different persons or parties approaching his post: Commanding officer, officer of the day, officer of the guard, officers, patrols, reliefs, noncommissioned officers of the guard in order of rank, friends. (195)

1756. A sentinel will never allow himself to be surprised, nor permit two parties to advance upon him at the same time. (196)

1757. If no countersign be used, the rules for challenging are the same. The rules for advancing parties are modified only as follows: Instead of saying "Advance (so and so) with the countersign," the sentinel will say, "Advance (so and so) to be recognized." Upon recognition he will say, "Advance (so and so)." (197)

1758. Answers to a sentinel's challenge intended to confuse or mislead him are prohibited, but the use of such an answer as "Friends with the countersign," is not to be understood as misleading, but as the usual answer made by officers, patrols, etc., when the purpose of their visit makes it desirable that their official capacity should not be announced. (198)

Special Orders For Sentinels at the Post of the Guard

1759. Sentinels posted at the guard will be required to memorize the following:

Between reveille and retreat to turn out the guard for all persons designated by the commanding officer, for all colors or standards not cased, and in time of war for all armed parties approaching my post, except troops at drill and reliefs and detachments of the guard.

At night, after challenging any person or party, to advance no one but call the corporal of the guard, repeating the answer to the challenge. (199)

1760. After receiving an answer to his challenge, the sentinel calls, "Corporal of the guard (So and so)," repeating the answer to the challenge.

He does not in such cases repeat the number of his post. (200)

1761. He remains in the position assumed in challenging until the corporal has recognized or advanced the person or party challenged, when he resumes walking his post, or, if the person or party be entitled thereto, he salutes and, as soon as the salute has been acknowledged, resumes walking his post. (201)

1762. The sentinel at the post of the guard will be notified by direction of the commanding officer of the presence in camp or garrison of persons entitled to the compliment (Par. 1784.) (202)

1763. The following examples illustrate the manner in which the sentinel at the post of the guard will turn out the guard upon the approach of persons or parties entitled to the compliment (Pars. 1784, 1787, and 1788): "Turn out the guard, Commanding Officer"; "Turn out the guard, Governor of a Territory"; "Turn out the guard, national colors"; "Turn out the guard, armed party"; etc.

At the approach of the new guard at guard mounting the sentinel will call "Turn out the guard, armed party." (203)

1764. Should the person named by the sentinel not desire the guard formed, he will salute, whereupon the sentinel will call "Never mind the guard." (204)

1765. After having called "Turn out the guard," the sentinel will never call "Never mind the guard," on the approach of an armed party. (205)

1766. Though the guard be already formed he will not fail to call "Turn out the guard," as required in his special orders, except that the guard will not be turned out for any person while his senior is at or coming to the post of the guard. (206)

1767. The sentinels at the post of the guard will warn the commander of the approach of any armed body and of the presence in the vicinity of all suspicious or disorderly persons. (207)

1768. In case of fire or disorder in sight or hearing, the sentinel at the guardhouse will call the corporal of the guard and report the facts to him. (208)

Countersigns and Paroles

1769. Seventy-seventh Article of War. Any person subject to military law makes known the parole or countersign to any person not entitled to receive it according to the rules and discipline of war, or gives a parole or countersign different from that which he received, shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct. (See Par. 1732.) (209)

1770. The countersign is a word given daily from the principal headquarters of a command to aid guards and sentinels in identifying persons who may be authorized to pass at night.

It is given to such persons as may be authorized to pass and repass sentinels' posts during the night, and to officers, noncommissioned officers, and sentinels of the guard. (210)

1771. The parole is a word used as a check on the countersign in order to obtain more accurate identification of persons. It is imparted only to those who are entitled to inspect guards and to commanders of guards.

The parole or countersign, or both, are sent sealed in the form of an order to those entitled to them. (211)

1772. When the commander of the guard demands the parole, he will advance and receive it as the corporal receives the countersign. (See Par. 1695.) (212)

1773. As the communications containing the parole and countersign must at times be distributed by many orderlies, the parole intrusted to many officers, and the countersign and parole to many officers and sentinels, and as both the countersign and parole must, for large commands, be prepared several days in advance, there is always danger of their being lost or becoming known to persons who would make improper use of them; moreover, a sentinel is too apt to take it for granted that any person who gives the right countersign is what he represents himself to be; hence for outpost duty there is greater security in omitting the use of the countersign and parole, or in using them with great caution. The chief reliance should be upon personal recognition or identification of all persons claiming authority to pass.

Persons whose sole means of identification is the countersign, or concerning whose authority to pass there is a reasonable doubt, should not be allowed to pass without the authority of the corporal of the guard after proper investigation; the corporal will take to his next superior any person about whom he is not competent to decide. (213)

1774. The countersign is usually the name of a battle; the parole, that of a general or other distinguished person. (214)

1775. When they can not be communicated daily, a series of words for some days in advance may be sent to posts or detachments that are to use the same parole or countersign as the main body. (215)

1776. If the countersign be lost, or if a member of the guard desert with it, the commander on the spot will substitute another for it and report the case at once to headquarters. (216)

1777. In addition to the countersign, use may be made of preconcerted signals, such as striking the rifle with the hand or striking the hands together a certain number of times, as agreed upon. Such signals may be used only by guards that occupy exposed points.

They are used before the countersign is given, and must not be communicated to anyone not entitled to know the countersign. Their use is intended to prevent the surprise of a sentinel.

In the daytime signals such as raising a cap or a handkerchief in a prearranged manner may be used by sentinels to communicate with the guard or with each other. (217)

Guard Patrols

1778. A guard patrol consists of one or more men detailed for the performance of some special service connected with guard duty. (218)

1779. If the patrol be required to go beyond the chain of sentinels, the officer or noncommissioned officer in charge will be furnished with the countersign, and the outposts and sentinels warned. (219)

1780. If challenged by a sentinel, the patrol is halted by its commander, and the noncommissioned officer accompanying it advances alone and gives the countersign. (220)

Watchmen

1781. Enlisted men may be detailed as watchmen or as overseers over prisoners, and as such will receive their orders and perform their duties as the commanding officer may direct. (221)

Compliments From Guards

1782. The compliment from a guard consists in the guard turning out and presenting arms. (See Par. 1612.) No compliments will be paid between retreat and reveille except as provided in paragraphs 361 and 362, nor will any person other than those named in paragraph 224 receive the compliment. (222)

1783. Though a guard does not turn out between retreat and reveille as a matter of compliment, it may be turned out for inspection at any time by a person entitled to inspect it. (223)

1784. Between reveille and retreat the following persons are entitled to the compliment: The President, sovereign or chief magistrate of a foreign country, and members of a royal family; Vice-President; President and President pro tempore of the Senate; American and foreign ambassadors; members of the Cabinet; Chief Justice; Speaker of the House of Representatives; committees of Congress officially visiting a military post; governors within their respective States and Territories; governors general[20]; Assistant Secretary of War officially visiting a military post; all general officers of the Army; general officers of foreign services visiting a post; naval, marine, volunteer, and militia officers in the service of the United States and holding the rank of general officer; American or foreign envoys or ministers; ministers accredited to the United states: charges d'affaires accredited to the United States; consuls general accredited to the United States; commanding officer of a coast artillery district, coast defense command, post, fort or camp; officer of the day. (224) (C. M. I. G. D., No. 1, Feb. 24, 1915.)

1785. The relative rank between officers of the Army and Navy is as follows: General with admiral, lieutenant general with the vice admiral, major general with rear admiral, brigadier general with commodore,[21] colonel with captain, lieutenant colonel with commander, major with lieutenant commander, captain with lieutenant, first lieutenant with lieutenant (junior grade), second lieutenant with ensign. (A. R. 12.) (225)

1786. Sentinels will not be required to memorize paragraph 1784, and except in the cases of general officers of the Army, the commanding officer, and the officer of the day, they will be advised in each case of the presence in camp or garrison of persons entitled to the compliment. (226)

1787. Guards will turn out and present arms when the national or regimental colors or standards, not cased, are carried past by a guard or an armed party. This rule also applies when the party carrying the colors is at drill. If the drill is conducted in the vicinity of the guardhouse, the guard will be turned out when the colors first pass, and not thereafter. (227)

1788. In case the remains of a deceased officer or soldier are carried past, the guard will turn out and present arms. (228)

1789. In time of war all guards will turn out under arms when armed parties, except troops at drill and reliefs or detachments of the guard, approach their post. (See Par. 1615.) (229)

1790. The commander of the guard will be notified of the presence in camp or garrison of all persons entitled to the compliment, except general officers of the Army, the commanding officer, and the officer of the day. Members of the guard will salute all persons entitled to the compliment and all officers in the military or naval service of foreign powers, officers of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, officers of volunteers, and officers of militia when in uniform. (230)

General Rules Concerning Guard Duty

1791. Eighty-sixth Article of War. Any sentinel who is found drunk or sleeping upon his post, or who leaves it before he is regularly relieved, shall, if the offense be committed in time of war, suffer death or such other punishment as a court-martial may direct; and if the offense be committed in time of peace, he shall suffer any punishment, except death, that a court-martial may direct. (232)

1792. All material instructions given to a member of the guard by an officer having authority will be promptly communicated to the commander of the guard by the officer giving them. (233)

1793. Should the guard be formed, soldiers will fall in ranks under arms. At roll call, each man, as his name or number and relief are called, will answer "Here," and come to an order arms. (234)

1794. Whenever the guard or a relief is dismissed, each member not at once required for duty will place his rifle in the arms racks, if they be provided, and will not remove it therefrom unless he requires it in the performance of some duty. (235)

1795. Without permission from the commander of the guard, members of the main guard, except orderlies, will not leave the immediate vicinity of the guard house. Permission to leave will not be granted except in cases of necessity. (236)

1796. Members of the main guard, except orderlies, will not remove their accouterments or clothing without permission from the commander of the guard. (Par. 1628.) (237)

Guarding Prisoners

1797. The sentinel at the post of the guard has charge of the prisoners except when they have been turned over to the prisoner guard or overseers. (Par. 1798 to 1802 and 300 to 304.)

(a) He will allow none to escape.

(b) He will allow none to cross his post leaving the guardhouse except when passed by an officer or noncommissioned officer of the guard.

(c) He will allow no one to communicate with prisoners without permission from proper authority.

(d) He will promptly report to the corporal of the guard any suspicious noise made by the prisoners.

(e) He will be prepared to tell whenever asked how many prisoners are in the guardhouse and how many are out at work or elsewhere.

Whenever prisoners are brought to his post returning from work or elsewhere, he will halt them and call the corporal of the guard, notifying him of the number of prisoners returning. Thus: "Corporal of the guard, (so many) prisoners."

He will not allow prisoners to pass into the guardhouse until the corporal of the guard has responded to the call and ordered him to do so. (299)

1798. Whenever practicable special guards will be detailed for the particular duty of guarding working parties composed of such prisoners as cannot be placed under overseers. (300)

1799. The prisoner guard and overseers will be commanded by the police officer; if there be no police officer, then by the officer of the day. (301)

1800. The provost sergeant is sergeant of the prisoner guard and overseers, and as such receives orders from the commanding officer and the commander of the prisoner guard only. (302)

1801. Details for prisoner guard are marched to the guardhouse and mounted by being inspected by the commander of the main guard, who determines whether all of the men are in proper condition to perform their duties and whether their arms and equipments are in proper condition, and rejects any men found unfit. (303)

1802. When prisoners have been turned over to the prisoner guard or overseers, such guards or overseers are responsible for them under their commander, and all responsibility and control of the main guard ceases until they are returned to the main guard. (Par. 1804.) (304)

1803. If a prisoner attempts to escape, the sentinel will call "Halt." If he fails to halt when the sentinel has once repeated his call, and if there be no other possible means of preventing his escape, the sentinel will fire upon him.

1804. On approaching the post of the sentinel at the guardhouse, a sentinel of the prisoner guard or an overseer in charge of prisoners will halt them and call, "No. 1, (so many prisoners.)" He will not allow them to cross the post of the sentinel until so directed by the Corporal of the guard. (306)

1805. Members of the prisoner guard and overseers placed over prisoners for work will receive specific and explicit instructions covering the required work; they will be held strictly responsible that the prisoners under their charge properly and satisfactorily perform the designated work. (307)

Stable Guards

1806. Under the head of stable guards will be included guards for cavalry stables, artillery stables and parks, mounted infantry stables, machine-gun organization stables and parks, and quartermaster stables and parks. Where the words "troop" and "cavalry" are used they will be held to include all of these organizations. (308)

1807. When troop stable guards are mounted they will guard the stables of the cavalry. When no stable guards are mounted, the stables will be guarded by sentinels posted from the main guard, under the control of the officer of the day.

The instructions given for troop stable guard will be observed as far as applicable by the noncommissioned officers and sentinels of the main guard when in charge of the stables. (309)

Troop Stable Guards

1808. Troops stable guards will not be used except in the field, or when it is impracticable to guard the stables by sentinels from the main guard. (310)

1809. Troop stable guards will be under the immediate control of their respective troop commanders; they will be posted in each cavalry stable, or near the picket line, and will consist of not less than one noncommissioned officer and three privates.

Stable guards are for the protection of the horses, stables, forage, equipments, and public property generally. They will in addition enforce the special regulations in regard to stables, horses, and parks. (311)

1810. Sentinels of stable guards will be posted at the stables or at the picket lines when the horses are kept outside. The troop stable guard may be used as a herd guard during the day time or when grazing is practicable. (312)

1811. The troop stable guard, when authorized by the post commander, will be mounted under the supervision of the troop commander. It will be armed, at the discretion of the troop commander, with either rifle or pistol. (313)

1812. The tour continues for 24 hours, or until the guard is relieved by a new guard. (314)

1813. The employment of stable guards for police and fatigue duties at the stables is forbidden; but this will not prohibit them from being required to assist in feeding grain before reveille. (315)

The troop stable guard will attend stables with the rest of the troop and groom their own horses, the sentinels being taken off post for the purpose. (316)

1814. Neither the noncommissioned officer nor the members of the stable guard will absent themselves from the immediate vicinity of the stables except in case of urgent necessity, and then for no longer time than is absolutely necessary. No member of the guard will leave for any purpose without the authority of the noncommissioned officer of the guard. (317)

1815. The noncommissioned officer and one member of the stable guard will go for meals at the proper hour; upon their return the other members of the guard will be directed to go by the noncommissioned officer. (318)

1816. When the horses are herded each troop will furnish its own herd guard. (319)

1817. Smoking in the stables or their immediate vicinity is prohibited. No fire or light, other than electric light or stable lanterns, will be permitted in the stables. A special place will be designated for trimming, filling, and lighting lanterns. (320)

Noncommissioned Officer of the Troop Stable Guard

1818. The noncommissioned officer receives his orders from his troop commander, to whom he will report immediately after posting his first relief, and when relieved will turn over all his orders to his successor. He instructs his sentinels in their general and special duties; exercises general supervision over his entire guard; exacts order and cleanliness about the guardroom; prevents the introduction of intoxicants into the guardhouse and stables; receives, by count, from his predecessor, the animals, horse equipments, and all property (both private and public) pertaining thereto; examines, before relieving his predecessor, all locks, windows, and doors, and should any be found insecure he will report the fact to his troop commander when he reports for orders. He will personally post and relieve each sentinel, taking care to verify the property responsibility of the sentinel who comes off post, and see that the sentinel who goes on post is aware of the property responsibility that he assumes. (321)

1819. That the noncommissioned officer may be more thoroughly informed of his responsibility, all horses returning, except those from a regular formation, will be reported to him. He will then notify the sentinel on post, and, in the absence of the stable sergeant, will see that the horses are promptly cared for.

In case of abuse, he will promptly report to the troop commander. Should the horse be the private property of an officer, he will report such abuse to the owner. (322)

1820. The noncommissioned officer will report any unusual occurrence during his tour direct to his troop commander. (323)

1821. Horses and other property for which the noncommissioned officer is responsible will not be taken from the stables without the authority of the post or troop commander. (324)

1822. The noncommissioned officer must answer the sentinel's calls promptly. (325)

1823. In case of fire, the noncommissioned officer will see that the requirements of paragraph 1831 are promptly carried out. (326)

1824. Whenever it becomes necessary for the noncommissioned officer to leave his guard, he will designate a member of it to take charge and assume his responsibility during his absence. (327)

Sentinels of the Troop Stable Guard

1825. The sentinel in the discharge of his duties will be governed by the regulations for sentinels of the main guard whenever they are applicable—such as courtesies to officers, walking post in a soldierly manner, challenging, etc.; he will not turn out the guard except when ordered by proper authority. (328)

1826. The sentinel will receive orders from the commanding officer, the troop commander, and the noncommissioned officers of the stable guard only, except when the commanding officer directs the officer of the day to inspect the stable guard. (329)

1827. In the field and elsewhere when directed by the commanding officer the sentinel when posted will verify the number of horses for which he is responsible, and when relieved will give the number to his successor. (330)

1828. The sentinel will not permit any horse or equipments to be taken from the stables, except in the presence of the noncommissioned officer. (331)

1829. Should a horse get loose, the sentinel will catch him and tie him up. If he be unable to catch the horse, the noncommissioned officer will at once be notified. In case a horse be cast, or in any way entangled, he will relieve him, if possible; if unable to relieve him, he will call the noncommissioned officer. Sentinels are forbidden to punish or maltreat a horse. (332)

1830. When a horse is taken sick, the sentinel will notify the noncommissioned officer, who in turn will call the farrier, and see that the horse is properly attended to. (333)

1831. In case of fire the sentinel will give the alarm by stepping outside the stable and firing his pistol or piece repeatedly, and calling out at the same time, "Fire, stables, Troop (——)."

As soon as the guard is alarmed, he will take the necessary precautions in opening or closing the doors so as to prevent the spreading of the fire and make it possible to remove the horses; he will drop the chains and bars, and, with the other members of the guard, proceed to lead out the horses and secure them at the picket line or such other place as may have been previously designated. (334)

1832. Sentinels over horses, or in charge of prisoners, receive orders from the stable sergeant, so far as the care of the horses and the labor of prisoners are concerned. (335)

1833. In field artillery and machine-gun organizations, the guard for the stables has charge of the guns, caissons, etc., with their ammunition and stores, as well as the horses, harness, and forage. (336)

The Flag

1834. The lowering of the flag will be regulated as to be completed at the last note of "The Star Spangled Banner" or "to the color." (338)

1835. When practicable, a detail consisting of a noncommissioned officer and two privates of the guard will raise or lower the flag. This detail wears side arms or, if the special equipments do not include side arms, then belts only.

The noncommissioned officer, carrying the flag, forms the detail in line, takes his post in the center, and marches it to the staff. The flag is then securely attached to the halyards and rapidly hoisted. The halyards are then securely fastened to the cleat on the staff and the detail marched to the guardhouse. (344)

1836. When the flag is to be lowered, the halyards are loosened from the staff and made perfectly free. At retreat the flag is lowered at the last note of retreat. It is then neatly folded and the halyards made fast. The detail is then reformed and marched to the guardhouse, where the flag is turned over to the commander of the guard.

The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground and should always be hoisted or lowered from the leeward side of the staff, the halyards being held by two persons. (345)

Reveille and Retreat Gun

1837. The morning and evening gun will be fired by a detachment of the guard, consisting, when practicable, of a corporal and two privates. The morning gun is fired at the first note of reveille, or, if marches be played before the reveille, it is fired at the beginning of the first march The retreat gun is fired at the last note of retreat.

The corporal marches the detachment to and from the piece, which is fired, sponged out, and secured under his direction. (346)

Guard Mounting

1838. Guard mounting will be formal or informal as the commanding officer may direct. It will be held as prescribed in the drill regulations of the arm of the service to which the guard belongs; if none is prescribed, then as for infantry. In case the guard is composed wholly of mounted organizations, guard mounting may be held mounted. (347)

1839. When infantry and mounted troops dismounted are united for guard mounting, all details form as prescribed for infantry. (348)

Formal Guard Mounting for Infantry

1840. Formal guard mounting will ordinarily be held only in posts or camps where a band is present. (349)

1841. At the assembly, the men designated for the guard fall in on their company parade grounds as prescribed in paragraph 106. I. D. R. The first sergeant then verifies the detail, inspects it, replaces any man unfit to go on guard, turns the detail over to the senior noncommissioned officer, and retires. The band takes its place on the parade ground so that the left of its front rank shall be 12 paces to the right of the front rank of the guard when the latter is formed. (350)

1842. At adjutant's call, the adjutant, dismounted, and the sergeant-major on his left, marches to the parade ground. The adjutant halts and takes post so as to be 12 paces in front of and facing the center of the guard when formed; the sergeant-major continues on, moves by the left flank, and takes post, facing to the left, 12 paces to the left of the front rank of the band; the band plays in quick or double time; the details are marched to the parade ground by the senior noncommissioned officers; the detail that arrives first is marched to the line so that, upon halting, the breast of the front-rank man shall be near to and opposite the left arm of the sergeant-major; the commander of the detail halts his detail, places himself in front of and facing the sergeant-major, at a distance equal to or a little greater than the front of his detail, and commands: 1. Right, 2. DRESS. The detail dresses up to the line of the sergeant-major and its commander, the right front-rank man placing his breast against the left arm of the sergeant-major; the noncommissioned officers take post two paces in rear of the rear rank of the detail. The detail aligned, the commander of the detail commands: FRONT, salutes, and then reports: "The detail is correct;" or "So many sergeants, corporals, or privates are absent;" the sergeant-major returns the salute with the right hand after the report is made; the commander then passes by the right of the guard and takes post in the line of noncommissioned officers in rear of the right file or his detail.

Should there be more than one detail, it is formed in like manner on the left of the one preceding; the privates, noncommissioned officers, and commander of each detail dress on those of the preceding details in the same rank or line; each detail commander closes the rear rank to the right and fills blank files, as far as practicable, with the men from his front rank.

Should the guard from a company not include a noncommissioned officer, one will be detailed to perform the duties of commander of the detail. In this case the commander of the detail, after reporting to the sergeant-major, passes around the right flank between the guard and the band and retires. (351)

1843. When the last detail has formed, the sergeant-major takes a side step to the right, draws sword, verifies the detail, takes post two paces to the right and two paces to the front of the guard, facing to the left, causes the guard to count off, completes the left squad, if necessary, as in the school of the company, and if there be more than three squads, divides the guard into two platoons, again takes post as described above and commands: 1. Open ranks, 2. MARCH.

At the command march, the rear rank and file closers march backward four steps, halt, and dress to the right. The sergeant major aligns the ranks and file closers and again, taking post as described above, commands: FRONT, moves parallel to the front rank until opposite the center, turns to the right, halts midway to the adjutant, salutes, and reports: "Sir, the details are correct;" or, "Sir, (so many) sergeants, corporals, or privates are absent;" the adjutant returns the salute, directs the sergeant-major: Take your post, and then draws saber; the sergeant-major faces about, approaches to within two paces of the center of the front rank, turns to the right, moves three paces beyond the left of the front rank, turns to the left, halts on the line of the front rank, faces about, and brings his sword to the order. When the sergeant-major has reported, the officer of the guard takes post, facing to the front, three paces in front of the center of the guard, and draws saber.

The adjutant then commands: 1. Officer (or officers) and noncommissioned officers, 2. Front and Center, 3. MARCH.

At the command center, the officers carry saber. At the command march, the officer advances and halts three paces from the adjutant, remaining at the carry; the noncommissioned officers pass by the flanks, along the front, and form in order of rank from right to left, three paces in rear of the officer, remaining at the right shoulder; if there is no officer of the guard the noncommissioned officers halt on a line three paces from the adjutant; the adjutant then assigns the officers and noncommissioned officers according to rank, as follows: Commander of the guard, leader of first platoon, leader of second platoon, right guide of first platoon, left guide of second platoon, left guide of first platoon, right guide of second platoon, and file closers, or, if the guard is not divided into platoons: Commander of the guard, right guide, left guide, and file closers.

The adjutant then commands: 1. Officer (or officers) and noncommissioned officers, 2. POSTS, 3. MARCH.

At the command posts, all, except the officer commanding the guard, face about. At the command march, they take the posts prescribed in the school of the company with open ranks. The adjutant directs: Inspect your guard, sir; at which the officer commanding the guard faces about, commands: Prepare for inspection, returns saber, and inspects the guard.

During the inspection, the band plays; the adjutant returns saber, observes the general condition of the guard, and falls out any man who is unfit for guard duty or does not present a creditable appearance. Substitutes will report to the commander of the guard at the guardhouse. (352)

1844. The adjutant, when so directed, selects orderlies and color sentinels, as prescribed in paragraphs 140 and 141, and notifies the commander of the guard of his selection. (353)

If there be a junior officer of the guard he takes post at the same time as the senior, facing to the front, 3 paces in front of the center of the first platoon; in going to the front and center he follows and takes position on the left of the senior and is assigned as leader of the first platoon; he may be directed by the commander of the guard to assist in inspecting the guard.

If there be no officer of the guard, the adjutant inspects the guard. A noncommissioned officer commanding the guard takes post on the right of the right guide, when the guard is in line; and takes the post of the officer of the guard, when in column or passing in review. (354)

1845. The inspection ended, the adjutant places himself about 30 paces in front of and facing the center of the guard, and draws saber; the new officer of the day takes post in front of and facing the guard, about 30 paces from the adjutant; the old officer of the day takes post 3 paces to the right of and 1 pace to the rear of the new officer of the day; the officer of the guard takes post 3 paces in front of its center, draws saber with the adjutant and comes to the order; thereafter he takes the same relative positions as a captain of a company.

The adjutant then commands: 1. Parade, 2. REST, 3. SOUND OFF, and comes to the order and parade rest.

The band, playing, passes in front of the officer of the guard to the left of the line, and back to its post on the right, when it ceases playing.

The adjutant then comes to attention, carries saber, and commands: 1. Guard, 2. ATTENTION, 3. Close ranks, 4. MARCH.

The ranks are opened and closed as in paragraph 745, I. D. R.

The adjutant then commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS, faces toward the new officer of the day, salutes, and then reports: Sir, the guard is formed. The new officer of the day, after the adjutant has reported, returns the salute with the hand and directs the adjutant: March the guard in review, sir.

The adjutant carries saber, faces about, brings the guard to an order, and commands: 1. At trail, platoons (or guard) right, 2. MARCH, 3. Guard, 4. HALT.

The platoons execute the movements; the band turns to the right and places itself 12 paces in front of the first platoon.

The adjutant places himself 6 paces from the flank and abreast of the commander of the guard; the sergeant major, 6 paces from the left flank of the second platoon.

The adjutant then commands: 1. Pass in review, 2. FORWARD, 3. MARCH.

The guard marches in quick time past the officer of the day, according to the principles of review, and is brought to eyes right at the proper time by the commander of the guard; the adjutant, commander of the guard, leaders of platoons, sergeant-major, and drum major salute.

The band, having passed the officer of the day, turns to the left out of the column, places itself opposite and facing him, and continues to play until the guard leaves the parade ground. The field music detaches itself from the band when the latter turns out of the column, and, remaining in front of the guard, commences to play when the band ceases.

Having passed 12 paces beyond the officer of the day, the adjutant halts; the sergeant-major halts abreast of the adjutant and 1 pace to his left; they then return saber, salute, and retire; the commander of the guard then commands: 1. Platoons, right by squads, 2. MARCH, and marches the guard to its post.

The officers of the day face toward each other and salute; the old officer of the day turns over the orders to the new officer of the day.

When the band is sounding off, and while the guard is marching in review, the officers of the day stand at parade rest with arms folded. They take this position when the adjutant comes to parade rest, resume the attention with him, again take the parade rest at the first note of the march in review, and resume attention as the head of the column approaches.

The new officer of the day returns the salute of the commander of the guard and the adjutant, making one salute with the hand. (355)

1846. If the guard be not divided into platoons, the adjutant commands: 1. At trail, guard right, 2. MARCH, 3. Guard, 4. HALT, and it passes in review as above; the commander of the guard is 3 paces in front of its center; the adjutant places himself 6 paces from the left flank and abreast of the commander of the guard; the sergeant covers the adjutant on a line with the front rank. (356)

Informal Guard Mounting for Infantry

1847. Informal guard mounting will be held on the parade ground of the organization from which the guard is detailed. If it is detailed from more than one organization, then at such place as the commanding officer may direct. (357)

1848. At assembly, the detail for guard falls in on the company parade ground. The first sergeant verifies the detail, inspects their dress and general appearance, and replaces any man unfit to march on guard. He then turns the detail over to the commander of the guard and retires. (358)

1849. At adjutant's call, the officer of the day takes his place 15 paces in front of the center of the guard and commands: 1. Officer (or officers) and noncommissioned officers, 2. Front and center, 3. MARCH; whereupon the officers and noncommissioned officers take their positions, are assigned and sent to their posts as prescribed in formal guard mounting. (Par. 1843.)

The officer of the day will then inspect the guard with especial reference for its fitness for the duty for which it is detailed, and will select as prescribed in paragraphs 1702, the necessary orderlies and color sentinels. The men found unfit for guard will be returned to quarters and will be replaced by others found to be suitable, if available in the company. If none are available in the company, the fact will be reported to the adjutant immediately after guard mounting.

When the inspection shall have been completed, the officer of the day resumes his position and directs the commander of the guard to march the guard to its post. (359)

Relieving the Old Guard

1850. As the new guard approaches the guardhouse, the old guard is formed in line, with its field music 3 paces to its right; and when the field music at the head of the new guard arrives opposite its left, the commander of the new guard commands: 1. Eyes, 2. RIGHT; the commander of the old guard commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS; commanders of both guards salute. The new guard marches in quick time past the old guard.

When the commander of the new guard is opposite the field music of the old guard, he commands: FRONT; the commander of the old guard commands: 1. Order, 2. ARMS, as soon as the new guard shall have cleared the old guard.

The field music having marched 3 paces beyond the field music of the old guard, changes direction to the right, and, followed by the guard, changes direction to the left when on a line with the old guard; the changes of direction are without command. The commander of the guard halts on the line of the front rank of the old guard, allows his guard to march past him, and when its rear approaches forms it in line to the left, establishes the left guide 3 paces to the right of the field music of the old guard, and on a line with the front rank, and then dresses his guard to the left; the field music of the new guard is 3 paces to the right of its front rank. (360)

1851. The new guard being dressed, the commander of each guard, in front of and facing its center, commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS, resumes his front, salutes, carries saber, faces his guard and commands: 1. Order, 2. ARMS.

Should a guard be commanded by a noncommissioned officer, he stands on the right or left of the front rank, according as he commands the old or new guard, and executes the rifle salute. (361)

1852. After the new guard arrives at its post, and has saluted the old guard, each guard is presented by its commander to its officer of the day; if there be but one officer of the day present, or if one officer acts in the capacity of old and new officer of the day, each guard is presented to him by its commander. (362)

1853. If other persons entitled to a salute approach, each commander of the guard will bring his own guard to attention if not already at attention. The senior commander of the two guards will then command "1. Old and new guards, 2. Present, 3. ARMS."

The junior will salute at the command "Present Arms" given by the senior. After the salute has been acknowledged, the senior brings both guards to the order. (363)

1854. After the salutes have been acknowledged by the officers of the day, each guard is brought to an order by its commander; the commander of the new guard then directs the orderly or orderlies to fall out and report, and causes bayonets to be fixed if so ordered by the commanding officer; bayonets will not then be unfixed during the tour except in route marches while the guard is actually marching, or when specially directed by the commanding officer.

The commander of the new guard then falls out members of the guard for detached posts, placing them under charge of the proper noncommissioned officers, divides the guard into three reliefs, first, second, and third, from right to left, and directs a list of the guard to be made by reliefs. When the guard consists of troops of different arms combined, the men are assigned to reliefs so as to insure a fair division of duty, under rules prescribed by the commanding officer. (364)

1855. The sentinels and detachments of the old guard are at once relieved by members of the new guard; the two guards standing at ease or at rest while these changes are being made. The commander of the old transmits to the commander of the new guard all his orders, instructions, and information concerning the guard and its duties. The commander of the new guard then takes possession of the guardhouse and verifies the articles in charge of the guard. (365)

1856. If considerable time is required to bring in that portion of the old guard still on post, the commanding officer may direct that as soon as the orders and property are turned over to the new guard, the portion of the old guard at the guardhouse may be marched off and dismissed. In such a case, the remaining detachment or detachments of the old guard will be inspected by the commander of the new guard when they reach the guardhouse. He will direct the senior noncommissioned officer present to march these detachments off and dismiss them in the prescribed manner. (366)

1857. In bad weather, at night, after long marches, or when the guard is very small, the field music may be dispensed with. (367)

FOOTNOTES:

[20] The term "governors general" shall be taken to mean administrative officers under whom officers with the title of governor are acting.

[21] The grade of commodore ceased to exist as a grade on the active list of the Navy of the United States on Mar. 3, 1899. By section 7 of the act of Mar. 3, 1899, the nine junior rear admirals are authorized to receive the pay and allowances of a brigadier general of the Army.



PART VIII

MILITARY ORGANIZATION

1858. The tabulations that follow are based on the National Defense Act of June 3, 1916, and on the Tables of Organization.

Composition of Infantry Units

Regiment Battalions (3) Each Each 1 Colonel 1 Major 1 Lt. Colonel 1 1st Lieut., mounted 3 Majors (battalion adjutant) 15 Captains 4 Companies. 16 1st Lieuts. 15 2nd Lieuts. Attached 51 1 Battalion Sergt. Major (from Hdqrs. Co.) 1 Hdqrs. Co. 1 Machine Gun Co. 1 Supply Co. 12 Infantry Cos., organized into 3 battalions of 4 companies each Attached 1 Major, Med. Dept. 3 Capts., or 1st Lieuts., Med. Dept. 1 Chaplain

- Companies -+ + -+ Infantry (12) Headquarters (1) Machine Gun (1) Supply (1) -+ + -+ 1 Captain 1 Captain, mounted, 1 Captain, Mtd. 1 Captain, Mtd. 1 1st Lieut. (Regtl. Adjt.) 1 1st Lt., Mtd. 1 2nd Lt., Mtd. 1 2nd Lieut. 2 2nd Lts., Mtd. 1 Regtl. Sergt. 2 3 Major, mounted. 4 3 Batln. Sergts. 3 Regtl. Supply Major, mounted. 1 1st Sergt., Sergts., Mtd. 1 1st Sergt. 1 1st Sergt. Mtd. 1 1st Sergt., 1 Mess Sergt. (drum major) 1 Mess Sergt. Mtd. 1 Supply Sergt. 2 Color Sergts. 1 Supply Sergt., 1 Mess Sergt. 6 Sergts. 1 Mess Sergt. Mtd. 1 Stable Sergt. 11 Corpls. 1 Supply Sergt. 1 Stable Sergt., 1 Corpl., Mtd. 2 Cooks 1 Stable Sergt. Mtd. 1 Cook 2 Buglers 1 Sergt. 1 Horseshoer 1 Saddler 1 Mechanic 2 Cooks 5 Sergeants 1 Horseshoer 19 Pvts. (1st 1 Horseshoer 6 Corporals 1 Wagoner for Class) 1 Band leader 2 Cooks each 56 Pvts. 1 Asst. Band leader 2 Buglers authorized - 1 Sergt. bugler 1 Mechanic wagon 100 2 Band Sergts. 8 Pvts., 1st of the field - 4 Band Corpls. Class and combat (The President 2 Musicians, 1st 24 Privates train. may add 2 Class Sergts., 6 4 Musicians, 2nd 53 Corpls., 1 Class Mechanic, 9 Pvts. 13 Musicians, 3rd (The President 1st Class and 31 Class may add 2 Pvts. total, 49) 4 Pvts., 1st Class, Sergts., 2 Mtd. Corpls., 12 Pvts, Mtd. 1 Mechanic, 4 Pvts., 1st 58 Class and 12 Pvts. total, 21) -+ + -+

Transportation, orderlies, etc. To Hdqrs. Co., 27 riding horses; to Machine Gun Co., 6 riding horses and 8 pack mules; to Supply Co., 3 riding horses; to each Battalion Hdqrs., 6 riding horses, 1 wagon, 4 draft mules, and 2 mounted orderlies; to Regtl. Hdqrs., 5 riding horses.

Composition of Cavalry Units

Regiment Squadrons (3) Each Each 1 Colonel 1 Major 1 Lt. Colonel 1 1st Lieut., squadron adjutant 3 Majors 15 Captains 4 troops 16 1st Lieuts. 16 2nd Lieuts. Attached 52 1 Squadron Sergt. Major (from Hdqrs. Troop) 1 Hdqrs. Troop 1 Machine Gun Troop 1 Supply Troop 12 Troops organized into 3 squadrons of 4 troops each Attached 1 Major, Med. Dept. 3 Capts., or 1st Lieuts., Med. Dept. 1 Chaplain

- Troops -+ + -+ Cavalry (12) Headquarters (1) Machine Gun (1) Supply (1) -+ + -+ 1 Captain 1 Captain, Regtl. 1 Captain 1 Captain, 1 1st Lieut. Adjt. 1 1st Lieut. Regtl. Supply 1 2nd Lieut. 1 Regtl. Sergeant 2 2nd Lieuts. Officer Major 2 2nd Lieuts. 3 3 Squadron Sergts. 4 Major 3 1 1st Sergt. 1 1st Sergt. (Drum Major) 1 1st Sergt. 1 Mess Sergt. 2 Color Sergts. 1 Mess Sergt. 3 Regtl. Supply 1 Supply Sergt. 1 Mess Sergt. 1 Supply Sergt. Sergts. 1 Stable Sergt. 1 Supply Sergt. 1 Stable Sergt. 1 1st Sergt. 5 Sergts. 1 Stable Sergt. 2 Horseshoers 1 Mess Sergt. 8 Corpls. 1 Sergt. 5 Sergts. 1 Stable Sergt. 2 Cooks 2 Cooks 6 Corpls. 1 Corpl. 2 Horseshoers 1 Horseshoer 2 Cooks 1 Cook 1 Saddler 1 Saddler 1 Mechanic 1 Horseshoer 2 Buglers 2 Pvts. (1st Class) 1 Saddler 1 Saddler 10 Pvts. (1st 9 Pvts. 2 Buglers 1 Wagoner for Class) 1 Band leader 12 Pvts. 1st each 36 Pvts. 1 Asst. Band Leader Class authorized 1 Sergt. Bugler 35 Pvts. wagon of the 70 2 Band Sergts. field and 4 Band Corpls. 70 combat train. 2 Musicians, 1st (The President Class may add 10 Pvts. 4 Musicians, 2nd (The President (1st Class) and Class may add 3 25 Pvts. total, 13 Musicians, 3rd Sergts., 2 35) Class Corpls., 1 Mechanic, 1 Pvt. 54 1st Class, 14 Pvts. total, 21) (The President may add 2 Sergts, 5 Corpls., 1 Horseshoer, 5 Pvts. 1st Class, 18 Pvts. total, 31) -+ + -+

Transportation, orderlies, etc. To each Squadron Hdqrs., 6 or 7 riding horses and 2 orderlies; to each squadron; 292 riding horses, 1 wagon and 4 draft mules.

Composition of Field Artillery Units

- Battalion Battery Regiment (Gun or Howitzer) (Gun or Howitzer) - Each Each Each - 1 Colonel 1 Major 1 Captain 1 Lt. Colonel 1 Captain 2 1st Lieuts. 1 Captain 2 2nd Lieuts. 2 3 5 Batteries as follows: 1 Hdqrs. Co., 1 1st Sergt. 1 Supply Co., Mountain artillery 1 Supply Sergt. battalions and light 1 Stable Sergt. And such number of artillery gun or 1 Mess Sergt. guns and howitzer as howitzer battalions 6 Sergts. the President may serving with the field 13 Corpls. direct. artillery or Infantry 1 Chief Mechanic divisions shall contain 1 Saddler Attached three batteries; horse 2 Horseshoers artillery battalions 1 Mechanic 1 Major, Med. Dept. and heavy field 2 Buglers 3 Capts. or 1st artillery gun or 3 Cooks Lieuts., Med. Dept. howitzer battalions 22 Pvts., 1st Class 1 Chaplain shall contain two 71 Pvts. batteries. - 125 - When no enlisted men of the Quartermaster Corps are attached for such positions there shall be added to each battery of mountain artillery: 1 Packmaster Sergt., 1st Class 1 Asst. Packmaster Sergt. 1 Cargador, Corpl. (The President may add 3 Sergts., 7 Corpls., 1 Horseshoer, 2 Mechanics, 1 Bugler, 13 Pvts. 1st Class, 37 Pvts. total, 64) -

+ Headquarters Company of Regt., of 2 battalions Supply (1) Regt. of 2 Batlns. + 1 Captain 1 Captain 1 1st Lieut. 1 1st Lieut. 2 2 1 Regtl. Sergt. Major 2 Regtl. Supply Sergts. 2 Batln. Sergts. Major 1 1st Sergt. 1 1st Sergt. 1 Mess Sergt. 2 Color Sergts. 1 Corpl. 1 Mess Sergt. 1 Cook 1 Supply Sergt. 1 Horseshoer 1 Stable Sergt. 1 Saddler 2 Sergts. 2 Pvts. 9 Corpls. 1 Wagoner for each authorized 1 Horseshoer wagon of the field train. 1 Saddler 1 Mechanic When Regt. consists of 3 Batlns. 3 Buglers there shall be added 1 2nd Lieut. 2 Cooks (1), 1 Regtl. Supply Sergt., 1 5 Pvts. 1st Class Pvt., 1 Wagoner for each 15 Pvts. additional authorized wagon of the 1 Band leader field train. 1 Asst. Band leader 1 Sergt. Bugler (The President may add 1 Corpl., 1 2 Band Sergts. Cook, 1 Horseshoer, 1 4 Band Corpls. Saddler. total, 4) 2 Musicians, 1st Class 4 Musicians, 2nd Class Supply Co., of Regt. of 3 Batlns. 13 Musicians, 3rd Class may have added, the same number as given above for Regt. of 2 Batlns. 76 When a regiment consists of three battalions there shall be added to Hdqrs. Co.: 1 Batln. Sergt. Major, 1 Sergt., 3 Corpls., 1 Bugler, 1 Pvt. 1st Class, 5 Pvts. total, 12. When no enlisted men of the Quartermaster Corps are attached for such positions there shall be added to each mountain artillery Hdqrs. Co., 1 Packmaster Sergt., 1st Class 1 Asst. Packmaster, Sergt. 1 Cargador, Corpl. total, 3. (The President may add 2 Sergts., 5 Corpls., 1 Horseshoer, 1 Mechanic, 1 Pvt. 1st Class, 6 Pvts. total 16 to a regiment of 2 battalions; and to a regiment of 3 battalions 1 Sergt., 7 Corpls., 1 Horseshoer, 1 Mechanic, 2 Cooks, 2 Pvts. 1st Class, 7 Pvts. total, 21) +

Transportation, orderlies, etc. To Battery Hdqrs., 8 riding horses; to each Battery, 24 riding horses, 88 draft horses, 1 Battery wagon, 1 Store wagon, 8 Caissons and 4 Guns.



PART IX

MAP READING AND MILITARY SKETCHING



CHAPTER I

MAP READING

1859. Definition of map. A map is a representation on paper of a certain portion of the earth's surface.

A military map is one that shows the things which are of military importance, such as roads, streams, bridges, houses, depressions, and hills.

1860. Map reading. By map reading is meant the ability to get a clear idea of the ground represented by the map,—of being able to visualize the ground so represented.

For some unknown reason, military map reading is generally considered a very difficult matter to master, and the beginner, starting out with this idea, seemingly tries to find it difficult.

However, as a matter of fact, map reading is not difficult, if one goes about learning it in the right way,—that is, by first becoming familiar with scales, contours, conventional signs, and other things that go to make up map making.

Practice is most important in acquiring ability in map reading. Practice looking at maps and then visualizing the actual country represented on the map.

1861. Scales. In order that you may be able to tell the distance between any two points on a map, the map must be drawn to scale,—that is, it must be so drawn that a certain distance on the map, say, one inch, represents a certain distance on the ground, say, one mile. On such a map, then, two inches would represent two miles on the ground; three inches, three miles, and so on. Therefore, we may say—

The scale of a map is the ratio between actual distances on the ground and those between the same points as represented on the map.

1862. Methods of representing scales. There are three ways in which the scale of a map may be represented:

1st. By words and figures, as 3 inches = 1 mile; 1 inch = 200 feet.

2d. By Representative Fraction (abbreviated R. F.), which is a fraction whose numerator represents units of distance on the map and whose denominator, units of distance on the ground.

For example, R. F. = 1 inch (on map)/1 mile (on ground) which is equivalent to R. F. = 1/63360, since 1 mile = 63,360 inches. So the expression, "R. F. 1/63360" on a map merely means that 1 inch on the map represents 63,360 inches (or 1 mile) on the ground. This fraction is usually written with a numerator 1, as above, no definite unit of inches or miles being specified in either the numerator or denominator. In this case the expression means that one unit of distance on the map equals as many of the same units on the ground as are in the denominator. Thus, 1/63360 means that 1 inch on the map = 63,360 inches on the ground, 1 foot on the map = 63,360 feet on the ground; 1 yard on the map = 63,360 yards on the ground, etc.

3d. By Graphical Scale, that is, a drawn scale. A graphical scale is a line drawn on the map, divided into equal parts, each part being marked not with its actual length, but with the distance which it represents on the ground. Thus:



For example, the distance from 0 to 50 represents fifty yards on the ground; the distance from 0 to 100, one hundred yards on the ground, etc.

If the above scale were applied to the road running from A to B in Fig. 2, it would show that the length of the road is 675 yards.



1863. Construction of Scales. The following are the most usual problems that arise in connection with the construction of scales:

1. Having given the R. F. on a map, to find how many miles on the ground are represented by one inch on the map. Let us suppose that the R. F. is 1/21120.

Solution

Now, as previously explained, 1/21120 simply means that one inch on the map represents 21,120 inches on the ground. There are 63,360 inches in one mile. 21,120 goes into 63,360 three times—that is to say, 21,120 is 1/3 of 63,360, and we, therefore, see from this that one inch on the map represents 1/3 of a mile on the ground, and consequently it would take three inches on the map to represent one whole mile on the ground. So, we have this general rule: To find out how many miles one inch on the map represents on the ground, divide the denominator of the R. F. by 63,360.

2. Being given the R. F. to construct a graphical scale to read yards. Let us assume that 1/21120 is the R. F. given—that is to say, one inch on the map represents 21,120 inches on the ground, but, as there are 36 inches in one yard, 21,120 inches = 21,120/36 yds. = 586.66 yds.—that is, one inch on the map represents 586.66 yds. on the ground. Now, suppose about a 6-inch scale is desired. Since one inch on the map = 586.66 yards on the ground, 6 inches (map) = 586.66 x 6 = 3,519.96 yards (ground). In order to get as nearly a 6-inch scale as possible to represent even hundreds of yards, let us assume 3,500 yards to be the total number to be represented by the scale. The question then resolves itself into this: How many inches on the map are necessary to represent 3,500 yards on the ground. Since, as we have seen, one inch (map) = 586.66 yards (ground), as many inches are necessary to show 3,500 yards as 586.66 is contained in 3,500; or 3500/586.66 = 5.96 inches.



Now lay off with a scale of equal parts the distance A-I (Figure 3) = 5.96 inches (about 5 and 9-1/2 tenths), and divided it into 7 equal parts by the construction shown in figure, as follows: Draw a line A-H, making any convenient angle with A-I, and lay off 7 equal convenient lengths (A-B, B-C, C-D, etc.), so as to bring H about opposite to I. Join H and I and draw the intermediate lines through B, C, etc., parallel to H-I. These lines divide A-I into 7 equal parts, each 500 yards long. The left part, called the Extension, is similarly divided into 5 equal parts, each representing 100 yards.

3. To construct a scale for a map with no scale. In this case, measure the distance between any two definite points on the ground represented, by pacing or otherwise, and scale off the corresponding map distance. Then see how the distance thus measured corresponds with the distance on the map between the two points. For example, let us suppose that the distance on the ground between two given points is one mile and that the distance between the corresponding points on the map is 3/4 inch. We would, therefore, see that 3/4 inch on the map = one mile on the ground. Hence 1/4 inch would represent 1/3 of a mile, and 4-4, or one inch, would represent 4 x 1/3 = 4/3 = 1-1/3 miles.

The R. F. is found as follows:

R. F. 1 inch/(1-1/3 mile) = 1 inch/(63,360 x 1-1/3 inches) = 1/84480.

From this a scale of yards is constructed as above (2).

4. To construct a graphical scale from a scale expressed in unfamiliar units. There remains one more problem, which occurs when there is a scale on the map in words and figures, but it is expressed in unfamiliar units, such as the meter (= 39.37 inches), strides of a man or horse, rate of travel of column, etc. If a noncommissioned officer should come into possession of such a map, it would be impossible for him to have a correct idea of the distances on the map. If the scale were in inches to miles or yards, he would estimate the distance between any two points on the map to be so many inches and at once know the corresponding distance on the ground in miles or yards. But suppose the scale found on the map to be one inch = 100 strides (ground), then estimates could not be intelligently made by one unfamiliar with the length of the stride used. However, suppose the stride was 60 inches long; we would then have this: Since 1 stride = 60 inches, 100 strides = 6,000 inches. But according to our supposition, 1 inch on the map = 100 strides on the ground; hence 1 inch on the map = 6,000 inches on the ground, and we have as our R. F., 1 inch (map)/6,000 inches (ground) = 1/6000. A graphical scale can now be constructed as in (2).

Problems in Scales

1864. The following problems should be solved to become familiar with the construction of scales:

Problem No. 1. The R. F. of a map is 1/1000. Required: 1. The distance in miles shown by one inch on the map; 2. To construct a graphical scale of yards; also one to read miles.

Problem No. 2. A map has a graphical scale on which 1.5 inches reads 500 strides. 1. What is the R. F. of the map? 2. How many miles are represented by 1 inch?

Problem No. 3. The Leavenworth map in back of this book has a graphical scale and a measured distance of 1.25 inches reads 1,100 yards. Required: 1. The R. F. of the map; 2. Number of miles shown by 1 inch on the map.

Problem No. 4. 1. Construct a scale to read yards for a map of R. F. = 1/21120. 2. How many inches represent 1 mile?

1865. Scaling distances from a map. There are four methods of scaling distances from maps:

1. Apply a piece of straight edged paper to the distance between any two points, A and B, for instance, and mark the distance on the paper. Now, apply the paper to the graphical scale, (Fig. 2, Par. 1862), and read the number of yards on the main scale and add the number indicated on the extension. For example: 600 + 75 = 675 yards.

2. By taking the distance off with a pair of dividers and applying the dividers thus set to the graphical scale, the distance is read.

3. By use of an instrument called a map measurer, Fig. 4, set the hand on the face to read zero, roll the small wheel over the distance; now roll the wheel in an opposite direction along the graphical scale, noting the number of yards passed over. Or, having rolled over the distance, note the number of inches on the dial and multiply this by the number of miles or other units per inch. A map measurer is valuable for use in solving map problems in patrolling, advance guard, outpost, etc.



4. Apply a scale of inches to the line to be measured, and multiply this distance by the number of miles per inch shown by the map.

1866. Contours. In order to show on a map a correct representation of ground, the depressions and elevations,—that is, the undulations,—must be represented. This is usually done by contours.

Conversationally speaking, a contour is the outline of a figure or body, or the line or lines representing such an outline.

In connection with maps, the word contour is used in these two senses:

1. It is a projection on a horizontal (level) plane (that is, a map) of the line in which a horizontal plane cuts the surface of the ground. In other words, it is a line on a map which shows the route one might follow on the ground and walk on the absolute level. If, for example, you went half way up the side of a hill and, starting there, walked entirely around the hill, neither going up any higher nor down any lower, and you drew a line of the route you had followed, this line would be a contour line and its projection on a horizontal plane (map) would be a contour.

By imagining the surface of the ground being cut by a number of horizontal planes that are the same distance apart, and then projecting (shooting) on a horizontal plane (map) the lines so cut, the elevations and depressions on the ground are represented on the map.

It is important to remember that the imaginary horizontal planes cutting the surface of the ground must be the same distance apart. The distance between the planes is called the contour interval.

2. The word contour is also used in referring to contour line,—that is to say, it is used in referring to the line itself in which a horizontal plane cuts the surface of the ground as well as in referring to the projection of such line on a horizontal plane.

An excellent idea of what is meant by contours and contour-lines can be gotten from Figs. 5 and 6. Let us suppose that formerly the island represented in Figure 5 was entirely under water and that by a sudden disturbance the water of the lake fell until the island stood twenty feet above the water, and that later several other sudden falls of the water, twenty feet each time, occurred, until now the island stands 100 feet out of the lake, and at each of the twenty feet elevations a distinct water line is left. These water lines are perfect contour-lines measured from the surface of the lake as a reference (or datum) plane. Figure 6 shows the contour-lines in Figure 5 projected, or shot down, on a horizontal (level) surface. It will be observed that on the gentle slopes, such as F-H (Fig. 5), the contours (20, 40) are far apart. But on the steep slopes, as R-O, the contours (20, 40, 60, 80, 100) are close together. Hence, it is seen that contours far apart on a map indicate gentle slopes, and contours close together, steep slopes. It is also seen that the shape of the contours gives an accurate idea of the form of the island. The contours in Fig. 6 give an exact representation not only of the general form of the island, the two peaks, O and B, the stream, M-N, the Saddle, M, the water shed from F to H, and steep bluff at K, but they also give the slopes of the ground at all points. From this we see that the slopes are directly proportional to the nearness of the contours—that is, the nearer the contours on a map are to one another, the steeper is the slope, and the farther the contours on a map are from one another, the gentler is the slope. A wide space between contours, therefore, represents level ground.



The contours on maps are always numbered, the number of each showing its height above some plane called a datum plane. Thus in Fig. 6 the contours are numbered from 0 to 100 using the surface of the lake as the datum plane.

The numbering shows at once the height of any point on a given contour and in addition shows the contour interval—in this case 20 feet.

Generally only every fifth contour is numbered.

The datum plane generally used in maps is mean sea level, hence the elevations indicated would be the heights above mean sea level.

The contours of a cone (Fig. 7) are circles of different sizes, one within another, and the same distance apart, because the slope of a cone is at all points the same.



The contours of a half sphere (Fig. 8), are a series of circles, far apart near the center (top), and near together at the outside (bottom), showing that the slope of a hemisphere varies at all points, being nearly flat on top and increasing in steepness toward the bottom.



The contours of a concave (hollowed out) cone (Fig. 9) are close together at the center (top) and far apart at the outside (bottom).



The following additional points about contours should be remembered:

(a) A Water Shed or Spur, along with rain water divides, flowing away from it on both sides, is indicated by the higher contours bulging out toward the lower ones (F-H, Fig. 6).

(b) A Water Course or Valley, along which rain falling on both sides of it joins in one stream, is indicated by the lower contours curving in toward the higher ones (M-N, Fig. 6).

(c) The contours of different heights which unite and become a single line, represent a vertical cliff (K, Fig. 6).

(d) Two contours which cross each other represent an overhanging cliff.

(e) A closed contour without another contour in it, represents either in elevation or a depression, depending on whether its reference number is greater or smaller than that of the outer contour. A hilltop is shown when the closed contour is higher than the contour next to it; a depression is shown when the closed contour is lower than the one next to it.

If the student will first examine the drainage system, as shown by the courses of the streams on the map, he can readily locate all the valleys, as the streams must flow through valleys. Knowing the valleys, the ridges or hills can easily be placed, even without reference to the numbers on the contours.

For example: On the Elementary Map, Woods Creek flows north and York Creek flows south. They rise very close to each other, and the ground between the points at which they rise must be higher ground, sloping north on one side and south on the other, as the streams flow north and south, respectively (see the ridge running west from Twin Hills).

The course of Sandy Creek indicates a long valley, extending almost the entire length of the map. Meadow Creek follows another valley, and Deep Run another. When these streams happen to join other streams, the valleys must open into each other.

1867. Map Distances (or horizontal equivalents). The horizontal distance between contours on a map (called map distance, or M. D.; or horizontal equivalents or H. E.) is inversely proportional to the slope of the ground represented—that it to say, the greater the slope of the ground, the less is the horizontal distance between the contours; the less the slope of the ground represented, the greater is the horizontal distance between the contours.



- Slope Rise Horizontal (degrees) (feet) Distance (inches) - 1 deg. 1 688 2 deg. 1 688/2 = 344 3 deg. 1 688/3 = 229 4 deg. 1 688/4 = 172 5 deg. 1 688/5 = 138 -

It is a fact that 688 inches horizontally on a 1 degree slope gives a vertical rise of one foot; 1376 inches, two feet, 2064 inches, three feet, etc., from which we see that on a slope of 1 degree, 688 inches multiplied by vertical rises of 1 foot, 2 feet, 3 feet, etc., gives us the corresponding horizontal distance in inches. For example, if the contour interval (Vertical Interval, V. I.) of a map is 10 feet, then 688 inches x 10 equals 6880 inches, gives the horizontal ground distance corresponding to a rise of 10 feet on a 1 degree slope. To reduce this horizontal ground distance to horizontal map distance, we would, for example, proceed as follows:

Let us assume the R. F. to be 1/15840—that is to say, 15,840 inches on the ground equals 1 inch on the map, consequently, 6880 inches on the ground equals 6880/15840, equals .44 inch on the map. And in the case of 2 degrees, 3 degrees, etc., we would have:

M. D. for 2 deg. = 6880/(15840 x 2) = .22 inch;

M. D. for 3 deg. = 6880/(15840 x 3) = .15 inch, etc.

From the above, we have this rule:

To construct a scale of M. D. for a map, multiply 688 by the contour interval (in feet) and the R. F. of the map, and divide the results by 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., and then lay off these distances as shown in Fig. 11, Par. 1867a.

FORMULA

M. D. (inches) = (688 x V. I. (feet) x R. F.) / (Degrees (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.))

1867a. Scale of Map Distances (or, Scale of Slopes). On the Elementary Map, below the scale of miles and scale of yards, is a scale similar to the following one:



The left-hand division is marked 1/2 deg.; the next division (one-half as long) 1 deg.; the next division (one-half the length of the 1 deg. division) 2 deg., and so on. The 1/2 deg. division means that where adjacent contours on the map are just that distance apart, the ground has a slope of 1/2 a degree between these two contours, and slopes up toward the contour with the higher reference number; a space between adjacent contours equal to the 1 deg. space shown on the scale means a 1 deg. slope, and so on.

What is a slope of 1 deg.? By a slope of 1 deg. we mean that the surface of the ground makes an angle of 1 deg. with the horizontal (a level surface. See Fig. 10, Par. 1867). The student should find out the slope of some hill or street and thus get a concrete idea of what the different degrees of slope mean. A road having a 5 deg. slope is very steep.

By means of this scale of M. D.'s on the map, the map reader can determine the slope of any portion of the ground represented, that is, as steep as 1/2 deg. or steeper. Ground having a slope of less than 1/2 deg. is practically level.

1868. Slopes. Slopes are usually given in one of three ways: 1st, in degrees; 2d, in percentages; 3d, in gradients (grades).

1st. A one degree slope means that the angle between the horizontal and the given line is 1 degree (1 deg.). See Fig. 10, Par. 1867.

2d. A slope is said to be 1, 2, 3, etc., per cent, when 100 units horizontally correspond to a rise of 1, 2, 3, etc., units vertically.



3d. A slope is said to be one on one (1/1), two on three, (2/3), etc., when one unit horizontal corresponds to 1 vertical; three horizontal correspond to two vertical, etc. The numerator usually refers to the vertical distance, and the denominator to the horizontal distance.



Degrees of slope are usually used in military matters; percentages are often used for roads, almost always of railroads; gradients are used of steep slopes, and usually of dimensions of trenches.

1869. Effect of Slope on Movements

60 degrees or 7/4 inaccessible for infantry; 45 degrees or 1/1 difficult for infantry; 30 degrees or 4/7 inaccessible for cavalry; 15 degrees or 1/4 inaccessible for artillery; 5 degrees or 1/12 accessible for wagons.

The normal system of scales prescribed for U. S. Army field sketches is as follows: For road sketches, 3 inches = 1 mile, vertical interval between contours (V. I.) = 20 ft.; for position sketches, 6 inches = 1 mile, V. I. = 10 ft.; for fortification sketches, 12 inches = 1 mile, V. I. = 5 ft. On this system any given length of M. D. corresponds to the same slope on each of the scales. For instance, .15 inch between contours represents a 5 deg. slope on the 3-inch, 6-inch and 12-inch maps of the normal system. Figure 11, Par. 1867a, gives the normal scale of M. D.'s for slopes up to 8 degrees. A scale of M. D.'s is usually printed on the margin of maps, near the geographical scale.

1870. Meridians. If you look along the upper left hand border of the Elementary Map (back of Manual), you will see two arrows, as shown in Fig. 14, pointing towards the top of the map.



They are pointing in the direction that is north on the map. The arrow with a full barb points toward the north pole (the True North Pole) of the earth, and is called the True Meridian.

The arrow with but half a barb points toward what is known as the Magnetic Pole of the earth, and is called the Magnetic Meridian.

The Magnetic Pole is a point up in the arctic regions, near the geographical or True North Pole, which, on account of its magnetic qualities, attracts one end of all compass needles and causes them to point towards it, and as it is near the True North Pole, this serves to indicate the direction of north to a person using a compass.

Of course, the angle which the Magnetic needle makes with the True Meridian (called the Magnetic Declination) varies at different points on the earth. In some places it points east of the True Meridian and in others it points west of it.

It is important to know this relation because maps usually show the True Meridian and an observer is generally supplied with a magnetic compass. Fig. 15 shows the usual type of Box Compass. It has 4 cardinal points, N, E, S and W marked, as well as a circle graduated in degrees from zero to 360 deg., clockwise around the circle. To read the magnetic angle (called magnetic azimuth) of any point from the observer's position the north point of the compass circle is pointed toward the object and the angle indicated by the north end of the needle is read.



You now know from the meridians, for example, in going from York to Oxford (see Elementary Map) that you travel north; from Boling to Salem you must travel south; going from Salem to York requires you to travel west; and from York to Salem you travel east. Suppose you are in command of a patrol at York and are told to go to Salem by the most direct line across country. You look at your map and see that Salem is exactly east of York. Next you take out your field compass (Figure 15, Par. 1870), raise the lid, hold the box level, allow the needle to settle and see in what direction the north end of the needle points (it would point toward Oxford). You then know the direction of north from York, and you can turn your right and go due east towards Salem.

Having once discovered the direction of north on the ground, you can go to any point shown on your map without other assistance. If you stand at York, facing north and refer to your map, you need no guide to tell you that Salem lies directly to your right; Oxford straight in front of you; Boling in a direction about halfway between the directions of Salem and Oxford, and so on.

1871. Determination of positions of points on map. If the distance, height and direction of a point on a map are known with respect to any other point, then the position of the first point is fully determined.

The scale of the map enables us to determine the distance; the contours, the height; and the time meridian, the direction.

Thus (see map in pocket at back of book), Pope Hill (sm') is 800 yards from Grant Hill (um') (using graphical scale), and it is 30 feet higher than Grant Hill, since it is on contour 870 and Grant Hill is on contour 840; Pope Hill is also due north of Grant Hill, that is, the north and south line through Grant Hill passes through Pope Hill. Therefore, the position of Pope Hill is fully determined with respect to Grant Hill.

Orientation

1872. In order that directions on the map and on the ground shall correspond, it is necessary for the map to be oriented, that is, the true meridian of the map must lie in the same direction as the true meridian through the observer's position on the ground, which is only another way of saying that the lines that run north and south on the map must run in the same direction as the lines north and south on the ground. Every road, stream or other feature on the map will then run in the same direction as the road, stream or other feature itself on the ground, and all the objects shown on the map can be quickly identified and picked out on the ground.

Methods of Orienting a Map

1st. By magnetic needle: If the map has a magnetic meridian marked on it as is on the Leavenworth map (in pocket at back of book), place the sighting line, a-b, of the compass (Fig. 15) on the magnetic meridian of the map and move the map around horizontally until the north end of the needle points toward the north of its circle, whereupon the map is oriented. If there is a true meridian on the map, but not a magnetic meridian, one may be constructed as follows, if the magnetic declination is known:

(Figure 16): Place the true meridian of the map directly under the magnetic needle of the compass and then move the compass box until the needle reads an angle equal to the magnetic declination. A line in extension of the sighting line a'-b' will be the magnetic-meridian. If the magnetic declination of the observer's position is not more than 4 deg. or 5 deg., the orientation will be given closely enough for ordinary purposes by taking the true and magnetic meridians to be identical.

2d. If neither the magnetic nor the true meridian is on the map, but the observer's position on the ground is known: Move the map horizontally until the direction of some definite point on the ground is the same as its direction on the map; the map is then oriented. For example, suppose you are standing on the ground at 8, q k' (Fort Leaven worth Map), and can see the U. S. penitentiary off to the south. Hold the map in front of you and face toward the U. S. penitentiary, moving the map until the line joining 8 and the U. S. penitentiary (on the map) lies in the same direction as the line joining those two points on the ground. The map is now oriented.



Having learned to orient a map and to locate his position on the map, one should then practice moving over the ground and at the same time keeping his map oriented and noting each ground feature on the map as it is passed. This practice is of the greatest value in learning to read a map accurately and to estimate distances, directions and slopes correctly.

True Meridian

1873. The position of the true meridian may be found as follows (Fig. 17): Point the hour hand of a watch toward the sun; the line joining the pivot and the point midway between the hour hand and XII on the dial, will point toward the south; that is to say, if the observer stands so as to face the sun and the XII on the dial, he will be looking south. To point the hour hand exactly at the sun, stick a pin as at (a) Fig. 17 and bring the hour hand into the shadow. At night, a line drawn toward the north star from the observer's position is approximately a true meridian.



The line joining the "pointers" of the Great Bear or Dipper, prolonged about five times its length passes nearly through the North Star, which can be recognized by its brilliancy.



1874. Conventional Signs. In order that the person using a map may be able to tell what are roads, houses, woods, etc., each of these features are represented by particular signs, called conventional signs. In other words, conventional signs are certain marks or symbols shown on a map to designate physical features of the terrain. (See diagram, Par. 1875 Plate I and II.) On the Elementary Map the conventional signs are all labeled with the name of what they represent. By examining this map the student can quickly learn to distinguish the conventional signs of most of the ordinary features shown on maps. These conventional signs are usually graphical representations of the ground features they represent, and, therefore, can usually be recognized without explanation.

For example, the roads on the Elementary Map can be easily distinguished. They are represented by parallel lines (======). The student should be able to trace out the route of the Valley Pike, the Chester Pike, the County Road, and the direct road from Salem to Boling.

Private or farm lanes, and unimproved roads are represented by broken lines (= = = =). Such a road or lane can be seen running from the Barton farm to the Chester Pike. Another lane runs from the Mills farm to the same Pike. The small crossmarks on the road lines indicate barbed wire fences; the round circles indicate smooth wire; the small, connected ovals (as shown around the cemetery) indicate stone walls, and the zigzag lines (as shown one mile south of Boling) represent wooden fences.

Near the center of the map, by the Chester Pike, is an orchard. The small circles, regularly placed, give the idea of trees planted in regular rows. Each circle does not indicate a tree, but the area covered by the small circles does indicate accurately the area covered by the orchard on the ground.

Just southwest of Boling a large woods (Boling Woods) is shown. Other clumps of woods, of varying extent, are indicated on the map.

The course of Sandy Creek can be readily traced, and the arrows placed along it, indicate the direction in which it flows. Its steep banks are indicated by successive dashes, termed hachures. A few trees are shown strung along its banks. Baker's Pond receives its water from the little creek which rises in the small clump of timber just south of the pond, and the hachures along the northern end represent the steep banks of a dam. Meadow Creek flows northeast from the dam and then northwest toward Oxford, joining Woods Creek just south of that town. York Creek rises in the woods 1-1/4 miles north of York, and flows south through York. It has a west branch which rises in the valleys south of Twin Hills.

A railroad is shown running southeast from Oxford to Salem. The hachures, unconnected at their outer extremities, indicate the fills or embankments over which the track runs. Notice the fills or embankments on which the railroad runs just northwest of Salem; near the crossing of Sandy Creek; north of Baker's Pond; and where it approaches the outskirts of Oxford. The hachures, connected along their outer extremities, represent the cut through which the railroad passes. There is only one railroad cut shown on the Elementary Map—about one-quarter of a mile northeast of Baker's Pond—where it cuts through the northern extremity of the long range of hills, starting just east of York. The wagon roads pass through numerous cuts—west of Twin Hills, northern end of Sandy Ridge, southeastern end of Long Ridge, and so on. The small T's along the railroad and some of the wagon roads, indicate telegraph or telephone lines.

The conventional sign for a bridge is shown where the railroad crosses Sandy Creek on a trestle. Other bridges are shown at the points the wagon roads cross this creek. Houses or buildings are shown in Oxford, Salem, York and Boling. They are also shown in the case of a number of farms represented—Barton farm, Wells farm, Mason's, Brown's, Baker's and others. The houses shown in solid black are substantial structures of brick or stone; the buildings indicated by rectangular outlines are "out buildings," barns, sheds, etc.

Plates I and II give the Conventional Signs used on military maps and they should be thoroughly learned.



In hasty sketching, in order to save time, instead of using the regulation Conventional Signs, very often simply the outline of the object, such as a wood, a vineyard, a lake, etc., is indicated, with the name of the object written within the outline, thus:

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