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Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition
by James A. Moss
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Treatment. First of all remove the pack and shoes and loosen the clothing. Then souse the man, clothing and all, with water. Lay him in the shade and fan him, keeping him covered and wet. This will cool him off without chilling too much. If possible, rub the chest and legs, but not the belly, with ice.

1520. Wounds. Wounds may be made in every degree of size, from the jab of a splinter to the loss of a part of the body from shrapnel.

No matter what form of the wound or the cause, we know the following fact to be of the utmost importance: A wound without germs in it will heal rapidly without pain, redness, heat, or pus and the patient will have no fever. He will eat his regular meals and act as though well.

Such wounds we see made by surgeons when operating. On the other hand, wounds infected with germs are painful, hot, angry, red, and swollen and form large quantities of pus or matter.

Pus is a mixture of germs, blood and the flesh that they have destroyed. This pus prevents wounds from healing and often burrows under the skin, forming abcesses which cause fever and chills, and the pus enters the blood causing delirium and death.

Our one aim in treating wounds is to keep out germs, and we accomplish this by means of the first aid packet.

1521. The first aid packet consists of two gauze compresses sewed to two cotton bandages. They are sealed in wax paper. There are also two safety pins wrapped in wax paper. These articles are placed in an airtight metal case which protects them from contamination.

Now, the one important fact about this first aid packet is that the bandage compresses and safety pins have been sterilized,—that is, they contain no living germs of any kind. It is, therefore, perfectly safe to put on a wound, provided the pad touches the wound before it touches anything else and provided that the wound has not been handled. Therefore, do not wash a fresh clean wound.



CAUTION. Have the wound ready before you open the packet. Do not touch the gauze pad with ANYTHING. Do not breathe on it, and be especially careful not to cough or sneeze over it. These things put germs on it which will grow in the wound.

By observing these instructions you may save a man's life. By not observing them, you may cause his death, or cause him much pain and suffering.

The life of a wounded man is often in the hands of the first one who attends him.

It is said that since the adoption of the first aid packet by armies, it has done more than everything else to save the lives of those wounded in battle by preventing the infection of wounds.

In an emergency a pad from any kind of cloth may be boiled for ten minutes to kill the germs, the water drained off to allow it to cool, and then placed on the wound. Or, the pad may be held over a clear fire until it is fairly scorched; then let it cool. A little charring of the surface will do no harm. Any kind of bandage may then be used to hold it in place.

When a bullet strikes a man first, the wound is clean cut and germ free and it will heal rapidly. If, however, it strikes something first, and bounces off (ricochets) and then strikes a man, it will be knocked into an irregular shape and, therefore, cause a ragged wound with much bruising. What is more important, such a bullet will carry germs into the wound from the object struck, and almost surely some shreds of clothing.

When a wound is infected it is extremely difficult to kill the germs (disinfect). Such a wound, before applying the first aid dressing should be painted with a tincture of iodine, or alcohol or be well washed with boiled salt water.

1522. The illustrations below show improvised litters.



PART VI

MILITARY COURTESY AND KINDRED SUBJECTS



CHAPTER I

MILITARY DEPORTMENT AND APPEARANCE—PERSONAL CLEANLINESS—FORMS OF SPEECH—DELIVERY OF MESSAGES, ETC.

1523. Military Deportment and Appearance. The enlisted man is no longer a civilian but a soldier. He is, however, still a citizen of the United States and by becoming a soldier also he is in no way relieved of the responsibilities of a citizen; he has merely assumed in addition thereto the responsibilities of a soldier. For instance, if he should visit an adjoining town and become drunk and disorderly while in uniform, not only could he be arrested and tried by the civil authorities, but he could also be tried by the summary court at his post for conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline. Indeed, his uniform is in no way whatsoever a license for him to do anything contrary to law and be protected by the government.

Being a soldier, he must conduct himself as such at all times, that he may be looked upon not only by his superior officers as a soldier, but also by the public as a man in every way worthy of the uniform of the American soldier.

Whether on or off duty, he should always look neat and clean, ever remembering that in bearing and in conversation he should be every inch a soldier—shoes must be clean and polished at all times; no chewing, spitting, gazing about, or raising of hands in ranks—he should know his drill, his orders and his duties—he should always be ready and willing to learn all he can about his profession—he should never debase himself with drink.

A soldier's uniform is more than a mere suit of clothes that is worn to hide nakedness and protect the body. The uniform of an army symbolizes its respectability, its honor, its traditions, and its achievements, just as the flag of a nation symbolizes its honor, dignity and history. Always remember this, and remember, too, that the soldier who brings reproach upon his uniform is in the same class as the priest who brings dishonor upon his robes.

It is not given to every man to wear the uniform of his Country's army,—it is an honor and a privilege to do so, and no individual has a right to abuse this honor and privilege by bringing the uniform into disrepute through misbehavior.

It should be remembered that the soldiers of a command can make the uniform carry distinction and respect, or they can make it a thing to be derided.

The soldier should take pride in his uniform.

A soldier should be soldierly in dress, soldierly in carriage, soldierly in courtesies.

A civilian owes it to himself to be neat in dress. A soldier owes it to more than himself—he owes it to his comrades, to his company—he owes it to his country, for just so far as a soldier is slack so far does his company suffer; his shabbiness reflects first upon himself, then upon his company and finally upon the entire Army.

It is a fact known to students of human nature that just in proportion as a man is neatly and trimly dressed is he apt to conduct himself with like decency. The worst vagabonds in our communities are the tramps, with their dirty bodies and dirty clothes; the most brutal deeds in all history were those of the ragged, motley mobs of Paris in the days of the French Revolution; the first act of the mutineer has ever been to debase and deride his uniform.

The man who misbehaves himself in uniform in public creates a bad impression of the whole command, as a result of which his comrades must suffer. Remember that a man in the uniform of a soldier is conspicuous,—much more so than a civilian,—and consequently any misconduct on his part is more noticeable than if done in civilian clothes. The man who deliberately besmirches the uniform of his Country's army by appearing in public drunk or by other misconduct, not only fouls his own nest, but he also dishonors the uniform worn by his self-respecting comrades.

It is a well known fact that laxity in dress and negligence in military courtesy run hand in hand with laxity and negligence in almost everything else, and that is why we can always look for certain infallible symptoms in the individual dress, carriage and courtesies of soldiers.

Should a soldier give care and attention to his dress?

Yes; not only should a soldier be always neatly dressed, but he should also be properly dressed—that is, he should be dressed as required by regulations. A soldier should always be neat and trim, precise in dress and carriage and punctilious in salute. Under no circumstances should the blouse or overcoat be worn unbuttoned, or the cap back or on the side of the head. His hair should be kept properly trimmed, his face clean shaven or beard trimmed and his shoes polished, his trousers pressed, the garrison belt accurately fitted to the waist so that it does not sag, his leggins cleaned, his brass letters, numbers and crossed rifles polished, and his white gloves immaculate.

Should a man ever be allowed to leave the post on pass if not properly dressed?

No; never. The Army Regulations require that chiefs of squads shall see that such members of their squads as have passes leave the post in proper dress.

Should a soldier ever stand or walk with his hands in his pockets?

No; never. There is nothing more unmilitary than to see a soldier standing or walking with his hands in his pockets.

The real soldier always stands erect. He never slouches.

Is it permissible, while in uniform, to wear picture buttons, chains, watch charms, etc., exposed to view?

No; it is not.

May the campaign hat or any other parts of the uniform be worn with civilian dress?

No; this is prohibited by the Uniform Regulations, which especially states that when the civilian dress is worn it will not be accompanied by any mark or part of the uniform.

May a mixed uniform be worn—for example, a cotton olive drab at and woolen olive drab breeches?

No; under no circumstances.

When the company commander or any other officer sends for a soldier to report to him in the company office or any other place, the soldier must report in proper uniform.

1524. Obedience. What is Obedience? It is compliance with everything that is required by authority—it is the mainspring, the very soul and essence of all military duty. It is said a famous general once remarked every soldier should know three things—"First, obedience; second, obedience; third, obedience."

Cheerful, earnest and loyal obedience must be paid by all subordinates to the orders of their superiors.

A soldier should obey first and if aggrieved complain afterward.

All duty should be performed cheerfully and willingly. Soldiers are sometimes required to perform duties that are not pleasant—for instance, doing guard duty on a cold, rainy night, when tired and sleepy; digging ditches or cleaning up dirt and filth that have accumulated around the barracks, kitchens, quarters, etc., scrubbing floors, polishing stoves, cleaning knives, forks, pots, etc. However, by doing everything required of him in a cheerful manner, a soldier will soon earn the respect of his comrades and the commendation of his officers.

1525. Respect and Obedience to Noncommissioned Officers. In the orders and directions that they give, company noncommissioned officers represent the company commander, and they must be obeyed and respected at all times and under all circumstances.

Orders and regulations require that men respect and obey their noncommissioned officers, and discipline makes it imperative that they do so.

It is not for a private to question in any way the fairness, justice, propriety or wisdom of an order received from a noncommissioned officer. When ordered by a noncommissioned officer to do a thing, whatever it may be, do it promptly and thoroughly, and then if you feel that you have been injured in any way, report the matter to your company commander, who will see that you receive justice. If the noncommissioned officer made a mistake, exceeded his authority, or treated you unfairly, he will be punished by the company commander. The company commander, and not the privates of the company, is to judge the conduct of his noncommissioned officers, who are directly responsible to him for every act of theirs.

If every subordinate were to question the fairness, justice, propriety or wisdom of orders received from noncommissioned officers or other superiors, there would be no discipline, and the Army would soon degenerate into a mob.

Remember, a soldier is supposed to obey first, and, if aggrieved, complain afterward.

And remember, too, that the authority of noncommissioned officers is not confined to the drill ground, the barracks and the post or camp. Whether you are on pass, in a theatre, in a streetcar, on a train on the street or anywhere else, if you receive an order from a noncommissioned officer you are to obey it just the same as if it were given you at drill or in barracks.

1526. Forms of Speech. In speaking to an officer it is not proper for a soldier to say, "You, etc.," but the third person should always be used, as, for example, "Does the captain want his horse this morning?"—do not say, "Do you want your horse this morning?" "The lieutenant is wanted on the 'phone,"—not "You are wanted on the 'phone."

In beginning a conversation with an officer, a soldier should use the third person in referring to himself instead of the pronouns "I" and "me." However, after the conversation has commenced, it is perfectly proper, and usual, for the soldier to use the pronouns "I" and "me," but an officer is always addressed in the third person and never as "you."

In speaking to an officer, an enlisted man should refer to another enlisted man by proper title, as, "Sergeant Richards," "Corporal Smith," "Private Wilson."

Privates and others should always address noncommissioned officers by their titles. For example, "Sergeant Smith," "Corporal Jones," etc., and not "Smith," "Jones," etc.

When asked his name, a soldier should answer, for instance, "Private Jones, Sir."

When given an order or instructions of any kind by an officer, or noncommissioned officer, a soldier should always say, "Yes, sir," thus letting the officer or noncommissioned officer know that the soldier understands the order or instructions. Don't say, "Very well, sir," or "All right, sir"; say, "Yes, sir," it's the direct, military way of answering.

Short direct answers should be made in the form of, "No, sir," "Yes, sir," "I don't know, sir," "I will try, sir," etc.

Do not use slang in speaking to an officer.

Never interrupt an officer while he is speaking. Always wait until he is through talking before you begin to speak.

After a soldier has finished a thing that he was ordered to do, he should always report to the officer who gave him the order. For example, "The captain's message to Lieutenant Smith has been delivered."

If ordered to report to an officer for any purpose, do not go away without first ascertaining if the officer is through with you, as it often happens he has something else he would like to have you do. After having finished the work given in the beginning, report, for instance, "Sir, is the captain through with me?"

When an officer calls a soldier who is some distance away, the soldier should immediately salute, and say, "Yes, sir," and, if necessary, approach the officer with a quickened step. If the officer is waiting on the soldier, the latter should take up the double time.

Always salute an officer when he leaves you after a conversation or at any other time. And always salute just as soon as the officer makes the first move to leave. Don't wait until he has moved away several feet before saluting.

Miscellaneous

1527. How to Enter an Office. In entering an office a soldier should give two or three knocks at the door (whether it be open or closed); when told to come in, enter, taking off the hat (if unarmed), close the door (if it was closed before you entered) and remain just inside the door until asked what is wanted; then go within a short distance of the officer, stand at attention, salute, and make known your request in as few words as possible. On completion, salute, face toward the door, and go out, being careful to close the door if it was closed when you entered. If it was not closed, leave it open.

1528. Complaints to the Captain. Complaints must never be made directly to the captain unless the soldier has the captain's permission to do so, or the first sergeant refuses to have the matter reported. If dissatisfied with his food, clothing, duties, or treatment, the facts should be reported to the first sergeant, with the request, if necessary, to see the captain.

It is also customary for soldiers who wish to speak to the captain about anything to see the first sergeant first, and when speaking to the captain to inform him that they have the first sergeant's permission to do so. Thus: "Private Smith has the first sergeant's permission to speak to the captain," etc.

1529. How the Soldier is Paid. When your name is called, answer "Here," step forward and halt directly in front of the paymaster, who will be directly behind the table; salute him. When he spreads out your pay on the table in front of you, count it quickly, take it up with your ungloved hand, execute a left or right face and leave the room and building, unless you wish to deposit, in which case, you will remain in the hall outside the payroom, until the company has been paid, when you enter the payroom. Men wishing to deposit money with the paymaster, will always notify the first sergeant before the company is marched to the pay table.

1530. Delivery of Messages. When an enlisted man receives a message, verbal or written, from an officer for delivery, he will, in case he does not understand his instructions, ask the officer to repeat them, saying, for instance, "Sir, Private Smith does not understand; will the captain please repeat?" When he has received his instructions, and understands them, he will salute, and say: "Yes, sir," execute an about face, and proceed immediately to the officer for whom the message is intended. He will halt three or four paces directly in front of the officer and if the officer be junior to the officer sending the message, he will say, "Sir, Captain Smith presents his compliments," etc., and then deliver the message, or "The commanding officer presents his compliments to Lieutenant Smith and would like to see him at headquarters." He will salute immediately before he begins to address the officer and will hold his hand at the position of salute while he says, "Sir, Captain Smith presents his compliments," or "The commanding officer presents his compliments to Lieutenant Smith." If the officer sending the message be junior to the one receiving it, the soldier will not present his compliments, but will say, for instance, "Sir, Lieutenant Smith directed me to hand this letter to the captain," or "Sir, Lieutenant Smith directed me to say to the captain," etc. As soon as the message has been delivered, the soldier will salute, execute an about face, and proceed at once to the officer who sent the message, and will similarly report to him, "Sir, the lieutenant's message to Captain Smith has been delivered," and leave.

Before leaving an officer to whom you deliver a message always ascertain whether there is an answer.

The compliments of a junior are never presented to a senior. For instance, never say to a captain that a lieutenant presents his compliments to him.

1531. Appearance as Witness. The uniform is that prescribed. Proceed to the courtroom and remain outside. When you are notified that you are wanted enter the room. Then take off your cap and right hand glove, and raise your right hand above your head, palm to the front, to be sworn. After the judge-advocate reads the oath, say, "I do" or "So help me God." Then sit down in the chair indicated by the judge-advocate. Do not cross your legs, but sit upright. When asked, "Do you know the accused? If, so, state who he is," answer, "I do; Corporal John Jones, Co. 'B' 1st Infantry." Be sure you thoroughly understand every question before you start to reply, answering them all promptly, in a loud, distinct, deliberate voice, and confining your answers strictly to the questions asked and telling all you know.

When the judge-advocate says, "That is all," arise, salute him, execute an about face, and leave the room.



CHAPTER II

MILITARY COURTESY

1532. Its importance. Some soldiers do not see the necessity for saluting, standing at attention, and other forms of courtesy, because they do not understand their significance—their object. It is a well-known fact that military courtesy is a very important part of the education of the soldier, and there are good reasons for it.

General Orders No. 183, Division of the Philippines, 1901, says: "In all armies the manner in which military courtesies are observed and rendered by officers and soldiers, is the index to the manner in which other duties are performed."

The Army Regulations tells us, "Courtesy among military men is indispensable to discipline; respect to superiors will not be confined to obedience on duty, but will be extended on all occasions."



THE NATURE OF SALUTES AND THEIR ORIGIN

The Civilian Salute

1533. When a gentleman raises his hat to a lady he is but continuing a custom that had its beginning in the days of knighthood, when every knight wore his helmet as a protection against foes. However, when coming among friends, especially ladies, the knight would remove his helmet as a mark of confidence and trust in his friends. In those days failure to remove the helmet in the presence of ladies signified distrust and want of confidence—today it signifies impoliteness and a want of good breeding.

The Military Salute

1534. From time immemorial subordinates have always uncovered before superiors, and equals have always acknowledged each other's presence by some courtesy—this seems to be one of the natural, nobler instincts of man. It was not so many years ago when a sentinel saluted not only with his gun but by taking off his hat also. However, when complicated headgear like the bearskin and the helmet came into use, they could not be readily removed and the act of removing the hat was finally conventionalized into the present salute—into the movement of the hand to the visor as if the hat were going to be removed.

Every once in a while a man is found who has the mistaken idea that he smothers the American spirit of freedom, that he sacrifices his independence, by saluting his officers. Of course, no one but an anarchist or a man with a small, shrivelled-up mind can have such ideas.

Manly deference to superiors, which in military life is merely recognition of constituted authority, does not imply admission of inferiority any more than respect for law implies cowardice.

The recruit should at once rid himself of the idea that saluting and other forms of military courtesy are un-American. The salute is the soldier's claim from the very highest in the land to instant recognition as a soldier. The raw recruit by his simple act of saluting, commands like honor from the ranking general of the Army—aye, from even the President of the United States.

While the personal element naturally enters into the salute to a certain extent, when a soldier salutes an officer he is really saluting the office rather than the officer personally—the salute is rendered as a mark of respect to the rank, the position that the officer holds, to the authority with which he is vested. A man with the true soldierly instinct never misses an opportunity to salute his officers.

As a matter of fact, military courtesy is just simply an application of common, every-day courtesy and common sense. In common, every-day courtesy no man with the instincts of a gentleman ever thinks about taking advantage of this thing and that thing in order to avoid paying to his fellow-man the ordinary, conventional courtesies of life, and if there is ever any doubt about the matter, he takes no chances but extends the courtesy. And this is just exactly what the man who has the instincts of a real soldier does in the case of military courtesy. The thought of "Should I salute or should I not salute" never enters the mind of a soldier just because he happens to be in a wagon, in a postoffice, etc.

In all armies of the world, all officers and soldiers are required to salute each other whenever they meet or pass, the subordinate saluting first. The salute on the part of the subordinate is not intended in any way as an act of degradation or a mark of inferiority, but is simply a military courtesy that is as binding on the officer as it is on the private, and just as the enlisted man is required to salute the officer first, so is the officer required to salute his superiors first. It is a bond uniting all in a common profession, marking the fact that above them there is an authority that both recognize and obey—the Country! Indeed, by custom and regulations, it is as obligatory for the ranking general of the Army to return the salute of the recruit, as it is for the latter to give it.

Let it be remembered that the military salute is a form of greeting that belongs exclusively to the Government—to the soldier, the sailor, the marine—it is the mark and prerogative of the military man and he should be proud of having the privilege of using that form of salutation—a form of salutation that marks him as a member of the Profession of Arms—the profession of Napoleon, Wellington, Grant, Lee, Sherman, Jackson and scores of others of the greatest and most famous men the world has ever known. The military salute is ours, it is ours only. Moreover, it belongs only to the soldier who is in good standing, the prisoner under guard, for instance, not being allowed to salute. Ours is a grand fraternity of men-at-arms, banded together for national defense, for the maintenance of law and order—we are bound together by the love and respect we bear the flag—we are pledged to loyalty, to one God, one country—our lives are dedicated to the defense of our country's flag—the officer and the private belong to a brotherhood whose regalia is the uniform of the American soldier, and they are known to one another and to all men, by an honored sign and symbol of knighthood that has come down to us from the ages—THE MILITARY SALUTE!

WHOM TO SALUTE

1535. Army officers. All Army officers are saluted by their juniors and by enlisted men.

1536. Navy, Marine Corps, Volunteer and National Guard officers. Soldiers at all times and in all situations salute officers of the Navy, Marine Corps, and National Guard the same as they salute officers of the Regular Army.

1537. Reserve Corps officers. Although the subject is not at present (March, 1917) covered by orders or regulations, it goes without saying that soldiers would salute members of the Officers' Reserve Corps on active duty the same as they salute their own officers.

1538. Foreign naval and military officers. The Manual of Interior Guard Duty requires sentinels to salute foreign naval and military officers, but there are no instructions about other enlisted men saluting them. However, as an act of international courtesy, they should be saluted the same as our own officers.

WHEN AND HOW TO SALUTE

1539. General rule. Day or night, covered or uncovered, whether either or both are in uniform or civilian clothes, salutes shall be exchanged between officers and enlisted men not in a military formation, nor at drill, work, games or mess, on every occasion of their meeting, passing near or being addressed, the junior in rank or the enlisted man saluting first.

1540. Saluting when making and receiving reports. When making or receiving official reports, or on meeting out of doors, all officers will salute.

Military courtesy requires the junior to salute first, but when the salute is introductory to a report made at a military ceremony or formation, to the representative of a common superior (as, for example, to the adjutant, officer of the day, etc.), the officer making the report, whatever his rank, will salute first; the officer to whom the report is made will acknowledge by saluting that he has received and understood the report.

1541. Saluting distance. Saluting distance is that within which recognition is easy. In general, it does not exceed 30 paces.

As to the distance at which the salute should be made, the following is what has been the practice in the Army:

In approaching or passing each other within saluting distance, individuals or bodies of troops exchange salutes when at a distance of about 6 paces. If they do not approach each other that closely, the salute is exchanged at the point of nearest approach. For instance, if the officer and soldier are approaching each other on the same sidewalk, the hand is brought up to the headdress when about 6 paces from the officer. If they are on opposite sides of the street, the hand is brought up when about ten paces in advance of the officer. If the officer and soldier are not going in opposite directions and the officer does not approach within six paces, the salute is rendered when the officer reaches the nearest point to the soldier. If a soldier passes an officer from the rear, the hand is raised as he reaches the officer; if an officer passes a soldier from the rear, the soldier salutes just as the officer is about to pass him.

1542. Officer entering room occupied by soldiers. When an officer enters a room where there are several enlisted men, the word "attention" is given by someone who perceives him, when all rise, uncover, and remain standing at attention until the officer leaves the room or directs otherwise.

1543. At meals. Enlisted men at meals stop eating and remain seated at attention when an officer enters the room.

1544. When seated. An enlisted man, if seated, rises on the approach of an officer, faces toward him, stands at attention, and salutes. Standing he faces an officer for the same purpose. If the parties remain in the same place or on the same ground, such compliments need not be repeated.

1545. Soldier indoors. Indoors, an unarmed enlisted man uncovers and stands at attention upon the approach of an officer. If armed with rifle, he renders the rifle salute at the order or trail.

(Note. According to custom, the term "indoors" is interpreted as meaning military offices barracks, quarters and similar places,—it does not mean such public places as stores, storehouses, riding halls, stables, post exchange buildings, hotels, places of amusement, and railway and steamboat stations. In such places an unarmed soldier renders the right hand salute.)

1546. Officers approaching number of soldiers in open. When an officer approaches a number of enlisted men out of doors, the word "attention" should be given by someone who perceives him, when all stand at attention and all salute. It is customary for all to salute at or about the same instant, taking the time from the soldier nearest the officer, and who salutes when the officer is six paces from him.

1547. At work. Soldiers actually at work do not cease work to salute an officer unless addressed by him.

1548. Riding in wagon. A soldier riding in a wagon should salute officers that he passes. He would salute without rising. Likewise, a soldier driving a wagon should salute, unless both hands are occupied.

1549. Passing officer on staircase. It is customary for a soldier who is passed by an officer on a staircase to come to a halt and stand at attention.

1550. Addressing or being addressed by an officer. Before addressing an officer, or when addressed by an officer, an enlisted man makes the prescribed salute with the weapon with which he is armed; or, if unarmed, with the right hand. He also makes the same salute after receiving a reply.

1551. How salutes are rendered in uniform. In uniform, covered or uncovered, but not in formation, officers and enlisted men salute military persons as follows: With arms in hand, the salute prescribed for that arm (sentinels on interior guard duty excepted); without arms, the right-hand salute.

1552. Rifle salute. Enlisted men out of doors and armed with the rifle, salute with the piece at the right shoulder; if indoors, the rifle salute is rendered at the order or trail.

1553. Saber salute. An enlisted man armed with the saber renders the saber salute, if the saber is drawn; otherwise he salutes with the hand.

1554. Sentinels on post. A soldier salutes with the "present arms" only when actually on post as a sentinel doing interior guard duty. At all other times when armed with the rifle he salutes with the prescribed rifle salute.

The general rules and principles of saluting apply to sentinels on post doing interior guard duty, except, as just stated, they salute by presenting arms when armed with the rifle. However, they do not salute if it interferes with the proper performance of their duties.

1555. How salutes are rendered in civilian dress. In civilian dress, covered or uncovered, officers and enlisted men salute military persons with the right-hand salute.

1556. Saluting in military manner. Officers and enlisted men will render the prescribed salutes in a military manner.

1557. Several officers together. When several officers in company are saluted, all entitled to the salute shall return it.

1558. Dismounting before addressing superior not mounted. Except in the field under campaign or simulated campaign conditions, a mounted officer or soldier dismounts before addressing a superior officer not mounted.

1559. Man addressed in formation. A man in formation shall not salute when directly addressed, but shall come to attention if at rest or at ease.

1560. In public places and conveyances. In public conveyances, such as railway trains and street cars, and in public places, such as theaters, honors and personal salutes may be omitted when palpably inappropriate or apt to disturb or annoy civilians present.

For instance, as a rule, it may be said that an enlisted man riding in a street car, or in the act of purchasing goods in a store, or eating in a restaurant, would not salute unless addressed by an officer. However, in case of a soldier occupying a seat in a crowded street or railway car, if he recognized a person standing to be an officer, it would be but an act of courtesy for him to raise, salute and offer the officer his seat.

1561. Salutes by commanders of detachments or other commands. Commanders of detachments or other commands will salute officers of grades higher than the person commanding the unit, by first bringing the unit to attention and then saluting as prescribed,—that is, with arms in hand, the salute prescribed for that arm; without arms in hand, the right-hand salute.

1562. Officer passing in rear of troops. When an officer entitled to the salute passes in rear of a body of troops, the troops are brought to attention when he is opposite the post of the commander.

1563. Bringing command to present arms or sabers before commander salutes. If the command is in line at a halt (not in the field) and armed with the rifle, or with sabers drawn, it shall be brought to present arms or present sabers before its commander salutes in the following cases: When the National Anthem is played, or when to the color or to the standard is sounded during ceremonies, or when a person is saluted who is its immediate or higher commander or a general officer, or when the national or regimental color is saluted.

1564. No compliments paid at drill, on march, etc. Salutes and honors, as a rule, are not paid by troops actually engaged in drill, on the march, or in the field under campaign or simulated campaign conditions. Troops on the service of security pay no compliments whatever.

1565. No saluting at double time, trot or gallop. Salutes are not rendered when marching in double time or at the trot or gallop. The soldier must first come to quick time or walk before saluting.

The question of gait applies to the person saluting and not to the one saluted,—so, a soldier would salute an officer passing in double time or at a trot or gallop.

MISCELLANEOUS

1566. Soldier walking with officer. A soldier accompanying an officer walks on the officer's left and about one pace to his rear.

1567. Prisoners do not salute. Prisoners do not salute officers. They merely stand at attention. In some commands it is customary for paroled prisoners and others who are not under the immediate charge of sentinels, to fold their arms when passing or addressing officers.

1568. Unmilitary salutes. It is very unmilitary to salute with the coat unbuttoned or with the hand in the pocket, or a cigarette, cigar or pipe in the mouth.

1569. Headdress not raised in saluting. The headdress must not be raised to ladies, but they must be given the military salute.

(War Dept. decision. August, 1913.)

1570. Caution. In saluting, the hand or weapon is held in the position of salute until the salute has been acknowledged or until the officer has passed or has been passed.

USUAL MISTAKES IN SALUTING

1571. The following are the mistakes usually made by soldiers in rendering salutes:

1. They do not begin the salute soon enough; often they do not raise the hand to the headdress until they are only a pace or two from the officer—the salute should always begin when at least six paces from the officer.

2. They do not turn the head and eyes toward the officer who is saluted—the head and eyes should always be turned toward the officer saluted and kept turned as long as the hand is raised.

3. The hand is not kept to the headdress until the salute is acknowledged by the officer—the hand should always be kept raised until the salute has been acknowledged, or it is evident the officer has not seen the saluter.

4. The salute is often rendered in an indifferent, lax manner—the salute should always be rendered with life, snap and vim; the soldier should always render a salute as if he meant it.

RESPECT TO BE PAID THE NATIONAL ANTHEM, THE COLORS AND STANDARDS

1572. The National Anthem. Whenever the National Anthem is played at any place when persons belonging to the military service are present, all officers and enlisted men not in formation shall stand at attention facing toward the music (except at retreat when they shall face toward the flag). If in uniform, covered or uncovered, or in civilian clothes, uncovered, they shall salute at the first note of the Anthem, retaining the position of salute until the last note of the Anthem. If not in uniform and covered, they shall uncover at the first note of the Anthem, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder and so remain until its close, except that in inclement weather the headdress may be held slightly raised.

The same rules apply when "To the Color" or "To the Standard" is sounded as when the National Anthem is played.

1573. National anthems of other nations. The same marks of respect prescribed for observance during the playing of the National Anthem of the United States shall be shown toward the national anthem of any other country when played upon official occasions.

1574. At retreat. The flag will be lowered at the sounding of the last note of the retreat, and while the flag is being lowered the band will play the National Anthem, or, if there be no band present, the field music will sound "To the Color." When "To the Color" is sounded by the field music while the flag is being lowered the same respect will be observed as when the National Anthem is played by the band, and in either case officers and enlisted men out of ranks will face toward the flag, stand at attention, and render the prescribed salute.

1575. Colors and standards. Officers and enlisted men passing the uncased color (or standard) will render honors as follows: If in uniform they will salute as described in par. 1551; if in civilian dress and covered, they will uncover, holding the headdress opposite the left shoulder with the right hand; if uncovered, they will salute with the right-hand salute.

By "Colors" and "Standards" is meant the national flags and the regimental flags that are carried by regiments and separate battalions. The national flag may be of either silk or bunting; the regimental flag is always of silk. In the Army Regulations the word "Color" is used in referring to regiments of Infantry, the Coast Artillery and battalions of Philippine Scouts, while "Standard" is used in reference to regiments of Cavalry and Field Artillery.

By uncased colors and standards are meant colors and standards when not in their waterproof cases.

By Flag is meant the national emblem that waves from flag staffs and other stationary poles. They are always of bunting.



PART VII



GUARD DUTY

(To include Changes No. 1, February 24, 1915.)

(The numbers following the paragraphs are those of the Manual of Interior Guard Duty.)

1576. Importance. Guard duty is one of the soldier's most important duties, and in all armies of the world the manner in which it is performed is an index to the discipline of the command and the manner in which other duties are performed.

Upon the guard's vigilance and readiness for action depend not only the enforcement of military law and orders, but also the safety and protection of the post and the quelling of sudden disorder, perhaps even mutiny.

The importance of guard duty is increased during times of war, when the very safety of the army depends upon the vigilance of the sentinels, who are required to watch that others may sleep and thus refresh themselves from the labors of the day. The sentinels are the guardians of the repose, quiet and safety of the camp.

1577. Respect for Sentinels. Respect for the person and office of a sentinel is as strictly enjoined by military law as that required to be paid to an officer. As it is expressed in the Manual of Guard Duty, "All persons of whatever rank in the service are required to observe respect toward sentinels." Invested as the private soldier frequently is, while on his post, with a grave responsibility, it is proper that he should be fully protected in the discharge of his duty. To permit anyone, of whatever rank, to molest or interfere with him while thus employed, without becoming liable to severe penalty, would clearly establish a precedent highly prejudicial to the interests of the service. (Davis' Military Law).

1578. Duty of sentinels. A sentinel, in respect to the duties with which he is charged, represents the superior military authority of the command to which he belongs, and whose orders he is required to enforce on or in the vicinity of his post. As such he is entitled to the respect and obedience of all persons who come within the scope of operation of the orders, which he is required to carry into effect. Over military persons the authority of the sentinel is absolute, and disobedience of his orders on the part of such persons constitutes a most serious military offence and is prejudicial in the highest degree to the interests of discipline. (Davis' Military Law).—Author.

INTRODUCTION

1579. Guards may be divided into four classes: Exterior guards, interior guards, military police, and provost guards. (1)

1580. Exterior guards are used only in time of war. They belong to the domain of tactics and are treated of in the Field Service Regulations and in the drill regulations of the different arms of the service.

The purpose of exterior guards is to prevent surprise, to delay attack, and otherwise to provide for the security of the main body.

On the march they take the form of advance guards, rear guards, and flank guards. At a halt they consist of outposts. (2)

1581. Interior guards are used in camp or garrison to preserve order, protect property, and to enforce police regulations. In time of war such sentinels of an interior guard as may be necessary are placed close in or about a camp, and normally there is an exterior guard further out consisting of outposts. In time of peace the interior guard is the only guard in a camp or garrison. (3)

1582. Military police differ somewhat from either of these classes. (See Field Service Regulations.) They are used in time of war to guard prisoners, to arrest stragglers and deserters, and to maintain order and enforce police regulations in the rear of armies, along lines of communication, and in the vicinity of large camps. (4)

1583. Provost guards are used in the absence of military police, generally in conjunction with the civil authorities at or near large posts or encampments, to preserve order among soldiers beyond the interior guard. (5)

INTERIOR GUARD

Classification

1584. The various elements of an interior guard classified according to their particular purposes and the manner in which they perform their duties are as follows:

(a) The main guard.

(b) Special guards: Stable guards, park guards, prisoner guards, herd guards, train guards, boat guards, watchmen, etc. (6)

Details and Rosters

1585. At every military post, and in every regiment or separate command in the field, an interior guard will be detailed and duly mounted.

It will consist of such number of officers and enlisted men as the commanding officer may deem necessary, and will be commanded by the senior officer or noncommissioned officer therewith, under the supervision of the officer of the day or other officer detailed by the commanding officer. (7)

1586. The system of sentinels on fixed posts is of value in discipline and training because of the direct individual responsibility which is imposed and required to be discharged in a definite and precise manner. In order, however, that guard duty may not be needlessly irksome and interfere with tactical instruction, the number of men detailed for guard will be the smallest possible.

Commanding officers are specifically charged with this matter, and, without entirely dispensing with the system of sentinels on fixed posts will, as far as practicable in time of peace, replace such sentinels with watchmen. (See Par. 1781.) (8)

1587. At posts where there are less than three companies the main guard and special guards may all be furnished by one company or by detail from each company.

Where there are three or more companies, the main guard will, if practicable, be furnished by a single company, and, as far as practicable, the same organization will supply all details for that day for special guard, overseer, and fatigue duty. In this case the officer of the day, and the officers of the guard, if there are any, will, if practicable, be from the company furnishing the guard. (9)

1588. There will be an officer of the day with each guard, unless in the opinion of the commanding officer the guard is so small that his services are not needed. In this case an officer will be detailed to supervise the command and instruction of the guard for such period as the commanding officer may direct. (16)

1589. The detail of officers of the guard will be limited to the necessities of the service and efficient instruction; inexperienced officers may be detailed as supernumerary officers of the guard for purposes of instruction. (18).

1590. The strength of guards and the number of consecutive days for which an organization furnishes the guard will be so regulated as to insure privates of the main guard an interval of not less than five days between tours.

The Commanding Officer

1591. The commanding officer will exact a faithful, vigilant, and correct performance of guard duty in all of its details, giving his orders to the officer of the day, or causing them to be communicated to him with the least practicable delay. He will prescribe the strength of the guard, and the necessary regulations for guard, police, and fatigue duty. (27)

1592. The commanding officer receives the reports of the officers of the day immediately after guard mounting, at his office, or at some other place previously designated; carefully examines the guard report and remarks thereon (questioning the old officer of the day, if necessary, concerning his tour of duty), relieves the old officer of the day and gives the new officer of the day such instructions as may be necessary. (28)

The Officer of the Day

1593. The officer of the day is responsible for the proper performance of duty by the guard with which he marches on and for the enforcement of all police regulations. He is charged with the execution of all orders of the commanding officer relating to the safety and good order of the post or camp. His actual tour begins when he receives the instructions of the commanding officer after guard mounting, and ceases when he has been relieved by the commanding officer. In case of emergency during the interval between guard mounting and reporting to the commanding officer, the senior officer of the day will give the necessary instructions for both guards. (29)

1594. In the absence of special instructions from the commanding officer, the officer of the day will inspect the guard and sentinels during the day and at night at such times as he may deem necessary. He will visit them at least once between 12 o'clock midnight and daylight. (30)

He may prescribe patrols (Par. 1778) and visits of inspection to be made by officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard whenever he deems it necessary. (31)

1595. He will see that the commander of the guard is furnished with the parole and countersign before retreat in case they are to be used, and will inform him of the presence in post or camp of any person entitled to the compliment. (32)

1596. In case of alarm of any kind he will at once take such steps as may be necessary to insure the safety of life and public property and to preserve order in the command, disposing his guard so as best to accomplish this result. (33)

1597. In the performance of his duties as officer of the day he is subject to the orders of the commanding officer only, except that in case of an alarm of any kind, and at a time of great danger, the senior line officer present is competent to give necessary orders to the officer of the day for the employment of the guard. (34)

1598. At the inspection and musters prescribed in Army Regulations, the officer of the day will be present at the post of the guard, but all commands to the guard will be given by the commander of the guard. (35)

Both officers of the day together verify the prisoners and inspect the guardhouse and premises. (36)

1599. In the absence of special instructions, the old officer of the day will, at guard mounting, release all garrison prisoners whose sentences expire that day. If there are any prisoners with no record of charges against them, the old officer of the day will report that fact to the commanding officer who will give the necessary instructions. (37)

1600. The old officer of the day signs the report of the commander of the guard. He also enters on it such remarks as may be necessary. (38)

1601. The officers of the day then report to the commanding officer.

On presenting themselves, both salute with the right hand, remaining covered. The old officer of the day, standing on the right of the new, then says: "Sir, I report as old officer of the day," and presents the guard report. As soon as the commanding officer notifies the old officer of the day that he is relieved, the old officer of the day salutes the commanding officer and retires. The new officer of the day again salutes and says: "Sir, I report as new officer of the day," and then receives his instructions. (39)

1602. The officer of the day will always keep the guard informed as to where he may be found at all hours of the day and night. (40)

Commander of the Guard

1603. The commander of the guard is responsible for the instruction and discipline of the guard. He will see that all of its members are correctly instructed in their orders and duties, and that they understand and properly perform them. He will visit each relief at least once while it is on post, and at least one of these visits will be made between 12 o'clock midnight and daylight. (41)

1604. He receives and obeys the orders of the commanding officer and the officer of the day, and reports to the latter without delay all orders to the guard not received from the officer of the day; he transmits to his successor all material instructions and information relating to his duties. (42)

1605. He is responsible under the officer of the day for the general safety of the post or camp as soon as the old guard marches away from the guardhouse. In case of emergency while both guards are at the guardhouse, the senior commander of the two guards will be responsible that the proper action is taken. (43)

1606. Officers of the guard will remain constantly with their guards, except while visiting patrols or necessarily engaged elsewhere in the performance of their duties. The commanding officer will allow a reasonable time for meals. (44)

1607. A commander of a guard leaving his post for any purpose will inform the next in command of his destination and probable time of return. (45)

1608. Except in emergencies, the commander of the guard may divide the night with the next in command, but retains his responsibility; the one on watch must be constantly on the alert. (46)

1609. When any alarm is raised in camp or garrison, the guard will be formed immediately. (Par. 1793.) If the case be serious, the proper call will be sounded, and the commander of the guard will cause the commanding officer and the officer of the day to be at once notified. (47)

1610. If a sentinel calls: "The Guard," the commander of the guard will at once send a patrol to the sentinel's post. If the danger be great, in which case the sentinel will discharge his piece, the patrol will be as strong as possible. (48)

1611. When practicable, there should always be an officer or noncommissioned officer and two privates of the guard at the guardhouse, in addition to the sentinels there on post. (49)

1612. Between reveille and retreat, when the guard had been turned out for any person entitled to the compliment (See Pars. 1782 and 1784), the commander of the guard, if an officer, will receive the report of the sergeant, returning the salute of the later with the right hand. He will then draw his saber, and place himself two paces in front of the center of the guard. When the person for whom the guard has been turned out approaches, he faces his guard and commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS; faces to the front and salutes. When his salute is acknowledged he resumes the carry, faces about, and commands: 1. Order, 2. ARMS; and faces to the front.

If it be an officer entitled to inspect the guard, after saluting and before bringing his guard to an order, the officer of the guard reports: "Sir, all present or accounted for"; or, "Sir, (so and so) is absent"; or, if the roll call has been omitted: "Sir, the guard is formed," except that at guard mounting the commanders of the guards present their guards and salute without making any report.

Between retreat and reveille, the commander of the guard salutes and reports, but does not bring the guard to a present. (50)

1613. To those entitled to have the guard turned out but not entitled to inspect it, no report will be made; nor will a report be made to any officer, unless he halts in front of the guard. (51)

1614. When a guard commanded by a noncommissioned officer is turned out as a compliment or for inspection, the noncommissioned officer, standing at a right shoulder on the right of the right guide, commands: 1. Present, 2. ARMS. He then executes the rifle salute. If a report be also required, he will, after saluting, and before bringing his guard to an order, report as prescribed for the officer of the guard. (Par. 1612.) (52)

1615. When a guard is in line, not under inspection, and commanded by an officer, the commander of the guard salutes his regimental, battalion, and company commander, by bringing the guard to attention and saluting in person.

For all other officers, excepting those entitled to the compliment from a guard (Par. 1784), the commander of the guard salutes in person, but does not bring the guard to attention.

When commanded by a noncommissioned officer the guard is brought to attention in either case, and the noncommissioned officer salutes.

The commander of a guard exchanges salutes with the commanders of all other bodies of troops; the guard is brought to attention during the exchange.

"Present arms" is executed by a guard only when it has turned out for inspection or as a compliment, and at the ceremonies of guard mounting and relieving the old guard. (53)

1616. In marching a guard or a detachment of a guard the principles of paragraph 1615 apply. "Eyes right" is executed only in the ceremonies of guard mounting and relieving the old guard. (54)

1617. If a person entitled to the compliment, or the regimental, battalion, or company commander, passes in rear of a guard, neither the compliment nor the salute is given, but the guard is brought to attention while such person is opposite the post of the commander.

After any person has received or declined the compliment, or received the salute from the commander of the guard, official recognition of his presence thereafter while he remains in the vicinity will be taken by bringing the guard to attention. (55)

1618. The commander of the guard will inspect the guard at reveille and retreat, and at such other times as may be necessary, to assure himself that the men are in proper condition to perform their duties and that their arms and equipments are in proper condition. For inspection by other officers, he prepares the guard in each case as directed by the inspecting officer. (56)

1619. The guard will not be paraded during ceremonies unless directed by the commanding officer. (57)

1620. At all formations members of the guard or reliefs will execute inspection arms as prescribed in the drill regulations of their arm. (58)

1621. The commander of the guard will see that all sentinels are habitually relieved every two hours, unless the weather or other cause makes it necessary that it be done at shorter or longer intervals, as directed by the commanding officer. (59)

1622. He will question his noncommissioned officers and sentinels relative to the instructions they may have received from the old guard; he will see that patrols and visits of inspection are made as directed by the officer of the day. (60)

1623. He will see that the special orders for each post and member of the guard, either written or printed, are posted in the guardhouse, and, if practicable, in the sentry box or other sheltered place to which the member of the guard has constant access. (61)

1624. He will see that the proper calls are sounded at the hours appointed by the commanding officer. (62)

1625. Should a member of the guard be taken sick, or be arrested, or desert, or leave his guard, he will at once notify the officer of the day. (63)

1626. He will, when the countersign is used (Pars. 1770 to 1776), communicate it to the noncommissioned officers of the guard and see that it is duly communicated to the sentinels before the hour for challenging; the countersign will not be given to sentinels posted at the guardhouse. (64)

1627. He will have the details for hoisting the flag at reveille, and lowering it at retreat, and for firing the reveille and retreat gun, made in time for the proper performance of these duties. (See Pars. 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837). He will see that the flags are kept in the best condition possible, and that they are never handled except in the proper performance of duty. (65)

1628. He may permit members of the guard while at the guardhouse to remove their headdress, overcoats, and gloves; if they leave the guardhouse for any purpose whatever he will require that they be properly equipped and armed according to the character of the service in which engaged, or as directed by the commanding officer. (66)

1629. He will enter in the guard report a report of his tour of duty, and, on the completion of his tour, will present it to the officer of the day. He will transmit with his report all passes turned in at the post of the guard. (67)

1630. Whenever a prisoner is sent to the guardhouse or guard tent for confinement, he will cause him to be searched, and will, without unnecessary delay, report the case to the officer of the day. (68)

1631. Under war conditions, if anyone is to be passed out of camp at night, he will be sent to the commander of the guard, who will have him passed beyond the sentinels. (69)

1632. The commander of the guard will detain at the guardhouse all suspicious characters or parties attempting to pass a sentinel's post without authority, reporting his action to the officer of the day, to whom persons so arrested will be sent, if necessary. (70)

1633. He will inspect the guard rooms and cells, and the irons of such prisoners as may be ironed, at least once during his tour, and at such other times as he may deem necessary. (71)

1634. He will cause the corporals of the old and new reliefs to verify together, immediately before each relief goes on post, the number of prisoners who should then properly be at the guardhouse. (72)

1635. He will see that the sentences of prisoners under his charge are executed strictly in accordance with the action of the reviewing authority. (73)

1636. When no special prisoner guard has been detailed (Par. 1798), he will, as far as practicable, assign as guards over working parties of prisoners sentinels from posts guarded at night only. (74)

1637. The commander of the guard will inspect all meals sent to the guardhouse and see that the quantity and quality of food are in accordance with regulations. (75)

1638. At guard mounting he will report to the old officer of the day all cases of prisoners whose terms of sentence expire on that day, and also all cases of prisoners concerning whom no statement of charges has been received. (76)

1639. The commander of the guard is responsible for the security of the prisoners under the charge of his guard; he becomes responsible for them after their number has been verified and they have been turned over to the custody of his guard by the old guard or by the prisoner guard or overseers. (77)

1640. The prisoners will be verified and turned over to the new guard without parading them, unless the commanding officer or the officer of the day shall direct otherwise. (78)

1641. To receive the prisoners at the guardhouse when they have been paraded and after they have been verified by the officers of the day, the commander of the new guard directs his sergeant to form his guard with an interval, and commands: 1. Prisoners, 2. Right, 3. FACE, 4. Forward, 5. MARCH. The prisoners having arrived opposite the interval in the new guard, he commands: 1. Prisoners, 2. HALT, 3. Left, 4. FACE, 5. Right (or left), 6. DRESS, 7. FRONT.

The prisoners dress on the line of the new guard. (79)

Sergeant of the Guard

1642. The senior noncommissioned officer of the guard always acts as sergeant of the guard, and if there be no officer of the guard, will perform the duties prescribed for the commander of the guard. (80)

1643. The sergeant of the guard has general supervision over the other noncommissioned officers and the musicians and privates of the guard, and must be thoroughly familiar with all of their orders and duties. (81)

1644. He is directly responsible for the property under charge of the guard, and will see that it is properly cared for. He will make lists of articles taken out by working parties, and see that all such articles are duly returned. If they are not, he will immediately report the fact to the commander of the guard. (82)

1645. Immediately after guard mounting he will prepare duplicate lists of the names of all noncommissioned officers, musicians, and privates of the guard, showing the relief and post or duties of each. One list will be handed as soon as possible to the commander of the guard; the other will be retained by the sergeant. (83)

1646. He will see that all reliefs are turned out at the proper time, and that the corporals thoroughly understand, and are prompt and efficient in, the discharge of their duties. (84)

1647. During the temporary absence from the guardhouse of the sergeant of the guard, the next in rank of the noncommissioned officers will perform his duties. (85)

1648. Should the corporal whose relief is on post be called away from the guardhouse, the sergeant of the guard will designate a noncommissioned officer to take the corporal's place until his return. (86)

1649. The sergeant of the guard is responsible at all times for the proper police of the guardhouse or guard tent, including the ground about them and the prison cells. (87)

1650. At "first sergeant's call" he will proceed to the adjutant's office and obtain the guard report book. (88)

1651. When the national or regimental colors are taken from the stacks of the color line, the color bearer and guard, or the sergeant of the guard, unarmed, and two armed privates as a guard, will escort the colors to the colonel's quarters, as prescribed for the color guard in the drill regulations of the arm of the service to which the guard belongs. (89)

1652. He will report to the commander of the guard any suspicious or unusual occurrence that comes under his notice, will warn him of the approach of any armed body, and will send to him all persons arrested by the guard. (90)

1653. When the guard is turned out, its formation will be as follows: The senior noncommissioned officer, if commander of the guard, is on the right of the right guide; if not commander of the guard, he is in the line of file closers, in rear of the right four of the guard; the next in rank is right guide; the next left guide; the others in the line of file closers, usually, each in rear of his relief; the field music, with its left three paces to the right of the right guide. The reliefs form in the same order as when the guard was first divided, except that if the guard consists of dismounted cavalry and infantry, the cavalry forms on the left. (91)

1654. The sergeant forms the guard, calls the roll, and, if not in command of the guard, reports to the commander of the guard as prescribed in drill regulations for a first sergeant forming a troop or company; the guard is not divided into platoons or sections, and, except when the whole guard is formed prior to marching off, fours are not counted. (92)

1655. The sergeant reports as follows: "Sir, all present or accounted for," or "Sir, (so-and-so) is absent"; or if the roll call has been omitted, "Sir, the guard, is formed." Only men absent without proper authority are reported absent. He then takes his place, without command. (93)

1656. At night, the roll may be called by reliefs and numbers instead of names; thus, the first relief being on post: Second relief; No. 1; No. 2, etc.; Third relief, Corporal; No. 1, etc. (94)

1657. Calling the roll will be dispensed with in forming the guard when it is turned out as a compliment, on the approach of an armed body, or in any sudden emergency; but in such cases the roll may be called before dismissing the guard. If the guard be turned out for an officer entitled to inspect it, the roll will, unless he directs otherwise, always be called before a report is made. (95)

1658. The sergeant of the guard has direct charge of the prisoners, except during such time as they may be under the charge of the prisoner guard or overseers, and is responsible to the commander of the guard for their security. (96)

1659. He will carry the keys of the guardroom and cells, and will not suffer them to leave his personal possession while he is at the guardhouse, except as hereinafter provided. (Par. 1661.) Should he leave the guardhouse for any purpose, he will turn the keys over to the noncommissioned officer who takes his place. (Par. 1647.) (97)

1660. He will count the knives, forks, etc., given to the prisoners with their food, and see that none of these articles remain in their possession. He will see that no forbidden articles of any kind are conveyed to the prisoners. (98)

1661. Prisoners when paraded with the guard, are placed in line in its center. The sergeant, immediately before forming the guard, will turn over his keys to the noncommissioned officer at the guardhouse. Having formed the guard, he will divide it into two nearly equal parts. Indicating the point of division with his hand, he commands:

1. Right (or left), 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH, 5. Guard, 6. HALT, 7. Left (or right), 8. FACE.

If the first command be right face, the right half of the guard only will execute the movements: if left face, the left half only will execute them. The command halt is given when sufficient interval is obtained to admit the prisoners. The doors of the guardroom and cells are then opened by the noncommissioned officer having the keys. The prisoners will file out under the supervision of the sergeant, the noncommissioned officer, and sentinel on duty at the guardhouse, and such other sentinels as may be necessary; they will form in line in the interval between the two parts of the guard. (99)

1662. To return the prisoners to the guardroom and cells, the sergeant commands:

1. Prisoners, 2. Right (or left), 3. FACE, 4. Column right (or left), 5. MARCH.

The prisoners, under the same supervision as before, return to their proper rooms or cells. (100)

1663. To close the guard, the sergeant commands:

1. Left (or right), 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH, 5. Guard, 6. HALT, 7. Right (or left), 8. FACE.

The left or right half only of the guard as indicated, executes the movement. (101)

1664. If there be but few prisoners, the sergeant may indicate the point of division as above, and form the necessary interval by the commands:

1. Right (or left) step, 2. MARCH, 3. Guard, 4. HALT, and close the intervals by the commands:

1. Left (or right) step, 2. MARCH, 3. Guard, 4. HALT. (102)

1665. If sentinels are numerous, reliefs may, at the discretion of the commanding officer, be posted in detachments, and sergeants, as well as corporals, required to relieve and post them. (103)

Corporal of the Guard

1666. A corporal of the guard receives and obeys orders from none but noncommissioned officers of the guard senior to himself, the officers of the guard, the officer of the day, and the commanding officer. (104)

1667. It is the duty of the corporal of the guard to post and relieve sentinels, and to instruct the members of his relief in their orders and duties. (105)

1668. Immediately after the division of the guard into reliefs the corporals will assign the members of their respective reliefs to posts by number, and a soldier so assigned to his post will not be changed to another during the same tour of guard duty, unless by direction of the commander of the guard or higher authority. Usually, experienced soldiers are placed over the arms of the guard, and at remote and responsible posts. (106)

1669. Each corporal will then make a list of the members of his relief including himself. This list will contain the number of the relief, the name, the company, and the regiment of every member thereof, and the post to which each is assigned. The list will be made in duplicate, one copy to be given to the sergeant of the guard as soon as completed, the other to be retained by the corporal. (107)

1670. When directed by the commander of the guard, the corporal of the first relief forms his relief, and then commands: CALL OFF.

Commencing on the right, the men call off alternately rear and front rank, "one," "two," "three," "four," and so on; if in single rank, they call off from right to left. The corporal then commands:

1. Right, 2. FACE, 3. Forward, 4. MARCH.

The corporal marches on the left, and near the rear file, in order to observe the march. The corporal of the old guard marches on the right of the leading file, and takes command when the last one of the old sentinels is relieved, changing places with the corporal of the new guard. (108)

1671. When the relief arrives at six paces from a sentinel (See Par. 1729), the corporal halts it and commands, according to the number of the post: No. (—).

Both sentinels execute port arms or saber; the new sentinel approaches the old, halting about one pace from him. (See Par. 1733.) (109)

1672. The corporals advance and place themselves, facing each other, a little in advance of the new sentinel, the old corporal on his right, the new corporal on his left, both at a right shoulder, and observe that the old sentinel transmits correctly his instructions.

The following diagram will illustrate the positions taken:



R is the relief; A, the new corporal; B, the old; C, the new sentinel: D, the old. (110)

1673. The instructions relative to the post having been communicated, the new corporal commands, Post; both sentinels then resume the right shoulder, face toward the new corporal and step back so as to allow the relief to pass in front of them. The new corporal then commands, 1. Forward, 2. MARCH; the old sentinel takes his place in rear of the relief as it passes him, his piece in the same position as those of the relief. The new sentinel stands fast at a right shoulder until the relief has passed six paces beyond him, when he walks his post. The corporals take their places as the relief passes them. (111)

1674. Mounted sentinels are posted and relieved in accordance with the same principles. (112)

1675. On the return of the old relief, the corporal of the new guard falls out when the relief halts; the corporal of the old guard forms his relief on the left of the old guard, salutes, and reports to the commander of his guard: "Sir, the relief is present"; or "Sir, (so and so) is absent," and takes his place in the guard. (113)

1676. To post a relief other than that which is posted when the old guard is relieved, its corporal commands:

1. (Such) relief, 2. FALL IN; and if arms are stacked, they are taken at the proper commands.

The relief is formed facing to the front, with arms at an order; the men place themselves according to the numbers of their respective posts, viz., two, four, six, and so on, in the front rank, and one, three, five, and so on, in the rear rank. The corporal, standing about two paces in front of the center of his relief, then commands: Call off.

The men call off as prescribed. The corporal then commands: 1. Inspection, 2. ARMS, 3. Order, 4. ARMS; faces the commander of the guard, executes the rifle salute, reports: "Sir, the relief is present," or "Sir, (so and so) is absent"; he then takes his place on the right at order arms. (114)

1677. When the commander of the guard directs the corporal: "Post your relief," the corporal salutes and posts his relief as prescribed (Pars. 108 to 111); the corporal of the relief on post does not go with the new relief, except when necessary to show the way. (115)

1678. To dismiss the old relief, it is halted and faced to the front at the guardhouse by the corporal of the new relief, who then falls out; the corporal of the old relief then steps in front of the relief and dismisses it by the proper commands. (116)

1679. Should the pieces have been loaded before the relief was posted, the corporal will, before dismissing the relief, see that no cartridges are left in the chambers or magazines. The same rule applies to sentinels over prisoners. (117)

1680. Each corporal will thoroughly acquaint himself with all the special orders of every sentinel on his relief, and see that each understands and correctly transmits such orders in detail to his successor. (118)

1681. There should be at least one noncommissioned officer constantly on the alert at the guardhouse, usually the corporal whose relief is on post. This noncommissioned officer takes post near the entrance of the guardhouse, and does not fall in with the guard when it is formed. He will have his rifle constantly with him. (119)

1682. Whenever it becomes necessary for the corporal to leave his post near the entrance of the guardhouse, he will notify the sergeant of the guard, who will at once take his place, or designate another noncommissioned officer to do so. (120)

1683. He will see that no person enters the guardhouse, or guard tent, or crosses the posts of the sentinels there posted without proper authority. (121)

1684. Should any sentinel call for the corporal of the guard, the corporal will, in every case, at once and quickly proceed to such sentinel. He will notify the sergeant of the guard before leaving the guardhouse. (122)

1685. He will at once report to the commander of the guard any violation of regulations or any unusual occurrence which is reported to him by a sentinel, or which comes to his notice in any other way. (123)

1686. Should a sentinel call: "The Guard," the corporal will promptly notify the commander of the guard. (124)

1687. Should a sentinel call: "Relief," the corporal will at once proceed to the post of such sentinel, taking with him the man next for duty on that post. If the sentinel is relieved for a short time only, the corporal will again post him as soon as the necessity for his relief ceases. (125)

1688. When the countersign is used, the corporal at the posting of the relief during whose tour challenging is to begin gives the countersign to the members of the relief, excepting those posted at the guardhouse. (126)

1689. He will wake the corporal whose relief is next on post in time for the latter to verify the prisoners, form his relief, and post it at the proper hour. (127)

1690. Should the guard be turned out, each corporal will call his own relief, and cause its members to fall in promptly. (128)

1691. Tents or bunks in the same vicinity will be designated for the reliefs so that all the members of each relief may, if necessary, be found and turned out by the corporal in the least time and with the least confusion. (129)

1692. When challenged by a sentinel while posting his relief, the corporal commands: 1. Relief, 2. HALT; to the sentinel's challenge he answers "Relief," and at the order of the sentinel he advances alone to give the countersign, or to be recognized. When the sentinel says, "Advance relief," the corporal commands: 1. Forward, 2. MARCH.

If to be relieved, the sentinel is then relieved as prescribed. (130)

1693. Between retreat and reveille, the corporal of the guard will challenge all suspicious looking persons or parties he may observe, first halting his patrol or relief, if either be with him. He will advance them in the same manner that sentinels on post advance like parties (Pars. 1751 to 1757), but if the route of a patrol is on a continuous chain of sentinels, he should not challenge persons coming near him unless he has reason to believe that they have eluded the vigilance of sentinels. (131)

1694. Between retreat and reveille, whenever so ordered by an officer entitled to inspect the guard, the corporal will call: "Turn out the guard," announcing the title of the officer, and then, if not otherwise ordered he will salute and return to his post. (132)

1695. As a general rule he will advance parties approaching the guard at night in the same manner that sentinels on post advance like parties. Thus, the sentinel at the guardhouse challenges and repeats the answer to the corporal, as prescribed hereafter (Par. 1760); the corporal, advancing at "port arms," says: "Advance (so and so) with the countersign," or "to be recognized," if there be no countersign used; the countersign being correctly given, or the party being duly recognized, the corporal says: "Advance (so and so)"; repeating the answer to the challenge of the sentinel. (133)

1696. When officers of different rank approach the guardhouse from different directions at the same time, the senior will be advanced first, and will not be made to wait for his junior. (134)

1697. Out of ranks and under arms, the corporal salutes with the rifle salute. He will salute all officers whether by day or night. (135)

1698. The corporal will examine parties halted and detained by sentinels, and if he has reason to believe the parties have no authority to cross sentinel's posts, will conduct them to the commander of the guard. (136)

1699. The corporal of the guard will arrest all suspicious looking characters prowling about the post or camp, all persons of a disorderly character disturbing the peace, and all persons taken in the act of committing crime against the Government on a military reservation or post. All persons arrested by corporals of the guard, or by sentinels, will at once be conducted to the commander of the guard by the corporal. (137)

Musicians of the Guard

1700. The musicians of the guard will sound call as prescribed by the commanding officer. (138)

1701. Should the guard be turned out for national or regimental colors or standards, uncased, the field music of the guard will, when the guard present arms, sound, "To the color" or "To the standard"; or, if for any person entitled thereto, the march, flourishes, or ruffles, prescribed in paragraphs 375, 376, and 377, A. R. (139)

Orderlies and Color Sentinels

1702. When so directed by the commanding officer, the officer who inspects the guard at guard mounting will select from the members of the new guard an orderly for the commanding officer and such number of other orderlies and color sentinels as may be required. (140)

For these positions the soldiers will be chosen who are most correct in the performance of duty and in military bearing, neatest in person and clothing, and whose arms and accouterments are in the best condition. Clothing, arms, and equipments must conform to regulations. If there is any doubt as to the relative qualifications of two or more soldiers, the inspecting officer will cause them to fall out at the guardhouse and to form in line in single rank. He will then, by testing them in drill regulations, select the most proficient. The commander of the guard will be notified of the selection. (141)

1703. When directed by the commander of the guard to fall out and report, an orderly will give his name, company, and regiment to the sergeant of the guard, and, leaving his rifle in the arm rack in his company quarters, will proceed at once to the officer to whom he is assigned, reporting: "Sir, Private ——, Company ——, reports as orderly." (142)

1704. If the orderly selected be a cavalryman, he will leave his rifle in the arm rack of his troop quarters, and report with his belt on, but without side arms unless specially otherwise ordered. (143)

1705. Orderlies, while on duty as such, are subject only to the orders of the commanding officer and of the officers to whom they are ordered to report. (144)

1706. When an orderly is ordered to carry a message, he will be careful to deliver it exactly as it was given to him. (145)

1707. His tour of duty ends when he is relieved by the orderly selected from the guard relieving his own. (146)

1708. Orderlies are members of the guard, and their name, company, and regiment are entered on the guard report and lists of the guard. (147)

1709. If a color line is established, sufficient sentinels are placed on the color line to guard the colors and stacks. (148)

1710. Color sentinels are posted only so long as the stacks are formed. The commander of the guard will divide the time equally among them. (149)

1711. When stacks are broken, the color sentinels may be permitted to return to their respective companies. They are required to report in person to the commander of the guard at reveille and retreat. They will fall in with the guard, under arms, at guard mounting. (150)

1712. Color sentinels are not placed on the regular reliefs, nor are their posts numbered. In calling for the corporal of the guard, they call: "Corporal of the guard. Color line." (151)

1713. Officers or enlisted men passing the uncased colors will render the prescribed salute. If the colors are on the stacks, the salute will be made on crossing the color line or on passing the colors. (152)

1714. A sentinel placed over the colors will not permit them to be moved, except in the presence of an armed escort. Unless otherwise ordered by the commanding officer, he will allow no one to touch them but the color bearer.

He will not permit any soldier to take arms from the stacks, or to touch them, except by order of an officer or noncommissioned officer of the guard.

If any person passing the colors or crossing the color line fails to salute the colors, the sentinel will caution him to do so, and if the caution be not heeded he will call the corporal of the guard and report the facts. (153)

Privates of the Guard

1715. Privates are assigned to reliefs by the commander of the guard, and to posts, usually, by the corporal of their relief. They will not change from one relief or post to another during the same tour of guard duty unless by proper authority. (154)

Orders for Sentinels

1716. Orders for sentinels are of two classes: General orders and special orders. General orders apply to all sentinels. Special orders relate to particular posts and duties. (155)

1717. Sentinels will be required to memorize the following:

My general orders are:

1. To take charge of this post and all Government property in view.

2. To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing.

3. To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce.

4. To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guardhouse than my own.

5. To quit my post only when properly relieved.

6. To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves me all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only.

7. To talk to no one except in line of duty.

8. In case of fire or disorder to give the alarm.

9. To allow no one to commit a nuisance on or near my post.

10. In any case not covered by instructions to call the corporal of the guard.

11. To salute all officers, and all colors and standards not cased.

12. To be especially watchful at night, and, during the time for challenging, to challenge all persons on or near my post, and to allow no one to pass without proper authority. (156)

Regulations Relating to the General Orders for Sentinels

1718. No. 1: To take charge of this post and all Government property in view.

All persons, of whatever rank in the service, are required to observe respect toward sentinels and members of the guard when such are in the performance of their duties. (157)

1719. A sentinel will at once report to the corporal of the guard every unusual or suspicious occurrence noted. (158)

1720. He will arrest suspicious persons prowling about the post or camp at any time, all parties to a disorder occurring on or near his post, and all, except authorized persons, who attempt to enter the camp at night, and will turn over to the corporal of the guard all persons arrested. (159)

1721. The number, limits, and extent of his post will invariably constitute part of the special orders of a sentinel on post. The limits of his post should be so defined as to include every place to which he is required to go in the performance of his duties.

No. 2: To walk my post in a military manner, keeping always on the alert and observing everything that takes place within sight or hearing. (160)

1722. A sentinel is not required to halt and change the position of his rifle on arriving at the end of his post, nor to execute to the rear, march, precisely as prescribed in the drill regulations, but faces about while walking, in the manner most convenient to him, and at any part of his post as may be best suited to the proper performance of his duties. He carries his rifle on either shoulder, and in wet or severe weather, when not in a sentry box, may carry it at a secure. (161)

1723. Sentinels when in sentry boxes stand at ease. Sentry boxes will be used in wet weather only, or at other times when specially authorized by the commanding officer. (162)

1724. In very hot weather, sentinels may be authorized to stand at ease on their posts, provided they can effectively discharge their duties in this position, but they will take advantage of this privilege only on the express authority of the officer of the day or the commander of the guard. (163)

1725. A mounted sentinel may dismount occasionally and lead his horse but will not relax his vigilance.

No. 3: To report all violations of orders I am instructed to enforce. (164)

1726. A sentinel will ordinarily report a violation of orders when he is inspected or relieved, but if the case be urgent he will call the corporal of the guard, and also, if necessary, will arrest the offender.

No. 4: To repeat all calls from posts more distant from the guardhouse than my own. (165)

1727. To call the corporal, or the guard, for any purpose other than relief, fire, or disorder (Pars. 1728 and 1734), a sentinel will call, "Corporal of the guard, No. (—)," adding the number of his post. In no case will any sentinel call, "Never mind the corporal"; nor will the corporal heed such call if given.

No. 5: To quit my post only when properly relieved. (166)

1728. If relief becomes necessary, by reason of sickness or other cause, a sentinel will call, "Corporal of the guard, No. (—), Relief," giving the number of his post. (167)

1729. Whenever a sentinel is to be relieved, he will halt, and with arms at a right shoulder, will face toward the relief when it is thirty paces from him. He will come to a port arms with the new sentinel, and in a low tone will transmit to him all the special orders relating to the post, and any other information which will assist him to better perform his duties.

No. 6: To receive, obey, and pass on to the sentinel who relieves me, all orders from the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only. (168)

1730. During this tour of duty a soldier is subject to the orders of the commanding officer, officer of the day, and officers and noncommissioned officers of the guard only; but any officer is competent to investigate apparent violations of regulations by members of the guard. (169)

1731. A sentinel will quit his piece on an explicit order from any person from whom he lawfully receives orders while on post; under no circumstances will he yield it to any other person. Unless necessity therefor exists, no person will require a sentinel to quit his piece, even to allow it to be inspected. (170)

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