Manual of Military Training - Second, Revised Edition
by James A. Moss
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In general, platoon leaders observe the target and the effect of their fire and are on the alert for the captain's commands or signals; they observe and regulate the rate of fire. (I. D. R. 252.)

1437. The Guides watch the firing line and check every breach of fire discipline.

1438. The Squad Leaders transmit commands and signals when necessary, observe the conduct of their squads and abate excitement, assist in enforcing fire discipline and participate in the firing.

Every squad leader should place himself just a little in advance of the rest of his squad and by occasionally glancing to the right and left, observe how the men of their squads are doing—whether they are firing at the proper objective, if the sights are apparently properly adjusted, if they are firing too rapidly, etc. After each shot the squad leader should look toward his platoon leader, and then glance to his right and left to observe his men, and then load and fire again.

1439. The Musicians assist the captain by observing the enemy, the target, and the fire effect, by transmitting commands or signals, and by watching for signals. (I. D. R. 235.)

1440. The Privates will take advantage of cover, exercise care in setting the sights and delivering fire; be on the constant lookout for orders from their leaders; always aim deliberately; observe the enemy carefully, increasing the fire when the target is favorable and ceasing firing when the enemy disappears; not neglect a target because it is indistinct; not waste ammunition, but be economical with it; if firing without a leader to retain their presence of mind and direct an efficient fire upon the proper target.

1441. Distribution of Fire. The distribution of fire over the entire target is of the greatest importance; for, a section of the target not covered by fire represents a number of the enemy permitted to fire coolly and effectively. So, remember that all parts of the target are equally important, and care must be taken that the men do not neglect its less visible parts.

The captain allots a part of the target to each platoon, or each platoon leader takes as his target that part which corresponds to his position in the company. Every man is so instructed that he will fire on that part of the target which is directly opposite him.

If the target cannot be seen with the naked eye, platoon leaders select an object in front of or behind it, designate this as the aiming point, and direct a sight-setting which will carry the fire into the target. The men aim at the good aiming point or line, but with such an increased or decreased sight-setting, as the case may be, that the bullets will fall on the target instead of on the aiming point.

Distribution of fire is assured by dividing the whole target assigned the company into definite parts or sectors, and allotting these parts or sectors to the various platoons. And, of course, the whole of the target must be kept under fire while the company is advancing. This may be accomplished by one of two methods:

1442. Overlapping Method. In this method each sector (target) is covered by more than one fire unit. For example, in a company of four platoons the entire company sector would be divided in two parts, the right part being covered by the first and second platoons and the left part by the third and fourth platoons. When the first platoon ceases fire to advance, the second platoon would replace the lost rifles by firing faster. With three platoons the company sector would be divided into two parts, one being assigned to each flank platoon and the whole company sector to the center platoon. When the first platoon advanced, the center platoon would cover its target, both the center and third platoons increasing their rate of fire. With two platoons, each would cover the whole company sector.

1443. Switch Method. The company is divided into a number of parts, one less than the number of platoons in the company. One platoon is designated as the "switch," and swings into fire automatically into that sector from which the fire of its assigned unit is withdrawn. For example, with four platoons, and platoon rushes to start from the right, the company sector is divided into three parts assigned to the first, second and third platoons, the fourth being the "switch." When number 1 ceases fire to advance, No. 4 fires at No. 1's target; when No. 2 ceases to fire, No. 4 fires at No. 2's target, then at No. 3's target, and finally No. 4 advances.

1444. Individual instruction in fire distribution. Every man should be thoroughly drilled, instructed and trained always to fire at that part of the hostile target which corresponds to the position he occupies in his platoon. That is to say, if on the right of his platoon, he fires at the right (as he faces it) of the hostile target; if in the right center of his platoon, he fires at the right center (as he faces it) of the target, and so on. This is represented by the following diagram, the points A', B', C', etc., representing the parts of the hostile target at which the men occupying the positions A, B, C, etc., in their platoon, would fire:

1445. Designation of target. It is very important that the commanders should be able to describe the objectives to be attacked and the sectors[19] to be defended, and that individual soldiers should be able to understand and transmit to other soldiers such descriptions. Within the squad, target designation implies ability on the part of the squad leader to understand and transmit to his squad the target designation received from his platoon leader, and also ability on his own part to designate a target intelligently; within the platoon, target designation implies ability on the part of the platoon leader to understand the company commander's designation of the target and to transmit that designation to his platoon in such manner as to insure an equal distribution of its fire within the sector assigned to it; within the company, target designation implies ability on the part of the company commander to designate the targets into which the company sector is divided in such manner that the platoon leaders will have no trouble in understanding him. It also implies ability on the part of the company commander to change the objectives or sectors of his platoons, and his ability to cover the whole target of the company during a forward movement of a part of the company, by the so-called "switch" or the "overlapping" method, or by any other method which is practicable and accomplishes the desired end. Targets should be designated in a concise, prompt, unmistakable manner, but, as we all know, it is not always an easy matter to describe the location of an object, especially if the object be not conspicuous or readily recognized. This is due to two reasons: First, the unit commander is likely to indulge in vague talk instead of accurate description, and, second, even if correct terms are used, it is more than likely that all members of the firing line will not be able to grasp the idea, because the commander will be using expressions which, although understood by himself (in some cases perhaps due to the fact that he is looking at the objective), they will not be clear to the men. The secret of prompt, accurate and concise designation of a target lies in the use of simple words and terms with which both the unit commander and the men on the firing line are thoroughly familiar.

Of course, if the target be distinct and clearly defined, it can easily be designated by name, as for example, "That battery on the hill just in front of us," "Cavalry to our right front," etc.

Generally the designation of a target, if not conspicuous nor readily recognized, will include:

1. A statement of what the target is, or its appearance (shape, color, size, etc.)

2. Where the target is with reference to some easily recognized reference point.

3. How wide the company sector is.

The following systems of target designation are used at the School of Musketry. Each has its limitations, defects and advantages, under various conditions of ground, etc. A wise selection of one or a combination of two or more, is a material factor in efficiency.

1446. Horizontal Clock Face System. (Used with visible, distinct targets.)


1. Announce direction. "At one o'clock."

2. Announce range. "Range 1000."

3. Announce objective. "A troop of cavalry dismounted."


1. All look along the line pointing toward one o'clock of a horizontal clock face whose center is at the firing point, and whose 12 o'clock mark is directly perpendicular to the front of the firing line.

2. All look at a point about 1000 yards away on the one o'clock line, and

3. At 1000 yards on the one o'clock line find the objective.

1447. Vertical Clock Face System. (Used with small or indistinct targets.)


1. Announce the general direction "To our right front" (or "At two of the reference point. o'clock").

2. Designate as a reference point "A stone house with two chimneys." the most prominent object in the zone indicated.

3. Announce the position of the "At three o'clock." target with respect to the reference point.

4. Announce the range. "Range 1000."

5. Announce the objective. "A hostile patrol of four men."


1. All men look to their right front (or along the two o'clock line).

2. The reference point (stone house) is found in the indicated direction.

3. A clock face (vertical) is imagined centered on the reference point, and the men look along the line leading from the clock center through three o'clock, and

4. 1000 yards from the firing point.

5. Find the hostile patrol.

1447a. Finger System. (Used with indistinct or invisible targets and to define sectors.)

(By one "Finger" we mean the amount of frontage that one finger, held vertically, will cover, the arm being extended horizontally to its full length. In the average case this amount of frontage covered is about 1/20 of the range. For instance, at a range of 1000 yards, one "Finger" will cover fifty yards of the sector The same result will be obtained by using the rear-sight leaf in the position of aiming.)


1. Announce direction to "To our right front, at 1000 yards." reference point as in the vertical clock face system.

2. Announce reference point. "A stone house with two chimneys."

3. Announce angular distance and "Four o'clock, three fingers." direction from the reference point to the target.

4. Announce range. "Range 1000."

5. Announce objective. "A skirmish line alongside of the fence, length about two fingers, right at the dark bush."


The reference point is found as explained, and the vertical o'clock line upon which the target will be found. The soldiers who do not see the target will extend the aim to its full extent palm of the hand upward, finger held vertically with one side of the hand "against" the reference point. The target will be found on the four o'clock line, and touching the third finger, at 1000 yards distance, its right flank at the bush and its left flank about 100 yards farther to the right.

The following case will illustrate more concretely the use of the "Finger" system:

There is a red house about 3/4 mile to our front, and to the right of this house and a hundred yards or so to its rear, there is a line of trenches that can be seen with the aid of field glasses, but the trenches are difficult to locate with the unaided eye. There is no prominent landmark in the direction of this line of trenches, or on either flank, except the red house mentioned. The company commander locates the flanks of the line of trenches through his field glasses; he then extends his arm forward horizontally its full length, palm up, raises the fingers of his hand and, sighting on the line of trenches, finds that the trench line has a length of four "finger widths," and that the flank of the line nearest the red house is three "finger widths" from it. He decides to divide the line into two sections of two "fingers" each, and assign one section to each of his two platoons. He then calls his platoon leaders (and range finders, if necessary), and says, for instance: "Center of objective, five to the right of that red house, First Platoon, two fingers; Second Platoon, two fingers." The two platoon leaders then estimate the range and give the company commander their estimates independently. The company commander also estimates the range, and taking the average, then announces the range, say 1300 yards, after which the platoon leaders return to their platoons, and give, for instance, these instructions: "The target is a line of trenches four 'fingers' long, and about 1300 yards away; the center of the target is five 'fingers' to the right of that red house, at about 10 o'clock. We are to fire at the two fingers on the right of the center and the Second Platoon will look after the two fingers on the left of the center." (The leader of the Second Platoon gives similar instructions.)

Every man in the platoon figures out the platoon objective and endeavors to fix it with respect to some features of the ground so that he will be able to pick it up promptly after his platoon starts to advance. After fixing well in his mind the platoon objective, he figures out what part of it belongs to his squad, and then selects that portion of the squad objective corresponding to his position in the squad. If during the advance, his particular portion of the target should become hidden from view, he will fire on the nearest portion of the trench line, returning to his own part as soon as it becomes visible.

1447b. Communication. After the company has been committed to the fire fight, verbal commands cannot be heard, and it is well nigh impossible even to secure attention to signals. It is, therefore, most important that we should train and practice the company as much as possible during time of peace in the rapid and accurate transmission of orders and signals along the firing line.

Matter upon which a commander would need to communicate with his subordinates, in addition to tactical orders, would generally be confined to:

(a) Changes of elevation and deflection.

(b) Changes in the apportionment of the target among the subdivisions.

(c) Changes within the limits of the sector, or objective.

(d) Changes in the rate of fire.

(e) And rarely change of target from one within to one without the limits of the objective or sector.

1448. Procedure. The following is given merely as a concrete example of the procedure that might be followed in certain ring exercises—it will not, of course, apply to all cases; it is merely given as a concrete illustration of what might actually be done under certain conditions.

Company Commander. On receiving his instructions from the officer in charge of the exercise, the company commander returns to his company, keeping track of the changing aspect of his target as he does so. Arriving at the center of his company, he is met by his platoon leaders, and range finders, who have assembled in his absence. The company commander says:

"The target is a line of skirmishers, visible in part. It may be seen between us and that long line of green bushes which begins one finger to the right of that red water tower at 11 o'clock and it extends well beyond the bushes both to the right and to the left."

(At this point the range finders begin their estimation and the captain pauses until the senior range finder, or other designated person automatically announces the average estimate of the range, saying for example, "range 1100.")

The captain then resumes, saying:

"The sector assigned to this company is three fingers long and extends from that group one finger to the right of the water tower, to a point four fingers to the right of the tower. Each platoon will cover the entire company sector. Range ten-fifty and eleven-fifty. Fire at will at my signal. Posts."

Platoon Leaders. The platoon leaders then hasten to the center of their platoons and "put into execution the commands and directions of the captain, having first taken such precautions to insure a correct sight-setting and clear description of the aiming point as the situation permits or requires" (Par. 251 I. D. R.), by saying:

Target: The target is a line of skirmishers about 1100 yards to our front, only parts of which are visible.

Reference point: That long line of bushes about 1300 yards to our left front. The company sector is three fingers long and lies between us and that reference point, extending one-half finger beyond each end of the bushes.

Aiming point: The bottom of the line of bushes.

Range: 1050 and 1150.

As soon as the range is announced each front rank man sets his sight at 1050 and each rear rank man at 1150. Squad leaders assure themselves that sights are set and that the men of their squads understand the aiming point and sector and then raise their hand as a signal that all are ready. Similarly, the platoon leaders raise their hands to show that all of the squads are ready, and when the captain sees that all of his platoons are ready, he signals to begin firing. At the captain's signal, each platoon leader commands: "Fire at Will."

Firing then begins at a rate of about 3 shots per minute (Par. 14, I. D. R.).

1449. Points To Be Borne in Mind. Bear in mind the following points in the solution of field firing problems:

1. Combine sights should, as a rule, be used where the estimated range is 1000 yards or more, the two ranges being 50 yards on each side of the estimated range, the even numbers firing at one range, the odd numbers at the other.

2. When aiming points are chosen they should be clearly described. Bushes, bunches of lines of grass, fence posts, etc., should not be designated as aiming points when clear and more definite aiming points are available. The choice of the best of several possible aiming points is of great importance.

3. Have some system of simple signals whereby you may know when all your men are ready to begin firing. Otherwise, you may begin the firing before some of your men have their sights set and before they understand the sector and point of aim. For example, let each squad leader raise his right hand when his squad is ready, and each platoon leader his right hand when his platoon is ready.

4. Platoon leaders must always be sure to designate a definite aiming point. Remember that in the case of an indistinct target, the company commander describes the TARGET to the platoon leaders, and they in turn announce the AIMING POINT. Having seen and located the target, the platoon leader must examine the terrain at, in front of and behind the target, and choose the aiming point for his men. He must then determine the proper sight-setting for that particular aiming point. He then announces both aiming point and range.

5. Instead of describing a sector as, for example, extending so many yards (or so many "fingers") north from the reference point, it is better to describe it as extending from the reference point northward for a definite distance, as "To that tall red house."

The last method is the best, because it leaves no room for guessing on the part of subordinates. So, remember it is always best, when possible, to define the limits of sectors physically, as, extending, for example, from "That house to that windmill," etc.

6. When acting as part of the battalion, always be sure to designate someone (usually one of the musicians) to watch for signals from the battalion commander, and don't fail to repeat back all signals.

7. In advancing by rushes, always allow sufficient time between rushes to recover the loss in fire caused by the cessation of fire. In other words, the next rear unit should not start forward until the one that has just advanced has resumed an effective fire.

8. Remember that in all field firing problems the distribution of hits has big weight. Consequently, it should be definitely understood beforehand, that, in the absence of any target designation by the company commander, each platoon leader will look after the sector corresponding to his front, and that each man will fire at the part of the sector corresponding to his front. Should the targets in a given sector disappear, then the platoon leader covering that sector will at once switch his fire to the adjoining sector until the reappearance of the targets in his own sector. For example, let us suppose the company sector, A-B (the company being on the defense and not advancing) is divided into four parts A-B, B-C, C-D and D-E. Platoon No. 1 would look after everything that appeared in D-E; No. 2, after everything that appeared in C-D; No. 3, everything that appeared in B-C; and No. 4, after everything that appeared in A-B.

Should the target suddenly disappear from D-E, then No. 1 would switch his fire over to C-D, and keep it there until the target reappeared in D-E, and if the targets disappeared from C-D, before reappearing in D-E, then both No. 1, and No. 2, would switch their fire cones to A-C.

1450. Exercises. The following exercises for the elementary training of individuals and squads were used with success by the troops mobilized on the Texas border:


1. The target will be represented by individual soldiers.

2. With reference to their visibility, the battlefield will present three classes of targets:

(a) Those which are visible throughout.

(b) Those which are visible in part.

(c) Those which are invisible, but whose location might be described.

Targets will be arranged to simulate one of the classes enumerated. Instruction will begin with simple exercises in which the target presented is plainly visible, and represents only the objective of the unit undergoing instruction. It should progress to the more difficult exercises in which the target is invisible and the line of figures is prolonged to include the objective of units on the right or left.

3. The limits of indistinct targets may be shown to unit commanders by the use of company flags. These flags, however, will be withdrawn from sight before a description of the target or estimate of the range is attempted, and before anyone but the commander of the unit undergoing instruction sees their location.

4. At the conclusion of each exercise in which flags are used to mark the limits of the target or its subdivisions, they should be displayed, in order that any existing errors may be readily pointed out.

5. To determine proficiency in target designation, the instructor will provide a sufficient number of rifles, placed on sand bags or other suitable rests, and require those charged with fire direction and control to sight them at the limits of their objective. An inspection by the instructor will at once detect errors. Similarly, in those exercises in which all the members of the firing unit participate, the percentage of rifles aimed at the correct target may be determined.

6. In these exercises no method of communication will be permitted that could not be used under the conditions assumed in the problem.


Object: To train the individual to set his sight quickly and accurately for the announced range and windage; and to accustom leaders to the giving of windage data.

Situation: The company is formed in single rank at the ready with rear sight set at zero and the slide screw normally tight.

Action: The range and windage are announced, sights are set accurately in accordance therewith and as rapidly as may be, each man coming to port arms immediately upon completing the operation.

Time: Time is taken from the last word of the command.

Standard: Sights should be correctly set within 15 seconds.

Note: Of the two elements, time and accuracy, accuracy is the more important.

Par. 411, I. D. R., implies complete use of the rear sight, that is, utilization of the wind gauge, and sight setting to the least reading of the rear sight leaf, i. e., 25 yards. Sight setting therefore in this exercise should include, more often than not, "fractional ranges" and windage data.


Object: To familiarize officers and noncommissioned officers in the use of an auxiliary aiming point.

Situation: Two men with the company flags are stationed to mark the enemy's invisible position. This position should be suitably located with reference to a practicable aiming point.

Action: The markers are signaled to display their flags. An officer or noncommissioned officer is called up and the enemy's position is pointed out. The flags are then withdrawn and the officer or noncommissioned officer selects an auxiliary aiming point and gives his commands for firing at that point.


Object: To train the individual soldier to locate a target, from a description solely. To do so quickly and accurately and fire thereon with effect, and to train officers and noncommissioned officers in concise, accurate and clear description of targets.

Situation: The men are so placed as not to be able to see to the target. The instructor places himself so as to see the objective.

Action: The instructor, to one man at a time, describes the objective, and directs him to fire one simulated round. The man immediately moves so as to see the target, locates it, estimates the range and fires one simulated shot.

Standard: For ranges within battle sight, time 20 seconds; beyond battle sight, time 30 seconds. Not more than 15% error in the estimation of the range. Objective correctly located.

Note: Arrangements made so that the description of the target is heard by only the man about to fire. After firing the man will not mingle with those waiting to fire.


Object: To train the squad leader in promptly bringing the fire of his squad to bear effectively upon the target presented. To train the individuals of a squad to fire effectively from orders of the squad leader and automatically to obtain effective dispersion.

Situation: The squad is deployed, the squad leader being in the firing line. Position prone. A sighting rest is provided for each rifle.

Action: Upon the appearance of the target the squad leader gives the necessary orders for delivering an effective fire. The men under these orders sight their rifles and then rise. The instructor then examines the position and sighting of each rifle.

Time: Time is taken from the appearance of the target until the last man has risen.

Target: A squad of men to outline a partially concealed enemy emerges from cover, advances a short distance and lies down.

Standard: 90% of the rifles should be sighted in conformity with the orders of the squad leader and should evenly cover the whole front of the objective. The squad leader's estimate of the range should not be in error over 15%.

Note: The squad leader should not, in general, be allowed to divide the target into sectors but to obtain distribution by training the men to fire at that portion of the objective directly related to the position they occupy in their own line. The exercise should be repeated with the squad leader in rear of the squad and not firing. As to this, it is to be noted that Musketry School experiments prove that in small groups the directed fire of say seven (7) rifles is more effective than the partially undirected fire of eight rifles obtained when the group leader is himself firing.


Object: To teach prompt and accurate transmission of firing data without cessation of fire, and also to teach automatic readjustment of fire distribution.

Situation: A squad deployed in the prone position and with sighting rests, is firing at a designated target.

Action: A squad with sights set at zero is deployed and brought up at the double time into the intervals of the firing line and halted. The firing data is transmitted to them without cessation of fire. At the command Rise, given 20 seconds after the command Halt, the first squad rises and retires a short distance to the rear. At the same time, the supports cease fire and adjust their rifles in the rests so as to be aimed at the target as they understand it. They then rise and their rifles are examined by the instructor for range and direction.

Standard: 80% of the rifles should be sighted according to the transmitted data and aimed according to the principles of fire distribution.

Target: One target equal to a squad front, which is increased to two squads prior to the arrival of the supports in the firing line.

Note: This exercise should be repeated with the supporting squad reenforcing on a flank. To determine whether the original squad is able to keep its assigned sector during an advance, this exercise should be repeated, the supports being thrown in after a series of short advances by the original squad. Care should be exercised to prevent the transmission of firing data in a manner under which service conditions would be impracticable. (See Exercise No. 6.)


Object: To train the squad leader in receiving and transmitting instructions by visual signals alone.

Situation: A squad with its leader in the firing line is deployed in the prone position firing at will.

Action: The instructor, without sound or other cautionary means, signals (visually) to the squad leader at various intervals to,

First: Change elevation. Swing the fire to the right or left. Suspend the firing. Etc., etc.

The squad leader, upon receiving a signal, causes his squad to execute it without verbal command, or exposing himself.

Time: No specified time limit.

Standard: The squad leader should fire with his squad, but after each shot should look towards his platoon leader for any signal, then observe the fire and conduct of his men, then, after glancing again at his platoon leader, fire again. This the squad leader should do without exposing himself. By lying about a head's length ahead of his men he can see his squad front. In transmitting orders he can accomplish it by nudging the men on his right and left and signaling to them with his hand.

Note: This exercise is essential to prepare men for the deafening noise of a heavy action when speech or sound signals are largely futile.


Object: To train men to carry out strictly the fire orders given them, and to refrain from starting, repeating or accepting any change therefrom without direct orders from a superior.

Situation: A squad deployed in the prone position.

Action: While the squad is firing at an indistinct but specified target, another and clearly visible target appears in the vicinity of the first target but not in the same sector. Upon the appearance of this second target, the instructor sees that the men continue firing at the assigned target. The corporal should check any breach of fire discipline.

Note: Variations of this exercise should be given to test the fire discipline of the men in other phases, such as rate of fire (Par. 147, I. D. R.), etc.


[18] The subjects of fire control and fire direction are coveted in pars. 285-290; 1434-1436.

[19] In attack the target is called "objective"; in the defense, "sector."





1451. Importance of good health. Good health is just as necessary to an army as rifles and ammunition. Not only does every sick man take away one rifle from the firing line, but in addition he becomes a care and a burden on the hands of the army. Indeed, it is fully as important for a soldier to take care of his health as it is for him to take care of his rifle and ammunition. The importance of doing everything possible to look after one's health is shown by the fact that in every war so far, many more men have died from disease than were killed in battle or died from wounds. In our Civil War, for instance, for every man on the Union side who was killed in battle or died from wounds, two died from disease. In the Spanish American War the proportion was 1 to 5-1/2.

To do all that he can to keep in good health is a duty that the soldier owes his country.

1452. Germs. Diseases are caused by little, tiny live animals or plants called germs. They are so small that you require a magnifying glass to see them.

The following illustrations show the typhoid and malarial germs as seen through a magnifying glass:

The Different Ways of Catching Disease

1453. Five ways of catching disease. There are only five ways to catch disease:

1. By breathing in the live germs. 2. By swallowing the live germs. 3. By touching the live germs. 4. By having the live germs stuck into the skin by insects that bite. 5. By inheritance from parents.

Diseases Caught by Breathing in the Germs

1454. The more common diseases. The following are some of the more common diseases caught by breathing in the germs: Colds, diphtheria, tonsilitis, grippe, scarlet fever, pneumonia, and consumption.

The germs that cause these diseases grow well in the dark, warm, moist lining of the nose, throat, windpipe and lungs, and they are coughed or sneezed out or blown out and float in tiny bubbles in the air or fall to dry into dust which is blown about with the wind, and so are breathed in, or they may be transferred directly by kissing invalids and sick children.

1455. How to avoid breathing in sickness. Do not visit sick people or a house where the children are sick.

Do not let other people cough or sneeze over your food or in your face.

Do not allow others to spit on the floor of your squadron or tent.

Do not do these things yourself.

Blow your nose into a handkerchief that can be boiled or into a piece of paper that can be burned.

Put your hand before your face when you cough or sneeze.

Rinse out the nose with hot, weak salt water at night and especially if you have been inhaling dust.

Brush the teeth after each meal and before going to bed.

Do not pick the nose with the finger nails; it makes sore spots in which germs grow.

On dusty hikes tie a handkerchief across the nose and mouth.

Never sweep the floor with a dry broom. Use a damp mop and so pick the germs up and carry them out instead of driving them up in the air as dust.

Diseases Caught by Swallowing the Germs

1456. The more common diseases. The following are some of the more common diseases caught by swallowing the germs: Typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, and ptomaine poisoning.

1457. Water as a distributer of disease. Impure water is one of the most common distributers of disease that there is. Therefore, water from sources unknown or soiled by sewage, should be avoided as deadly and should not be used, unless boiled, for drinking, brushing the teeth or rinsing mess kits.

You can not always tell polluted water by its appearance, smell or taste. Unless from a sewer or drain, it may look clear and sparkling, with no smell and have a pleasant taste, so, water that is not known to be pure should not be drunk.

1458. Vegetables as a distributer of disease. In some localities the inhabitants use the streams for all purposes; drinking, washing clothes, bathing, washing vegetables and table utensils and as a sewer. When kitchen gardens are irrigated with such water the germs are to be found on the cabbages, beets, etc.

1459. Food, fruit, cigarettes, and drinking cups as distributers of disease. Germs may be smeared on the hands and thus transferred to articles of food, fruit, cigarettes, or drinking cups, especially in public places, so that he who buys at the public stands may have disease handed to him with his purchase.

1460. The fly as a disease carrier. The ordinary fly is one of the worst and filthiest transmitters of disease in existence.

Flies carry germs from privies, latrines, spitoons, and sick rooms to the food on your table, by means of their smeared feet, in their spit or in their specks.

1461. The dog as a distributer of disease. Dogs are often distributers of disease. They use their tongues for toilet paper and afterwards lick their coat or the hands of their friends. Petting dogs or letting them lick your hand is dangerous.

1462. How to avoid swallowing disease. Do not drink water that is not known to be safe. If you have no one to ask and are traveling, it is safer to drink tea or coffee, because they have been made from boiled water, or to drink bottled mineral waters. In the field boil your drinking water. Boiled germs are dead and will not grow. They are, therefore, harmless.

Beware of water from wells, farm pumps ponds, cisterns, water coolers and barrels, especially in railroad cars, stations, and ferry boats.

Do not drink lemonade, soft drinks, or milk from peddlers.

Beware of the public drinking cup.

Always wash your hands before going to meals and before putting things into your mouth, especially after going to the toilet or handling animals.

Do not adopt strange dogs and do not pet dogs.

Before eating fruit or raw vegetables, wash and peel them unless picked from the tree by yourself.

Do not eat food that is spoiled, smells or tastes badly or is flyblown or maggoty or full of bugs.

Do not eat food which is not sufficiently cooked. All smoked, dried or salt meats or fish, such as ham, bacon, sausage, dried beef, bloaters, salt mackerel or codfish, must be well cooked, as they may contain "Measles" or other worm eggs. Cooking kills the egg.

Do not eat food exposed on public stands to dust, flies, dirty hands, dirty water, dirty cans, or dirty glasses and buckets.

Do not allow flies to breed in dirt or other filth around the house, nor allow them to walk on your food. This is possible by burning, burying or otherwise removing the dirt or filth, and by using fly traps, "swatters" and fly paper.

Do not wet lead pencils with your spit.

Do not wet your fingers with spit when you deal cards or turn over pages of books or magazines.

Keep the teeth brushed and the mouth clean. Have decayed teeth repaired at once. Decayed teeth drop out and they cause abscesses, which may destroy the jaw bone or cause brain fever. Old snags give the stomach the germs of rotting, which cause dyspepsia.

Diseases Caught by Touching the Germs

1463. The more common diseases. The following are some of the more common diseases caught by touching the germs: Ringworm, mange, barber's itch, sore eyes, boils, carbuncles, lockjaw, small pox, chancroid, syphilis, and gonorrhoea (clap).

1464. Ringworm, mange, and barber's itch. These diseases are carried from person to person by finger nails and hands and from dirty water to those who bathe in it or have their underwear washed in it.

1465. Lockjaw. The germs of lockjaw are found in manure and in soil fertilized with it; hence, a bullet which passes through such soil before wounding carries these germs into the wound. Any wound soiled with such dirt will be infected. Also, wounds made by toy pistols and fire-crackers often contain lockjaw germs.

1466. Chancroid, syphilis, and gonorrhoea (clap). These are diseases whose germs are usually caught from prostitutes and whores, or from husbands who have caught the germs from prostitutes and whores. They are called "Venereal diseases," after Venus, the Roman goddess of lustful love, but they are very often caught in other ways than in sexual intercourse, and by innocent persons.

The chancroid plant causes a very nasty sore, the chancroid, which often destroys much flesh and causes buboes. The germ can be carried on the fingers to any part of the body. When the chancroid is healed and the bubo becomes a scar the disease is cured.

The syphilis germ will grow first where it is rubbed in, causing a hard ulcer, called a chancre, and after that it travels through the entire body. No place is sacred to its destructive power and it lives as long as the patient does. It is the cause of much insanity, palsy, apoplexy, deafness, blindness and early death. In mothers it causes miscarriages and in children it causes stillbirths, freaks, deformities, feeble minds and idiots; also, deaf and dumb, palsied, stunted, sickly and criminal conditions.

A syphilitic person is always dangerous although apparently well. He often has a sore mouth and his spit is as dangerous as that of a mad dog. The bite of such a man will develop a chancre and any pipe, cup, or tooth pick which he uses, or his kiss, will give syphilis. A syphilitic tattooer who wets his needles and his India ink with spit will put a chancre into the skin with the picture.

The instruments of cheap advertising dentists and of quack doctors or ignorant nurses can carry these germs from one person to another. So can the razors and caustic stick of barbers who are careless.

The clap plant likes to grow in the linings of the openings of the body where it is dark and warm and moist where it causes a catarrhal discharge called clap, which is easily smeared on hands, towels, handkerchiefs or by actual contact.

It grows well in the eyelids, causing great damage and often blindness. Many babies get the clap plant into the eyes during birth, from the mother, and unless treated within a few minutes after birth, have sore eyes and go blind,—a terrible calamity to the child and the family. If you have clap the germs can be carried on your hands to your eyes.

The clap plant also grows well in the cavities of the joints, causing rheumatism and crippling; it grows in the heart, causing valvular heart disease, which is incurable, and also in the generative organs of men and women, causing self-made eunuchs and childless wives. It is the cause of most of the severe abdominal diseases of women requiring the use of the knife to cut out the diseased part.

The venereal diseases cause more misery than any others and most of the doctors would have to go into other professions to earn their living if these diseases did not exist.

When a young man is "sowing his wild oats" he is really planting in his own body the syphilis and clap plants, and the harvest will be greater than any other crop. He will reap it in days of bedridden misery, and possible sudden death. He will reap it in bitter hours by the bedside through the illness and death of his wife or in her long years of ill health. He will reap it in little white coffins, idiot babies; blind, deaf and dumb, sickly and stunted children. And it will cost him lost wages and hospital and doctor fees.

Yes, the wild oats crop is a bumper crop. King Solomon was wise when he warned his son against the harlot, "for her end is bitter."

The best way to avoid venereal diseases is to keep away from lewd women, and live a clean moral life. It is said by medical authorities that sexual intercourse is not necessary to preserve health and manly vigor, and that the natural sexual impulse can be kept under control by avoiding associations, conversations, and thoughts of a lewd character. However, persons who will not exercise self-control in this matter can greatly lessen the risks of indulgence by the prompt use, immediately upon return to camp or garrison, of the prophylaxis prescribed by War Department orders and which all soldiers are required to take after exposing themselves to the danger of venereal infection. Men who immediately after intercourse urinate and wash the private parts thoroughly with soap and water will lessen the chances of infection. Drunkenness greatly increases the risk of infection.

Should one be so unfortunate as to contract venereal disease, he should see a first-class, reputable physician AT ONCE, the sooner the better. It is a fatal mistake to try to conceal venereal disease by not seeing a doctor, he who does so is taking a most dangerous chance of ruining himself physically for life.

1467. How to avoid diseases caught by touching the germs. Keep your skin clean with soap and water.

Do not bathe or wash your clothes in dirty water, have them boiled when laundered.

Do not go barefoot, even in barracks.

Do not use towels or toilet articles of other people, especially in public wash-rooms unless they furnish a fresh towel for you. Do not sleep in houses left empty by the enemy unless ordered to do so.

Do not sleep in native shacks in the tropics.

Do not rub the eyes with dirty hands. When dirt gets in have a doctor get it out.

If you have clap, do not rub your eyes with your hands, and wash your hands well with soap and water after taking treatment or passing water.

Do not handle dogs or cats, especially strange or sickly ones.

Do not clean the ears with sticks or straws,—have a doctor do it for you.

Do not have cheap, advertising dentists fix your teeth. Have the army dentist fix them and see him at least once every six months,—or see a good civilian dentist.

Do not have pictures tattooed on your skin.

Do not smoke other men's pipes.

Do not handle or touch wounds with anything but a first aid package.

Beware of chipped drinking glasses in cafes, restaurants and other places. The slightest cut from such a glass whoso clipped part has been in contact with the mouth of a syphilitic person will give you syphilis.

Seek good companions like your mother and sister. Keep away from John Barleycorn. He always wants to turn you over to a harlot.

Whores and prostitutes are all diseased and will give you germs that will live to give diseases to you, your wife and your children, forty years from now. Keep away from them.

Diseases Caught from Biting Insects

1468. The more common diseases. The following are some of the more common diseases caught from the bites of certain insects: Malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever.

The germs of malaria, yellow fever and dengue fever live in the blood, and are sucked up into the blood by mosquitoes when they bite.

Malaria germs, however, will develop only in the mosquito called, Anopheles.

Yellow fever germs will develop only in the mosquito called, Stegomyia.

Dengue fever germs will develop in the mosquito called Culex and in Anopheles.

After a period of development in these mosquitoes the germs will find their way to the spit glands, and are injected into the person whom the mosquito bites. (Note. Male mosquitoes cannot bite.)

Absolutely the only way that malaria, yellow and dengue fevers can possibly be caught is from mosquitoes.

1469. How to avoid malaria, yellow and dengue fevers. To avoid these diseases, which are carried by mosquitoes, we screen all houses with fine wire screens and use mosquito nets on the beds. Also, under certain conditions we take daily doses of quinine in malarious regions.

We kill the mosquitoes.

To do this we must know their habits.

Mosquitoes all lay eggs in water. These hatch out as wigglers or larvae, which have to come to the top frequently to breathe. In about twelve days or longer they turn into tumblers or pupas, which in a few days longer come to the top when their backs split open and the mosquito comes out and flies away.

The malaria mosquito is domestic like the chicken and lives around in houses hiding in the grass, bushes or dark corners and comes out to bite at night. When a settlement is abandoned the malaria mosquito moves away also. She rarely flies far from home and is not found much beyond 500 yards from a house. She lays her eggs in running clear water preferably, but she will accept water in hollow trees, between the leaves of lilies or air plants or in vases of flowers, or in cisterns and water butts.

The yellow fever mosquito is domestic like the house cat. She hangs around the house and rarely flies as far as the next house even, preferring to travel on a visitor's coat. She will bite in the day time and will lay her eggs in any little collection of water in the house, the eaves trough, the water barrel, old tin cans or bottles, pitchers, vases or the refrigerator drip.

The dengue mosquito is a marsh and town mosquito. She flies far and well and will breed in any sort of water, even brackish.

To kill mosquitoes

Catch them in the house; empty all water from tin cans, old barrels, etc; cover with wire all cisterns and water barrels; fill in all puddles and drain off marshes; put oil on all pools and streams to choke the wrigglers; cut down grass and bushes around houses.



1470. The knowledge of taking care of the body is called Personal Hygiene, the principal rules of which are as follows:


Sanitation is the practice of the laws of Hygiene.

1471. RULE 1. Keep the Skin clean. A dirty body invites sickness. Small troubles such as chafing, sore feet, saddle boils, sore eyes, felons, whitlows, earache, toothache, carbuncles, fleas, lice and ringworms, are all caused by lack of cleanliness, and they put men on sick report.

Owing to excessive perspiration a daily bath with soap is desirable in summer and in the tropics, the year around. At least a weekly bath should always be taken when possible. When not possible to bathe, take a good rub daily with a dry towel.

Keep your feet clean with soap and water and put on dry socks before sleeping at night. Soiled socks should be washed and hung up to dry over night.

Keep your finger nails trimmed short with scissors or knife. Never bite them off. Keep them cleaned and keep your hands washed, especially at meal times.

Underwear must be washed in clean water, hot when possible and when soiled change as soon as possible.

Do not bathe or wash your clothes in dirty water. Bathing in water containing much alkali (hard water) or fine sand or mud will make the skin smart or chafe easily and cause sore eyes.

The hair of the head should be kept well-trimmed.

1472. RULE 2. Keep the body properly protected from the weather. Clothing of the soldier is worn as a protection. Too much causes sweating and exhaustion on the march and too little causes chills and frost bite.

Be careful to rebutton the clothing in winter time after attending to Nature's calls. Cold fingers may make you careless, but the cold is merciless and may cause a bad frost bite.

The first feeling of frost bite is numbness and the first sign is a marble whiteness. Frost attacks first the nose, ears, cheeks, fingers and toes.

Sun glare and snow blindness may be prevented by colored goggles or a handkerchief tied across the face with a small slit for the eyes or by greasing the face and eyelids and rubbing in charcoal around the eyes.

1473. RULE 3. Keep the body properly fed. Your company mess is sufficient for your needs and is wholesome, provided it is well chewed. Large lumps of food take a longer time to digest than small particles do, and so they tire the stomach and also cause constipation, gas and indigestion with headache.

Do not eat food left behind in strange houses or by the enemy, nor food that smells or looks badly.

If haversack rations are issued to you, do not eat them all at the first meal, but make a division for each meal. Stuffing will make you sick on a hike and later, hunger will drive you to eat things you would not touch at other times.

Before starting on the day's hike drink all the water you can and fill your canteen with water only.

Be sure your canteen does not leak.

After starting, do not drink anything until the end of the hike.

Do not eat ice or snow to quench thirst. It will make you more thirsty. Do not drink large quantities of cold spring water when heated,—it will give you a very bad bellyache.

Do not drink whiskey or beer, especially in the field. It will weaken you and favor heat exhaustion, sunstroke, frost bite and other serious troubles.

Alcohol muddles the mind and clouds thoughts, and so causes a feeling of carelessness and silliness that may ruin some military plan, or give the whole thing away to the enemy and with it the lives of yourself and your comrades.

The soldier who drinks alcohol will be among the first to fall out exhausted.

If you use tobacco, do not chew or smoke while marching. Tobacco is only a dope and increases the work of the heart.

A cup of hot coffee is a good stimulant.

1474. RULE 4. Keep the body supplied with fresh air. The brain, kidneys and other internal organs require oxygen (a part of the air) continually, and if deprived of it for five minutes, the body will die. Therefore, it is easy to see that we must continually get plenty of fresh air into the lungs to supply the blood which carries the oxygen throughout the body. Except in winter time when steam-heated barracks are filled with sleeping men, it is not, as a rule, difficult to get all the fresh air we need. The air in a dormitory should smell sweet and clean, even though warm. Fresh air should be continually admitted in a way that will not throw a draft on any of the sleepers.

It is much better to sleep in a cold room with fresh air than in a hot stuffy one.

Fresh air not only prevents consumption, but it will cure mild cases of consumption without other medicines.

1475. RULE 5. Keep the body well exercised without exhaustion. Exercise is absolutely necessary to good health. Lack of exercise of any set of muscles will cause them to grow flabby and weak. Outdoor sports are the best form of exercise, because they use all the body muscles, and are in the open clear air.

Exhaustion, on the other hand, not only weakens the muscles of the body, but it also lessens the vital forces and powers to resist germs.

1476. RULE 6. Keep the body rested by sufficient sleep. Give the body enough sleep. Eight hours of uninterrupted sleep are enough for the average man, and you should always have that much in every twenty-four hours. Remember your comrades need it also; so, if you come in after taps, do not make a racket with slamming doors, heavy tramping, talking or whistling. And in camp be careful not to fall over tent ropes or step on other sleepers. Do not drink coffee at night,—it will keep you awake and rob your body of needed rest.

When on the march take advantage of every halt to rest your body. As soon as the command is given to fall out, select, if possible, a dry place on the side of the road to sit or lie on. If carrying the pack, loosen it and rest back on it, in a sitting or lying position. If the march has been a long one, lie flat on your back and raise the feet in the air. This is a quick way to remove the heavy dragged feeling of the feet and legs and to rest the heart, because the blood runs out of the legs into the body.

1477. RULE 7. Keep the body free of wastes. Get into the habit of emptying the bowels at a certain hour each day. Immediately after breakfast is a good time. This is a habit that can be cultivated just like any other habit. Cultivate it. It will do much to keep you in good health.

Always empty the bowels and bladder, especially the bowels, whenever you have the least desire to do so. Do not allow a little personal inconvenience or laziness to prevent you from doing this. The wastes from the bowels and bladder, especially the bowels, are poisons that should always be expelled from the body just as soon as possible.

The free drinking of water flushes the bladder and helps to loosen the bowels. A glass of hot water soon after reveille will not only help to loosen the bowels, but it will also benefit the stomach and flush out the bladder. Some people drink a big glass of water, either hot or cold, every morning before breakfast.

Proper physical exercise and eating ripe or cooked fruits will also do much to keep the bowels open.

Pressing and rubbing downward with the left hand on the lower left side of the belly will do much to induce a movement of the bowels.

Most constipation comes from swallowing food in large chunks, drinking large quantities of cold liquids with the meals and eating heavy articles of diet, such as beans, fried pork, hot bread.

Do not get into the habit of using laxatives to keep the bowels open. Their continued use is injurious. Use the natural means suggested above.

The constant moderate use of alcohol injures the kidneys and when they become too weak to work and throw off the waste, a deadly disease, called "Bright's Disease," results.



1478. Object of teaching first aid. The object of teaching first aid, or early assistance of the injured or sick, is not only to enable one person to help another, but also in some measure to help himself, until a surgeon or other thoroughly trained person can be seen.

It is a mistake to think you must know many things to be helpful, it is only necessary to know a few simple things, but you must understand them clearly and be able to do them well.

1479. Asphyxiation (suffocation) by Gas. Asphyxiation by gas is treated the same as in the case of drowning, omitting, of course, the operation of getting the water out of the body.

1480. Bite of dog. } Either requires immediate and heroic treatment. Bite of snake. } Lose no time.

1. Prevent the poison from traveling toward the heart and brain by putting on at once a tourniquet between the wound and the heart.

2. Suck the wound and be sure to spit out the poison and rinse the mouth afterward. It is safe, if you have no cuts or sores on the lips or in the mouth.

3. Enlarge the wound with a knife (in the direction of the bone, not across) to make it bleed more freely, and again suck the wound.

4. Apply to the wound any strong acid or caustic, such as carbolic acid, lime, wood ashes or tincture of iodine, or burn it with a hot iron. Telegraph wire will do.

5. Wash out the wound with hot water and pack with equal parts of baking soda and salt, and apply a bandage.

6. Then, in the case of a snake bite, loosen the tourniquet little by little, taking about half an hour so as to permit any poison that may remain in the wound to be gradually absorbed by the blood. In the case of a dog bite, the tourniquet is loosened at once.

After the tourniquet has been removed, the patient must rest quietly for several hours. If he feel faint, he may have a stimulant,—alcohol, coffee or tea,—but do not give the stimulant before the poison has been removed from the wound, because stimulants increase the heart beats and thereby hurry the poison into the blood.

If the dog is not mad (rabid), the wound does not need treatment different from any other kind of a wound.

When bitten by a snake, kill it, if possible, and have it shown to a doctor for examination.

1481. Bleeding. The following comparison between the blood and the water in a city will enable you to understand easily the question of bleeding:

The {water } flows from a pump called {waterworks} through {blood} {heart } {rigid pipes } called {watermains}. When there is {a leak } {elastic tubes} {arteries} {bleeding} the {plumber } stops the flow of the {water } by {doctor} {blood} {turning a key valve } between the {waterworks} and the {pressing the blood tube shut} {heart }

{leak } and then proceeds to repair the leak {bleeding cut} {by soldering }. He then turns on the {water } by {by sewing or by bandaging} {blood} {opening the valve in the water main }. {removing pressure on the blood tube}

Fig. 2 shows where pressure with the thumb will squeeze the blood tube between the thumb and the bone.

In addition to the pressure raise the leg or arm or head above the heart. This will slow the flow of the blood and lessen leakage.

However, one cannot hold the thumb forever on the blood tube, so we make an artificial thumb, called a tourniquet, which is a pebble or other hard object wrapped in some soft material (to prevent injury to flesh), which is pressed down on the blood tube and held in place by a strip of any material which can be tied so as to keep up the pressure.

A tourniquet, therefore, is like the valve in a water main.

The above diagrams show how a tourniquet is applied.

When no one is around to assist you, sometimes it will be possible to plug the wound in your own body with the first aid packet or with your thumb or handkerchief.

When the bleeding is slight, or is from the scalp or palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, direct pressure upon the wound itself with the pad of the first aid package will often be sufficient to stop the leak.

Nature when left alone stops the leaks with her own solder, called blood-clot, which forms in the cut ends of blood tubes and corks them or seals them up until a scar forms a permanent seal.

1482. The dangers from a tourniquet are:

1. Gangrene,—that is, the death of a limb caused by the lack of blood, which has been cut off by the tourniquet. By watching the toes and finger tips and loosening the tourniquet if they are becoming blue black and remain white when pinched, gangrene may be prevented. However, the wound should be plugged before loosening the tourniquet.

2. Injury to nerves from pressure which may cause palsy (paralysis). However, that will generally pass off in a few days.

1483. Broken Bones (Fractures). A broken bone or fracture is known by pain in a particular place that hurts on movement or when touched. Also, by a deformity or a movable lump, caused by the broken end of the bone.

A broken bone should be handled with the greatest possible care. Careless handling may cause the broken ends to pierce the flesh and stick out through the skin. This is called a compound fracture, and is serious, because it adds fuel to the fire by making a doorway for germs to enter, which may cause death or the loss of the limb. Furthermore, careless handling may make the bones grow together in a bad position, causing a deformity.

The best way to treat a broken leg or arm bone is as follows: (Fig. 8.)

Pull until the ends come together. You can tell this by the relief the patient feels and by the limb assuming its proper length,—that is, the same length as the other side.

1484. To keep the ends of the bones in place, fasten to the limb two boards or any other substance that will not bend. Such boards or other substance are called splints. They act as artificial bones. All splints should be well padded with some soft material like raw cotton waste, grass (be sure the grass contains no biting insects), leaves, hay or excelsior, to prevent pressure of the soft flesh on the ends of the bones.

When the thigh bone is broken, put a splint from the arm to the ankle and use the other leg as a splint. Fasten them by bandages, belts, gun sling, etc., passed around the chest, waist, hips, knees and ankle.

When an arm is put in a splint, hang the hand and forearm in a sling. It will give much relief.

When the jaw is broken, the upper jaw makes a good splint.

When the collar bone is broken this makes a good treatment: Fig. 10.

A broken rib is treated by putting a wide strap or bandage around the chest and drawing it tight while all the air is breathed out.

This keeps the rib quiet and the man will breathe with his belly instead of his chest.

A broken skull usually makes a man unconscious and may cause death. It is recognized by a wound or swelling of the scalp and a dent in the skull. A doctor should be called at once. Always examine an unconscious man for injury to the head.

1485. Burns. If clothing sticks to the burn, do not try to remove it, but cut around it. Prick blisters at both ends with a perfectly clean needle, and remove the water by gentle pressure, being careful not to break the skin.

A good application for a burn is carbolic acid dissolved in water (a teaspoonful in a pint of water), or tincture of iodine dissolved in water (one teaspoonful in a pint of water, to which is added as much salt as will cover a dime), or olive oil, vaseline or butter.

Lacking the remedies named above, ordinary baking soda or flour may be dusted on the unbroken skin, or a cloth dampened with salt water that has been boiled, to which may be added the same amount of whiskey or brandy as there is water.

Another application for burns recommended by some, is the scraping of a raw potato, renewed when it feels hot.

Different burns should be treated as follows:

Sunburn,—treat with olive oil, vaseline or butter, or with a glycerine or witchhazel, applying with a dampened cloth.

Quicklime or lye,—treat with vinegar.

Carbolic acid,—treat with alcohol.

Other acids,—treat with baking powder or lime water.

1486. Burning clothes, particularly those of women and children, has been the unnecessary cause of many horrible deaths, either from ignorance of the proper means of extinguishing the flames, or from lack of presence of mind to apply them. A person whose clothing is blazing should (1) immediately be made to lie down—be thrown if necessary. The tendency of flames is upward, and when the patient is lying down, they have not only less to feed upon, but the danger of their reaching the face, with the possibility of choking and of ultimate deformity is greatly diminished. (2) The person should then be quickly wrapped up in a coat, shawl, rug, blanket or any similar article, preferably woolen, and never cotton, and the fire completely smothered by pressing and patting upon the burning points from the outside of the envelope.

The flames having been controlled in this way, when the wrap is removed, great care should be taken to have the slightest sign of a blaze immediately and completely stifled. This is best done by pinching it but water may be used. Any burns and any prostration by shock should be treated in the manner prescribed for them.

1487. Bruises. The best treatment for a bruise is heat.

A hot brick or a bottle of hot water wrapped in cloth, towels wrung out of hot water, or even an electric light bulb, will give much relief.

However, always remember this: Never put the hot object on the bare skin—always wrap the source of heat in a thick cloth to hold the heat in and at the same time protect the skin. If not practicable to do this wrap the source of heat, then spread a towel over the skin before applying the hot object.

If you use an electric bulb, watch it closely, as it will char and possibly set things on fire.

The above treatment is also excellent for lumbago, stiff neck, and stiff muscles.

A tub bath as hot as you can stand it is fine for refreshing tired, stiff muscles. It is also good for lumbago.

1488. Chiggers. Apply kerosene oil. Bacon is also excellent, and so is butter or lard with salt.

1489. Choking. Foreign body in the throat. The common practice of slapping the back often helps the act of coughing to dislodge foreign bodies in the windpipe.

If this does not succeed, have the patient lie over a chair with his head down low or hold him as in the first step to revive a drowning person and have him cough. When in either of these positions have some one slap him on the back so as to induce coughing.

The above failing, give him a large amount of warm water with a little salt, mustard or baking soda in it, and then have him put his finger in his throat so as to induce vomiting which will often bring up the obstruction.

In children, and even in adults, the expulsion of the body may be facilitated by lifting a patient up by the heels and slapping his back in this position.

If none of the methods above described are successful, summon a physician, taking care to send him information as to the character of the accident, so that he may bring with him the instruments needed for removing the obstruction.

1490. Cuts. Small cuts should be treated with tincture of iodine or washed with alcohol (bay rum or listerine will do) and bandage up. Large wounds may be similarly cleaned and then closed by adhesive plaster.

1491. Diarrhoea. Apply warm bandages to the belly. Some woodsmen recommend the following: Fire brown a little flour to which two teaspoonfuls of vinegar and one teaspoonful of salt are added; mix and drink. They claim this is a cure nine cases out of ten. A tablespoonful of warm vinegar and teaspoonful of salt will cure most severe cases. Also, hot ginger ale or hot water containing a teaspoonful of witch hazel is good. Repeat any of the above drinks about every hour.

Take a purgative, which will usually expel the offending cause, generally too much undigested food.

1492. Dislocations. The place where two bones come together is called a joint.

When two bones forming a joint are knocked apart, it is called a dislocation, and the bones are said to be out of joint.

The first sign of a dislocation is the accident.

The second sign is immediate interference with the motion of the joint and awkwardness in using the limb.

The third sign is deformity of the joint,—it looks queer when compared with the same joint on the other side.

If you are unsuccessful after trying several times to replace a dislocation, get a doctor.

If no doctor is available, make the man sick by having him drink some warm salt water and then put his finger in his throat.

When he vomits the muscles and ligaments (tissue connecting the joints) will relax and you may be able to get the bone back in place.

After replacing the bones put the joint at rest with a large compress and bandage.

When uncertain as to whether you have to deal with a broken bone or a dislocated joint, give treatment for a broken bone, because rest and quiet for the injured part are good in either case.

The following diagrams show the usual methods of replacing dislocations:

[Illustration: Fig. 12

To put the arm bone back into the shoulder socket


Rest your weight at elbow, pulling downward, until the muscles at the shoulder are tired and will stretch.


Swing the elbow across, close to the chest, and place the hand on other shoulder.


Keep the elbow close to the chest and bring the hand forward as if held out for a penny.

This should twist the bone into the socket.

Relocating the jaw

When the jaw bone is out of place, the man cannot shut his mouth.

Put both thumbs (protected by a handkerchief) on the lower teeth and with the forefingers at the angles of the lower jaw push down in the back of the jaw.

Relocating thumb

When the thumb bone is dislocated it must be PUSHED into place—not pulled.

Relocating finger

Pull the finger bone back into place.]

1493. Drowning. Rescuing. Approach the drowning man from behind, seizing him by the coat collar, or a woman by the back hair, and tow at arms length to boat or shore. Do not let him cling around your neck or arms to endanger you. Duck him until unconscious if necessary to break a dangerous hold upon you; but do not strike to stun him.

A drowning person does not come to the top three times before giving up.

Reviving. When a person is apparently drowned he is unconscious and not breathing because his lungs are full of water and his skin is blue and cold because no air is getting into his blood to redden it and warm it; remember the heart does not stop until some time after the breathing stops. If we can get air into the blood and start breathing again before the heart stops we can save the patient's life. If we cannot get the breath started in time the heart stops and the patient is then dead.

Our problem then is this:

1. To get the water out of the lungs.

2. To get the air into the lungs and start the man breathing before the heart stops.

Emptying the lungs is precisely similar to emptying a bottle.

The lungs are the bottle, the windpipe is the neck of the bottle and the cork of the bottle may be the tongue turned back in the throat or mud and leaves from bottom of the pool and bloody froth in the nostrils. We therefore—

1. { Pull out the cork. { Remove mud, mucus, etc., and pull the tongue forward.

2. { Turn the bottle neck down to pour out the contents. { Place the patient's head lower than his chest so the water { will run out.

Then lay the patient on a blanket, if possible, and on his stomach, arms extended from his body beyond his head, face turned to one side so that the mouth and nose do not touch the ground. This position causes the tongue to fall forward of its own weight and so prevents it from falling back into the air passages. Turning the head to one side prevents the face coming into contact with mud or water during the operation.

Kneel and straddle the patient's hips, facing his head.

Roll up or rip off the clothing so as to get at the bare back.

Locate the lowest rib, and with your thumbs extending in about the same direction as your fingers, place your spread hands so that your little finger curls over the lowest rib. Be sure to get the hands well away from the back bone,—the nearer the ends of the ribs the hands are placed without sliding off, the better it is.

Then with your arms held straight, press down SLOWLY AND STEADILY on the ribs, bringing the weight of your body straight from your shoulders. Do not bend your elbows and shove in from the side.

Release the pressure suddenly, removing the hands from the body entirely, and thus allowing the chest to fill with air.

Wait a couple of seconds, so as to give the air time to get into the blood. This is most important.

Repeat the pressure and continue doing so, slowly and steadily, pressing down at the rate of ordinary breathing. That is to say, pressure and release of pressure (one complete respiration) should occupy about five seconds. Guide yourself by your own deep, regular breathing, or by counting.

Keep up for at least one hour the effort to revive the patient; and much longer if there is any sign of revival by way of speaking, breathing, coughing, sneezing or gurgling sounds.

Do not stop working at the first signs of life, but keep it up until the patient is breathing well and is conscious. If you stop too soon he may stop breathing and die.

Persons have been revived after two hours of steady work, but most cases revive within about thirty minutes.

If you are a heavy man, be careful not to bring too much force on the ribs, as you might break one of them.

In the case of women or thin persons place a roll of clothing under them at the waist line before beginning the pressure.

If you happen to be of light build and the patient is a large, heavy person, you will be able to apply the pressure better by raising your knees from the ground, and supporting yourself entirely on your toes and the heels of your hands, properly placed on the floating ribs of the patient.

Do not attempt to give liquids of any kind to the patient while he is unconscious, for he cannot swallow them. They will merely run into his windpipe and choke him, and furthermore, it will take up valuable time.

However, after the patient has regained consciousness you may give him hot coffee or hot whiskey, punch or aromatic spirits of ammonia (a teaspoonful in water).

Then wrap up the patient warmly in hot blankets with hot water bottles, and take him to the nearest hospital or put him to bed and send for a doctor. Why? Because the dirty water in the lungs has damaged the lining and the patient is in danger of lung fever and needs care and nursing.

Aromatic spirits of ammonia may be poured on a handkerchief and held continuously within about three inches of the face and nose. If other ammonia preparations are used, they should be diluted or held farther away. Try it on your own nose first.

The above method of artificial respiration is also applicable in cases of electric shock, suffocation by gas and smoke.

1494. Earache. Put a teaspoonful of salt into a quart of water and add 6 teaspoonfuls of tea. Boil it. As soon as it is cool enough to stand the finger, drip some into the nostrils until it falls into the throat. Clear out the nose and throat by sniffing,—do not blow the nose.—and then gargle with the rest of the remedy as hot as can be taken, holding each mouthful well back in the throat. This will often open up the tubes running from the ears to the throat, and relieve the pressure against the ear drum. In addition, a little hot oil may be dropped into the ear. Repeat the treatment in one-half an hour if not successful first time.

1495. Ear, foreign body in. Lay the head over, with the affected ear up, and pour in some warm oil or soap suds. This will float the thing up, unless it be a vegetable such as a grain of corn or a bean. Turning the affected ear down and then jumping, jerking the head, or pounding it gently, may dislodge it.

A little peroxide of hydrogen poured into the ear will often dislodge the substance, especially if it be wax.

In case of an insect, a bright light held near the ear will often cause it to leave the ear to go to the light.

1496. Electric Shock. Failure of respiration following an electric shock by lightning or live wire is treated the same as in the case of drowning, omitting, of course, the operation of removing the water out of the lungs.

Do not try to pull a man away from a live wire until you have put on rubber overshoes or gotten a wooden stick with which to get the wire away from him. Otherwise you will yourself get a shock.

1497. Eye, foreign body in. Close the eye for a few moments and allow the tears to fill the eye; upon opening it, the body may be washed out by them.

Never rub the eye.

The foreign body can often be removed by keeping the eye open with one hand and splashing water into it with the other, or by dipping the eye into clean water while holding the eyelid open with the hand.

If the body lies under the lower lid, make the patient look up, and at the same time press down upon the lid; the inner surface of the lid will be exposed, and the foreign body may be brushed off with the corner of a handkerchief.

If the body lies under lid, (1) grasp the lashes of the upper lid and pull it down over the lower, which should at the same time, with the other hand, be pushed up under the upper. Upon repeating this two or three times, the foreign body will often be brushed out on the lower lid.

(2) If this fails, the upper lid should be turned up; make the patient shut his eye and look down; then with a pencil or some similar article press gently upon the lid at about the middle, and grasping the lashes with the other hand, turn the lid up over the pencil, when its inner surface will be seen, and the foreign body may readily be brushed off.

If the body is firmly stuck in the surface of the eye, a careful attempt may be made to lift it out with the point of a needle. If not at once successful, do not try again, as you may injure the sight.

Lime, plaster or whitewash in the eye should be washed out with a very weak mixture of vinegar and water. Acids in the eye may be washed with baking soda in water. Olive oil will also afford relief.

After the removal of a foreign body from the eye, a sensation as if of its presence often remains. People not infrequently complain of a foreign body when it has already been removed by natural means. Sometimes the body has excited a little irritation, which feels like a foreign body. If this sensation remains over night, the eye needs attention, and a surgeon should be consulted; for, it should have passed away, if no irritating body is present.

After the removal of an irritating foreign body from the eye, salt water should be poured into it, then butter, lard or olive oil may be used for a salve.

1498. Fainting. Fainting is caused by the blood leaving the head. Therefore, we must get the blood back into the head, which is done by placing the patient on his back, with the head lower than the rest of the body. If necessary, make, by digging, a slight depression in the ground for the head, neck and upper part of shoulders. Also, the head may be placed lower than the rest of the body by putting a couple of folded blankets, or a few folded coats or any other suitable article under the body: also, by raising the feet by hand or otherwise. The clothing should be loosened by unbuttoning and the patient fanned. Give him as much fresh air as possible,—so, do not let people crowd around him. Mop the face and forehead with a handkerchief soaked in cold water.

1499. Fish hook. If a fish hook gets caught in the flesh, push it on through and when the end sticks out, break off the hook and pull it out the other way. Put tincture of iodine on the wound and bandage.

1500. Fits. The man falls over suddenly unconscious in a convulsion, which continues until he is blue in the face, when he gradually quiets down and regains consciousness. He is liable to injure himself by the fall and by biting his tongue. Put a stick or cork between his teeth and let him lie quietly undisturbed. Don't try to hold him down or make him sit up. He will come to no harm on the floor and you cannot stop the fit. Ammonia on a handkerchief held under the nose to smell will assist reviving consciousness. Put him in the hospital at once.

1501. Fracture. See, "Broken Bones."

1502. Freezing. If a man is overcome by the cold, do not take him into a warm room, or heated tent. Put him into a cool room without draughts and get a doctor at once. Meanwhile loosen his clothing and rub arms and legs towards the heart with cold water and a towel or sponge, using pressure.

When he revives give him hot drinks and wrap him up well in hot blankets and put him in the hospital.

When freezing to death a man feels overcome with sleepiness and stupor. Take a switch or stick and beat him unmercifully. Remember that falling to sleep means death.

1503. Frost-bite. The best way to get frost-bitten is to have on damp clothing, such as wet shoes and socks or mittens. The first feeling of frost bite is numbness, and the first sign is marble whiteness.

Treatment. Rub the frozen part briskly with snow or ice cold water, if the frost-bite has just occurred. If it has been frozen more than fifteen minutes, rub very gently with snow, cold water or coal oil (kerosene). If you rub hard, it will break the frozen flesh.

Returning pinkness is a sign of thawing; if the parts turn a dark color, see a surgeon at once, for it means gangrene (death of the flesh).

When thawed out apply plenty of oil, tallow or vaseline.

If gangrene has set in and no doctor is available, then treat as a burn.

By all means keep away from heat. To toast frost-bitten fingers or toes before a fire is liable to result in chilblains.

1504. Headache. Among troops headache is usually due to intestinal indigestion, combined with a congestion of the stomach. Take a tablespoonful of Worcestershire sauce or 5 drops of tobasco sauce in a tumbler of hot water as a drink and put a small piece of soap up into the bowel to cause a movement.

1505. Heat exhaustion. The man falls out in a faint while marching, or on fatigue or parade. He looks pale, his body is clammy and cold, his breathing is sighing and heart fluttering. What is the matter? His heart is weak from poisons in the blood, usually alcohol, but often too much carbonic gas and too little oxygen. This occurs when men are soft-muscled: so, young soldiers, recruits and fat soldiers and especially those who drink alcohol, use drugs or smoke or chew tobacco while hiking, are the first to have it.

Treatment. Loosen the man's clothing, remove his pack, lay him on his back in the shade, with head and shoulders lower than his hips and raise his feet in the air. This will make the blood flow to the heart and brain. If he has fainted, slap the bare chest with the hand or a wet towel and briskly rub the arms towards the heart. If he does not revive, apply hot bottles, or bricks to the chest and abdomen, and ammonia to the nose, as a smelling salt. Do not give stimulants until he is conscious. He should ride in the ambulance, or go to the hospital.

1506. Lightning. A man struck by lightning is treated the same as in the case of drowning, omitting, of course, the operation of getting the water out of the lungs.

1507. Nose, foreign body in. If it cannot be sneezed out, lean the head back and pour a little oil into the nostril. Then snift and blow the nose alternately. If this is not successful, take a lead pencil and try to push the object straight back into the throat. This must be done very gently.

1508. Poison. When poison has been swallowed, cause the patient to take a large quantity of luke-warm water and make him vomit by putting his finger in his throat. Repeat this and then have him swallow the white of two eggs or some milk into which raw flour or corn-starch has been stirred.

If you know he took bichloride of mercury, you may increase the amount of eggs and give one-half glass of weak lime water.

If you know he took carbolic acid, give him alcohol (pure alcohol or in the form of gin or whiskey) and plenty of it in order to neutralize the acid.

Get a doctor as soon as possible, and save the vomit and poison not taken, for him to see.

1509. Scalds. Apply at once common baking soda or olive oil and cover with a bandage. To sprinkle with flour is also good.

1510. Scratches of cats and other animals. Apply tincture of iodine or wash with soap and water.

1511. Shock. In case of collapse following an accident, treat the accident; then treat as for fainting. Apply hot plates, stones or bottles of hot water, or an electric light wrapped in towels over the stomach. Wrap up warmly. Keep the patient quiet, in the dark, and send for a doctor.

1512. Snow or sun blindness. Smear the nose and face about the eyes with charcoal, and wear a cloth over the face with small holes for the eyes.

1513. Sore throat. Gargling with hot strong tea or hot water and salt is often effective.

Listerine diluted in water and used as a gargle is also good.

Peroxide of hydrogen is a good gargle.

1514. Spider bite. Apply a cloth dampened with alcohol or weak ammonia and water.

1515. Suffocation by gas. See "Asphyxiation by gas."

1516. Sprains. The regular medical treatment is to plunge a sprained ankle, wrist or finger, into water as hot as can be borne at the start, and to raise the heat gradually thereafter to the limit of endurance. Continue for half an hour, then put the joint in a hot wet bandage, reheat from time to time, and support the limb in an elevated position,—the leg on a chair or stool; the arm carried in a sling. In a day or two begin gently moving and kneading the joint, and rub with liniment, oil or vaseline.

As a soothing application for sprains, bruises, etc., the virtues of witch hazel are well known.

1517. Stings. Stings of bees, jelly fish and other stinging animals are treated with a very weak solution of ammonia in water applied as a lotion. Or apply a very weak solution of carbolic acid in water, a strong solution of baking powder, a slice of crushed raw onion, a moist quid of tobacco, witch hazel, listerine, or a paste of clay.

Before applying any of these remedies, extract the sting, if left in the wound. Also, work out as much of the poison as possible by massaging and sucking the wound.

1518. Sunburn. Treat with witch hazel or listerine or vinegar well diluted with water.

1519. Sunstroke. In sunstroke the man has a blazing red face, dry, burning hot skin; agitated heart; snoring breathing; a high fever, and is unconscious and delirious. What is the matter? The part of the brain which regulates the heat of the body is overcome by the heat and loses control,—the man is entirely too hot all the way through.

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