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Manual of American Grape-Growing
by U. P. Hedrick
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McPIKE

(Labrusca)

McPike is noteworthy because of the large size of the berries and bunches. It is very similar to its parent, Worden, differing in having fewer but larger berries, grapes not as high in flavor and fewer and smaller seeds. Because of the thin, tender skin, the berries crack badly. The grapes shell more or less, and the vines are less productive than those of Worden. The faults named debar it from becoming a commercial grape and it is not high enough in quality to make it of value for the amateur. This variety originated with H. G. McPike, Alton, Illinois, from seed of Worden planted in 1890.

Vine vigorous, hardy, very productive. Canes of medium length, dull reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes very short; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface grayish-white, heavily pubescent; leaf entire with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep; basal and lateral sinuses lacking. Flowers nearly self-fertile.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters variable in size, broad, irregularly tapering, usually not shouldered; pedicel long, thick, smooth; brush long, slender, green with brown tinge. Berries unusually large, round, purplish-black with heavy bloom, firm; skin cracks, adherent to pulp, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tender, stringy, vinous; fair to good. Seeds adherent, one to four, short, broad, blunt, plump, light brown.

MARION

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Black German, Marion Port

Marion so closely resembles Clinton in botanical and horticultural characters as to be clearly of the same type. The vine is vigorous and hardy, but hardly sufficiently productive, and is susceptible to mildew and leaf-hoppers. The fruit is pleasantly sweet and spicy, although not high enough in quality for a table-grape, but makes a very good dark red wine. The fruit colors early but ripens late, hangs well on the vines and improves with a touch of frost. Marion was brought to notice by a Mr. Shepherd, Marion, Ohio, about 1850.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes very long, dark reddish-brown, covered with bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes very long; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, long, bifid. Leaves very large; upper surface dark green, glossy; lower surface pale green, smooth; leaf entire, terminus acuminate; petiolar sinus very deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal and lateral sinuses usually lacking; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers self-sterile, open very early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters medium in size, short, slender, cylindrical, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender with a few inconspicuous warts; brush very short, wine-colored. Berries small, round, black, glossy with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent with much wine-colored pigment, astringent; flesh dark green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tough, sprightly, spicy, tart; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to five, medium in size, broad, short, very plump, brown.

MARTHA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Martha was at one time a popular green grape, but the introduction of superior varieties has reduced its popularity until now it is but little grown. It is a seedling of Concord and resembles its parent, differing chiefly as follows: fruit green, a week earlier, bunch and berry smaller, flavor far better, being sweeter, more delicate and less foxy. The vine of Martha is a lighter shade of green, is less robust, and the blossoms open a few days earlier than those of Concord. One of the defects of Martha, and the chief cause of its going out of favor, is that it does not keep nor ship well. The variety is still being planted in the South but is generally abandoned in the North. Samuel Miller, Calmdale, Pennsylvania, grew Martha from seed of Concord; it was introduced about 1868.

Vine hardy, productive, susceptible to attacks of mildew. Canes long, dark reddish-brown, surface with thin bloom, roughened; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; tendrils continuous, or intermittent, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface light green; lower surface light bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes wanting or faint; petiolar sinus shallow, very wide; teeth irregular. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early mid-season. Clusters medium in size, tapering, single-shouldered, loose; pedicel short, slender; brush very short, green. Berries medium in size, round, light green with thin bloom, persistent; skin thin, very tender, adherent; flesh pale green, juicy, tough, fine-grained, slightly foxy; very good. Seeds few in number, adherent, broad, blunt, dark brown.

MASSASOIT

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Massasoit is distinguished as the earliest of Rogers' hybrids, ripening with Delaware. The grapes have the peculiarity of being best before full maturity, developing, after ripening, a degree of foxiness which impairs the quality. In shape and size of berry and bunch, there is a striking resemblance to Isabella, but the color is that of Catawba. The texture of the fruit is especially good, firm but tender and juicy, while the flavor is rich and sweet. The vine is vigorous, hardy and productive but subject to mildew and rot. Massasoit is worth a place in the home vineyard and as an early grape of fine quality for local markets.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, very productive, subject to rot and mildew. Canes long, thick, dark brown with reddish tinge; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, long, trifid or bifid. Leaves variable in size; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three to five with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus shallow, narrow, obscure; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters variable in size, broad, cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered; pedicel slender with a few indistinct warts; brush pale green. Berries large, round-oval, dark brownish-red, dull with thin bloom, very persistent, firm; skin thin, tender, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, soft, stringy, foxy; good to very good. Seeds adherent, one to five, large, broad, distinctly notched, plump, blunt.

MAXATAWNEY

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

While at one time very popular, grape-growers now seldom hear of Maxatawney. It is a southern grape, ripening its fruit in the North only occasionally. The variety is interesting historically as being the first good green grape and as showing unmistakable Vinifera characters, another example of the fortuitous hybridization which gave so many valuable varieties before artificial hybridization of Vinifera with native grapes had been tried. In 1843, a man living in Eagleville, Pennsylvania, received several bunches of grapes from Maxatawney. The seeds of these grapes were planted and one grew, the resulting plant being the original vine of Maxatawney.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes medium in length, slender, reddish; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large, dark green, thick; lower surface grayish-white with tinge of bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes three to five; petiolar sinus narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters small to medium, short, slender, cylindrical, occasionally with a small, single shoulder, compact; pedicel long, slender, warty; brush long, yellow. Berries variable in size, oval, pale red or dull green with amber tinge, with thin bloom, persistent; skin tough, astringent; flesh tender, foxy; good to very good. Seeds free, few, large, very broad, blunt.

MEMORY

(Rotundifolia)

Memory is one of the best of the Rotundifolia grapes for the garden and local markets, its fruits being especially good for dessert. As yet, however, the variety has not been widely distributed even in North Carolina where it originated. The vine is given credit for being the most vigorous grower and the most productive of the grapes of its species. Memory is probably a seedling of Thomas, which it much resembles, having been found in a vineyard of Thomas grapes near Whiteville, North Carolina, by T. S. Memory, about 1868.

Vine very vigorous, healthy, productive. Leaves large, longer than broad, thick, smooth with coarsely serrate margins. Flowers perfect.

Fruit ripens in September in North Carolina; clusters large, with from four to twelve berries which hang unusually well for a variety of V. Rotundifolia. Berries very large, round-oblong, deep brownish-black, almost jet black; skin thick; flesh tender, juicy, sweet; good to best.

MERRIMAC

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Merrimac is often accredited as the best black grape among Rogers' hybrids, but an analysis of the characters of the several black varieties grown by Rogers shows that it is surpassed by Wilder, Herbert and possibly Barry. The vine is strong in growth, productive, hardy and exempt from fungal diseases; but the grapes are not high in quality, and flesh, skin and seed characters are such that the fruit is not as pleasant to eat as the other black varieties named. Merrimac is worthy a place in collections for the sake of variety. Rogers gave this variety the name Merrimac in 1869.

Vine vigorous, usually hardy, productive. Canes slender, dark brown, surface roughened; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, short, bifid. Leaves large, thin; upper surface very light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent and cobwebby; lobes three with terminal one obtuse; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters variable in size, broad, tapering; pedicel slender, covered with numerous inconspicuous warts; brush wine-colored. Berries large, round, black, glossy with abundant bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, stringy; good. Seeds adherent, one to five, broad, long, with enlarged neck, brown.

MILLS

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The bunches and berries of Mills are large and well-formed; the berries are firm and solid, with the skin adherent as in Viniferas; the flesh is juicy and parts readily from the seeds; the flavor is rich, sweet and vinous; and the grapes are hardly surpassed in keeping quality. But when the fruit characters of Mills have been praised, nothing further can be said in its favor. The vines are neither vigorous, hardy nor fruitful and are very subject to mildew; neither wood nor roots ripen well in the North in average seasons; and the variety is a most difficult one for nurserymen to grow. Mills is of doubtful commercial value, but for the garden it is possible that the grower may be able to graft it to advantage on some variety with better vine characters. William H. Mills, Hamilton, Ontario, grew Mills about 1870 from seed of Muscat Hamburg fertilized by Creveling.

Vine medium in vigor, hardiness and productiveness. Canes long, thick, light brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, cobwebby; lobes three to five with terminus acute; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal and lateral sinuses deep and wide; teeth deep. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, long, slender, cylindrical, often double-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender with numerous, small warts; brush long, wine-colored. Berries large, oval, jet-black with abundant bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, adherent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, rich, tender, sprightly, vinous, sweet; very good to best. Seeds free, one to three, large, brown.

MISH

(Rotundifolia)

Mish is a favorite Rotundifolia in North Carolina, being planted extensively in some parts of that state. Its outstanding characters are vigor and productiveness in vine and high quality in the fruit. Mish is named by many as the best all-round Rotundifolia, being of value for dessert, wine and grape-juice. The variety was found by W. M. Mish, about 1846, near Washington, North Carolina.

Vine very vigorous, productive, healthy, open in growth; canes somewhat trailing. Leaves large, round, thick, smooth, leathery with coarsely dentate margin. Flowers perfect.

Fruit late, does not ripen uniformly, keeps and ships well. Clusters of medium size with from six to fifteen berries which cling well to the pedicel. Berries of medium size, round-oval, deep reddish-black with numerous conspicuous dots; skin thin, cracking in wet weather; flesh tender, juicy, sweet, exceptionally well flavored; very good to best.

MISSION

(Vinifera)

Of all grapes, Mission has probably played the most important part in the vineyards of California. Grown from the earliest times at the old missions, its source or its name has never been determined. Its viticultural value for table and wine-press was early appreciated by California grape-growers, and its culture rapidly spread to every county in the state adapted to grape-growing. With vines vigorous, healthy and productive, bearing grapes of delicious quality, Mission is a mainstay on the Pacific slope, surpassed by few vineyard varieties for general usefulness. The description is compiled.

Vine vigorous, healthy, productive; wood short-jointed, grayish-brown, dull, dark. Leaf medium to large, slightly oblong, with large, deeply-cut compound teeth; basal sinus widely opened, primary sinuses narrow and shallow; smooth on both sides with scattered tomentum below, bright green above, lighter below. Bunch divided into many small, distinct lateral clusters, shouldered, loose, sometimes very loose; berries of medium size, purple or almost black with heavy bloom; skin thin; flesh firm, crisp, juicy, sweet, rich and delicious. Seeds rather large and prominent; season late.

MISSOURI RIESLING

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Missouri Riesling attains perfection only in the South. The vines are hardy, vigorous, productive and healthy in the North, as a rule, but the fruit is lacking in quality. In the South, Missouri Riesling is a beautiful fruit when well grown and has many good qualities of fruit and vine. It originated with Nicholas Grein, Hermann, Missouri, about 1870, probably from seed of Taylor.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes very long, numerous, thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged; internodes long; tendrils continuous, long, trifid or bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent; lobes five with terminal one acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus shallow, wide; lateral sinus deep, wide; teeth deep, wide. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late, does not keep nor ship well. Clusters short, cylindrical, single-shouldered; pedicel long with few small warts; brush green. Berries of medium size, round, yellowish-green changing to light red with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin sprinkled with small brown dots, thin, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, lacking in aroma, mild; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to four, surface rough, dark brown.

MONTEFIORE

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Montefiore is extensively grown in Missouri and the Southwest but is almost unknown in the North and East. It is reported as succeeding in the Lake District of Ohio and, with the exception that it is uncertain in bearing and not always productive, it grows well in sections of New York. While it is essentially a wine-grape, yet it is pleasing in taste and texture of fruit and is far better in quality than many of the coarser Labruscas commonly cultivated. It keeps and ships well and presents an attractive appearance. Jacob Rommel, Morrison, Missouri, grew this variety about 1875 from seed of Taylor fertilized by Ives.

Vine vigorous and hardy. Canes long, thick, dark brown with thin bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils continuous, long, bifid. Leaves thick; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; lobes three when present with terminus acute; petiolar sinus wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow when present; teeth deep. Flowers semi-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters small, short, tapering, single-shouldered, the shoulder being connected to the bunch by a long stem, compact; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush red. Berries small, oval, often compressed, black, glossy with abundant bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, melting, vinous, sweet; fair to good. Seeds free, one to five, small, broad, faintly notched, short, plump, brown.

MOORE EARLY

(Labrusca)

Moore Early (Plate XXIV) is the standard grape of its season. Its fruit cannot be described better than as an early Concord. The vines are readily distinguishable from those of Concord, differing chiefly in being less productive. To grow the variety satisfactorily, the soil must be rich, well-drained and loose, must be frequently cultivated, and the vines should be pruned severely. The bunches of Moore Early are not as large as those of Concord and are less compact; the berries shell rather more easily, and the skin cracks more readily. The flesh characters and the flavor are essentially those of Concord, although the quality is not as high as in the older variety. The quality is, however, much higher than that of Champion and Hartford, its chief competitors, and varieties which it should replace. Moore Early is by no means an ideal grape for its season, but until something better is introduced it will probably remain the best early commercial sort. Captain John B. Moore, Concord, Massachusetts, originated this variety from seed of Concord, planted about 1868.

Vine vigorous, hardy, unproductive. Canes short, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; leaf usually not lobed, terminus acute; petiolar sinus wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus a notch when present; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early, does not keep well. Clusters medium in size, length, and breadth, cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, loose; pedicel short, thick, smooth; brush short, pale green. Berries large, round, purplish-black, firm; skin tender, adherent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tough with slight foxiness; fair to good. Seeds one to four, large, broad, plump, blunt, brown with yellow tinge at tips.

MOSCATELLO

(Vinifera)

Moscatello Nero. Black Muscat

Beautiful in appearance and having a delicate Muscat taste and aroma, this variety is one of the good table-grapes of the Pacific slope. Unfortunately it ripens so late that it is hardly worth trying in the East. The variety has the reputation of being very productive. The description is compiled.

Vine vigorous, healthy, very productive. Leaves of medium size, with deep upper and shallow lower sinuses; glabrous above, slightly downy below, very hairy on the veins, with long, sharp teeth. Bunch large to very large, long, loose, conico-cylindrical, winged; berries very large, borne on long slender pedicels, dark purple, almost black; skin thin but tough; flesh rather soft, juicy; flavor sweet, rich, aromatic, musky; quality very good. Season late, does not keep well.

MOYER

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana)

Jordan, Moyer's Early Red

Moyer is almost a counterpart of its parent, Delaware. Were it not that the variety is from one to two weeks earlier than Delaware, and somewhat hardier, hence better adapted for cold regions, it could have no place in viticulture. Compared with Delaware, the vine is hardly as vigorous and is less productive, but is freer from rot and mildew. The bunches are much like those of Delaware but have the fault of setting fruit imperfectly even when cross-pollination is assured; the berries are a little larger, of much the same color and of like flavor, rich, sweet, with pure vinousness and without a trace of foxiness. The fruit keeps well, ships well and does not crack nor shell. Moyer is well established in Canada, proving perfectly hardy wherever Concord is grown, possibly standing even more cold. W. H. Read, Port Dalhousie, Ontario, raised the original vine of Moyer, about 1880, from seed of Delaware fertilized by Miller's Burgundy.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, unproductive. Canes numerous, slender, dull, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves small; upper surface dark green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green or with faint blue tinge, heavily pubescent; lobes two to five with terminus acute; petiolar sinus shallow; basal sinus shallow when present; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth very shallow, narrow. Flowers self-sterile, open early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps well but loses color if kept too long. Clusters small, short, slender, tapering, sometimes single-shouldered; pedicel short with small warts; brush yellowish-green. Berries small, oblate, dark red with faint bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, free, astringent; flesh translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, vinous; good to very good. Seeds free, one to four, broad, short, very blunt, brown with yellow tinge at tips.

MUSCATEL

(Vinifera)

White Frontignan

This old and standard sort is rather commonly grown in some of the grape regions of California to follow Chasselas Golden. It might be tried with some show of success in favored grape regions in the East. The description is compiled.

Vine of medium size, vigorous, healthy; canes strong, spreading, reddish-brown with short internodes. Leaves of medium size, thin, five-lobed; glabrous except on the lower sides of the well-marked ribs where a few hairs show. Bunches long, cylindrical, regular, compact; berries round, golden-yellow becoming amber; flavor sweet, rich, aromatic, peculiar; quality very good. Season late mid-season, keeps and ships well.



MUSCAT HAMBURG

(Vinifera)

Muscat Hamburg (Plate XXV) is an old European grape well known in some parts of America in greenhouse graperies, since it is one of the best for forcing. All who know the beautiful fruits of this variety grown in forcing-houses will want to test it out of doors, where at the Geneva, New York, Experiment Station, they have done well, many clusters attaining a weight of a pound and a half to two pounds. The accompanying plate, the fruit much less than half natural size, shows what a fine grape Muscat Hamburg is. One is struck with wondering admiration at a vine laden with these grapes growing alongside Concord, Niagara or Delaware. The quality is delectable, the quintessence of the flavors and aromas which make the grape a favorite fruit. The grapes keep long and retain their form, size, color and rich, delicate flavor almost to the end. This variety is a treasure to the amateur; and the professional who wants another grape for local markets should try grafting over a few vines of some native to this sort, following the directions given in Chapter X in caring for the vines.

Vines vigorous, tender, need protection during the winter; canes long, numerous, slender to medium, light brown, darker at the nodes which are enlarged and flattened. Leaves medium to large, intermediate in thickness; upper surface light green, dull; lower surface pale green, faintly pubescent, densely hairy.

Fruit ripens in October, ships and keeps well; clusters very large, long, broad, tapering, single or double-shouldered. Berries large, firm, oval, very dark purplish-red, covered with lilac bloom, very persistent; skin thick, adheres strongly to the pulp; flesh pale green, translucent, meaty, very juicy, tender, vinous, musky, sweet, rich; very good to best; seeds separating easily from the pulp, large.

MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA

This is possibly the leading table- and raisin-grape of the Pacific slope. From the literature or from a visit to vineyards, one cannot make out whether one or several varieties are grown under the name. Probably there are several strains grown under the distinctive name "Muscat" which applies to these sweet, light yellow, musky grapes. This is one of the standard sorts to force indoors but requires too long a season for out of doors in the East. The following description is compiled:

Vine short, straggling, bushy, sometimes forming a bush rather than a vine, very productive; wood gray with dark spots, short-jointed. Leaf round, five-lobed; bright green above, lighter green below. Bunches long and loose, shouldered; berry oblong, light yellow and transparent when fully mature, covered with white bloom; flesh firm, crisp; flavor sweet and very musky; quality good. Season late, the laterals producing a second and sometimes even a third crop.

NIAGARA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Niagara (Plate XXVI) is the leading American green grape, holding the rank among grapes of this color that Concord maintains among black varieties. It is, however, a less valuable grape than Concord, and it is doubtful whether it should be ranked much higher than several other green grapes. In vigor and productiveness, when the two grapes are on equal footing as to adaptability, Niagara and Concord rank the same. In hardiness of root and vine, Niagara falls short of Concord; it cannot be relied on without winter protection where the thermometer falls below zero. Niagara has much of the foxiness of the wild Labrusca, distasteful to many palates. Both bunches and berries of Niagara are larger than those of Concord and are better formed, making a handsomer fruit if the colors are liked equally well. The fruit shells as badly as that of Concord and does not keep longer. Both vine and fruit of Niagara are more susceptible to fungal diseases than those of Concord, especially to black-rot, which proves a veritable scourge with this variety in unfavorable seasons. Niagara was produced by C. L. Hoag and B. W. Clark, Lockport, New York, from seed of Concord fertilized by Cassady planted in 1868.

Vine vigorous, lacking in hardiness, very productive. Canes long, thick, reddish-brown deepening in color at the nodes which are enlarged and slightly flattened; internodes long, thick; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface glossy, dark green, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three to five with terminus acute; petiolar sinus of medium depth and width; basal sinus shallow, wide, often toothed; lateral sinus wide, frequently toothed; teeth shallow, variable in width. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, frequently single-shouldered, compact; pedicel thick with a few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush pale green, long. Berries large, oval, pale yellowish-green with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tender, adherent, astringent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, foxy; good. Seeds free, one to six, deeply notched, brown.

NOAH

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Noah is little grown at present outside of Missouri, where it is still planted somewhat. Noah and Elvira are often confused but there are very marked differences. The clusters of Elvira are smaller, the berries are more foxy in taste, and the skins are more tender and crack more readily than do those of Noah. The large, dark, glossy green leaves make the vines of this variety very handsome. As with Elvira and other varieties of this group, Noah is of little value in the North. It originated with Otto Wasserzieher, Nauvoo, Illinois, from seed of Taylor planted in 1869.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, productive. Canes long, thick, dark brown, surface roughened; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus very shallow when present; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers semi-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit late mid-season, does not ship nor keep well. Clusters variable in size, cylindrical, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short with a few small warts; brush short, brown. Berries small, round, light green tinged with yellow, dull with thin bloom, firm; skin adherent to pulp; flesh yellowish-green, translucent, juicy, tough, fine-grained, vinous, sprightly; good. Seeds adherent, one to four, dark brown.

NORTHERN MUSCADINE

(Labrusca)

That this variety, together with Lucile, Lutie and other grapes with the foxy taste strongly marked, has not become popular, in spite of good vine characters, is evidence that the American public do not desire such grapes. In appearance of fruit, Northern Muscadine is much like Lutie, the two being distinguished from other grapes by an unmistakable odor. A serious defect of the fruit is that the berries shatter badly as soon as they reach maturity. Taken as a whole, the vine characters of this variety are very good and offer possibilities for the grape-breeder. The variety originated at New Lebanon, New York, and was brought to notice by D. J. Hawkins and Philemon Stewart of the Society of Shakers about 1852.

Vine vigorous, productive, healthy, hardy. Canes slender, dark brown, heavily pubescent; tendrils continuous, bifid, dehisce early. Leaves large, round, thick; upper surface dull, rugose; lower surface dark bronze, heavily pubescent. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early mid-season, does not keep well. Clusters medium in size, short, occasionally single-shouldered, compact. Berries large, oval, dark amber with thin bloom, drop badly from the pedicel; skin tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, juicy, fine-grained, tender, soft, very foxy, sweet; poor in quality. Seeds free, numerous, large, broad, faintly notched, long, brown.

NORTON

(AEstivalis, Labrusca)

Norton is one of the leading wine-grapes in eastern America, the fruit having small value for any other purpose than wine or, possibly, grape-juice. The vine is hardy but requires a long, warm season to reach maturity so that it is seldom grown successfully north of the Potomac. Norton thrives in rich alluvial clays, gravels or sands, the only requisite seemingly being a fair amount of fertility and soil warmth. The vines are robust; very productive, especially on fertile soils; as free, or more so, from fungal diseases as any other of our native grapes; and are very resistant to phylloxera. The bunches are of but medium size and the berries are small. The grapes are pleasant eating when fully ripe, rich, spicy and pure-flavored but tart if not quite ripe. The variety is difficult to propagate from cuttings and to transplant, and the vines do not bear grafts well. The origin of Norton is uncertain, but it has been under cultivation since before 1830, when it was first described.

Vine very vigorous, healthy, half-hardy, productive. Canes long, thick, dark brown with abundant bloom; nodes much enlarged; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, occasionally continuous, long, bifid, sometimes trifid. Leaves large, irregularly round; upper surface pale green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus shallow or a mere notch when present. Flowers self-fertile, late; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters medium in size, short, broad, tapering, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender with a few warts; brush dull, wine-colored. Berries small, round-oblate, black, glossy with heavy bloom, persistent, soft; skin thin, free with much dark red pigment; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tender, spicy, tart. Seeds free, two to six, small, brown.

OPORTO

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Oporto was at one time in demand as a wine grape because its wine resembled in color and flavor that from Oporto. The variety is now scarcely known, being inferior in most of its horticultural characters to others of its species, but might be valuable in breeding for some of its characters. The vine is very hardy, unusually free from fungal diseases, is very resistant to phylloxera and has been used in France as a phylloxera-resistant grafting-stock. The juice is very thick and dark, a deep purple, hence suitable for adding color to wine or grape-juice. The origin of Oporto is unknown. It was brought into cultivation about 1860 by E. W. Sylvester, Lyons, New York.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, healthy, variable in productiveness. Canes long, reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long, diaphragm thin; tendrils continuous, bifid. Stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, ships and keeps well. Clusters small, cylindrical, often single-shouldered. Berries medium in size, round, black, glossy with abundant bloom, persistent, firm; skin very thin, tender, with much dark wine-colored pigment; flesh white, sometimes with purple tinge, juicy, fine-grained, solid, sweet, spicy; fair quality. Seeds free, numerous, small, broad, faintly notched, sharply pointed, plump, dark brown.

OTHELLO

(Vinifera, Vulpina, Labrusca)

Arnold's Hybrid, Canadian Hamburg, Canadian Hybrid

In France, Othello does remarkably well as a direct producer and is used also for a resistant stock. While most of its characters are spoken of in the superlative by the French, in America the variety is not so highly esteemed because of susceptibility to fungi. Moreover, the fruit matures so late that it could never become a valuable variety for the North. It is in no sense a table-grape but makes a well-colored, pleasant wine. Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario, grew Othello from seed of Clinton fertilized by Black Hamburg and planted in 1859.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves of average size; upper surface light green, dull and smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three to five with terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep, very narrow, frequently closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow, narrow; lateral sinus deep; teeth deep, wide; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps fairly well. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, frequently with a loose single shoulder, compact; pedicel long, slender with numerous small warts; brush short, wine-colored. Berries large, oval, black, glossy with abundant bloom, very persistent; skin thin, tough, adherent with red pigment; flesh dark green, very juicy, fine-grained, tough, sprightly; low in quality. Seeds free, one to three, neck sometimes swollen, brown.

OZARK

(AEstivalis, Labrusca)

Ozark belongs to the South and to Missouri in particular. Its merits and demerits have been threshed out by the Missouri grape-growers with the result that its culture is somewhat increasing. It is a grape of low quality, partly, perhaps, from over-bearing, which it habitually does unless the fruit is thinned. The vine is healthy and a very strong grower, but is self-sterile, which is against it as a market sort. In spite of self-sterility and low quality, Ozark is a promising variety for the country south of Pennsylvania. Ozark originated with J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas, from seed of unknown source. The variety was introduced about 1890.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, thick with thin bloom, surface roughened; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, usually bifid. Leaves dense, large; upper surface light green; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent, cobwebby; lobes three to five; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; serrations shallow, narrow. Flowers self-sterile or nearly so, open late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters large, long, usually with a long, loose shoulder, very compact; pedicel short, thick, smooth; brush long, red. Berries variable in size, dull black with abundant bloom, persistent; skin tough with much wine-colored pigment; flesh tender, mild; fair in quality. Seeds free, small.

PALOMINO

(Vinifera)

Golden Chasselas, Listan

This variety seems to be grown in California under the three names given—while in France Palomino is described as a bluish-black grape. Palomino seems to be grown commonly in California as a table-grape and is worth trying in eastern America. The variety received under the name Palomino from California at the New York Experiment Station has the following characters, agreeing closely with those set down by Californian viticulturists:

Fruit ripens about the 20th of October, keeping qualities good; clusters medium to large, long, single-shouldered, tapering, loose; berries medium to small, roundish, pale greenish-yellow, thin bloom; skin and the adhering flesh medium tender and crisp, flesh surrounding seeds melting; flavor sweet, vinous; quality good.

PEABODY

(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera)

Peabody is as yet a comparatively unimportant offspring of Clinton. The grapes are of excellent quality. It appears to do better in the northern tier of states or in Canada, than farther south. This variety was grown by J. H. Ricketts about 1870.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, light brown with ash-gray tinge, darker at nodes, covered with thin bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves medium in size; upper surface dark green, thin; lower surface pale green, nearly glabrous; lobes three, acuminate; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; serration deep, narrow. Flowers semi-fertile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters large, long, usually with a shoulder connected to the bunch by a long stem, compact; pedicel short, slender, warty; brush short, green. Berries oval, black, glossy, covered with thin bloom, persistent; skin thick, tough; flesh very juicy, tender, vinous, spicy, agreeably sweet at the skin, tart at the center; good. Seeds free, broad.

PERFECTION

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera)

Perfection is a seedling of Delaware, which it greatly resembles but does not equal in fruit; its fruits being hardly as high in quality, do not keep as well, shrivel more before ripening, and shell more readily. In its vine characters, it is much more like a Labrusca than Delaware, suggesting that it is a Delaware cross. In the Southwest, Perfection is considered a valuable early red grape. J. Stayman, Leavenworth, Kansas, grew Perfection from seed of Delaware; it was sent out for testing about 1890.

Vine vigorous, healthy, injured in severe winters, productive. Canes of medium length and number, slender; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, trifid or bifid. Leaves healthy, medium in size; upper surface light green; lower surface grayish-white with a tinge of bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes wanting or three to five; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; serration shallow. Flowers self-fertile or nearly so, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early. Clusters usually single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush short, yellow. Berries small, round, red but less brilliant than Delaware with faint bloom, inclined to drop from pedicel, soft; skin thin, free from astringency; flesh medium in juiciness and tenderness, vinous, mild, sweet; good in quality. Seeds adherent, numerous, small, often with an enlarged neck.

PERKINS

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

At one time Perkins was grown largely as an early grape but has been discarded very generally on account of the poor quality of the fruit. The pulp of the grape is hard and the flavor is that of Wyoming and Northern Muscadine, grapes characterized by disagreeable foxiness. As with nearly all Labruscas, Perkins is a poor keeper. Notwithstanding the faults of its fruit, the variety may have value in regions where grape-growing is precarious; for in fruiting it is one of the most reliable grapes cultivated, the vines being hardy, vigorous, productive and free from fungal diseases. Perkins is an accidental seedling found about 1830 in the garden of Jacob Perkins, Bridgewater, Massachusetts.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark brown, deepening in color at the nodes, surface heavily pubescent; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves medium in size, thick; upper surface rugose; lower surface heavily pubescent; veins distinct; lobes three; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; serration shallow. Flowers self-fertile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit early, ships well. Clusters of medium size and length, broad, cylindrical, often with a single shoulder, compact; pedicel short, thick, warty; brush long, yellow. Berries large, oval, pale lilac or light red with thin bloom, inclined to drop from the pedicel, soft; skin thin, tough, without pigment; flesh white, juicy, stringy, fine-grained, firm, meaty, very foxy; poor in quality. Seeds adherent, numerous, medium in size, notched.

POCKLINGTON

(Labrusca)

Before the advent of Niagara, Pocklington (Plate XXII) was the leading green grape. The variety has the fatal fault, however, of ripening its crop late, which with some minor defects has caused it to fall below Niagara for northern grape districts. Pocklington is a seedling of Concord and resembles its parent in vine characters; the vines are fully equal to or surpass those of Concord in hardiness, but are of slower growth and not quite as healthy, vigorous nor productive. In quality, the grapes are as good if not better than those of Concord or Niagara, being sweet, rich and pleasantly flavored, although as with the other grapes named, it has too much foxiness for critical consumers. Pocklington is not equal to several other grapes of its season in quality, as Iona, Jefferson, Diana, Dutchess and Catawba, but it is far above the average and for this reason should be retained. John Pocklington, Sandy Hill, New York, grew Pocklington from seed of Concord about 1870.

Vine medium in vigor, hardy. Canes of medium length, number and size, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves variable in size, thick; upper surface light green, glossy; lower surface tinged with bronze, pubescent; lobes one to three with terminus acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, wide; teeth narrow. Flowers self-fertile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, cylindrical, often single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, thick with a few small warts; brush short, green. Berries large, oblate, yellowish-green with tinge of amber, with thin bloom, firm; skin with scattering russet dots, thin, tender, adherent, faintly astringent; flesh light green with yellow tinge, translucent, juicy, tough, fine-grained, slightly foxy; good. Seeds adherent, one to six, of medium length and breadth.

POUGHKEEPSIE

(Bourquiniana, Labrusca, Vinifera)

Poughkeepsie has been known long on the Hudson River, yet it is now little grown there and has not been disseminated widely elsewhere. In quality of fruit, it is equal to the best American varieties, but the vine characters are all poor and the variety is thus effectually debarred from common cultivation. Both vine and fruit resemble those of Delaware, but in neither does it quite equal the latter. In particular, the vine is more easily winter-killed and is less productive than that of Delaware. The grapes ripen a little earlier than those of the last named sort and this, with their beauty and fine quality, is sufficient to recommend it for the garden at least. About 1865, A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York, grew Poughkeepsie from seed of Iona fertilized by mixed pollen of Delaware and Walter.

Vine of medium vigor. Canes short, thick, dark reddish-brown; tendrils intermittent, frequently three in line, bifid or trifid. Leaves small; upper surface green, glossy, older leaves rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent. Flowers self-fertile, late; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps and ships well. Clusters small, tapering, usually single-shouldered, very compact. Berries small, round, pale red with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tender, without pigment; flesh pale green, very juicy, tender, melting, fine-grained, vinous, sweet; very good to best. Seeds free, small, broad, with enlarged neck, brown.

PRENTISS

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Prentiss is a green grape of high quality, once well known and generally recommended, but now going out of cultivation because the vine is tender to cold, lacks in vigor, is unproductive, uncertain in bearing and is subject to rot and mildew. There are vineyards in which it does very well and in such it is a remarkably attractive green grape, especially in form of cluster and in color of berry, in these respects resembling the one-time favorite, Rebecca, although not so high in quality as that variety. Its season is given as both before and after Concord. Prentiss always must remain a variety for the amateur and for special localities. It originated with J. W. Prentiss, Pulteney, New York, about 1870 from seed of Isabella.

Vine weak. Canes thick, light to dark brown; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves small, thick; upper surface light green, rugose in the older leaves; lower surface pale green, pubescent. Flowers self-fertile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit variable in season, about with Concord, keeps well. Cluster medium in size, tapering, sometimes with a single shoulder, compact. Berries medium in size, oval, light green with a yellow tinge, thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, without pigment; flesh pale green, juicy, foxy; good. Seeds adherent, numerous, notched, short, sharp-pointed, dark brown.

PURPLE CORNICHON

(Vinifera)

Black Cornichon

By virtue of attractive appearance and excellent shipping qualities of the fruit, this variety takes high place among the commercial grapes of California. Late ripening is another quality making it desirable, while its curious, long, curved berries add novelty to its attractions. The fruit does not take high rank in quality. The description has been compiled.

Vine very vigorous, healthy and productive; wood light brown striped with darker brown, short-jointed. Leaves large, longer than wide, deeply five-lobed; dark green above, lighter and very hairy below; coarsely toothed; with short, thick petiole. Bunches very large, loose or sometimes scraggly, borne on long peduncles; berries large, long, more or less curved, dark purple, spotted, thick-skinned, borne on long pedicels; flesh firm, crisp, sweet but not rich in flavor; quality good but not high. Season late, keeps and ships well.

REBECCA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

In the middle of the last century, when grape-growing was in the hands of the connoisseurs, Rebecca was one of the sterling green varieties. It is wholly unsuited for commercial vineyards and for years has been disappearing gradually from cultivation. The fruit is exceptionally fine, consisting of well-formed bunches and berries, the latter handsome yellowish-white and semi-transparent. In quality, the grapes are of the best, with a rich, sweet flavor and pleasing aroma. But the vine characters condemn Rebecca for any but the amateur. The vines lack in hardiness and vigor, are susceptible to mildew and other fungi and are productive only under the best conditions. The original vine was an accidental seedling found in the garden of E. M. Peake, Hudson, New York, and bore its first fruit in 1852.

Vine weak, sometimes vigorous, doubtfully hardy. Canes long, numerous, slender, dull brown, deepening in color at the nodes; tendrils continuous or intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves variable in size; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent. Flowers self-fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit late mid-season, ships and keeps well. Clusters small, short, cylindrical, rarely with a small, single shoulder, compact. Berries of medium size, oval, green with yellow tinge verging on amber, thin gray bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, without pigment; flesh pale green, very juicy, tender, melting, vinous, a little foxy, sweet; good to very good. Seeds free, short, narrow, blunt, brown.

RED EAGLE

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Red Eagle is a pure-bred seedling of Black Eagle which it resembles in all characters except color of fruit. Vine and fruit exhibit the characters found in Rogers' hybrids. It takes high rank as a grape of quality and can be recommended for the garden. The variety originated with T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, and was sent out in 1888.

Vine medium in vigor and hardiness, productive. Canes few, slender, dark brown with heavy bloom; nodes prominent, flattened; tendrils continuous or intermittent, long, bifid. Leaves thick; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; lobes three to five with terminus obtuse; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus wide; lateral sinus deep, wide; teeth deep, wide. Flowers semi-fertile, late; stamens upright.

Fruit early mid-season, keeps well. Clusters small, broad, tapering, single-shouldered, sometimes double-shouldered, loose with many abortive berries; pedicel very long, slender; brush green with brown tinge. Berries variable in size, round, light to very dark red with heavy bloom, persistent, soft; skin thick, tender, adherent with some red pigment; flesh green, transparent, juicy, very tender, melting, slightly foxy, tart; very good. Seeds free, one to five, large, long, blunt, light brown.

REGAL

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Regal is an offspring of Lindley, which it greatly resembles. The fruit is attractive in appearance and high in quality. A seemingly insignificant fault might make Regal undesirable in a commercial vineyard; the clusters are borne so close to the wood that it is difficult to harvest the fruit and avoid injury to the berries next to the wood. The variety is worthy of extensive culture in vineyards and gardens. Regal originated with W. A. Woodward, Rockford, Illinois, in 1879.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, very productive. Canes intermediate in length and size, numerous, dark reddish-brown. Tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves large; upper surface green, glossy and rugose; lower surface pale green with a bronze tinge, strongly pubescent. Flowers self-fertile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters small, broad, cylindrical, usually with a short single shoulder, sometimes double-shouldered, very compact. Berries large, round, purplish-red with faint bloom, persistent. Skin thin, tough, without pigment. Flesh pale green, very juicy, fine-grained, tender, musky; good. Seeds free, numerous, long, narrow, notched, blunt with a short neck, brown.

REQUA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

This is one of Rogers' hybrids which equals other grapes of its color and season. The grapes are attractive in cluster and berry and are of very good quality but are subject to rot and ripen too late for northern regions. The variety was named Requa in 1869, it having been previously known as No. 28.

Vine vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, medium in productiveness. Canes long, thick; tendrils continuous or intermittent, trifid or bifid. Leaves medium in size, dark green, often thick and rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent. Flowers semi-fertile, late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit late, keeps long. Clusters large, cylindrical, often with a long, single shoulder, compact. Berries large, oval, dark, dull red covered with thin bloom, strongly adherent; skin thin, tough, adherent; flesh pale green, tender, stringy, vinous, foxy, sweet; good to very good. Seeds adherent, medium in size and length, broad, blunt.

ROCHESTER

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The fruit of Rochester is a large-clustered red grape, handsome and very good in quality. The vine is a strong grower, productive and free from diseases. The variety is difficult to propagate and, therefore, not in favor with nurserymen. The grapes are sweet, rich and vinous but should be used as soon as ripe, as they do not keep well and the berries quickly shatter from the bunch. As an attractive early red grape, Rochester is worth a place in the garden and in favored locations for a special market. Ellwanger and Barry, Rochester, New York, in 1867 grew Rochester from mixed seed of Delaware, Diana, Concord and Rebecca.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; lobes one to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep; basal sinus absent; lateral sinus shallow; teeth shallow. Flowers fertile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit does not keep well. Clusters large, broad, tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender with few warts; brush slender, yellowish-brown. Berries medium, oval, purplish-red, dull with thin, lilac bloom, drop from the pedicel, soft; skin thick, tough, inclined to crack, free, without pigment, astringent; flesh pale green, transparent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, vinous, sweet; good to very good. Seeds free, one to three, large, short, broad, dark brown.



ROMMEL

(Labrusca, Vulpina, Vinifera)

Rommel is rarely cultivated in the North, because the vines lack in robustness, hardiness and productiveness and are susceptible to the leaf-hopper; and the grapes do not attain high quality and crack as they ripen. The bunch and berry are attractive in form, size and color. At its best, Rommel is a good table-grape and makes a fine white wine. It is worth growing in the South. T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, originated Rommel in 1885, from seed of Elvira pollinated by Triumph, and introduced it in 1889.

Vine vigorous in the South. Canes long, numerous, thick, reddish-brown, surface roughened; nodes enlarged, often flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves medium in size, round, thick; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, free from pubescence but slightly hairy; leaf not lobed, terminus acute to acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow when present; teeth deep. Flowers semi-fertile, late; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, ships and keeps well. Clusters medium to short, broad, cylindrical, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender, smooth; brush short, pale green. Berries large, roundish, light green with a yellow tinge, glossy, persistent, firm; skin thin, cracks badly, tender, adherent, without pigment or astringency; flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, tender, melting, stringy, sweet; fair to good. Seeds free, one to four, broad, sharp-pointed, plump, brown.

ROSAKI

(Vinifera)

Rosaki is a table-and raisin-grape of southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. According to some of the California nursery companies, it is grown in that state under the name Dattier de Beyrouth, although it would seem from French descriptions that there is a separate, very late variety of the latter name. Rosaki is similar to Malaga and there is a possibility that in some of the warmer parts of the East, it may be grown commercially as a substitute for the latter. The variety seems to be little grown on the Pacific slope.

Vines vigorous, usually very productive. Leaves large, roundish, rugose, usually five-lobed; terminal lobe acuminate; petiolar sinus moderately deep to deep, medium broad; lower lateral sinus shallow, broad, occasionally lacking; upper lateral sinus shallow to medium, broad; margins broadly and bluntly dentate. Fruit ripens the third week in October, keeping qualities excellent; clusters large, loose, tapering, shouldered; berries large to very large, oval to long-oval, pale yellow-green; flesh translucent, tender, meaty, vinous, sprightly; quality good to very good.

ROSE OF PERU

(Vinifera)

Rose of Peru is a favorite table-grape in California, confused with and possibly the same as Black Prince. Its chief commendable characters are handsome appearance and high quality of fruit and very productive vines. It is not adapted for shipping and does not enter plentifully into commerce. Its season is so late that the variety is hardly worth trying in the East, and yet it has matured in favorable seasons at Geneva, New York. The following description is compiled:

Vine vigorous, healthy, productive; wood short-jointed, dark brown. Leaves of medium size; deep green above, lighter green and tomentose below. Bunches very large, shouldered, very loose, often scraggly; berry large, round, black with firm, crackling flesh; skin rather thin and tender; flavor sweet and rich; quality very good to best. Season late, keeping rather well but not shipping well.

SALEM

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Rogers' No. 22, Rogers' No. 53

Salem (Plate XXVII) is the one of Rogers' hybrids of which the originator is said to have thought most, and to which he gave the name of his place of residence. The two chief faults, unproductiveness and susceptibility to mildew, are not found in all localities, and in these districts, near good markets, Salem ought to rank high as a commercial fruit. The vine is hardy, vigorous and productive and bears handsome fruit of high quality. This variety was christened Salem by Rogers in 1867, two years earlier than his other hybrids were named.

Vine vigorous, hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes long, dark brown; nodes enlarged; tendrils continuous or intermittent, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves variable in size; upper surface dark green, dull; lower surface pale green with slight bronze tinge, pubescent; lobes one to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, notched. Flowers sterile, mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, short, broad, tapering, heavily shouldered, compact; pedicel short, thick with small warts, enlarged at point of attachment to berry; brush short, pale green. Berries large, round, dark red, dull, persistent, soft; skin thick, adherent, without pigment, astringent; flesh translucent, juicy, tender, stringy, fine-grained, vinous, sprightly; good to very good. Seeds one to six, large, long and broad, blunt, brown.

SCUPPERNONG

(Rotundifolia)

American Muscadine, Bull, Bullace, Bullet, Fox Grape, Green Scuppernong, Green Muscadine, Hickman, Muscadine, Roanoke

Scuppernong is preeminently the grape of the South, the chief representative of the great species, V. rotundifolia, which runs riot in natural luxuriance from Delaware and Maryland to the Gulf and westward from the Atlantic to Arkansas and Texas. Scuppernong vines are found on arbors, in gardens, or half wild, on trees and fences on nearly every farm in the South Atlantic states. As a rule, these vines receive little cultivation, are unpruned and are given no care of any kind; but even under neglect they produce large crops. The vines are almost immune to mildew, rot, phylloxera, or other fungal or insect pests; they give not only an abundance of fruit but on arbors and trellises are much prized for their shade and beauty. The fruit, to a palate accustomed to other grapes, is not very acceptable, having a musky flavor and a somewhat repugnant odor, which, however, with familiarity becomes quite agreeable. The pulp is sweet and juicy but is lacking in sprightliness. The grapes are not suitable for the market since the berries drop from the bunch in ripening and become more or less smeared with juice so that their appearance is not appetizing.

Vine vigorous, not hardy in the North, very productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, ash-gray to grayish-brown; surface smooth, thickly covered with small, light brown dots; tendrils intermittent, simple. Leaves small, thin; upper surface light green, smooth; lower surface very pale green, pubescent along the ribs; veins inconspicuous. Flowers very late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit late, ripens unevenly, berries drop as they mature. Clusters small, round, unshouldered, loose. Berries few in a cluster, large, round, dull green, often with brown tinge, firm; skin thick, tough with many small russet dots; flesh pale green, juicy, tender, soft, fine-grained, foxy, sweet to agreeably tart; fair to good. Seeds adherent, large, short, broad, unnotched, blunt, plump, surface smooth, brown.

SECRETARY

(Vinifera, Vulpina, Labrusca)

Injured by mildew and rot which attack leaves, fruit and young wood, the vines of Secretary are able to produce good grapes only in exceptional seasons and in favored localities. The fruit characters of Secretary, however, give the grapes exceptionally high quality, the berries being meaty yet juicy, fine-grained and tender, with a sweet, spicy, vinous flavor. The bunches are large, well-formed, with medium-sized, purplish-black berries covered with thick bloom, making a very handsome cluster. While the vine and foliage somewhat resemble those of Clinton, one of its parents, the variety is not nearly as hardy, vigorous nor productive. Moreover, in any but favored localities in the North, its maturity is somewhat uncertain. These defects keep Secretary from becoming of commercial importance and make it of value only to the amateur. Secretary is one of the first productions of J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York, the original vine coming from seed of Clinton fertilized by Muscat Hamburg, planted in 1867.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, variable in productiveness. Canes numerous, light brown, conspicuously darker at nodes, surface covered with thin, blue bloom; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves small to medium, thin; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, glabrous. Flowers semi-fertile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens after Concord, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, long, cylindrical with a large, single shoulder, often loose and with many abortive fruits. Berries large, round, flattened at attachment to pedicel, dark purplish-black, glossy, persistent, firm; skin tough with wine-colored pigment; flesh green, juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet; good. Seeds free, large, broad, notched, long, dark brown.

SENASQUA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The vine of Senasqua lacks in vigor, hardiness, productiveness and health. The grapes are of good quality, and when well grown are up to the average fruits of the Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids. Unfortunately the berries have a tendency to crack which is aggravated by the bunches being so compact as to crowd the berries. Senasqua is one of the latest grapes to open its buds and is, therefore, seldom injured by late frosts. It can be recommended only for the garden for the sake of variety. Stephen W. Underhill of Crown Point, New York, originated Senasqua from seed of Concord pollinated by Black Prince.

Vine weak and tender, often unproductive. Canes short, few, reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils intermittent, long, trifid or bifid. Leaves light green, glossy, rugose; lower surface whitish-green, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus narrow; basal and lateral sinuses shallow and narrow when present. Flowers fertile, late; stamens upright.

Fruit a little later than Concord, keeps well. Clusters large, broad, irregularly tapering, usually with a small, single shoulder, very compact; pedicel thick, smooth, enlarged at point of attachment; brush short, reddish. Berries large, round, reddish-black, persistent, firm; skin thick, tender, cracks, adherent, contains some wine-colored pigment; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tender, meaty, vinous, spicy; good. Seeds free, one to five, long, narrow, one-sided, light brown.

SULTANA

(Vinifera)

This variety was formerly the standard seedless grape in California for home use and raisins, but it is now outstripped by Sultanina. Sultana is possibly better flavored than Sultanina but the vines are hardly as vigorous or productive and the berries often have seeds. The description is compiled.

Vines vigorous, upright, productive. Leaves large, five-lobed, with large sinuses, light in color, coarsely toothed. Bunches large, long, cylindrical, heavily shouldered, sometimes not well filled, often loose and scraggly; berries small, round, firm and crisp, golden-yellow, sweet with considerable piquancy; quality good.

SULTANINA

(Vinifera)

Thompson's Seedless

Sultanina is one of the standard seedless grapes of the Pacific slope, grown both to eat out of hand and for raisins. Probably it can be grown in home plantations in favored parts of eastern America where the season is long and warm. The following description is compiled from Californian viticulturists:

Vine very vigorous, very productive; trunk large with very long canes. Leaves glabrous on both sides, dark yellow-green above, light below; generally three-lobed, with shallow sinuses; teeth short and obtuse. Bunch large, conico-cylindrical, well filled, with herbaceous peduncles; berries oval, beautiful golden-yellow color; skin moderately thick; flesh of rather neutral flavor; very good.

TAYLOR

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Bullitt

While it is from the species to which Taylor belongs that we must look for our hardiest vines, nevertheless this grape and its offspring, although not tender to cold, do best in southern regions, as they require a long warm summer to mature properly. The quality of the fruit of Taylor is fair to good, the flavor being sweet, pure, delicate and spicy and the flesh tender and juicy; but the bunches are small and the flowers are infertile so that the berries do not set well, making very imperfect and unsightly clusters. The skin is such, also, that it cracks badly, a defect seemingly transmitted to many of the seedlings of the variety. The vine is strong, healthy, hardy but not very productive. The original vine of Taylor was a wild seedling found in the early part of the last century on the Cumberland Mountains near the Kentucky-Tennessee line by a Mr. Cobb.

Vine vigorous to rank, healthy, hardy, variable in productiveness. Leaves small, attractive in color, smooth. Flowers bloom early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens about two weeks before Isabella. Clusters small to medium, shouldered, loose or moderately compact. Berries small to medium, roundish, pale greenish-white, sometimes tinged with amber; skin very thin; pulp sweet, spicy; fair to good in quality.

TRIUMPH

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

When quality, color, shape and size of bunch and berry are considered, Triumph (Plate XXVIII) is one of the finest dessert grapes of America. At its best, it is a magnificent bunch of golden grapes of highest quality, esteemed even in southern Europe where it must compete with the best of the Viniferas. In America, however, its commercial importance is curtailed by the fact that the fruit requires a long season for proper development. Triumph has, in general, the vine characters of the Labrusca parent, Concord, especially its habit of growth, vigor, productiveness and foliage characters, falling short in hardiness, resistance to fungal diseases and earliness of fruit, the fruit maturing with or a little later than Catawba. While the vine characters of Triumph are those of Labrusca, there is scarcely a suggestion of the coarseness, or of the foxy odor and taste of Labrusca, and the objectionable seeds, pulp and skin of the native grape give way to the far less objectionable structures of Vinifera. The flesh is tender and melting and the flavor rich, sweet, vinous, pure and delicate. The skins of the berries under unfavorable conditions crack badly, the variety, therefore, neither shipping nor keeping well. Triumph was grown soon after the Civil War by George W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio, from seed of Concord fertilized by Chasselas Musque.

Vine vigorous. Canes long, dark brown with much bloom; nodes enlarged; tendrils intermittent, long, trifid, sometimes bifid. Leaves large; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus obtuse; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus absent; lateral sinus shallow and narrow when present; teeth deep, wide. Flowers self-fertile, late; stamens upright.

Fruit very late. Clusters very large, long, broad, cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender, smooth; brush short, yellowish-green. Berries medium in size, oval, golden yellow, glossy with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, inclined to crack, adherent, without pigment, slightly astringent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous; good to very good. Seeds free, one to five, small, brown.

ULSTER

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The vines of Ulster set too much fruit in spite of efforts to control the crop by pruning; two undesirable results follow, the bunches are small and the vines, lacking vigor at best, fail to recover from the overfruitfulness. These defects keep the variety from becoming of importance commercially or even a favorite as a garden grape. The quality of the fruit is very good, being much like that of Catawba, and under favorable conditions it is an attractive green with a red tinge. The fruit keeps well when the variety is grown under conditions suited to it. Ulster originated with A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York, and was introduced by him about 1885. Its parents are said to be Catawba pollinated by a wild AEstivalis. Both vine and fruit show traces of Labrusca and Vinifera, but the AEstivalis characters, if present, are not apparent.

Vine hardy, productive, overbears. Canes short, slender, dark brown, surface roughened and covered with faint pubescence; nodes enlarged and flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid, dehisce early. Leaves small, thick; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus medium to wide; basal sinus absent; lateral sinus a notch when present; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers self-fertile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit late mid-season. Clusters long, cylindrical, often single-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender, with numerous warts; brush short, yellowish-green. Berries medium in size, round, dark dull red with thin bloom, persistent; skin thick, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, faintly aromatic, slightly foxy; good to very good. Seeds free, one to six, medium in size, plump, brown.

VERDAL

(Vinifera)

Aspiran Blanc

Verdal is one of the standard late grapes of the Pacific slope, ripening among the last. The grapes are seen seldom in distant markets and the quality is not quite good enough to make it a very great favorite for home plantations. Vigor and hardiness of vines commend it as do the large and handsome fruits, and these qualities, with late ripening, will probably long keep it on grape lists in the far West. The description is compiled.

Vines vigorous, hardy, healthy and productive; canes rather slender, half erect. Leaves of medium size, glabrous on both surfaces, except below near the axis of the main nerve; sinuses well marked and generally closed, giving the leaf the appearance of having five holes; teeth long, unequal, acuminate. Bunches large to very large, irregular, long-conical, usually compact; shoulders small or lacking; berries large or very large, yellowish-green; skin thick but tender; flesh crisp, firm; flavor agreeable but not rich; quality good. Season very late, keeping and shipping well.

VERGENNES

(Labrusca)

The most valuable attribute of Vergennes (Plate XXIX) is certainty in bearing. The vine seldom fails to bear although it often overbears, causing variability in size of fruits and time of ripening. With a moderate crop, the grapes ripen with Concord, but with a heavy load from one to two weeks later. Vergennes is somewhat unpopular with vineyardists because of the sprawling habit of the vines which makes them untractable for vineyard operations; this fault is obviated by grafting on other vines. The grapes are attractive, the quality is good, flavor agreeable, the flesh tender, and seeds and skin are not objectionable. Vergennes is the standard late-keeping grape for northern regions, being very common in the markets as late as January. The original vine was a chance seedling in the garden of William E. Greene, Vergennes, Vermont, in 1874.

Vine variable in vigor, doubtfully hardy, productive, healthy. Canes long, dark brown; nodes enlarged, strongly flattened; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thin; upper surface light green, glossy, rugose; lower surface pale green, very pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus broadly acute; petiolar sinus wide; teeth shallow. Flowers semi-sterile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps and ships well. Clusters of medium size, broad, cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, loose; pedicel with numerous small warts; brush slender, short, pale green. Berries large, oval, light and dark red with thin bloom, persistent; skin thick, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, juicy, fine-grained, somewhat stringy, tender, vinous; good to very good. Seeds free, one to five, blunt, brown.

WALTER

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)

Were it not almost impossible to grow healthy vines of Walter, the variety would rank high among American grapes. But stunted by fungi which attack leaves, young wood and fruit, it is possible only in exceptionally favorable seasons satisfactorily to produce crops of this variety. Besides susceptibility to diseases, the vines are fastidious to soils, everywhere variable in growth and are injured in cold winters. As if to atone for the faults of the vine, the fruit of Walter is almost perfect, lacking only in size of bunch and berry. The bunch and berry resemble those of Delaware, but the fruit is not as high in quality as that of its parents. Walter is adapted to conditions under which Delaware thrives. A. J. Caywood, Modena, New York, grew this variety about 1850 from seed of Delaware pollinated by Diana.

Vine vigorous. Canes medium in length and size, dark reddish-brown with thin bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes one to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus narrow; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus a notch if present. Flowers mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps and ships well. Clusters medium in size, broad, cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender, with small, scattering warts; brush short, slender, green with brown tinge. Berries small, ovate, red, glossy with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin very tough, adheres slightly, unpigmented; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, somewhat foxy, vinous, aromatic; good to very good. Seeds adherent, one to four, small, sharp-pointed, light brown.

WILDER

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The fruit of Wilder is surpassed in quality and appearance by other of Rogers' hybrids, but the vine is the most reliable of any of these hybrid sorts, being vigorous, hardy, productive, and, although somewhat susceptible to mildew, as healthy as any. Wilder is not as well known in the markets as it should be, and now that fungal diseases can be controlled by spraying should be more commonly planted in commercial vineyards, especially for local markets. Wilder is one of the forty-five Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids raised by E. S. Rogers, Salem, Massachusetts, having been described first in 1858.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive, susceptible to mildew. Canes long, numerous, reddish-brown, darker at the nodes; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, irregularly round; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, or a mere notch when present. Flowers self-sterile, mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters variable in size, short, broad, tapering, heavily single-shouldered, loose; pedicel long, thick with numerous warts; brush thick, green with tinge of red. Berries large, oval, purplish-black with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, adherent to pulp, with bright red pigment, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tender; good. Seeds adherent, one to five, long, light brown.

WINCHELL

(Labrusca, Vinifera, AEstivalis)

Green Mountain

The vines of Winchell (Plate XXX) are vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive, and the fruit is early, of high quality and ships well—altogether a most admirable early grape. There are some minor faults which become drawbacks in the culture of Winchell. The berries, and under some conditions the bunches, are small and the bunch is loose with a large shoulder. Sometimes this looseness becomes so pronounced as to give a straggling, poorly-formed cluster; and the shoulder, when as large as the cluster itself, which often happens, makes the cluster unsightly. The grapes shell when fully ripe, a serious fault. Again, while the crop usually ripens evenly, there are seasons when two pickings are needed because of the unevenness in ripening. Lastly, the skin is thin and there is danger in unfavorable seasons of the berries cracking, although this is seldom a serious fault. These defects do not offset the several good characters of Winchell which make it the standard early green grape, deserving to rank with the best early grapes of any color. The original vine was raised by James Milton Clough, Stamford, Vermont, about 1850 from seed of an unknown purple grape.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, very productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, dark brown with thin bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, bifid. Leaves large; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface dull green, tinged with bronze, faintly pubescent; lobes three to five with terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep; basal sinus shallow; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers fertile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps and ships well. Clusters long, slender, cylindrical, often with a long shoulder, compact; pedicel short, slender with few inconspicuous warts; brush greenish-white. Berries small, round, light green, persistent, soft; skin marked with small, reddish-brown spots, thin, tender, slightly astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, sweet; very good to best. Seeds free, one to four, small, plump, wide and long, blunt, brown.

WOODRUFF

(Labrusca, Vinifera?)

Woodruff is a handsome, showy, brick-red grape with large clusters and berries, but its taste belies its looks, for the flesh is coarse and the flavor poor. The variety would not be worth attention were it not for its excellent vine characters; the vines are hardy, productive and healthy. The grapes ripen a little before Concord and come on the market at a favorable time, especially for a red grape. Woodruff originated from C. H. Woodruff, Ann Arbor, Michigan, as a chance seedling which came up in 1874 and fruited first in 1877.

Vine very vigorous, hardy. Canes dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves round; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface greenish-white, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow and narrow when present; teeth shallow. Flowers semi-fertile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit ripening before Concord. Clusters broad, widely tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, thick, smooth; brush long, pale green. Berries large, round, dark red, dull, firm; skin thin, tender, adherent, slightly astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, coarse, very foxy; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to five, broad, short, plump, blunt, brown.

WORDEN

(Labrusca)

Of the many offspring of Concord, Worden (Plate XXXI) is best known and most meritorious. The grapes differ chiefly from those of Concord in having larger berries and bunches, in having better quality and in being a week to ten days earlier. The vine is equally hardy, healthy, vigorous and productive but is more fastidious in its adaptations to soil, although now and then it does even better. The chief fault of the variety is that the fruit cracks badly, often preventing the profitable marketing of a crop. Besides this tenderness of skin, the fruit-pulp of Worden is softer than that of Concord, there is more juice, and the keeping qualities are not as good, so that the grapes hardly ship as well as those of the more commonly grown grape. Worden is very popular in northern grape regions both for commercial plantations and the garden. It is a more desirable inhabitant of the garden, because of higher quality of fruit than Concord, and under conditions well suited to it is better as a commercial variety, as the fruit is handsomer as well as of better quality. In the markets the fruit ought to sell for a higher price than Concord if desired for immediate consumption, and if it can be harvested promptly, as it does not hang well on the vines. Its earlier season is against it for a commercial variety and, with the defects mentioned, will prevent its taking the place of Concord to a great degree. Worden was originated by Schuyler Worden, Minetto, Oswego County, New York, from seed of Concord planted about 1863.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes large, thick, dark brown with reddish tinge; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, slender, bifid, sometimes trifid. Young leaves tinged on the under side and along the margins of upper side with rose-carmine. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface light bronze, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed; petiolar sinus wide, often urn-shaped; teeth shallow. Flowers fertile, mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender with a few small warts; brush long, light green. Berries large, round, dark purplish-black, glossy with heavy bloom, firm; skin tender, cracks badly, adheres slightly, contains dark red pigment, astringent. Flesh green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tough, foxy, sweet, mild; good to very good. Seeds adherent, one to five, large, broad, short, blunt, brown.

WYOMING

(Labrusca)

Hopkins Early Red, Wilmington Red, Wyoming Red

Such value as Wyoming (Plate XXXII) possesses lies in the hardiness, productiveness and healthiness of the vine. The appearance of the fruit is very good, the bunches are well formed and composed of rich amber-colored berries of medium size. The quality, however, is poor, being that of the wild Labrusca in foxiness of flavor and in flesh characters. It is not nearly as valuable as some other of the red Labruscas hitherto described and can hardly be recommended either for the garden or the vineyard. Wyoming was introduced by S. J. Parker of Ithaca, New York, who states that it came from Pennsylvania in 1861.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes numerous, slender, dark reddish-brown covered with blue bloom; nodes enlarged, frequently flattened; tendrils continuous, short, bifid. Leaves of average size and thickness; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface dull green with tinge of bronze, pubescent; lobes one to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; basal sinus usually wanting; lateral sinus shallow and wide when present; teeth shallow. Flowers sterile, mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters slender, cylindrical, compact; pedicel short, slender with small warts; brush slender, pale green with brown tinge. Berries medium, round, rich amber red with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin tender, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, solid, strongly foxy, vinous; poor in quality. Seeds adherent, one to three, slightly notched, light brown.



FOOTNOTES:

[1] Bioletti, Frederic T. Report of International Congress of Viticulture, 88. 1915.

[2] Anthony, R. D. N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bul. 632: 88. 1917.

[3] Bioletti, Frederic T. Calif. Exp. Sta., Bul. 180: 135. 1906.

[4] Ibid., 136-138.

[5] Bioletti, Frederic T. Calif. Exp. Sta., Bul. 180: 108-112.

[6] Bioletti, Frederic T. Calif. Exp. Sta., Bul. 180: 113-118.

[7] Munson, T. V. Foundations of American Grape Culture, 217. 1909.

[8] Bioletti, Frederic T. Calif. Exp. Sta., Bul. 180: 96-97. 1906.

[9] For an account of this experiment, see Bul. 381 of the N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., Geneva.

[10] Quoted from Bul. No. 381, N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta.

[11] Each weight is of 300 green leaves, 5 from each of 60 vines. The first leaf beyond the last cluster was selected.

[12] Amount to the acre of wood pruned in fall.

[13] Number to the acre.

[14] Munson, T. V. Foundations of American Grape Culture: 224-227. 1909.

[15] Husmann, George C., and Dearing, Charles. Muscadine Grapes. Bul. 709, U. S. Dept. Agr.: 16-19. 1916.

[16] The remainder of this chapter is republished by permission from Bul. 246, Calif. Exp. Sta., Vine Pruning in California, published in 1916 by F. T. Bioletti. Not all of the bulletin is reproduced, but the parts republished are transcribed verbatim. All of the illustrations in this chapter have been redrawn from Professor Bioletti's bulletin.

[17] The following account is founded on work carried on by the author at the N. Y. Agr. Exp. Sta., accounts of which have been given before several horticultural societies in 1916, 1917 and 1918.

[18] Husmann, Geo. C., and Dearing, Charles. The Muscadine Grapes, U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 273: 33-36. 1913.

[19] Husmann, George C. U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bul. No. 644.

[20] Husmann, George C. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. No. 349. 1916.



INDEX

(Names of species, and synonyms of varietal names, are in italics.)

Actoni, 330.

Adaptations of stocks, 66.

Adlum, John, mentioned, 58.

Admirable, 373.

Adoxus obscurus, 216.

AEstivalis grapes, 11.

Affinity of stock and cion, 67.

Agawam, 331.

Air currents, 27.

Alabama, 401.

Alexander, 5, 6.

Alexander, 391.

Alicante, for forcing, 198.

Alleys, 75.

Almeria, 331.

Amadas & Barlowe, mentioned, 5.

America, 332.

American Muscadine, 435.

Aminia, 333.

Anaheim disease, 226.

Anthony, on grafting, 47.

Anthracnose, control of, 223. description of, 223.

Aramon x Rupestris, 2, 64.

Arbors, training vines on, 142.

Arkansas, 345, 357.

Arnold's Hybrid, 422.

Aspiran Blanc, 442.

August Giant, 333.

Bacchus, 324.

Bagging grapes, 293. cost of, 294.

Bakator, 335.

Barbarossa, for forcing, 197.

Bark, structure of, 303.

Barry, 335.

Bartram, on the Alexander, 7.

Beach Grape, 313.

Beacon, 336.

Beaconsfield, 346.

Beak defined, 308.

Bench grafting, 50. essentials of, 50. operation of, 51. preparing cuttings for, 51.

Berckmans, 337.

Berry, characters of, 308.

Bioletti, on callusing beds, 56. on grafting, 48, 52. on pruning in California, 151. on resistant stocks, 63. quoted, 18.

Bird Grape, 312.

Bitter-rot, 225.

Black Cape, 391.

Black Cornichon, 429.

Black Eagle, 338.

Black El Paso, 401.

Black German, 406.

Black Hamburg, for forcing, 197.

Black July, 401.

Black Malvoise, 339.

Black Morocco, 339.

Black Muscat, 415.

Black rot, control of, 320. description of, 319.

Black Spanish, 401.

Bloom defined, 301.

Blooming dates of grapes, 288.

Blooming, time of, 305.

Blue French, 401.

Blue Grape, 318, 322.

Borders in graperies, making, 195. care of, 195.

Bottsi, 382.

Bowed canes, 174.

Branches defined, 301.

Brighton, 340.

Brilliant, 341.

Brown, 342.

Brown French, 382.

Brush defined, 307.

Buckland Sweetwater, for forcing, 197.

Buds, characters of, 304. defined, 304.

Bull, 435.

Bull, Ephraim W., mentioned, 9.

Bull Grape, 310.

Bullace, 435.

Bullace Grape, 310.

Bullet, 435.

Bullet Grape, 310.

Bullitt, 439.

Bunch Grape, 318.

Burgundy, 401.

Bush Grape, 312.

Bushy Grape, 310.

By-products of the grape, 269.

Callusing bed, 56.

Campbell Early, 342.

Canada, 343.

Canadian Hamburg, 422.

Canadian Hybrid, 422.

Canandaigua, 344.

Canandaigua Lake grape region, 21.

Cane-renewal, 116.

Canes, characters of, 303. defined, 301. disposition of, in pruning, 124.

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