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Manual of American Grape-Growing
by U. P. Hedrick
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Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, often unproductive. Canes pubescent, long, reddish-brown, covered with thin bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface light green, heavily pubescent; lobes three to five, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, wide, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow; lateral sinus narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters large, broad, tapering, occasionally shouldered, compact; pedicel covered with small warts; brush slender, pale green. Berries medium in size, slightly ovate, light red covered with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, slightly adherent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, fine-grained, vinous, good. Seeds adherent, one to three, light brown.



DOWNING

(Vinifera, AEstivalis, Labrusca)

Downing is well worthy a place in the garden because of the high quality, handsome appearance and good keeping qualities of the grapes. Added to these qualities of the fruits are fair vigor and health of vine. When grown as far north as New York, the vine should be laid down in the winter or receive other protection. In most seasons, unremitting warfare must be kept up to check mildew. In appearance of bunch and berry, Downing is distinct, the clusters being large and well-formed and the berries having the oval shape of a Malaga. The flesh, also, shows Vitis vinifera in texture and quality, while neither seeds nor skins are as objectionable as in pure-bred American varieties. J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York, first grew Downing about 1865.

Vine tender to cold, unproductive. Canes short, few, slender, dark green with an ash-gray tinge, surface covered with thin bloom, often roughened with a few small warts; nodes much enlarged, strongly flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves small, round, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, rugose; lower surface dark green, glabrous; lobes one to five, terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus narrow, closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow and narrow when present; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth wide, deep. Flowers open late; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps until spring. Clusters large, long, slender, cylindrical, sometimes loosely shouldered; pedicel slender, covered with numerous warts; brush long, slender, green. Berries large, markedly oval, dark purplish-black, glossy, covered with light bloom, strongly persistent, firm; skin thick, tender, adherent; flesh green with a yellow tinge, translucent, very juicy, tender, fine-grained, vinous, mild; very good in quality. Seeds free, one to three, notched, long, brown.

DRACUT AMBER

(Labrusca)

Dracut Amber is representative of the red type of Labrusca. The fruit has no particular merit, its thick skin, coarse pulp, seeds and foxy taste all being objectionable. However, the vine is very hardy, productive, and ripens its fruit early so that this variety becomes valuable in locations where a vigorous, hardy, early grape is wanted. Asa Clement, Dracut, Massachusetts grew Dracut Amber from seed planted about 1855.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, cobwebby; lobes three to five with terminal one obtuse; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus shallow, wide; teeth shallow. Flowers on plan of six, semi-fertile, mid-season.

Fruit early, season short. Clusters short, broad, cylindrical, irregular, rarely shouldered, compact; pedicel short, covered with warts; brush long, light yellowish-green. Berries medium to large, oval, dull pale red or dark amber, covered with thin bloom, soft; skin very thick, tender, adherent, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tough, very foxy; inferior in quality. Seeds adherent, two to five, large, broad, light brown.

DUTCHESS

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana? AEstivalis?)

Dutchess (Plate XIII) is not grown largely in commercial vineyards because of several faults, as: the vine is tender to cold; the berries do not ripen evenly; berries and foliage are susceptible to fungi; and in soils to which it is not adapted, berries and bunches are small. In spite of these defects, Dutchess should not be discarded by the grape-lover, for there are few grapes of higher quality. The grapes are sweet and rich, yet do not cloy the appetite; although of but medium size, they are attractive, being a beautiful amber color with distinctive dots; the flesh is translucent, sparkling, fine-grained and tender; the seeds are small, few and part readily from the pulp; the skin is thin, yet tough enough for good keeping; and the bunches are large and compact when well grown. The variety is self-fertile and, therefore, desirable when only a few vines are wanted. The clusters are especially fine when bagged. A. J. Caywood, Marlboro, New York, grew Dutchess from seed of a white Concord seedling pollinated by mixed pollen of Delaware and Walter. The seed was planted in 1868.

Vine vigorous, an uncertain bearer. Canes dark brown with light bloom, surface roughened; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, short, bifid or trifid. Leaves irregular in outline; upper surface pale green, pubescent; leaf entire with terminus acute; petiolar sinus narrow; basal sinus shallow when present; lateral sinus medium in depth or a mere notch. Flowers self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, long, slender, tapering with a prominent single shoulder; pedicel slender, smooth; brush amber-colored. Berries of medium size, round, pale yellow-green verging on amber, some showing bronze tinge with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin sprinkled with small dark dots, thin, tough, adherent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet, of pleasant flavor; quality high. Seeds free, one, two or occasionally three, small, short, sharp-pointed, brown.

EARLY DAISY

(Labrusca)

The qualities of Early Daisy render the variety more than commonplace. Its earliness commends it, the ripening period being eight or ten days earlier than Champion or Moore Early, making it one of the very earliest varieties. For a grape maturing at its season, it both keeps and ships well. Early Daisy would seem to be as desirable as Hartford or Champion. The variety originated with John Kready, Mount Joy, Pennsylvania, in 1874, as a seedling of Hartford.

Vine vigorous, hardy, produces fair crops. Canes of medium length, numerous, slender, reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves small, light green; upper surface rugose; lower surface slightly pubescent, cobwebby; lobes wanting or faintly three; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers nearly self-sterile.

Fruit early. Clusters small to medium, often blunt at ends, cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush reddish, slender. Berries of medium size, round, dull black, covered with heavy bloom, persistent; skin tough, purplish-red pigment; flesh tough, solid, aromatic, tart at the skin, acid at center; inferior in flavor and quality. Seeds numerous, adherent, of average size, dark brown.

EARLY OHIO

(Labrusca)

Early Ohio is remarkable, chiefly, in being one of the earliest commercial grapes. The fruit resembles that of Concord, of which it is probably a seedling. Notwithstanding many defects, Early Ohio is grown somewhat commonly, although its culture is on the wane. The variety was found in 1882 by R. A. Hunt, Euclid, Ohio, between rows of Delaware and Concord.

Vine weak, tender, usually unproductive. Canes short, slender, brown with a red tinge; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, short, bifid. Leaves intermediate in size; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green tinged with bronze, pubescent; lobes wanting or one to three, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit very early, does not keep well. Clusters medium in size, tapering; pedicel slender with a few small warts; brush slender, tinged with red. Berries variable in size, round, purplish-black, glossy with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin adherent, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tough, aromatic; poor in quality. Seeds adherent, one to four, notched, brown with yellowish-brown tips.

EARLY VICTOR

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana?)

Early Victor is highest in quality of early black grapes. It is especially pleasing to those who object to the foxiness so marked in Hartford and Champion. Were the season but a few days earlier and bunch and berry a little larger, Early Victor would be the best grape to start the grape season. The vines are hardy, healthy, vigorous and productive, with growth and foliage resembling Hartford, which is probably one of its parents, Delaware being the other. The bunches are small, compact, variable in shape and the berries are about the size and shape of those of Delaware. Its season is that of Moore Early or a little later, although, like many black grapes, the fruit colors before it is ripe and is often picked too green. Unfortunately the fruit is susceptible to black-rot and shrivels after ripening. John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas, first grew Early Victor about 1871.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, dark brown, surface pubescent; nodes enlarged; internodes long; tendrils continuous, bifid, sometimes trifid. Leaves thick; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface white, heavily pubescent; lobes three to five, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal sinus shallow and wide when present; lateral sinus narrow. Flowers semi-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit very early, does not keep well. Clusters small, variable in shape, cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, covered with numerous small warts; brush wine-colored or pinkish-red. Berries small, round, dark purplish-black, dull with heavy bloom, persistent; skin thin, tough, adherent, contains much red pigment, astringent; flesh greenish-white, opaque, fine-grained, aromatic, vinous; good. Seeds adherent, one to four, broad, notched, blunt, dark brown.

EATON

(Labrusca)

Eaton (Plate XIV) is a pure-bred seedling of Concord which it surpasses in appearance but does not equal in quality of fruit. The flesh is tough and stringy, and though sweet at the skin, is acid at the seeds and has the same foxiness that characterizes Concord, but with more juice and less richness, so that it is well described as a "diluted" Concord. The grape-skin is very similar to that of Concord, and the fruit packs, ships and keeps about the same, perhaps not quite as well because of the greater amount of juice. The season is a few days earlier than Concord. The vine is similar in all characters to that of its parent. The grapes ripen unevenly, the flowers are self-sterile, and in some locations the vine is a shy bearer. The variety has not found favor with either grower or consumer. Eaton originated with Calvin Eaton, Concord, New Hampshire, about 1868.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes thick, light brown with blue bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, round, thick; upper surface dark green; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes three, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, often notched; teeth shallow. Flowers semi-sterile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season. Clusters large, short, broad, blunt, sometimes double-shouldered, compact; pedicel long, thick, smooth; brush slender, pale green. Berries large, round, black with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, adherent, purplish-red pigment, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tough, stringy, foxy; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to four, broad, notched, plump, blunt.

ECLIPSE

(Labrusca)

Eclipse (Plate XV) is a seedling of Niagara and, therefore, a descendant of Concord which it resembles, differing chiefly in earlier fruit which is of better quality. Unfortunately, the bunches and berries are small. The vines are hardly surpassed by those of any other variety, being hardy, healthy and productive, qualities that should commend it for commercial vineyards. The ripe fruit hangs on the vines for some time without deterioration, and the grapes do not crack in wet weather. The crop ripens several days earlier than that of Concord. Eclipse originated with E. A. Riehl, Alton, Illinois, from seed planted about 1890.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes medium in length, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged; tendrils continuous, long, bifid. Leaves large; upper surface dark green; lower surface white with a bronze tinge, heavily pubescent; lobes wanting or three with terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus narrow, often notched; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters of medium size, broad, tapering, frequently single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, thick, covered with small warts; brush long, pale green. Berries, large, oval, dull black with abundant bloom, persistent, firm; skin tender, slightly adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained, foxy, sweet; good. Seeds free, one to four, short, broad, distinctly notched, blunt, brown.

EDEN

(Rotundifolia, Munsoniana?)

Eden is of value as a general-purpose grape for the South and is interesting as one of the few supposed hybrids with V. rotundifolia. It is probably a hybrid between the species named and V. Munsoniana, another southern wild grape. The vine is exceedingly vigorous and productive and thrives on clay soils, whereas most other Rotundifolias can be grown successfully only on sandy lands. Eden was found some years ago on the premises of Dr. Guild, near Atlanta, Georgia.

Vine very vigorous, productive, healthy and bearing a dense canopy of foliage. Canes darker in color than most other Rotundifolias. Leaves of medium size and thickness, longer than wide; petiolar sinus wide; marginal teeth rounded; leaf-tip blunt. Flowers perfect.

Fruit early, distinct first and second crops, ripens uniformly. Clusters large, loose, bearing from five to twenty-five berries which adhere fairly well to the pedicels. Berries round, one-half inch in diameter, dull black, faintly specked; skin thin, tender; flesh soft, juicy, pale green, sprightly; good in quality.

ELDORADO

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The fruit of Eldorado is delicately flavored, with a distinct aroma and taste and ripens about with that of Moore Early—a time when there are few other good white grapes. The vines inherit most of the good qualities of Concord, one of its parents, excepting ability to set large crops. Even with cross-pollination, Eldorado sometimes fails to bear and is not worth growing unless planted in a mixed vineyard. The clusters are so often small and straggling under the best conditions that the variety cannot be recommended highly to the amateur; yet its delightful flavor and its earliness commend it. J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York, grew Eldorado about 1870 from seed of Concord fertilized by Allen's Hybrid.

Vine vigorous, hardy, an uncertain bearer. Canes long, few, thick, flattened, bright reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils intermittent, rarely continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large to medium, irregularly round, dark green; upper surface rugose on older leaves; lower surface tinged with brown, pubescent; lobes wanting or faintly three; petiolar sinus deep; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters do not always set perfectly and are variable in size, frequently single-shouldered; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush short, yellow. Berries large, round, yellowish-green changing to golden yellow, covered with thin bloom; flesh tender, foxy, sweet, mild, high flavored; good to very good in quality. Seeds intermediate in size and length, blunt, yellowish-brown.

ELVIRA

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Although it has never attained popularity in the North, Elvira (Plate XVI), after its introduction into Missouri about forty years ago, reached the pinnacle of popularity as a wine-grape in the South. The qualities which commended it were: great productiveness; earliness, ripening in the North with Concord; exceedingly good health, being almost free from fungal diseases; great vigor, as shown by a strong, stocky growth and ample foliage; and almost perfect hardiness even as far north as Canada. Its good qualities are offset by two defects: thin skin which bursts easily, thus wholly debarring it from distant markets; and flavor and appearance not sufficiently good to make it a table-grape. Elvira originated with Jacob Rommel, Morrison, Missouri, from seed of Taylor.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes numerous, dark brown; nodes flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, trifid or bifid. Leaves large, thin; upper surface light green, pubescent, hairy; lobes wanting or one to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, often notched; teeth deep, wide. Flowers self-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, does not keep well. Clusters short, cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, compact; pedicel smooth; brush short, greenish-yellow with brown tinge. Berries medium in size, round, green with yellow tinge, dull with thin bloom, firm; skin very thin, tender, adherent, astringent; flesh green, juicy, fine-grained, tender, foxy, sweet; fair in quality. Seeds free, one to four, medium to large, blunt, plump, dark brown.

EMPEROR

(Vinifera)

Emperor is one of the standard shipping grapes of the Pacific slope, being one of the mainstays of the interior valleys. On the coast and in southern California, it is irregular in bearing, and on the coast the fruits often fail to ripen. It is chiefly grown in the San Joaquin Valley. It could hardly be expected to ripen even in the most favored grape regions in the East. The following brief description is compiled:

Vine strong, healthy and productive. Leaves very large, with five shallow lobes; teeth short and obtuse; light green in color; glabrous above, wooly beneath. Bunches very large, loose, sometimes inclined to be straggling, long-conical. Berries large, dull purple, oval; flesh firm and crisp; skin thick; flavor and quality good. Ripens late and keeps and ships well.

EMPIRE STATE

(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera)

Empire State (Plate XVII) competes with Niagara and Diamond for supremacy among green grapes. The variety is as vigorous in growth, as free from parasites, and on vines of the same age is as productive, but is less hardy, and the grapes are not as attractive in appearance as those of the other varieties named. In particular, the clusters are small in some localities, a defect which can be overcome only by severe pruning or by thinning. The quality is very good, approaching the flavor of the Old World grapes, its slight wild taste suggesting one of the Muscats. Empire State ripens early, hangs long on the vine and keeps well after picking without losing flavor. This grape originated with James H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York, bearing fruit first in 1879.

Vine vigorous, somewhat tender. Canes short, few, slender, brownish; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves small; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth or somewhat rugose; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes three to five when present, terminal one acuminate; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus variable in depth and width; lateral sinus deep, narrow, often enlarged at base; teeth deep, wide. Flowers self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, long, slender, cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, compact; pedicel slender with small warts; brush short, light green. Berries medium or small, round, pale yellowish-green, covered with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, adherent to the pulp, slightly astringent; flesh pale yellowish-green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, agreeably flavored; good to very good. Seeds adherent, one to four, small, broad, notched, short, blunt, plump, brown.



ETTA

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

In appearance, taste and texture of fruit, Etta is very similar to Elvira, of which it is a seedling. The small, yellow clusters which characterize Elvira are reproduced in Etta, which differs chiefly in having a shoulder quite as large as the main bunch itself and in having a better flavor, lacking the slight foxiness of Elvira. The vine is very vigorous, hardy, and is productive to a fault. The fruit ripens with that of Catawba. The tendency of Elvira to crack and overbear influenced the originator of that variety, Jacob Rommel, Morrison, Missouri, to try for a grape without these faults, and the result was Etta from seed of Elvira. The fruit was first exhibited in 1879.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, light to dark brown; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, somewhat cobwebby. Flowers self-fertile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters small, short, broad, irregularly cylindrical, usually with a short, single shoulder but sometimes so heavily shouldered as to form a double bunch, very compact. Berries small, round, pale green, dull with thin bloom, shattering when over-ripe, firm; skin thin, tender; flesh juicy, fine-grained, tough, stringy, slightly foxy, mild; fair in quality. Seeds free, long, blunt, brown.

EUMELAN

(Labrusca, Vinifera, AEstivalis)

Washington

The good qualities of Eumelan are: vines above the average in vigor, hardiness and productiveness; clusters and berries well formed, of good size and handsome color; flesh tender, dissolving into wine-like juice under slight pressure; and pure flavor, rich, sweet, vinous. The season is early, yet the fruit keeps much better than that of most other grapes maturing with it and becomes, therefore, a mid-season and late grape. The defects of the variety are susceptibility to mildew, self-sterile flowers and difficulty in propagation. The latter character has greatly hindered its culture, as the vines can be secured only at extra expense and nurserymen are loath to grow the variety at all. Eumelan may be recommended to amateur growers. It is a chance seedling which grew from seed, about 1847, in the yard of a Mr. Thorne, Fishkill Landing, New York.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes numerous, covered with bloom; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, long, trifid or bifid. Leaves large; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, smooth; lobes usually three with terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, variable in width; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps until late winter. Clusters long, slender, tapering, often with a long, loose, single shoulder; pedicel short, slender with a few small warts; brush short, stubby, pale green. Berries of medium size, round, black, glossy with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, adherent with wine-colored pigment, astringent; flesh dark green, juicy, fine-grained, tender, stringy, spicy and aromatic, sweet; good. Seeds adherent, one to four, large, wide, blunt, plump, brown.

FAITH

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Although spoken of as a desirable grape in some regions, Faith is of little value in most localities. The fruit is unattractive in appearance, and the quality is not high. If the variety has any preeminently good character, it is productiveness. The blossoms put forth so early that they often suffer from spring frosts. Faith is of the same breeding as Etta and from the same originator, Jacob Rommel, Morrison, Missouri, both having come from seed of Elvira.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, cylindrical; nodes prominent; internodes long; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large, dark green; upper surface dark green, dull; lower surface grayish-green, thinly pubescent; lobes wanting or faint; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers self-sterile to partly self-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit early, does not keep well. Clusters medium in size, variable in length, usually slender, often heavily single-shouldered, loose; pedicel short, slender, warty; brush pale green, slender. Berries small, round, dull green, frequently with a yellow tinge changing to pale amber, with abundant bloom, persistent, soft; skin thin, adherent, astringent; flesh juicy, tender, agreeably flavored; fair to good in quality. Seeds numerous, broad, dark brown.

FEHER SZAGOS

(Vinifera)

This variety succeeds rather well at Geneva, New York, bearing fruits of excellent quality. It has two defects, dull color of the berries and irregular bunches. It is worth trying in the East. Feher Szagos is said to make a very good raisin in California and usually appears in lists of table-grapes for that state.

Vines vigorous, somewhat uncertain bearers. Opening leaves pubescent, red along the edges and a tinge of red on the upper surface. Flowers have upright stamens. Fruit usually ripens the first week in October and does not keep well in storage; clusters large to medium, broad, loose, frequently irregular because of poor setting of fruit; berries large, oval to elliptical, rather dull green, with thin bloom; skin thick, tender, neutral; flesh greenish, translucent, juicy, meaty, tender, sweet; quality of the best; seeds free.

FERN MUNSON

(Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca)

Admirable, Fern, Hilgarde, Munson's No. 76

Fern Munson is a southern grape not adapted to northern regions, 40 deg. north latitude being its limit of adaptation. The fruits show some very good characters, as attractive appearance, agreeable quality and unobjectionable seeds and skin. The vines are vigorous and productive, but the foliage is not healthy although very abundant. This variety originated with T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, from seed of Post-oak with mixed pollen. The seed was planted in 1885, and the variety was introduced by the originator in 1893.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark brown with a faint red tinge; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface rugose and heavily wrinkled; lower surface dull, pale green with a bronze tinge, faintly pubescent. Flowers semi-fertile, open very late; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters large, irregularly tapering, usually single-shouldered, often with many abortive fruits. Berries large, round, slightly flattened, dark purplish-black, glossy, covered with thin bloom, strongly persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, astringent; flesh juicy, tough, firm, fine-grained, vinous, briskly subacid; good. Seeds adherent, broad.

FLAME TOKAY

(Vinifera)

This is the leading shipping grape of the Pacific slope where it is everywhere grown under the name "Tokay," with several modifying terms, as "Flame," "Flame-colored" and "Flaming." The fruit is not especially high in quality nor attractive in appearance, but it ships and keeps well, qualities making it popular in commercial vineyards. The description is compiled.

Vine very vigorous, luxuriant in growth of canes, shoots and leaves; very productive; wood dark brown, straight with long joints. Leaves dark green with a brown tinge; lightly lobed. Bunches very large, sometimes weighing eight or nine pounds, moderately compact; shouldered. Berries large, oblong, red when mature, covered with lilac bloom; flesh firm, crisp, sweet; quality good. Season late, keeps and ships well.

FLOWERS

(Rotundifolia)

Flowers is a late, dark-colored Rotundifolia very popular in the Carolinas. The variety is noted for its vigorous and productive vines, its large fruit-clusters and grapes that cling in the cluster unusually well for a variety of this species. The crop ripens in North Carolina in October and November. The fruit is valuable only for wine and grape-juice, having little to recommend it for dessert purposes. Flowers was found in a swamp near Lamberton, North Carolina, more than a hundred years ago by William Flowers. Improved Flowers, probably a seedling of Flowers, was found near Whiteville, North Carolina, about 1869. It differs from its supposed parent in having a more vigorous and productive vine and larger clusters, the berries of which cling even more tenaciously.

Vine vigorous, healthy, upright, open, very productive. Canes long, slender, numerous. Leaves variable but average medium in size, longer than broad, pointed, cordate, thick, dark green, smooth, leathery; margins sharply serrate; flowers perfect.

Fruit very late, keeps well. Clusters, large, consisting of ten to twenty-five berries. Berries large, round-oblong, purple or purplish-black, clinging well to the cluster-stem; skin thick, tough, faintly marked with dots; pulp white, lacking in juice, hard, sweetish, austere in flavor; poor for a table-grape but excellent for grape-juice.

GAERTNER

(Vinifera, Labrusca)

The berries and clusters of Gaertner are large and handsomely colored, making a very showy grape. The plant is vigorous, productive and as hardy as any of the hybrids between Labrusca and Vinifera. In view of these qualities, Gaertner has not received the attention it deserves, probably because it is more capricious as to soils than some others of its related hybrids. As a market grape, the variety has the faults of ripening unevenly and of shipping poorly. The fruit keeps well and this, with the desirable qualities noted, makes it an excellent grape for the home vineyard. Gaertner is often compared with Massasoit, the two varieties being very similar in fruit characters, but Gaertner is of distinctly better quality than Massasoit. The variety originated with E. S. Rogers, Salem, Massachusetts. It was first mentioned about 1865.

Vine vigorous, hardy except in severe winters, productive. Canes long, dark reddish-brown, surface covered with thin bloom; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves medium in size, round; upper surface dark green; lower surface pale green, pubescent. Flowers self-sterile, open late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, matures unevenly, keeps only fairly well. Clusters medium in size, short, cylindrical, usually with a single shoulder but sometimes double-shouldered, loose with many abortive fruits. Berries large, round-oval, light to dark red, glossy, covered with bloom, persistent; skin thin, tender; flesh pale green, juicy, fine-grained, tough, stringy, agreeably vinous; good to very good. Seeds free, large, broad, distinctly notched, brown.

GENEVA

(Vinifera, Labrusca)

Geneva is surpassed by so many other grapes of its season in quality that it has never become popular, although it has much to recommend it. The vine is vigorous and productive, although not quite hardy, and the berries and clusters are attractive; the fruit is nearly transparent and there is so little bloom that the grapes are a lustrous green or iridescent in sunlight; the berries cling well to the stem and the fruit keeps exceptionally well. Geneva originated with Jacob Moore, Brighton, New York, from seed planted in 1874 from a hybrid vine fertilized by Iona.

Vine vigorous, healthy, productive. Canes covered with thin bloom; tendrils intermittent or continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves medium in size; upper surface light green, dull; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; lobes three to five, acute; petiolar sinus, shallow, wide; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-sterile or partly fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, ships well and keeps into the winter. Clusters large, blunt at the ends, usually not shouldered, with many abortive fruits; pedicel long, slender, smooth; brush long, green. Berries large, oval, dull green changing to a faint yellow with thin bloom; skin thick, tough, unpigmented; flesh pale green, tender, soft, vinous, sweet at skin but tart at center; fair to good. Seeds of medium size and length.

GOETHE

(Vinifera, Labrusca)

Of all Rogers' hybrids, Goethe shows Vinifera characters most, resembling in appearance the White Malaga of Europe, and not falling far short of the best Old World grapes in quality. But the variety is difficult to grow, especially where the seasons are not long enough for full maturity. The vine is vigorous to a fault; it is fairly immune to mildew, rot and other diseases; and, where it succeeds, the vines bear so freely that thinning becomes a necessity. Added to high quality, which makes it an excellent table-grape, Goethe keeps well. Goethe was first mentioned in 1858 under the name of Rogers' No. 1.

Vine vigorous, hardy. Canes short, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous or intermittent, long, bifid to trifid. Leaves irregularly round, thin; upper surface light green, glossy; lower surface pale green, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed, terminus broadly acute; petiolar sinus narrow, closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, often a notch; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers partly self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters short, broad, tapering, frequently single-shouldered, usually two bunches to shoot; pedicel long, thick with numerous conspicuous warts; brush long, slender, yellowish-brown. Berries very large, oval, pale red covered with thin bloom, persistent; skin thin, tender, adherent, faintly astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, tender with Vinifera flavor; very good. Seeds adherent, one to three, large, long, notched, blunt, brown.

GOLD COIN

(AEstivalis, Labrusca)

In the South, where alone it thrives, Gold Coin is a handsome market variety of very good quality. The vines are productive and are unusually free from attacks of fungal diseases. The variety originated with T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, from seed of Cynthiana or Norton pollinated by Martha and was introduced by the originator in 1894.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes slender, numerous; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, trifid or bifid. Leaves medium in size; upper surface light green, slightly rugose; lower surface pale green, tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent. Flowers self-fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit late mid-season, keeps long. Clusters medium to small, usually single-shouldered. Berries large, round-oval, yellowish-green with a distinct trace of reddish-amber, with thin bloom, usually persistent; skin covered with small, scattering brown dots, thin, tough; flesh faintly aromatic, tart from skin to center; good. Seeds free, numerous, medium in size.

GREEN EARLY

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Green Early is a white grape coming in season with Winchell, which surpasses it in most characters, quality in particular. Green Early was found in 1885, growing by the side of a ditch near a Concord vineyard, on land belonging to O. J. Green, Portland, New York.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes variable in length and thickness, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, sometimes intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves variable in size, medium green; upper surface dark green, glossy; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes wanting or faintly five; teeth shallow, narrow; stamens upright.

Fruit early, does not keep well. Clusters variable in size, length and breadth, sometimes single-shouldered, variable in compactness. Berries large, oval, light green tinged with yellow, with thin bloom, persistent, soft; skin thin, tender, inclined to crack; flesh tough and aromatic, sweet at skin but acid at center; fair in quality. Seeds medium in size, length and breadth, sharp-pointed.

GREIN GOLDEN

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Grein Golden is very similar to Riesling, but the vine is much stronger in growth. For a variety of the Taylor group, both cluster and berry are large and uniform, which, with the attractive color of the berries, make it a most handsome fruit. The flavor, however, is not at all pleasing, being an unusual commingling of sweetness and acidity very disagreeable to most palates. The quality of the fruit condemns it for table use, although it is said to make a very good white wine. Nicholas Grein, Hermann, Missouri, first grew Grein Golden about 1875.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, trifid or bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, lightly pubescent; lobes lacking or one to three with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, wide, obscure; teeth deep. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, irregular, often heavily single-shouldered, loose; pedicel with a few inconspicuous warts; brush slender, pale green. Berries uniform in size, large, round, golden yellow, glossy with thin bloom, persistent; skin very thin, tender; flesh green, translucent, very juicy, tender, vinous; good. Seeds free, one to four, broad, plump, light brown.

GROS COLMAN

(Vinifera)

Dodrelabi

Gros Colman has the reputation of being the handsomest black table-grape grown. It is one of the favorite hot-house grapes in England and eastern America and is commonly grown out of doors in California. The variety is remarkable for having the largest berries of any round grape, borne in immense bunches, and for the long-keeping qualities, although the tender skins sometimes crack. The following description is compiled:

Vine vigorous, healthy and productive; wood dark brown. Leaves very large, round, thick, but slightly lobed; teeth short and blunt; glabrous above, wooly below. Bunches very large, short, well filled but rather loose; berries very large, round, dark blue; skin thick but tender; flesh firm, crisp, sweet and good; quality not of the highest. Season late and the fruits keep long.

HARTFORD

(Labrusca)

The vine of Hartford may be well characterized by its good qualities, but the fruit is best described by its faults, because of which the variety is passing out of cultivation. The plants are vigorous, prolific, healthy and the fruit is borne early in the season. The canes are remarkable for their stoutness and for the crooks at the joints. The bunches are not unattractive, but the quality of the fruit is low, the flesh being pulpy and the flavor insipid and foxy. The berries shell badly on the vine and when packed for shipping, so that the fruit does not ship, pack or keep well. The grapes color long before ripe, and the flowers are only partly self-fertile, so that in seasons when there is bad weather during blooming time the clusters are loose and straggling. The original vine of Hartford was a chance seedling in the garden of Paphro Steele, West Hartford, Connecticut. It fruited first in 1849.

Vine vigorous, very productive. Canes long, dark brown, covered with pubescence; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, long, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, thinly pubescent; lobes variable; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers partly self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early. Clusters medium in size, long, slender, tapering, irregular, often with a long, large, single shoulder, loose; pedicel short with a few small warts; brush greenish. Berries medium in size, round-oval, black, covered with bloom, drop badly; skin thick, tough, adherent, contains much purplish-red pigment, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, firm, stringy, foxy; poor in quality. Seeds free, one to four, broad, dark brown.



HAYES

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

In 1880, the Massachusetts Horticultural Society awarded a certificate of merit to Hayes for high quality in fruit. This brought it prominently before grape-growers and for a time it was popular, but when better known several defects became apparent. The vine is hardy and vigorous, but the growth is slow and the variety is a shy bearer. Both bunches and berries are small, and the crop ripens at a time, a week or ten days earlier than Concord, when there are many other good green grapes. Excellent though it is in quality, the variety is hardly worth a place in any vineyard. John B. Moore, Concord, Massachusetts, is the originator of Hayes. It is a seedling of Concord out of the same lot of seedlings as Moore Early. It was first fruited in 1872.

Vine variable in vigor and productiveness, hardy and healthy. Canes numerous, slender; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves uniform in size; upper surface dark green; lower surface pubescent; lobes one to three; teeth shallow, small. Flowers almost self-sterile, open medium late; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters variable in size and length, often single-shouldered; pedicel long, slender; brush small, pale green. Berries medium in size, round, greenish-yellow, covered with thin bloom, persistent; skin thin, tender with a few small reddish-brown dots; flesh fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet at the skin, agreeably tart at center, mild; good. Seeds few, of average size, short, plump, brown.

HEADLIGHT

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)

Headlight is more desirable for southern than for northern vineyards, yet it is worthy of trial in the North. Its meritorious characters are: productiveness, outyielding Delaware, with which it competes; disease-resistant foliage and vines; more than average vigor of vine; high quality of fruit, being almost the equal of Delaware in flavor and having tender, melting pulp which readily parts from the seeds; and earliness, ripening before Delaware and hanging on the vines or keeping after being picked for some time without deterioration. The originator of Headlight, T. V. Munson, states that the variety came from seed of Moyer fertilized by Brilliant. The seed was planted in 1895 and the grape was introduced in 1901.

Vine vigorous, hardy, very productive. Canes short, few in number, slender, reddish-brown; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils continuous, short, bifid, very persistent. Leaves small, thick; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes one to three with terminus obtuse; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters small, short, tapering, frequently single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender, covered with a few small warts; brush yellowish-brown. Berries small, round, dark red with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, adherent, astringent; flesh green, translucent, very juicy, tender, fine-grained, vinous, sweet; very good. Seeds free, one to three, small, light brown.

HERBEMONT

(Bourquiniana)

Bottsi, Brown French, Dunn, Herbemont's Madeira, Hunt, Kay's Seedling, McKee, Neal, Warren, Warrenton

In the South, Herbemont holds the same rank as Concord in the North. The vine is fastidious as to soil, requiring a well-drained warm soil, and one which is abundantly supplied with humus. Despite these limitations, this variety is grown in an immense territory, extending from Virginia and Tennessee to the Gulf and westward through Texas. The vine is remarkably vigorous, being hardly surpassed in this character by any other of our native grapes. The fruits are attractive because of the large bunch and the glossy black of the small berries, and are borne abundantly and with certainty in suitable localities. The flesh characters of the fruit are good for a small grape, neither flesh, skin nor seeds being objectionable in eating; the pulp is tender, juicy, rich, sweet and highly flavored. The ample, lustrous green foliage makes this variety one of the attractive ornamental plants of the South. Herbemont is known to have been in cultivation in Georgia before the Revolutionary War, when it was generally called Warren and Warrenton. In the early part of the last century, it came to the hands of Nicholas Herbemont, Columbia, South Carolina, whose name it eventually took.

Vine very vigorous. Canes long, strong, bright green, with more or less purple and heavy bloom; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, round, entire, or three to seven-lobed, nearly glabrous above and below; upper surface clear green; lower surface lighter green, glaucous. Flowers self-fertile.

Fruit very late. Clusters large, long, tapering, prominently shouldered, compact; pedicels short with a few large warts; brush pink. Berries round, small, uniform, reddish-black or brown with abundant bloom; skin thin, tough; flesh tender, juicy; juice colorless or slightly pink, sweet, sprightly. Seeds two to four, small, reddish-brown, glossy.

HERBERT

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

In all that constitutes a fine table-grape, Herbert (Plate XVIII) is as near perfection as any American variety. For a Vinifera-Labrusca hybrid, the vine is vigorous, hardy and fruitful, ranking in these respects above many pure-bred Labruscas. While the fruit ripens with Concord, it keeps much later and packs and ships better. The variety is self-sterile and must be set near other varieties. Herbert is deserving attention from commercial growers who supply a discriminating market, and its many good qualities give it high place as a garden grape. The variety is one of Rogers' hybrids, named Herbert in 1869.

Vine very vigorous, productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, round; upper surface dark green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green with some pubescence; leaf entire, terminus obtuse; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, closed, overlapping; basal and lateral sinuses lacking; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, broad, tapering, two to three clusters per shoot, heavily single-shouldered, loose; pedicel thick with small russet warts; brush yellowish-green. Berries large, round-oval, flattened, dull black, covered with thick bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, tender, fine-grained; very good. Seeds adherent, three to six, large, broad, notched, long with swollen neck, blunt, brown with yellow tips.

HERCULES

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Hercules is characterized by very large berries, fruit handsomely colored and cluster large and well-formed. The flavor, while not of the best, is good. Added to the desirable qualities of the fruit, the vines are hardy, vigorous and productive. These good characters, however, cannot make up for the several defects of the variety. The grapes drop and crack badly and the pulp is tough and adheres too firmly to the seed for a dessert grape, so that the variety is worthless except for breeding purposes. Hercules was introduced by G. A. Ensenberger, Bloomington, Illinois, about 1890; its parentage is unknown.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, very productive. Canes long, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; lobes one to three, terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus shallow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters very large, broad, tapering, one to three clusters per shoot, compact; brush pale green. Berries very large, round, black, glossy with heavy bloom, firm; skin adherent, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, very tough, coarse, stringy, foxy; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to five, large, broad, deeply notched, blunt, brown.

HICKS

(Labrusca)

Hicks is a remarkably good grape and were it not that the fruit is almost identical with that of Concord, ripening with it or a little earlier, it would have a place in the viticulture of the country. However, since it was introduced some years ago and has not found great favor with growers, it seems that it cannot make headway against Concord, with which it must compete. In many localities the vines are more prolific than those of Concord and of stronger growth. Hicks was introduced in 1898 by Henry Wallis, Wellston, Missouri, who states that it is a chance seedling sent from California about 1870 to Richard Berry, a nurseryman of St. Louis County, Missouri.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, very productive. Canes medium to long, numerous, reddish-brown, covered with thin bloom; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy; lower surface white, changing to a heavy bronze, strongly pubescent. Flowers self-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, often single-shouldered. Berries large, round, purplish-black with heavy bloom, shatter when over-ripe, firm; skin tender with dark wine-colored pigment; flesh green, juicy, tough, fine-grained, faintly foxy; good. Seeds adherent, large, short, broad, blunt, brown.

HIDALGO

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)

The grapes of Hidalgo are rich, sweet, delicately flavored, and with color, size and form of berry and bunch so well combined as to make the fruits singularly handsome. The skin is thin but firm and the variety keeps and ships well. The vines, however, are doubtfully hardy, variable in vigor and not always fruitful. While Hidalgo may not prove of value for the commercial vineyard, in favorable situations it may give a supply of choice fruit for the amateur. The parentage of Hidalgo, as given by its originator, T. V. Munson, is Delaware, Goethe and Lindley. The variety was introduced by the originator in 1902.

Vine variable in vigor, hardiness and productiveness. Canes thick, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils intermittent or continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, irregularly round, thick; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, bronzed, heavily pubescent; lobes three when present; petiolar sinus narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus wanting; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth very shallow, narrow. Flowers semi-fertile, open after mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, long, slender, cylindrical, often blunt, not shouldered, one to two bunches per shoot, compact; pedicel long, slender with small warts; brush yellowish-green with brown tinge. Berries large, oval, greenish-yellow, glossy with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh green, transparent, juicy, tender, melting, aromatic, sweet; very good to best. Seeds free, two to four, large, plump, light brown.

HIGHLAND

(Vinifera, Labrusca)

Few varieties of black grapes equal Highland in appearance and quality of fruit. When given good care under favorable conditions, the bunches are unusually large and handsome in appearance, sometimes attaining a weight of two pounds, and bear beautiful bluish-black berries with the fine flavor and tender texture of Jura Muscat, one of its parents. The flesh is solid, firm and the fruit keeps and ships well. The vine is vigorous, productive to a fault but is doubtfully hardy. Where the climate is temperate and the season long enough for the vine and fruit of Highland to develop, this is one of the choicest grapes for the amateur. The variety originated about the close of the Civil War with J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York, from seed of Concord fertilized by Jura Muscat.

Vine variable in vigor, productive, healthy. Canes long, numerous, dark brown with thin bloom; nodes enlarged; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves large; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface grayish-green, pubescent; lobes one to five, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, variable in width; basal sinus shallow, narrow; lateral sinus a notch; teeth deep, wide. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, usually single-shouldered, usually two bunches per shoot; pedicel long, thick, smooth; brush green with yellow tinge. Berries large, round-oval, purplish-black, dull with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, free; flesh green, translucent, juicy, tender, vinous; good. Seeds free, one to six, large, long, notched, brown.

HOPKINS

(Rotundifolia)

Hopkins is named by grape-growers in the South Atlantic states as the best early Rotundifolia grape. Its season in North Carolina begins early in August, nearly a month before any other. It is, also, one of the best in quality and for quality and earliness should be in every home vineyard in the region in which it grows. Hopkins was found near Wilmington, North Carolina, about 1845, by John Hopkins.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, slender, upright. Leaves of medium size, variable, cordate, longer than broad, thick, leathery, smooth, dark green; margins sharply serrate. Flowers self-fertile.

Fruit very early. Clusters large, containing from four to ten berries. Berries large, dark purple or almost black, round-oblong, shelling badly; skin thick, tough, faintly marked with dots; pulp white, tender, juicy with a sweet, pleasant flavor; one of the best of the Rotundifolias in quality.

HOSFORD

(Labrusca)

Hosford is an offspring of Concord, differing from the parent chiefly in the greater size of bunch and berry and in being less fruitful. The variety is surpassed by Worden and Eaton, of the same type, and is probably not worth cultivation. It is claimed by some that Hosford is identical with Eaton but there are noticeable differences in both vine and fruit characters. The vine looks very like that of Concord except that the indentations along the margins of the leaves are deeper. Hosford originated in the garden of George Hosford, Ionia, Michigan, about 1876, as a chance seedling growing between two Concord vines.

Vines lacking in vigor, hardy, unproductive. Canes short, few in number, slender; nodes enlarged; internodes very short; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves medium in size; upper surface light green, rugose; lower surface grayish-white to bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes faint; petiolar sinus wide; teeth small, sharp. Flowers shallow, semi-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, does not keep well. Clusters large, tapering, slightly shouldered, compact; pedicel short with small warts; brush slender, green. Berries large, round-oval, dull black with abundant bloom, persistent; skin thick, tender; flesh pale green, juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous, sweet; good. Seeds few, large, broad, blunt, plump, brown.

HYBRID FRANC

(Vinifera, Rupestris)

Hybrid Franc is the best-known cross between Rupestris and Vinifera. It is one of the few varieties used in Europe as a resistant stock now recommended for a direct producer. The vines are hardy, vigorous and very productive. The fruit is fit only for wine or grape-juice, being too acid to eat out of hand. The coloring matter in the fruit is very intense and might be used in giving color to grape products. The variety is of French origin.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes numerous, thick, light brown with blue bloom; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves small, thin; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface green, hairy along ribs and large veins; lobes three to five with terminal one acute; petiolar sinus narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; lateral sinus a notch. Flowers semi-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, does not keep well. Clusters medium in size, short, cylindrical, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel long, slender with few small warts; brush short, wine-colored. Berries small, oblate, black, glossy with thick bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tender with very dark wine-colored pigment; flesh green with reddish tinge, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, spicy, tart; fair in quality. Seeds free, one to five, small, short, light brown.

IDEAL

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana)

Ideal is a handsome seedling of Delaware, from which it differs chiefly in being larger in bunch and berry, attaining in both of these characters nearly the size of Catawba. In Kansas and Missouri, this variety is highly recommended, not only for the high quality of the fruit, ranking with Delaware in quality, but because of vigorous, healthy, productive vines. But farther north the vines are precariously hardy and not sufficiently fruitful, healthy nor vigorous to warrant high recommendation. Ideal originated with John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas, from seed of Delaware, about 1885.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, productive; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Canes long, numerous, slender, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long. Leaves large, variable in color; lobes three to five; petiolar sinus deep, wide; teeth deep, narrow; upper surface light green, dull; lower surface pale green, pubescent.

Fruit early mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, broad, heavily shouldered; pedicel thick; brush green. Berries large, round, dark red with thin bloom, usually persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, adherent; flesh green, tender, aromatic, sweet next the skin, acid at the center; good to very good. Seeds adherent, large, plump, brown.

IONA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

In flavor, the fruit of Iona (Plate XIX) has a rare combination of sweetness and acidity, pure, delicate and vinous. The flesh is transparent, melting, tender, juicy and of uniform consistency quite to the center. The seeds are few and small and part readily from the flesh. The color is a peculiar dark-red wine with a tint of amethyst, variable and not always attractive. The bunch is large but loose, with berries varying in size and ripening unevenly. The fruit may be kept until late winter. The vine characters of Iona are not as good as those of the fruit. To do well, the vine must have a soil exactly suited to its wants, seemingly thriving best in deep, dry, sandy or gravelly clays. Iona responds especially well when trained against walls or buildings, attaining under such conditions rare perfection. The vines are doubtfully hardy and in many parts of the North must have winter protection; they are not vigorous and are inclined to overbear, to remedy which they must have close pruning. In localities in which mildew and rot thrive, the variety is badly attacked by these diseases. Iona originated with C. W. Grant, Iona Island, New York, from seed of Diana planted in 1885.

Vine weak, doubtfully hardy, unproductive. Canes short, light brown; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves thick; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface grayish-green, heavily pubescent; lobes three to five with terminal one acute; petiolar sinus of medium depth and width; basal sinus shallow; lateral sinus shallow, wide; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters medium in size, sometimes double-shouldered, slender, tapering, loose; brush pale green. Berries uniform, oval, round, dull, light and dark red with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, adherent, slightly astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, melting, vinous; very good. Seeds free, one to four, small, broad, plump, brown.



ISABELLA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Alexander, Black Cape, Christie's Improved Isabella, Conckling's Wilding, Constantia, Dorchester, Gibb's Grape, Hensell's Long Island, Payne's Early, Helene, Woodward

Isabella (Plate XX) is now of little more than historical interest, it having been one of the mainstays of American viticulture. In appearance, the fruit of Isabella is fully as attractive as that of any black grape, the clusters being large and well formed and the berries glossy black with thick bloom. The flavor is good, but the thick skin and muskiness in taste are objectionable. The grapes keep and ship well. Isabella is surpassed in vine characters by many other kinds, notably Concord, which has taken its place. The lustrous green, ample foliage which remains late in the season, and the vigor of the vine, make this variety an attractive ornamental, well adapted for growing on arbors, porches and trellises. The origin of Isabella is not known. It was obtained by William Prince, Flushing, Long Island, about 1816 from Mrs. Isabella Gibbs, Brooklyn, New York.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes short, numerous with heavy pubescence, thick, light brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves thick; upper surface dark green, smooth, glossy; lower surface whitish-green, heavily pubescent; lobes three when present with terminal lobe obtuse; petiolar sinus shallow, narrow, often closed, overlapping; basal sinus usually wanting; lateral sinus shallow, narrow, frequently notched; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered; pedicel slender, smooth; brush long, yellowish-green. Berries medium to large, oval, black with heavy bloom, persistent, soft; skin thick, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, meaty, some foxiness, sweet; good. Seeds one to three, large, broad, distinctly notched, short, brown with yellow tips.

ISABELLA SEEDLING

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Isabella Seedling is an early, vigorous, productive offspring of Isabella. In fruit characters it greatly resembles its parent, but ripens its crop earlier and has a more compact bunch. Like that of its parent, the fruit is of good quality and keeps remarkably well. This seedling is now grown more than Isabella and, while not of any considerable commercial importance, is far more deserving attention as a market grape than some of the poorly flavored kinds more generally grown. There are several varieties under this name. Two are mentioned by Warder; one of Ohio and one of New York origin. The Isabella Seedling here described originated with G. A. Ensenberger, Bloomington, Illinois, in 1889.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy, productive. Canes long, thick, dark brown, often with a red tinge, with thin bloom; nodes prominent, flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent or continuous, bifid. Leaves healthy, large, thick; upper surface green, dull; lower surface pale green or grayish-green, occasionally with a tinge of bronze, pubescent. Flowers self-fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters large, long, slender, cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, loose, compact. Berries large, oval, often pear-shaped, dull black with thick bloom, persistent, soft; skin thick with some red pigment; flesh pale green, juicy, tender, coarse, vinous; good. Seeds numerous, free, large, broad, notched, dark brown.

ISRAELLA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Israella came from C. W. Grant contemporaneously with Iona and was heralded as the earliest good grape in cultivation. For several years after its introduction, it was widely tried but was almost everywhere discarded because of the poor quality and unattractive appearance of the fruit and lack of vigor, hardiness and productiveness in the vine. Grant grew Israella from seed of Isabella planted in 1885.

Vine lacking in vigor, unproductive. Canes slender, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes one to five, faint; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; teeth shallow, sharp; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters large, of medium length and breadth, tapering, often single-shouldered, compact, frequently with many abortive fruits. Berries of medium size, round-oval, black or purplish-black with thin bloom, inclined to drop, soft; skin thick, tough with a large amount of purplish-red pigment; flesh pale green, juicy, stringy, mild, sweet from skin to center; fair in quality. Seeds free, medium in size, notched, blunt, light brown, often covered with grayish warts.

IVES

(Labrusca, AEstivalis)

Ives' Madeira, Ives' Seedling, Kittredge

Ives has a high reputation as a grape for making red wine, being surpassed only by Norton for this purpose. The vine is hardy, healthy, vigorous and fruitful. The fruit is poor in quality, colors long before ripe, has a foxy odor, and the flesh is tough and pulpy. The bunches are compact, with well-formed, jet-black grapes, which make them attractive. The vine is easily propagated and is adapted to any good grape soil, but is so rampant in growth that it is difficult to manage. The variety is not widely cultivated. Ives was grown by Henry Ives from seed planted in 1840 in his garden in Cincinnati, Ohio.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes long, thick, reddish-brown with thin bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three to five when present with terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus shallow; lateral sinus narrow; teeth shallow.

Fruit late mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, tapering, frequently single-shouldered, compact, often with numerous abortive berries; pedicel slender with numerous small warts; brush short, slender, pale with a reddish-brown tinge. Berries oval, jet-black with heavy bloom, very persistent, firm; skin tough, adherent, wine-colored pigment, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tough, foxy; good. Seeds adherent, one to four, small, often abortive, broad, short, blunt, plump, brown.

JAMES

(Rotundifolia)

James is one of the largest of the Rotundifolia grapes and probably the best general-purpose variety of this species. The vine is noted for vigor and productiveness. It cannot be grown north of Maryland. It thrives in sandy loam soils with clay subsoil. The variety was found by B. W. M. James, Pitt County, North Carolina. It was introduced about 1890 and was placed on the grape list of the American Pomological Society fruit catalog in 1899.

Vine vigorous, healthy, productive. Canes slender, numerous, long, slightly trailing. Leaves of medium size, thick, smooth, leathery, cordate, as broad as long, with a serrate margin. Flowers open late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens late, hangs on the vine for three weeks, keeps well. Clusters small, containing from four to twelve berries, irregular, loose. Berries large, three-fourths to one and one-fourth inches in diameter, round, blue-black, marked with specks; skin thick, tough. Pulp juicy, sweet; good in quality.

JANESVILLE

(Labrusca, Vulpina)

Endowed with a constitution enabling it to withstand cold to which most other grapes succumb, Janesville has made a place for itself in far northern localities. Moreover, the grapes ripen early, being about the first to color although they are not ripe until some time after coloring. The vine also is healthy, vigorous and productive. The fruit, however, is worthless when better sorts can be grown. The clusters and berries are small, the grapes are pulpy, tough, seedy, have a thick skin and a disagreeable acid taste. Janesville was grown by F. W. Loudon, Janesville, Wisconsin, from chance seed planted in 1858.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes spiny, numerous, dark brown; nodes flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent or continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves small, thin; upper surface glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, lightly pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal and lateral sinuses lacking; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open very early; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters small, short, cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender, covered with small, scattering warts; brush dark wine color. Berries round, dull black with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, adherent with dark wine-colored pigment, astringent; flesh pale reddish-green, translucent, juicy, tough, coarse, vinous, acid; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to six, large, broad, angular, blunt, dark brown.

JEFFERSON

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Jefferson (Plate XXI) is an offspring of Concord crossed with Iona, and resembles Concord in vigor, productiveness and healthiness of vine, and Iona in color and quality of fruit. The vine produces its fruit two weeks later than Concord and is not as hardy, faults that debar it from taking high rank as a commercial grape. Fortunately the vines yield readily to laying down for winter protection so that even in commercial plantations it is not difficult to prevent winter injury. The bunches of Jefferson are large, well-formed, compact with berries of uniform size and color. The flesh is firm yet tender, juicy with a rich, vinous flavor and a delicate aroma which persists even after the berries have dried into raisins. The fruit ships and keeps well, the berries adhering to the cluster and the fruit retaining its freshness into late winter. Jefferson is widely distributed and is well known by viticulturists in eastern America. It is not particular as to localities, if the season be long and the climate temperate, and thrives in all soils. The variety originated with J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York; it fruited first in 1874.

Vine vigorous, healthy, doubtfully hardy, productive. Canes short, numerous, light to dark brown; nodes enlarged, round; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, short, bifid or trifid. Leaves healthy; upper surface light green, older leaves rugose; lower surface pale green, strongly pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus shallow, often a mere notch; teeth regular, shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, sometimes double-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender with a few inconspicuous warts; brush long, slender, pale yellowish-green. Berries medium in size, oval, light and dark red, glossy with thin bloom, persistent, very firm; skin thick, tough, free, slightly astringent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, coarse-grained, tender, vinous; good to best. Seeds free, one to four, broad, short, blunt, plump, brown.

JESSICA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Jessica is an early, hardy, green grape. The fruit is sweet, rich, sprightly and almost free from foxiness, but is unattractive and does not keep well. The clusters and berries are small, and the clusters are too loose for a good grape. Jessica may be commended for earliness and hardiness and is, therefore, desirable, if at all, in northern regions. William H. Read, Port Dalhousie, Ontario, grew Jessica from seed planted some time between 1870 and 1880.

Vine medium in vigor, healthy, hardy, productive. Canes long, thick, dark brown with red tinge; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous or intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves small; upper surface dark green, glossy, often rugose; lower surface pale green, very pubescent; lobes three; petiolar sinus narrow; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit very early. Clusters small, slender, tapering, usually single-shouldered. Berries small, round, light green, often tinged with yellow, covered with thin bloom, persistent, soft; skin thin, adherent, faintly astringent; flesh pale green, transparent, juicy, tender, soft, sprightly, sweet; good. Seeds adherent, medium to broad, notched, brown.

JEWEL

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera)

The notable characters of Jewel are earliness and high quality in fruit; although, as compared with Delaware, its parent, the vine is vigorous, healthy and hardy. In form and size of bunch and berry, Jewel closely resembles Delaware, but the grapes are deep black in color. The flesh characters and flavor of the fruit are much like those of Delaware, the pulp being tender yet firm, and the flavor having the same rich, sprightly, vinous taste found in the parent. The seeds are few and small. The skin is thin but tough, and the grapes ship well, keep long, do not shell, and although early, hang until frost. Jewel is a most excellent grape, worthy the place among black grapes that Delaware has among red varieties. In particular, it is recommended for earliness and for localities in the North where standard varieties do not ripen. John Burr, Leavenworth, Kansas, grew Jewel from seed of Delaware planted about 1874.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy, productive. Canes slender, light reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves scant, thick; upper surface light green, dull, rugose; lower surface tinged with bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes three when present with terminus acute; petiolar sinus narrow; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, wide; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early. Clusters small, slender, cylindrical, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender; brush short, wine-colored. Berries medium in size, round, dark purplish-black, dull with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent, wine-colored pigment; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, sprightly, vinous, sweet; very good. Seeds adherent, one to four, frequently one-sided, blunt, light brown.

KENSINGTON

(Vinifera, Vulpina)

Kensington has several very meritorious fruit and vine characters. The vine resembles that of Clinton, its Vulpina parent, in vigor, hardiness, growth and productiveness, but the fruit has many of the characters of the European parent, Buckland Sweetwater. The grapes are yellowish-green, large, oval and borne in loose clusters of medium size. In quality the fruit of Kensington is not equal to that of Buckland Sweetwater but is much better than that of Clinton. The flesh is tender and juicy with a rich, sweet, vinous flavor. The hardiness of the vine and the high quality of the fruit should make Kensington a favorite green grape in northern gardens. This variety was grown by William Saunders, London, Ontario. It was sent out some time between 1870 and 1880.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, slender, light brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils persistent, intermittent or continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves thin; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent, hairy; lobes wanting or one to three with terminus obtuse; petiolar sinus narrow; basal sinus shallow when present; lateral sinus shallow, usually a notch; teeth deep and wide. Flowers self-fertile, open early, stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season. Clusters large, cylindrical, often heavily single-shouldered, loose, frequently with many undeveloped berries; pedicel long and slender with small, inconspicuous warts; brush short, pale green. Berries variable in size, oval, yellowish-green, glossy with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent, faintly astringent; flesh green, transparent, juicy, tender, vinous, sweet; good. Seeds free, two to four, wrinkled, large, long, broad, sharp-pointed, yellowish-brown.

KING

(Labrusca)

King is similar to Concord, compared with which the vine is more vigorous and prolific, time of ripening and length of season the same, the clusters are one-fourth larger, the grapes are more persistent, the pulp is more tender, the flavor nearly the same but more sprightly, the seeds fewer in number, the wood harder and of shorter joints and the pedicels larger. King was found in the Concord vineyard of W. K. Munson, Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1892. The vine was set for Concord and is supposed to be a bud-sport of that variety.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes large, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, slightly flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous or intermittent, trifid or bifid. Leaves unusually large, thick; upper surface green, dull; lower surface grayish-white changing to slight bronze, pubescent; lobes three when present, terminal one acute; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, long, broad, irregularly tapering, usually single-shouldered, compact. Berries large, round, black with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, very juicy, tough, stringy and with some foxiness; good. Seeds adherent, few, large, short, broad, lightly notched if at all, blunt, plump, light brown.

LADY

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The vine of Lady is much like that of Concord, its parent, although not quite so vigorous nor productive, but ripens its fruit fully two weeks earlier. The fruit is much superior to that of Concord in quality, being richer, sweeter and less foxy. The grapes hang on the vines well but deteriorate rapidly after picking. The term, "ironclad," used by grape-growers to express hardiness and freedom from disease, is probably as applicable to Lady as to any other of the Labrusca grapes. The foliage is dense and of a deep glossy green, neither scalding under a hot sun nor freezing until heavy frosts, making it an attractive ornament in the garden. Lady is deservedly popular as a grape for the amateur and should be planted for near-by markets. It succeeds wherever Concord is grown, and because of its early ripening is especially adapted to northern latitudes where Concord does not always mature. Although the fruit ripens early, the buds start late, often escaping late spring frosts. When Lady was first heard of, it was in the hands of a Mr. Imlay, Muskingum County, Ohio. George W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio, introduced it in 1874.

Vine vigorous, hardy, medium in productiveness, healthy. Canes short, slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves medium in size; upper surface light green, glossy, rugose; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes one to five with terminal one acuminate; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; lateral sinus variable in depth and width; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early, does not keep well. Clusters small, short, slender, cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, compact; pedicel thick, smooth; brush slender, long, greenish-white. Berries large, round, light green, often with a tinge of yellow, glossy with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin covered with small, scattering, dark dots, thin, tender, adherent, astringent; flesh greenish-white, translucent, juicy, tender, aromatic; very good. Seeds free, few, broad, light brown.

LADY WASHINGTON

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Lady Washington is in many respects a most excellent grape but falls short in quality and does not excel in vine characters. The grapes make a good appearance, keep and ship well and are tender, juicy and sweet. The vines are luxuriant, hardy, for a grape with Vinifera blood, and healthy although slightly susceptible to mildew. As an exhibition grape, few green varieties show better when grown with care than Lady Washington. In the West and Southwest, the variety is said to succeed better than any other Concord seedling. Lady Washington is another of J. H. Ricketts' fine seedlings, this variety having come from seed of Concord fertilized by Allen's Hybrid. It was introduced in 1878.

Vine vigorous, productive. Canes long, few, thick, dark brown; nodes greatly enlarged, variable in shape; internodes long; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, older leaves strongly rugose, glossy; lower surface pale green, pubescent; leaf entire with terminal acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, frequently closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually wanting; lateral sinus shallow; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit late mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters large, broad, irregularly cylindrical, single-shouldered, frequently double-shouldered, loose; pedicel short with numerous conspicuous warts; brush very short, greenish. Berries variable in size, round-oblate, yellow-amber, glossy with thin bloom, persistent; skin thin, tender, adherent; flesh pale green, transparent, juicy and tender, stringy, aromatic, sweet; very good. Seeds free, one to four, broad, brown.



LENOIR

(Bourquiniana)

Alabama, Black El Paso, Black July, Black Spanish, Blue French, Burgundy, Cigar Box Grape, Devereaux, Jack, Jacques, July Sherry, Longworth's Ohio, MacCandless, Ohio, Springstein, Warren

Lenoir is a tender southern grape which has been used largely in France and California as a resistant stock and a direct producer. The fruit is highly valued for its dark red wine and is very good for table use. The vine is very resistant to phylloxera and withstands drouth well. The origin of Lenoir is unknown. It was in cultivation in the South as long ago as the early part of the last century. Nicholas Herbemont states in 1829 that its name was given from a man named Lenoir who cultivated it near Stateburg, South Carolina.

Vine vigorous, thrifty, semi-hardy, productive. Canes numerous, with some bloom at the nodes; tendrils intermittent. Leaves from two to seven-lobed, usually five, with characteristic bluish-green color above and pale green below.

Clusters variable, medium to very large, tapering, usually shouldered. Berries small, round, dark bluish-purple, nearly black with lilac bloom; skin thick, tough; flesh juicy, tender, sweet, very rich in coloring matter.

LIGNAN BLANC

(Vinifera)

White July, Luglienga, Joannenc

At Geneva, New York, Lignan Blanc ripens first of all grapes, native or European. It is not of highest quality but is better than any other early grape and makes a valuable addition to the home vineyard. It is a favorite grape in Europe and is rather commonly grown in California. This variety offers excellent material for hybridization with native grapes.

Vine vigorous, medium productive; buds open early; opening leaves light green, glossy, tinged with red along the edges, thinly pubescent. Leaves medium in size, roundish, somewhat dull green, slightly rugose; lower surface glabrous; blade thick; lobes usually five though sometimes three; petiolar sinus medium in depth, wide; lower lateral sinus medium in depth, narrow; upper lateral sinus shallow, narrow; margin dentate; teeth long, narrow. Flowers appear early for a Vinifera; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens the first of September and is a good keeper; clusters above medium in size, tapering, medium compact; berries medium to large, oval, yellowish-green, with thin bloom; skin thin, tender, neutral; flesh greenish-white, firm, juicy, meaty, sweet; quality good.

LINDLEY

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

By common consent, Lindley (Plate XXII) is the best of the red grapes originated by Rogers in his crosses between Labrusca and Vinifera. The bunches are of only medium size and are loose, but the berries are well-formed, of uniform size and an attractive dark red color. The flesh is firm, fine-grained, juicy, tender with a peculiarly rich aromatic flavor. The skin is thick and tough but is not objectionable in fruit fully ripe. The fruit keeps and ships well, and the berries neither crack nor shatter. The vine is vigorous, hardy for a Vinifera hybrid, healthy but, as with most of its kind, susceptible to mildew. The chief defects of Lindley are self-sterility, precariousness in bearing and lack of adaptation to many soils. Lindley is a general favorite in the garden. In 1869 Rogers gave this grape its name in honor of John Lindley, the English botanist.

Vine vigorous, usually hardy, susceptible to mildew. Canes very long, dark reddish-brown with thin bloom; nodes enlarged, usually flattened; internodes long, thick; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface light green, dull, slightly rugose; lower surface grayish-white, pubescent; obscurely three-lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; teeth shallow. Flowers self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps and ships well. Clusters long, broad, cylindrical, frequently single-shouldered, the shoulder being connected to the bunch by a long stem, loose; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush short, pale green. Berries large, round-oval, dark-red with faint bloom; skin tough, adherent, unpigmented, strongly astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, vinous; good to best. Seeds adherent, two to five, notched, brown.

LUCILE

(Labrusca)

In vigor, health, hardiness and productiveness, Lucile (Plate XXII) is not surpassed by any native grape. Unfortunately, the fruit characters are not so desirable. The size, form and color of bunches and berries are good, making a very attractive fruit, but the grapes have an obnoxious, foxy taste and odor and are pulpy and seedy. Lucile is earlier than Concord, the crop ripening with that of Worden or preceding it a few days. For an early variety, the fruit keeps well and in spite of thin skin ships well. The vine thrives in all grape soils. Lucile may be recommended where a hardy grape is desired and for localities in which the season is short. J. A. Putnam, Fredonia, New York, grew Lucile. The vine fruited first in 1890. It is a seedling of Wyoming, which it resembles in fruit and vine and surpasses in both.

Vine vigorous, hardy, very productive. Canes long, light brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, firm; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; leaf with terminus acute; petiolar sinus shallow, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually absent; lateral sinus a notch when present; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters large, long, slender, cylindrical, usually single-shouldered, very compact; pedicel short, thick with few, small, inconspicuous warts; brush light brown. Berries large, round, dark red with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tender, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, stringy, foxy; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to four, small, broad, short, blunt, dark brown.

LUTIE

(Labrusca)

Lutie (Plate XXIII) is chiefly valuable for its vine characters. The vines are vigorous, hardy, healthy and fruitful, although scarcely equaling Lucile in any of these characters. Pomologists differ widely as to the merits of the fruit, some claiming high quality for it and others declaring that it is no better than a wild Labrusca. The difference of opinion is due to a peculiarity of the fruit; if eaten fresh, the quality, while far from being of the best, is not bad, but after being picked for several days it develops so much foxiness of flavor and aroma that it is scarcely edible. Lutie is a seedling found by L. C. Chisholm, Spring Hill, Tennessee. It was introduced in 1885.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes short, slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils continuous, short, bifid. Leaves medium in size; upper surface dark green, rugose; lower surface bronze or whitish-green, pubescent; leaf usually not lobed with terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, wide; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow and narrow when present; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-fertile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit early, does not keep well. Clusters medium in size, short, broad, blunt, cylindrical, usually not shouldered, compact; pedicel short with small, scattering warts; brush slender, pale green. Berries large, round, dark red, dull with thin bloom, drop badly from pedicel, firm; skin tender, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, tough, foxy; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, one to four, large, broad, short and blunt, dark brown.

MALAGA

(Vinifera)

Malaga is one of the favorite table-grapes in California and also a popular grape to ship to eastern markets. In some parts of southern California, where the Muscats do not thrive, it is much grown, and in the San Joaquin Valley it is rather largely used in making raisins. It requires a long season and probably could not be grown in eastern regions except in the most favored localities. The description is compiled.

Vine very vigorous, healthy and productive; wood reddish-brown, short-jointed. Leaves of medium size, smooth, leathery; light glossy green above, lighter below; deeply lobed. Bunches very large, long, loose, shouldered, sometimes scraggly; stem long and flexible; berries very large, oval, yellowish-green, covered with light bloom; skin thick; flesh firm, crisp, sweet and rich; quality good. Season late, keeps and ships well.

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