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Manual of American Grape-Growing
by U. P. Hedrick
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The fruit of Vulpina is usually small, there being occasional varieties of medium size or above. The clusters are of medium size and, if judged from the standpoint of number of berries, might frequently be called large. The flavor is usually sharply acid but free from foxiness or any disagreeable wild taste. If eaten in quantity, the acidity is likely to affect the lips and end of the tongue. When the acidity is somewhat ameliorated, as in the case of thoroughly ripe or even over-ripe and shriveled fruit, the flavor is much liked. The flesh is neither pulpy nor solid and dissolves in the mouth and separates readily from the seed. The must of Vulpina is characterized by an average amount of sugar, varying considerably in the fruit from different vines, and by an excess of acid.

Vulpina is very resistant to phylloxera, the roots are small, hard, numerous and branch freely. The roots feed close to the surface and do not seem to be well adapted to forcing their way through heavy clays. Vulpina grows readily from cuttings and makes a good stock for grafting, its union with other species being usually permanent. When Vulpinas were first sent to France to be used as a stock in reconstituting the French vineyards, it was found that many of the vines secured from the woods were too weak in growth to support the stronger-growing Viniferas. On this account the French growers selected the more vigorous forms of the Vulpinas, to which they gave varietal names, as Vulpina Gloire, Vulpina Grand Glabre, Vulpina Schribner, Vulpina Martin and others. With these selected Vulpinas, the graft does not outgrow the stock. Vulpina is less resistant to black-rot than AEstivalis but somewhat more resistant than Labrusca. The foliage is rarely attacked by mildew. One of the chief failings of this species is the susceptibility of the leaves to the attack of the leaf-hopper. The Vulpinas are generally late in ripening; the fruit is better in quality in long seasons and should be left on the vines as late as possible.

5. Vitis cordifolia, Michx. Winter Grape. Frost Grape. Fox Grape. Chicken Grape. Heart-leaved Vitis. Possum Grape. Sour Winter Grape.

Vine very vigorous, climbing. Shoots slender; internodes long, angular, usually glabrous, sometimes pubescent; diaphragms thick; tendrils intermittent, long, usually bifid. Leaves with short, broad stipules; leaf-blade medium to large, cordate, entire or indistinctly three-lobed; petiolar sinus deep, usually narrow, acute; margin with coarse angular teeth; point of leaf acuminate; upper surface light green, glossy, glabrous; glabrous or sparingly pubescent below. Clusters medium to large, loose, with long peduncle. Berries numerous and small, black, shining, little or no bloom. Seeds medium in size, broad, beak short; chalaza oval or roundish, elevated, very distinct; raphe a distinct, cord-like ridge. Fruit sour and astringent and frequently consisting of little besides skins and seeds. Leafing, flowering and ripening fruit very late.

Owing to the fact that Cordifolia and Vulpina have been badly confused, the limits of the habitat of this species are difficult to determine. The best authorities give the northern limit as New York or the Great Lakes. The eastern limit is the Atlantic Ocean and the southern limit, the Gulf of Mexico. It extends westward, according to Engelmann, to the western limits of the wooded portion of the Mississippi Valley in the North, and, according to Munson, to the Brazos River, Texas, in the South. It is found along creeks and river banks sometimes mixed with Vulpina, having about the same soil adaptations as that species. It is a very common species in the middle states and frequently grows on limestone soils, but is not indigenous to such soils.

Cordifolia makes a good stock for grafting, being vigorous and forming a good union with most of our cultivated grapes. It is seldom used for this purpose, however, on account of the difficulty of propagating it by means of cuttings. For the same reason vines of it are seldom found in cultivation.

6. Vitis Berlandieri, Planch. Mountain-Grape. Spanish Grape. Fall Grape. Winter Grape. Little Mountain Grape.

Vine vigorous, climbing; shoots more or less angled and pubescent; pubescence remaining only in patches on mature wood; canes mostly with short internodes; diaphragms thick; tendrils intermittent, long, strong, bifid or trifid. Leaves with small stipules; leaf-blade large, broadly cordate, notched or shortly three-lobed; petiolar sinus rather open, V- or U-shaped, margin with broad but rather shallow teeth, rather dark glossy green above, grayish pubescence below when young; becoming glabrous and even glossy except on ribs and veins, when mature. Clusters large, compact, compound, with long peduncle. Berries small, black, with thin bloom, juicy, rather tart but pleasant tasting when thoroughly ripe. Seeds few, small, short, plump, oval or roundish, with short beak; chalaza oval or roundish, distinct; raphe narrow, slightly distinct to indistinct. Leafing, flowering and ripening fruit very late.

Berlandieri is a native of the limestone hills of southwest Texas and adjacent Mexico. It grows in the same region with V. monticola, but is less restricted locally, growing from the tops of the hills down and along the creek bottoms of these regions. Its great virtue is that it withstands a soil largely composed of lime, being superior to all other American species in this respect. This and its moderate degree of vigor have recommended it to the French growers as a stock for their calcareous soils. The roots are strong, thick, and very resistant to phylloxera. It is propagated by cuttings with comparative ease, but its varieties are variable, some not rooting at all easily. While the fruit of this species shows a large cluster, the berries are small and sour, and Berlandieri is not regarded as having promise for culture in America.

7. Vitis aestivalis, Michx. Blue Grape. Bunch Grape. Summer Grape. Little Grape. Duck-shot Grape. Swamp Grape. Chicken Grape. Pigeon Grape.

Vine very vigorous, shoots pubescent or smooth when young; diaphragms thick; tendrils intermittent, usually bifid. Leaves with short, broad stipules; leaf-blade large, thin when young but becoming thick; petiolar sinus deep, usually narrow, frequently overlapping; margin rarely entire, usually three- to five-lobed; teeth dentate, shallow, wide; upper surface dark green; lower surface with more or less reddish or rusty pubescence which, in mature leaves, usually shows in patches on the ribs and veins; petioles frequently pubescent. Clusters long, not much branched, with long peduncle. Berries small, with moderate amount of bloom, usually astringent. Seeds two to three, of medium size, plump, smooth, not notched; chalaza oval, distinct; raphe a distinct cord-like ridge. Leafing and ripening fruit late to very late.

The division of the original species has reduced the habitat materially, confining it to the southeastern part of the United States from southern New York to Florida and westward to the Mississippi River. AEstivalis grows in thickets and openings in the woods and shows no such fondness for streams as Vulpina, or for thick timber as Labrusca, but is generally confined to uplands. Under favorable circumstances, the vines grow to be very large. AEstivalis is preeminently a wine grape. The fruit usually has a tart, acrid taste, due to the presence of a high percentage of acid, but there is also a large amount of sugar, the scale showing that juice from this species has a much higher percentage of sugar than the sweeter-tasting Labruscas. The wine made from varieties of AEstivalis is very rich in coloring matter and is used by some European vintners to mix with the must of European sorts in order to give the combined product a higher color. The berries are destitute of pulp, have a comparatively thin, tough skin and a peculiar spicy flavor. The berries hang to the bunch after becoming ripe much better than do those of Labrusca.

This species thrives in a lighter and shallower soil than Labrusca and appears to endure drought better, although not equaling in this respect either Vulpina or Rupestris. The French growers report that AEstivalis is very liable to chlorosis on soils which contain much lime. The leaves are never injured by the sun and they resist the attacks of insects, such as leaf-hoppers, better than any other American species under cultivation. AEstivalis is rarely injured by black-rot or mildew, according to American experience, but French growers speak of its being susceptible to both. The hard roots of AEstivalis enable it to resist phylloxera, and varieties with any great amount of the blood of this species are seldom seriously injured by this insect. An objection to AEstivalis, from a horticultural standpoint, is that it does not root well from cuttings. Many authorities speak of it as not rooting at all from cuttings, but this is an over-statement of the facts, as many of the wild and cultivated varieties are occasionally propagated in this manner, and some southern nurseries, located in particularly favorable situations, make a practice of propagating it by this method. Varieties of this species bear grafting well, especially in the vineyard.

Vitis aestivalis Lincecumii, Munson. Post-oak Grape. Pine-wood Grape. Turkey Grape.

Vine vigorous, sometimes climbing high upon trees, sometimes forming a bushy clump from two to six feet high; canes cylindrical, much rusty wool on shoots; tendrils intermittent. Leaves very large, almost as wide as long; entire or three-, five-, or rarely seven-lobed; lobes frequently divided; sinuses, including petiolar sinus, deep; smooth above, and with more or less rusty pubescence below. (The north-Texas, southwestern Missouri and northern Arkansas form shows little or no pubescence but has fine prickly spines at base of shoots and shows much blue bloom on shoots, canes and the under side of the leaves.) Fruit small to large, usually larger than typical AEstivalis, usually black, with heavy bloom. Seeds larger than AEstivalis, pear-shaped; chalaza roundish.

Lincecumii inhabits the eastern half of Texas, western Louisiana, Oklahoma, Arkansas and southern Missouri on high sandy land, frequently climbing post-oak trees, hence the name, post-oak grape, by which it is locally known.

Lincecumii has attracted considerable attention through the work of H. Jaeger and T. V. Munson in domesticating it, both of whom considered it one of the most, if not the most, promising form from which to secure cultivated varieties for the Southwest. The qualities which recommend it are: First, vigor; second, capacity to withstand rot and mildew; third, hardiness and capacity to endure hot and dry summers without injury; fourth, the large cluster and berry which were found on certain of the wild vines. The fruit is characteristic because of its dense bloom, firm, yet tender texture and peculiar flavor. The cultivated varieties have given satisfaction in many sections of the Central Western and Southern states. Like AEstivalis, it is difficult to propagate from cuttings.

The north-Texas glaucous form of this variety mentioned in the technical description above is the V. aestivalis glauca of Bailey. This is the type of Lincecumii that Munson has used in breeding work.

Vitis aestivalis Bourquiniana, Bailey. Southern AEstivalis.

Bourquiniana differs chiefly from the type in having thinner leaves; the shoots and under side of the leaves are only slightly reddish-brown in color; the pubescence usually disappears at maturity; the leaves are more deeply lobed than is common in AEstivalis; and the fruit is larger, sweeter and more juicy. Bourquiniana is known only in cultivation. The name was given by Munson, who ranks the group as a species. He includes therein many southern varieties, the most important of which are: Herbemont, Bertrand, Cunningham and Lenoir, grouped in the Herbemont section; and Devereaux, Louisiana and Warren, in the Devereaux section. Munson has traced the history of this interesting group and states that it was brought from southern France to America over one hundred fifty years ago by the Bourquin family of Savannah, Georgia. Many botanists are of the opinion that Bourquiniana is a hybrid. The hybrid supposition is corroborated to a degree by the characters being more or less intermediate between the supposed parent species, and also by the fact that up to date no wild form of Bourquiniana has been found. The only northern variety of any importance supposed to have Bourquiniana blood is the Delaware, and in this variety only a fraction of Bourquiniana blood is presumably present. Bourquiniana can be propagated from cuttings more easily than the typical AEstivalis but not so readily as Labrusca, Vulpina or Vinifera. Many of the varieties of Bourquiniana show a marked susceptibility to mildew and black-rot; in fact, the whole Herbemont group is much inferior in this respect to the Norton group of AEstivalis. The roots are somewhat hard, branch rather freely and are quite resistant to phylloxera.

8. Vitis bicolor, Le Conte. Blue Grape. Northern Summer Grape. Northern AEstivalis.

Vine vigorous, climbing; shoots cylindrical or angled, with long internodes, generally glabrous, usually showing much blue bloom, sometimes spiny at base; diaphragms thick; tendrils intermittent, long, usually bifid. Leaves with short, broad stipules; leaf-blade large; roundish-cordate, usually three-, sometimes on older growth shallowly five-lobed, rarely entire; petiolar sinus variable in depth, usually narrow; margin irregularly dentate; teeth acuminate; glabrous above, usually glabrous below and showing much blue bloom which sometimes disappears late in the season; young leaves sometimes pubescent; petioles very long. Cluster of medium size, compact, simple; peduncle long. Berries small, black with much bloom, acid but pleasant tasting when ripe. Seeds small, plump, broadly oval, very short beak; chalaza oval, raised, distinct; raphe distinct, showing as a cord-like ridge.

Bicolor is readily distinguished from AEstivalis by the absence of the reddish pubescence and by blooming slightly later. The habitat of Bicolor is to the north of that of AEstivalis, occupying the northeastern, whereas AEstivalis occupies the southeastern quarter of the United States. Like AEstivalis, this species is not confined to streams and river banks but frequently grows on higher land also. It is found in north Missouri, Illinois, southwestern Wisconsin, Indiana, southern Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, New York, southwestern Ontario, New Jersey and Maryland and by some botanists is reported as far south as western North Carolina and west Tennessee.

The horticultural characters of Bicolor are much the same as those of AEstivalis. About the only points of difference are that it is much hardier (some of the Wisconsin vines stand a temperature as low as 20 degrees below zero); it is said to be slightly less resistant to mildew and more resistant to phylloxera. Like AEstivalis, Bicolor does not thrive on limy soils and it is difficult to propagate from cuttings. The horticultural possibilities of Bicolor are probably much the same as those of AEstivalis, although many think it to be more promising for the North. It is as yet cultivated but little. Its chief defect for domestication is the small size of the fruit.

9. Vitis candicans, Englem. Mustang Grape.

Vine very vigorous, climbing; shoots and petioles densely wooly, whitish or rusty; diaphragm thick; tendrils intermittent. Leaves with large stipules; blade small, broadly cordate to reniform-ovate, entire or in young shoots and on young vines and sprouts usually deeply three- to five-, or even seven-lobed; teeth shallow, sinuate; petiolar sinus shallow, wide, sometimes lacking; dull, slightly rugose above, dense whitish pubescence below. Clusters small. Berries medium to large, black, purple, green, or even whitish, thin blue bloom or bloomless. Seeds usually three or four, large, short, plump, blunt, notched; chalaza oval, depressed, indistinct; raphe a broad groove.

The habitat of this grape extends from southern Oklahoma, as a northern limit, southwesterly into Mexico. The western boundary is the Pecos River. It is found on dry, alluvial, sandy or limestone bottoms or on limestone bluff lands and is said to be especially abundant along upland ravines. Candicans grows well on limestone lands, enduring as much as 60 per cent of carbonate of lime in the soil. The species blooms shortly before Labrusca and a week later than Vulpina. It requires the long hot summers of its native country and will stand extreme drouth but is not hardy to cold, 10 or 15 degrees below zero killing the vine outright unless protected; and a lesser degree of cold injuring it severely. The berries, which are large for wild vines, have thin skins under which there is a pigment which gives them, when first ripe, a fiery, pungent taste but which partly disappears with maturity. The berries are very persistent, clinging to the pedicel long after ripe. Candicans is difficult to propagate from cuttings. Its roots resist phylloxera fairly well. It makes a good stock for Vinifera vines in its native country, but owing to the difficulty of propagation is seldom used for that purpose. In the early days of Texas, it was much used for the making of wine but as it is deficient in sugar, and as the must retains the acrid, pungent flavor, it does not seem to be well adapted for this purpose. It is not regarded as having great promise for southern horticulture and certainly has none for the North.

10. Vitis Labrusca, Linn. Fox-Grape.

Vine vigorous, stocky, climbing; shoots cylindrical, densely pubescent; diaphragms medium to thick; tendrils continuous, strong, bifid or trifid. Leaves with long, cordate stipules; leaf-blade large, thick, broadly cordate or round; entire or three-lobed, frequently notched; sinuses rounded; petiolar sinus variable in depth and width, V-shaped; margin with shallow, acute-pointed, scalloped teeth; upper surface rugose, dark green, on young leaves pubescent, becoming glabrous when mature; lower surface covered with dense pubescence, more or less whitish on young leaves, becoming dun-colored when mature. Clusters more or less compound, usually shouldered, compact; pedicels thick; peduncle short. Berries round; skin thick, covered with bloom, with strong musky or foxy aroma. Seeds two to four, large, distinctly notched, beak short; chalaza oval in shape, indistinct, showing as a depression; raphe, a groove.

Labrusca is indigenous to the eastern part of North America, including the region between the Atlantic Ocean and the Alleghany Mountains. It is sometimes found in the valleys and along the western slopes of the Alleghanies. Many botanists say it never occurs in the Mississippi Valley. In the first-named area it ranges from Maine to Georgia. It has the most restricted habitat of any American species of horticultural importance, being much exceeded in extent of territory by V. rotundifolia, V. aestivalis and V. vulpina.

Labrusca has furnished more cultivated varieties, either pure-breeds or hybrids, than all other American species together. The reason for this is partly, no doubt, that it is native to the portion of the United States first settled and is the most common grape in the region where agriculture first advanced to the condition at which fruits were desired. This does not wholly account for its prominence, however, which must be sought elsewhere. In its wild state, Labrusca is probably the most attractive to the eye of any of our American grapes on account of the size of its fruit, and this undoubtedly turned the attention of those who were early interested in the possibilities of American grape-growing to this species rather than to any other.

The southern Labrusca is quite different from the northern form and demands different conditions for its successful growth; in the North, at least two types of the species may be distinguished. Vines are found in the woods of New England which resemble Concord very closely in both vine and fruit, excepting that the grapes are much smaller in size and more seedy. There is also the large-fruited, foxy Labrusca, usually with reddish berries, represented by such cultivated varieties as Northern Muscadine, Dracut Amber, Lutie and others. Labrusca is peculiar amongst American grapes in showing black-, white- and red-fruited forms of wild vines growing in the woods. Because of this variability, it is impossible to give the exact climatic and soil conditions best adapted to the species. It is reasonable to suppose, however, that the ideal conditions for this species under cultivation are not widely different from those prevailing where the species is indigenous. In the case of Labrusca, this means that it is best adapted to humid climates, and that the temperature desired varies according to whether the variety comes from the southern or northern form of the species.

The root system of Labrusca does not penetrate the soil deeply, but the vine is said to succeed better in deep and clayey soils than AEstivalis. It endures an excess of water in the soil, and, on the other hand, requires less water for successful growing than AEstivalis or Vulpina. In spite of its ability to withstand clayey soils, it seems to prefer loose, warm, well-drained sandy lands to all others. The French growers report that all varieties of this species show a marked antipathy to a limestone soil, the vines soon becoming affected with chlorosis when planted in soils of this nature. In corroboration of this, it may be said that Labrusca is not often found wild in limestone soils. The Labruscas succeed very well in the North and fairly well in the Middle West as far south as Arkansas, where they are raised on account of their fruit qualities, for here the vines are not nearly so vigorous and healthy as are those of other species. In Alabama, they are reported to be generally unsatisfactory, and in Texas the vines are short-lived, unhealthy, and generally unsatisfactory, particularly in the dry regions. There are some exceptions to this, as for instance, in the Piedmont region of the Carolinas, where, owing to elevation or other causes, the climate of a southern region is semi-northern in its character.

The grapes of Labrusca are large and usually handsomely colored. The skin is thick, covering a layer of adhering flesh, which gives the impression of its being thicker than it actually is; the berry is variable in tenderness, sometimes tough, but in many cultivated varieties is so tender that it cracks in transportation. The skin of this species usually has a peculiar aroma, generally spoken of as foxy, and a slightly acid, astringent taste. Beneath the skin there is a layer of juicy pulp, quite sweet and never showing much acidity in ripe fruit. The center of the berry is occupied by rather dense pulp, more or less stringy, with considerable acid close to the seeds. Many object to the foxy aroma of this species, but, nevertheless, the most popular American varieties are more or less foxy. Analyses show that the fruit is usually characterized by a low percentage of sugar and acid, the very sweet-tasting fox-grapes not showing as high a sugar-content as some of the disagreeably tart AEstivalis and Vulpina sorts. This, in addition to the foxiness which furnishes an excess of aroma in the wine, has prevented Labrusca varieties from becoming favorites with the wine-makers, but most of the grape-juice now manufactured is made from them.

In addition to the characters enumerated, it may be said that Labrusca submits well to vineyard culture, is fairly vigorous and generally quite productive. It grows readily from cuttings and in hardiness is intermediate between Vulpina, the hardiest of our American species, and AEstivalis. The roots are soft and fleshy (for an American grape) and in some localities subject to attacks of phylloxera. None of the varieties of Labrusca has ever been popular in France on this account. In the wild vines, the fruit is inclined to drop when ripe. This defect is known as "shattering" or "shelling" among grape-growers and is a serious weakness in some varieties. Labrusca is said to be more sensitive in its wild state to mildew and black-rot than any other American species, but the evidence on this point does not seem to be wholly conclusive. In the South, and in some parts of the Middle West, the leaves of all varieties of Labrusca sunburn and shrivel in the latter part of the summer. The vines do not endure drouth as well as AEstivalis or Vulpina and not nearly so well as Rupestris.

11. Vitis vinifera, Linn.

Vine variable in vigor, not so high climbing as most American species; tendrils intermittent. Leaves round-cordate, thin, smooth, and when young, shining, frequently more or less deeply three-, five-, or even seven-lobed; usually glabrous but in some varieties the leaves and young shoots are hairy and even downy when young; lobes rounded or pointed; teeth variable; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, usually overlapping. Berries very variable in size and color, usually oval though globular. Seeds variable in size and shape, usually notched at upper end and characterized always by a bottle-necked, elongated beak; chalaza broad, usually rough, distinct; raphe indistinct. Roots large, soft and spongy.

The original habitat of the species is not positively known. De Candolle, as noted in the first part of this work, considered the region about the Caspian Sea as the probable habitat of the Old World grape. There is but little doubt that the original home of V. vinifera is some place in western Asia.

Neither American nor European writers agree as to the climate desired by Vinifera, for the reason, probably that all of the varieties in this variable species do not require the same climatic conditions. There are certain phases of climate, however, that are well agreed on: the species requires a warm, dry climate and is more sensitive to change of temperature than American species. Varieties of this species can be grown successfully in a wide variety of soils, being much less particular as to soils than American sorts.

Certain characters of the fruit of this species are not found in any American forms: First, the skin, which is attached very closely to the flesh and which is never astringent or acid, can be eaten with the fruit; second, the flesh is firm, yet tender, and uniform throughout, differing in this respect from all American grapes which have a sweet, watery and tender pulp close to the skin with a tough and more or less acid core at the center; third, the flavor has a peculiarly sprightly quality known as vinous; fourth, the berry adheres firmly to the pedicel, the fruit seldom "shattering" or "shelling" from the cluster.

In the various hybrids that have been made between American and Vinifera varieties, it is usually found that the desirable qualities of Vinifera are inherited in about the same proportion as the undesirable ones. The fruit is improved in the hybrid but the vine is weakened; quality is usually purchased at the expense of hardiness and disease-resisting power. Vinifera may be grown very readily from cuttings.



CHAPTER XVIII

VARIETIES OF GRAPES

Nature has expended her bounties in fullest measure for the vineyard. More than 2000 varieties of grapes are described in American viticultural literature, and twice as many more find mention in European treatises on the vine. Few other fruits offer the novelties given the grape in flavors, aromas, sizes, colors and uses. The vineyard, then, to fulfill commercial potentialities, should supply grapes throughout the whole season, and of the several colors and flavors and for all uses. A prime requisite for a vineyard being well-selected varieties, an assortment of all kinds and for all places in America is here described.

ACTONI

(Vinifera)

Actoni is a table-grape of the Malaga type which ripens at Geneva, New York, late in October, too late for the average season in the East but worth trying in favorable locations. It is grown in California but is not a favorite sort. The following brief description is made from fruit grown at Geneva:

Clusters large, shouldered, tapering, loose; berries medium to very large, long-oval to oval, clear green yellow; flesh crisp, firm; flavor sweet; quality good.

AGAWAM

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Randall, Rogers No. 15

The qualities commending Agawam are large size and attractive appearance of bunch and berry; rich, sweet aromatic flavor; vigor of vine; and capacity for self-fertilization. For a grape having its proportion of European parentage, the vine is vigorous, hardy and productive. The chief defects in fruit are a thick and rough skin, coarse, solid texture of pulp and foxy flavor. The vine is susceptible to the mildews and in many localities does not yield well. Although Agawam ripens soon after Concord, it can be kept much longer and even improves in flavor after picking. The vines prefer heavy soils, doing better on clay than on sand or gravel. This is one of the grapes grown by E. S. Rogers, Salem, Massachusetts. It was introduced as No. 15 but in 1861 was given the name it now bears.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid to trifid. Leaves thick; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent, flocculent; lobes lacking; terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; lateral sinus very shallow; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers on plan of six, nearly self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps until midwinter. Clusters medium to large, short, broad, tapering, loose; pedicel short; brush very short, pale green. Berries large, oval, dark purplish-red with thin bloom, very persistent; skin thick, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, tough, stringy, solid, foxy; good. Seeds adherent, two to five, large, long, brown.

ALMERIA

(Vinifera)

This is one of the varieties commonly found in eastern markets from Almeria and Malaga, Spain, although occasionally it may come from California where the variety, or similar varieties confused with it, is now grown. This sort is remarkable for its wonderful keeping qualities; it is adapted only to hot interior regions. The Almeria cultivated by the California Experiment Station is described as follows:

"Vine vigorous; leaves of medium size, round and slightly or not at all lobed, quite glabrous on both sides, teeth obtuse and alternately large and small; bunches large, loose or compact, irregular conical; berries from small to large, cylindrical, flattened on the ends, very hard and tasteless."

AMERICA

(Lincecumii, Rupestris)

The notable qualities of America are vigor of growth and health of foliage in vine, and persistence of berries, which have strongly colored red juice, high sugar-content and excellent flavor. The grapes wholly lack the foxy taste and aroma of Labrusca and the variety, therefore, offers possibilities for breeding sorts lacking the foxy flavor of Concord and Niagara. America has great resistance to heat and cold. Also, it is said to be a suitable stock upon which to graft Vinifera varieties to resist phylloxera. The vigor of the vine and the luxuriance of the foliage make it an excellent sort for arbors. America was grown by T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, from seed of Jaeger No. 43 pollinated by a male Rupestris. It was introduced about 1892.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, dark reddish-brown with heavy bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid. Leaves small, thin; upper surface glossy, smooth; lower surface light green, hairy; lobes lacking or faint, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep and wide; teeth of average depth and width. Flowers self-sterile, usually on plan of six, open late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season or later, keeps well. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, irregular, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender with small warts; brush short, thick with red tinge. Berries small, variable in size, round, purplish-black, glossy with purplish-red pigment, astringent; flesh dull white with faint red tinge, translucent, tender, melting, spicy, vinous, sweet; good. Seeds free, two to five, long, pointed, yellowish-brown.

AMINIA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Aminia is one of the best early grapes, its season being with or a little after Moore Early. The grapes are of high quality and attractive appearance, but the bunches are small, variable in size, not well formed and the berries ripen unevenly. The vine is vigorous but is neither as hardy nor as productive as a commercial variety should be. In 1867 Isadora Bush, a Missourian, planted vines of Rogers No. 39 from several different sources. When these came into bearing, he distinguished three varieties. Bush selected the best of the three and, with the consent of Rogers, named it Aminia. In spite of Bush's care, there are two distinct grapes cultivated under this name.

Vine vigorous, precariously hardy, lacking in productiveness. Canes rough, long, thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, long, trifid or bifid, persistent. Leaves large; upper surface dull, smooth; lower surface light green, pubescent; lobes three; terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, often closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers open in mid-season, self-sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters small, broad, irregular, conical, sometimes with a long shoulder, loose; pedicel long with few warts; brush short, thick, brownish-red. Berries variable, round, dull black with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tender, adherent with purplish-red pigment, astringent; flesh greenish, translucent, tender, solid, coarse, foxy; good. Seeds adherent, one to six, very large.

AUGUST GIANT

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

August Giant is a hybrid between Labrusca and Vinifera in which the fruit characters are those of the latter species. In appearance and taste of berry, the variety resembles Black Hamburg. The vine is usually vigorous and, considering its parentage, is very hardy. The foliage is thick and luxuriant but subject to mildew. Vigor of vine, beauty of foliage and the quality of the fruit make the variety desirable for the amateur. It needs a long-maturing season. August Giant was grown by N. B. White, Norwood, Massachusetts, in 1861, from seed of an early, large-berried, red Labrusca pollinated by Black Hamburg.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, subject to mildew. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green or bronzed, pubescent; lobes three, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, frequently closed and overlapping; lateral sinus shallow or a notch; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers open in mid-season, self-sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters of average size, short, broad, irregularly tapering, single-shouldered, loose; pedicel long, thick with large warts; brush short, thick, green or with brown tinge. Berries large, oval, purplish-red or black, dull with thick bloom, firm; skin tough, adherent, astringent; flesh green, translucent, tough, stringy; good. Seeds adherent, one to four, large, blunt, light brown.

BACCHUS

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Bacchus is an offspring of Clinton which it resembles in vine and leaf characters, but surpasses in quality of fruit and in productiveness of vine. The special points of merit of the variety are: resistance to cold, resistance to phylloxera, freedom from fungi and insects, productiveness, ease of multiplication and capacity to bear grafts. Its limitations are: poor quality for table use, inability to withstand dry soils or droughts, and nonadaptability to soils containing much lime. The variety originated with J. H. Ricketts, Newburgh, New York, and was first exhibited by him in 1879.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes numerous, dark brown with bloom at the nodes which are enlarged and flattened; tendrils bifid. Leaves small; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface dull green, smooth; lobes three, terminal one acuminate; petiolar sinus shallow, narrow, sometimes overlapping; basal sinus lacking; lateral sinus shallow, wide. Flowers open early, self-sterile; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well, hangs long. Clusters small, slender, uniform, cylindrical, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender with a few small warts; brush short, wine-colored. Berries small, round, black, glossy, covered with thin bloom, hang well to pedicels, firm; skin thin, adherent, contains much wine-colored pigment, slightly astringent; flesh dark green, translucent, fine-grained, tough, vinous, spicy; fair quality. Seeds clinging, one to four, many abortive, large, short and wide, plump, sharply pointed, brown.

BAKATOR

(Vinifera)

This is a Hungarian wine grape but its high quality and early season make it a desirable table-grape in the East. It seems to be grown but little on the Pacific slope. The following description is made from fruit grown at Geneva, New York:

Vine medium in vigor, productive. Young leaves tinged red at edges, upper surface glossy; mature leaves large, round, upper surface dull, lower surface downy; lobes five, terminal lobe acuminate; basal sinus deep, medium to narrow, closed to overlapping; lower lateral sinus deep, variable in width; upper lateral sinus deep, usually narrows; margins dentate, teeth shallow to medium deep. Flowers appear late; stamens reflexed.

Fruit ripens at Geneva the first or second week in October and keeps well in storage; clusters above medium in size, medium in length, broad, frequently double-shouldered, tapering, medium to loose; berries medium to small, oval, light red becoming dark when fully ripe, with thick bloom; skin thin, tender, adherent to the pulp; flesh greenish, juicy, tender, melting, vinous, sweet; quality very good.

BARRY

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Barry (Plate VII) is one of the best American black grapes, resembling in berry and in flavor and keeping quality of fruit its European parent, Black Hamburg. The appearance of berry and bunch is attractive. The vine is vigorous, hardy and productive but susceptible to mildew. The ripening season is just after that of Concord. For the table, for winter keeping and for the amateur, this variety may be highly recommended. Barry was dedicated in 1869, by E. S. Rogers, who originated it, to Patrick Barry, distinguished nurseryman and pomologist. The variety is grown in gardens throughout the grape regions of eastern America.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive, susceptible to mildew. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark brown with heavy bloom; nodes flattened; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, bifid or trifid. Leaves large; upper surface light green, glossy, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes one to three, terminus acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, sometimes closed and overlapping; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers open in mid-season, self-sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters short, very broad, tapering, often subdividing into several parts, compact; pedicel with small warts. Berries large, oval, dark purplish-black, glossy, covered with heavy bloom, adherent; skin thin, tough, adherent; flesh pale green, translucent, tender, stringy, vinous, pleasant-flavored; good. Seeds adherent, one to five, large, deeply notched, with enlarged neck, brown.

BEACON

(Lincecumii, Labrusca)

Another of T. V. Munson's hybrids is Beacon. It is not well adapted to northern regions but does very well in the South. The vine is vigorous and bears a handsome, compact mass of foliage which retains its color and freshness through drouths and heat. Munson grew Beacon in 1887 from seed of Big Berry (a variety of Lincecumii) pollinated by Concord, the vine bearing first in 1889.

Vine vigorous, precariously hardy, productive. Canes short, slender, light brown. Leaves healthy, thick, dark green, sometimes rugose; veins showing indistinctly through the slight pubescence of the lower surface. Flowers open in mid-season, on plan of five or six, self-fertile.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, long, slender, cylindrical, usually high-shouldered, compact. Berries variable in size, round, purplish-black, dull with heavy bloom, firm; skin tough, adherent with a large amount of purplish-red pigment, astringent; flesh tender, aromatic, spicy, vinous, mildly subacid; good. Seeds free, large, broad, blunt, notched.

BERCKMANS

(Vulpina, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)

In Berckmans we have the fruit of Delaware on the vine of Clinton. The berry and bunch resemble Delaware in shape; the fruit is of the same color; bunch and berry are larger; the grapes keep longer; the flesh is firmer but the quality is not so good, the flesh lacking tenderness and richness in comparison with Delaware. The vine of Berckmans is not only more vigorous, but is less subject to mildew than that of Delaware. The vine characters are not, however, as good as those of Clinton. The variety is poorly adapted to some soils, and on these the grapes do not color well. In spite of many good qualities, Berckmans is but an amateur's grape. The name commemorates the viticultural labors of P. J. Berckmans, a contemporary and friend of A. P. Wylie, of Chester, South Carolina, who originated the variety. Berckmans came from Delaware seed fertilized by Clinton, the seed having been sown in 1868.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, dark brown; nodes prominent, flattened; internodes short; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid. Leaves small, thin; upper surface light green, smooth; lower surface pale green, glabrous; lobes one to three, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus shallow. Flowers open early, self-fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens with Delaware. Clusters shouldered, compact, slender; pedicel long, slender with few warts; brush short, light green. Berries small, oval, Delaware-red, darker when well ripened, covered with thin bloom, persistent; skin thin, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale yellowish-green, translucent, fine-grained, tender, melting, vinous, sweet, sprightly; very good. Seeds free, one to four, small, broad, blunt, brown.

BLACK EAGLE

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The fruit of Black Eagle is of the best, but the vine lacks in vigor, hardiness and productiveness and is self-sterile. Bunch and berry are large and attractive. The season is about with Concord. Black Eagle has wholly failed as a commercial variety, and its several weaknesses prevent amateurs from growing it widely. The variety originated with Stephen W. Underhill, Croton-on-Hudson, New York, from seed of Concord pollinated by Black Prince. It fruited first in 1866.

Vine vigorous, precariously hardy, unproductive. Canes rough, thick, reddish-brown with light bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened internodes long; tendrils continuous, long, bifid or trifid. Leaves thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth to rugose; lobes five; terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep; lateral sinus wide, narrowing towards top, deep. Flowers open in mid-season, self-sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters large, long, tapering, single-or double-shouldered, compact; pedicel long, slender with few warts; brush short, pale green. Berries variable in size, oval, black, glossy with thick bloom; skin tender, thin, adherent with wine-colored pigment; flesh pale green, translucent, tender, vinous; good. Seeds free, one to four, large.

BLACK HAMBURG

(Vinifera)

Black Hamburg (Plate VI) is an old European sort, long the mainstay in forcing-houses in Belgium, England and America and now popular out of doors in California. It is an excellent table-grape but, while it keeps well, its tender skin does not permit its being shipped far, especially when grown out of doors. The vine is subject to disease. The following description of the fruit is made from grapes grown in the greenhouse:

Bunches very large, often a foot in length and weighing several pounds; very broad at the shoulder and gradually tapering to a point; compact, oftentimes too compact; berries very large, round or slightly round-oval; skin rather thick; dark purple becoming black at full maturity; flesh firm, juicy, sweet and rich; quality very good or best. Season early in the forcing-house but rather late out of doors.

BLACK MALVOISE

(Vinifera)

This variety is rather widely grown in California as an early table-grape and might be worth trying in eastern grape regions. While the fruit is not of the best quality, it is good. The following description is compiled:

Vine vigorous, healthy and productive; wood long-jointed, rather slender, light brown. Leaves of medium size, oval, evenly and deeply five-lobed; basal sinus open, with nearly parallel sides; upper surface smooth, almost glabrous; lower surface slightly tomentose on the veins and veinlets. Bunches large, loose, branching; berries large, oblong, reddish black with faint bloom; flesh firm, juicy, crisp; flavor lacking in richness and character; quality not high. Season early, keeping and shipping but poorly.

BLACK MOROCCO

(Vinifera)

Black Morocco very generally meets the approval of grape-growers on the Pacific slope without being a prime favorite for either home use or commerce. The grapes are not high enough in quality for a home vineyard, and, while they ship well, are hard to handle because of the large size and rigidity of the bunches. Another fault is that the vines are subject to root-knot. The chief asset of the variety is handsome appearance of fruit. This variety is remarkable for the number of second-crop bunches which it produces on the laterals. The following description is compiled:

Vine very vigorous, productive; canes spreading, few. Leaves medium to small, very deeply five-lobed; the younger leaves truncate at base, giving them a semi-circular outline, with long, sharp teeth alternating with very small ones; glabrous, or nearly so, on both sides. Bunches very large, short, shouldered, compact and rigid; berries very large, round, often misshapen from compression; dull purple, lacking color in the center of the bunch; flesh firm, crisp, neutral in flavor, lacking in richness; quality rather low. Season late, keeping and shipping well.

BRIGHTON

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Brighton (Plate VIII) is one of the few Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids which have attained prominence in commercial vineyards. It ranks as one of the leading amateur grapes in eastern America and is among the ten or twelve chief commercial sorts of this region. Its good points are: for the fruit, high quality; for the vine, vigorous growth, productiveness, adaptability to various soils and ability to withstand fungi. Brighton has two serious defects which keep it from taking higher rank as a commercial variety: it deteriorates in quality very quickly after maturity, so that it cannot be kept for more than a few days at its best, hence cannot well be shipped to distant markets; and it is self-sterile to a more marked degree than any other commonly-grown grape. Brighton is a seedling of Diana Hamburg pollinated by Concord, raised by Jacob Moore, Brighton, New York. The original vine fruited first in 1870.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive, subject to mildew. Canes long, numerous, light brown; nodes enlarged, usually flattened; internodes long; tendrils continuous, long, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three when present, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus intermediate in depth and width; lateral sinus shallow; teeth narrow. Flowers open late, self-sterile; stamens reflexed.

Fruit mid-season. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, heavily shouldered, loose; pedicel thick; brush pale green with brown tinge, thick, short. Berries irregular, large, oval, light red, glossy with heavy bloom, persistent, soft; skin thick, tender, adherent, astringent; flesh green, transparent, tender, stringy, melting, aromatic, vinous, sweet; very good. Seeds free, one to five, broad, light brown.



BRILLIANT

(Labrusca, Vinifera, Bourquiniana)

Brilliant is a cross between Lindley and Delaware. In cluster and size of berry it resembles Lindley; in color and quality of fruit it is about the same as Delaware, differing chiefly in having more astringency in the skin. Its season is about with Delaware. The grapes do not crack or shell, therefore ship well, and have very good keeping qualities, especially on the vine where they often hang for weeks. The vine is vigorous and hardy. The defects which have kept Brilliant from becoming one of the standard commercial sorts are: marked susceptibility to fungi, variability in size of cluster, unevenness in ripening and unproductiveness. In favorable situations this variety pleases the amateur, and the commercial grower often finds it profitable. The seed which produced Brilliant was planted by T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, in 1883 and the variety was introduced in 1887.

Vine vigorous, hardy, rather unproductive. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface gray-green, downy; obscurely three-lobed with terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal and lateral sinuses obscure and shallow when present; teeth intermediate in depth and width. Flowers open late, self-fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit early mid-season, keeps well. Clusters medium, blunt, cylindrical, usually shouldered, compact; pedicel short, thick with a few small warts; brush short, thick, pale green with reddish tinge. Berries round, dark red, glossy with thin bloom, strongly adherent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent; flesh pale green, transparent, juicy, stringy, fine-grained, vinous, sweet; good. Seeds clinging, one to four, large, broad, elongated, plump, light brown.

BROWN

(Labrusca)

In spite of many encomiums in the past quarter century, Brown has not received favorable recognition from fruit-growers. The quality is not high, the berries shatter badly, and the vine is lacking in vigor. Brown is a seedling of Isabella which came up in a yard at Newburgh, New York, about 1884.

Vine hardy, productive. Canes short, slender, dark brown; tendrils continuous. Leaves healthy, light green, glossy; veins well defined, distinctly showing through the thick bronze of the lower surface. Flowers open early, self-fertile stamens upright.

Fruit large, keeps well. Clusters small to medium, slender, cylindrical or tapering, usually single-shouldered. Berries intermediate in size, oval, black with thick bloom, drop soon after ripening; skin adherent; flesh juicy, tough, fine-grained, a little foxy, mild next the skin but tart at center; good. Seeds short, blunt, light brown.

CAMPBELL EARLY

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

The meritorious qualities of Campbell Early (Plate IX) are: The grapes are high in quality when mature; free from foxiness and from acidity about the seeds; have small seeds which easily part from the flesh; are early, ripening nearly a fortnight before Concord; bunch and berry are large and handsome; and the vines are exceptionally hardy. Campbell Early falls short in not being adapted to many soils; the variety lacks productiveness; the grapes attain full color before they are ripe and are, therefore, often marketed in an unripe condition; the bunch is variable in size; and the color of the berry is not attractive. George W. Campbell, Delaware, Ohio, grew this variety from a seedling of Moore Early pollinated by a Labrusca-Vinifera hybrid. It bore first in 1892.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes thick, dark reddish-brown, surface roughened with small warts; nodes flattened; internodes short; shoots pubescent; tendrils intermittent, short, bifid or trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface green, glossy; lower surface bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes three, usually entire, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus shallow, wide; basal sinus pubescent; lateral sinus wide or a notch; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps and ships well. Clusters usually large, long, broad, tapering, single-shouldered; pedicel short, slender with small warts; brush long, light wine color. Berries usually large, round, oval, dark purplish-black, dull with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, thin, adherent with dark red pigment, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, coarse, vinous, sweet from skin to center; good. Seeds free, one to four, light brown, often with yellow tips.

CANADA

(Vulpina, Labrusca, Vinifera)

Canada is considered the most desirable hybrid between Vulpina and Vinifera. The variety shows Vinifera more than Vulpina parentage; thus, in susceptibility to fungal diseases, in shape, color and texture of foliage, in the flavor of the fruit and in the seeds, there are marked indications of Vinifera; while the vine, especially in the slenderness of its shoots and in the bunch and berry, shows Vulpina. Canada has little value as a dessert fruit but makes a very good red wine or grape-juice. Canada is a seedling of Clinton, a Labrusca-Vulpina hybrid, fertilized by Black St. Peters, a variety of Vinifera. Charles Arnold, Paris, Ontario, planted the seed which produced Canada in 1860.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, ash-gray, reddish-brown at nodes with heavy bloom; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, short, trifid or bifid. Leaves thin; upper surface light green, smooth; lower surface pale green, hairy; terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus variable in depth and width; lateral sinus deep and narrow; teeth deep and wide. Flowers self-sterile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters long, slender, uniform, cylindrical, compact; pedicel long, slender, smooth; brush short, light brown. Berries small, round, purplish-black, glossy with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent; flesh dark green, very juicy, fine-grained, tender, spicy, pleasant vinous flavor, agreeably tart; good. Seeds free, one to three, blunt, light brown.

CANANDAIGUA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Canandaigua is worth attention because of the exceptionally good keeping qualities of the grapes. The flavor is very good at picking time but seems, if anything, to improve in storage. The vine characters are those of Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids, and in these the variety is the equal of the average cultivated hybrid of these two species. The characters of the fruit, also, show plainly an admixture of Vinifera and Labrusca so combined as to make the grapes very similar to the best of such hybrids. Canandaigua is a chance seedling found by E. L. Van Wormer, Canandaigua, New York, growing among wild grapes. It was distributed about 1897.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, productive. Canes long, few, reddish-brown, faint bloom; nodes enlarged, flattened; tendrils semi-continuous, bifid, dehisce early. Leaves large, thin; upper surface light green; lower surface gray-green. Flowers sterile or sometimes partly self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit late mid-season, keeps unusually well. Clusters variable in size, usually heavily single-shouldered, loose to medium. Berries large, oval, black, covered with thick bloom, persistent; skin adherent, thin, tough; flesh firm, sweet and rich; good, improves as season advances. Seeds long with enlarged neck.

CARMAN

(Lincecumii, Vinifera, Labrusca)

Carman is a grape having the characters of three species and hence is of interest to grape improvers. It has not become popular with growers, chiefly because the grapes ripen very late and are not of high quality. The most valuable character of the variety is that of long keeping, whether hanging on the vine or after harvesting. T. V. Munson, Denison, Texas, raised Carman from seed of a wild post-oak grape taken from the woods, pollinated with mixed pollen of Triumph and Herbemont. It was introduced in 1892.

Vine very vigorous, hardy, rather productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; tendrils intermittent, long, trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface light green, glossy, older leaves rugose; lower surface pale green, pubescent; terminal lobe acute; petiolar sinus deep; basal sinus absent or shallow; lateral sinus shallow when present. Flowers self-fertile or nearly so, open very late; stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters variable in size, tapering, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush short, slender, wine-colored. Berries small, round, slightly oblate, purplish-black, glossy, covered with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, free; flesh yellowish-green, tender, post-oak flavor, vinous, spicy; good to very good. Seeds free, one to four, small, blunt, brown.

CATAWBA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Arkansas, Catawba Tokay, Cherokee, Fancher, Keller's White, Lebanon, Lincoln, Mammoth Catawba, Mead's Seedling, Merceron, Michigan, Muncy, Omega, Rose of Tennessee, Saratoga, Singleton, Tekomah, Tokay, Virginia Amber.

Catawba has long been the standard red grape in the markets of eastern America, chiefly because the fruit keeps well and is of high quality. The vine is vigorous, hardy and productive, but the foliage and fruit are susceptible to fungi. These two faults account for the decline of Catawba in grape regions in the United States and for its growing unpopularity. In botanical characters and in adaptations and susceptibilities, the variety suggests Vinifera crossed with Labrusca. The characters of Catawba seem readily transmissible to its offspring and, besides having a number of pure-bred descendants which more or less resemble it, it is a parent of a still greater number of cross-breeds. As with Catawba, most of its progeny show Vinifera characters, as intermittent tendrils, Vinifera color of foliage, a vinous flavor wholly or nearly free from foxiness, and the susceptibilities of Labrusca-Vinifera hybrids to certain diseases and insects. Catawba was introduced by John Adlum, District of Columbia, about 1823. Adlum secured cuttings from a Mrs. Scholl, Clarksburgh, Montgomery County, Maryland, in the spring of 1819. Its further history is not known.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes numerous, thick, dark brown; nodes enlarged; tendrils continuous, bifid or trifid. Leaves large; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface grayish-white, heavily pubescent; lobes sometimes three, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow; basal sinus often lacking; lateral sinus narrow; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-fertile, open late, stamens upright.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters large, long, broad, tapering, single-or sometimes double-shouldered, loose; pedicel with a few inconspicuous warts; brush short, pale green. Berries of medium size, oval, dull purplish-red with thick bloom, firm; skin thick, adherent, astringent; flesh green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, vinous, sprightly, sweet and rich; very good. Seeds free, frequently abortive, two, broad-necked, distinctly notched, blunt, brown.

CHAMPION

(Labrusca)

Beaconsfield, Early Champion, Talman's Seedling

Champion is a favorite early grape with some growers, although the poor quality of the fruit should have driven it from cultivation long ago. The characters which have kept it in the market are earliness, good shipping qualities, attractive appearance of fruit, and a vigorous, productive, hardy vine. The hardiness of the vine and the short season of fruit development make it a good variety for northern climates. This grape is best in appearance of fruit, in quality and in the quantity produced, on light sandy soils. The origin of Champion is unknown. It was first grown about 1870 in New York.

Vine very vigorous, hardy and productive. Canes of average size, dark brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes short; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid. Leaves large; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface dull gray, downy; lobes usually three, often obscurely five, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, early; stamens upright.

Fruit early, three weeks before Concord, season short. Clusters medium in size, blunt, cylindrical, usually not shouldered, compact; pedicel short with inconspicuous warts; brush white tinged with bronze. Berries medium in size, round, dull black covered with heavy bloom, soft; skin thick, tender, adherent, astringent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, foxy; poor in quality. Seeds adherent, one to five, broad, long, blunt, light brown.

CHASSELAS GOLDEN

(Vinifera)

Chasselas Dore, Fontainebleau, Sweetwater

Several qualities have made Chasselas Golden a favorite grape wherever it can be grown. The variety is adapted to widely differing environments; the season of ripening is early; while not choicely high, the quality of the grapes is good and they are beautiful, clear green tinged with beautiful golden bronze where exposed to the sun. Chasselas Golden is a popular variety on the Pacific slope and should be one of the first Viniferas to be tried in the East. The following description was made from fruit grown at Geneva, New York:

Vine medium in vigor, very productive; buds open in mid-season. Young leaves tinged with red on both upper and lower surfaces, thinly pubescent to glabrous; mature leaves medium to above in size, slightly cordate; upper surface glabrous, lower surface slightly pubescent along the veins; lobes five in number, terminal lobe acuminate; basal sinus broad and rather deep; lower lateral sinus variable, usually broad and sometimes deep; upper lateral sinus broad and frequently deep; teeth large, obtuse to rounded. Flowers late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens early and keeps well in storage; clusters large, long, broad, tapering, sometimes with a single shoulder, compactness medium; berries medium to above, slightly oval, pale green to clear yellow, with thin bloom; skin thin, tough, adherent, slightly astringent; flesh greenish, translucent, firm, juicy, tender, sweet; good.

CHASSELAS ROSE

(Vinifera)

Chasselas Rose is very similar to Chasselas Golden, differing chiefly in smaller bunch and berry and slightly different flavor which is possibly better. It is a standard sort in California and should be planted in the East where the culture of Viniferas is attempted. The description is made from fruit grown at Geneva, New York:

Vine of medium vigor, productive. Opening leaves tinged with red on both surfaces, mature leaves small, round; upper surface medium green, somewhat dull, smooth; lower surface glabrous; lobes three; basal sinus medium in depth and of variable width; lateral sinus deep, narrow; teeth shallow, wide, dentate. Flowers appear late; stamens upright.

Fruit ripens the second week in October and is a good keeper though it loses its flavor in storage; clusters above and below medium, long, tapering to cylindrical, compact; berries medium in size, roundish-oval, light red changed to violet-red by the bloom; skin thin, astringent, juicy, tender, sweet, mild; quality good.

CHAUTAUQUA

(Labrusca)

In appearance of fruit, Chautauqua is very similar to Concord, its parent, but the grapes ripen a few days earlier and are of better quality, although they do not differ in these respects sufficiently to make the variety much more than an easily recognized strain of Concord. Chautauqua is a volunteer seedling of Concord, found near Brocton, New York, by H. T. Bashtite about 1890.

Vine vigorous, doubtfully hardy, unproductive. Canes long, thick, cylindrical; internodes long; tendrils continuous, trifid. Leaves large, irregularly round, dark green; upper surface dark green; lower surface tinged with bronze; leaf entire or faintly three-lobed. Flowers semi-fertile, open in mid-season or earlier; stamens upright.

Fruit early in mid-season. Clusters medium to large, broad, sometimes single-shouldered, compact. Berries large, round or slightly oval, purplish-black with abundant bloom, shatter badly; skin thin, very astringent; flesh tough, vinous, sweet at skin, acid at center; good to very good. Seeds few, free, broad, plump.

CLEVENER

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

This variety has long been grown in New Jersey and New York, and in both states is highly esteemed as a wine-grape. The fruit is remarkable in coloring very early and in ripening late. The vine is hardy, very vigorous, succeeds in various soils, and since it bears grafts well is an excellent sort upon which to graft varieties not thriving on their own roots. Clevener is self-sterile and must be planted with some other variety to set fruit well. In spite of its good qualities, Clevener is hardly holding its own in commercial vineyards, and it is not a desirable fruit for the amateur who wants a table-grape. Clevener has been raised in the vicinity of Egg Harbor, New Jersey, since about 1870, but its place and time of origin are unknown.

Vine a rampant grower, hardy, productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark reddish-brown with heavy bloom; nodes enlarged; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves unusually large, dark green with well-defined ribs showing through the thin pubescence of the under surface; lobes wanting or faint; teeth deep, wide. Flowers self-sterile, open very early; stamens reflexed.

Fruit late, keeps well. Clusters do not always fill well, small, short, slender, irregularly tapering, often with a single shoulder. Berries small, round or slightly flattened, black, glossy, covered with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin tough, thin, inclined to crack, adherent with much purplish-red pigment; flesh reddish-green, juicy, tender, soft, fine-grained, aromatic, spicy; good. Seeds free, notched, sharp-pointed, dark brown.

CLINTON

(Vulpina, Labrusca)

Worthington

Clinton (Plate X) came into prominence because of vigor, hardiness, fruitfulness and immunity to phylloxera. A serious defect is that the vines bloom so early that the blossoms are often caught by late frosts in northern climates. Other defects are: the fruit is small and sour, and the seeds and skins prominent. The fruit colors early in the season but does not ripen until late, a slight touch of frost improving the flavor. Clinton bears grafts well, making a quick and firm union with Labrusca and Vinifera, and the vines are easily propagated from cuttings. This variety has been used widely in grape-breeding, and its blood can be traced in many valuable varieties. The offspring of Clinton are usually very hardy, and this, taken with its other desirable characters, makes it an exceptionally good starting-point for breeding grapes for northern latitudes. Clinton is an old sort, the Worthington, known as early as 1815, renamed; it began to attract attention about 1840.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes long, numerous, slender, reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; shoots smooth; tendrils intermittent, sometimes continuous, bifid. Leaves hang until late in the season, small, thin; upper surface dark green, smooth; lower surface pale green, glabrous; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, urn-shaped; basal and lateral sinuses shallow; teeth wide. Flowers self-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season. Clusters small, slender, cylindrical, uniform, single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, very slender, smooth; brush tinged with red. Berries small, round, oval, purplish-black, glossy, covered with thick bloom, adherent, firm; skin very thin, tough, free from pulp with much wine-colored pigment, astringent; flesh dark green, juicy, fine-grained, tough, solid, spicy, sour, vinous. Seeds adherent, two, short, blunt, brownish.



COLERAIN

(Labrusca)

This is one of the numerous white seedlings of Concord and one of the few with sufficient merit to be kept in cultivation. The vine has the characteristic foliage and habit of growth of its parent, but the fruit is earlier by a week, is of much higher quality and lacks the foxiness of most Labruscas. The grapes are sprightly and vinous, and neither seeds nor skin are as objectionable as in the parent. The fruit hangs to the vine and keeps well, but owing to tender pulp does not ship well. The variety is unproductive in some localities. Colerain is worthy a place in home vineyards. David Bundy, Colerain, Ohio, grew this variety from seed of Concord planted in 1880.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, unproductive. Canes slender, dark reddish-brown; nodes flattened; internodes short, bifid. Leaves thick; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface bronze, downy; leaf not lobed, terminus acute; petiolar sinus wide; basal and lateral sinus very shallow when present; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, opening in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit early. Clusters medium in size and length, slender, blunt, tapering, irregular, strongly shouldered, compact; pedicel slender, smooth; brush green. Berries round, light green, glossy with thin bloom, persistent; skin unusually thin, tender, adherent, unpigmented, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tender, soft, vinous, sweet; good. Seeds free, one to three, small, broad, notched, short, plump, brown.

COLUMBIAN IMPERIAL

(Labrusca, Vulpina)

Columbian, Jumbo

Columbian Imperial is a Labrusca-Vulpina hybrid chiefly remarkable for the great size of its reddish-black berries, although the vine is so exceptionally healthy and vigorous as to give it prominence for these characters as well. The variety has remarkably thick leathery leaves which seem almost proof against either insects or fungi. The quality of the fruit, however, is inferior, and the small clusters vary in number of berries and these shell easily. The only value of the variety is for exhibition purposes and for breeding to secure the desirable characters named. The parentage of Columbian Imperial is unknown. It originated with J. S. McKinley, Orient, Ohio, in 1885.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, unproductive. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark reddish-brown, heavily pubescent, spiny; nodes prominent; internodes short; tendrils continuous, long, bifid. Leaves green, very thick; lower surface pale green shading into bronze on older leaves with little pubescence; lobes three, indistinct; teeth sharp, shallow, wide. Flowers self-fertile; stamens upright.

Fruit late. Clusters medium in size, sometimes shouldered; peduncle slender; pedicel long; brush long, slender, green. Berries very large, round, slightly oval, dull reddish-black with faint bloom, firm; skin thick, tough, unpigmented; flesh juicy, tough, sweet at the skin but acid at center; fair in quality. Seeds adherent, large, plump, broad, blunt.

CONCORD

(Labrusca)

Concord (Plate XI) is the most widely known of the grapes of this continent, and with its offspring, pure-bred and cross-bred, furnishes 75 per cent of the grapes of eastern America. The preeminently meritorious character of Concord is that it adapts itself to varying conditions; thus, Concord is grown with profit in every grape-growing state in the Union and to an extent not possible with any other variety. A second character which commends Concord is fruitfulness—the vine bears large crops year in and year out. Added to these points of superiority, are: hardiness; ability to withstand the ravages of diseases and insects; comparative earliness; certainty of maturity in northern regions; and fair size and handsome appearance of bunch and berry. Concord also blossoms late in the spring and does not suffer often from spring frosts, nor is the fruit often injured by late frosts. The crop hangs well on the vine.

The variety is not, however, without faults: the quality is not high, the grapes lacking richness, delicacy of flavor and aroma, and having a foxy taste disagreeable to many; the seeds and skin are objectionable, the seeds being large and abundant and difficult to separate from the flesh, and the skin being tough and unpleasantly astringent; the grapes do not keep nor ship well and rapidly lose flavor after ripening; the skin cracks and the berries shell from the stems after picking; and the vine is but slightly resistant to phylloxera. While Concord is grown in the South, it is essentially a northern grape, becoming susceptible to fungi in southern climates and suffering from phylloxera in dry, warm soils.

The botanical characters of Concord indicate that it is a pure-bred Labrusca. Seeds of a wild grape were planted in the fall of 1843 by E. W. Bull, Concord, Massachusetts, plants from which fruited in 1849. One of these seedlings was named Concord.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes long, thick, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; shoots pubescent; tendrils continuous, long, bifid, sometimes trifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth; lower surface light bronze, heavily pubescent; lobes three when present, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus variable; basal sinus usually lacking; lateral sinus obscure and frequently notched; teeth shallow, narrow. Flowers self-fertile, open in mid-season; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps from one to two months. Clusters uniform, large, wide, broadly tapering, usually single-shouldered, sometimes double-shouldered, compact; pedicel thick, smooth; brush pale green. Berries large, round, glossy, black with heavy bloom, firm; skin tough, adherent with a small amount of wine-colored pigment, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, fine-grained, tough, solid, foxy; good. Seeds adherent, one to four, large, broad, distinctly notched, plump, blunt, brownish.

COTTAGE

(Labrusca)

In vine and fruit, Cottage resembles its parent, Concord, having, however, remarkably large, thick, leathery leaves. It is noted also for its strong, branching root system and canes so rough as to be almost spiny. The fruit is better in quality than that of its parent, having less foxiness and a richer, more delicate flavor. The crop ripens from one to two weeks earlier than Concord. The good qualities of the variety are offset by comparative unproductiveness and unevenness in ripening. Cottage is recommended as an early grape of the Concord type for the garden. This variety was grown from seed of Concord by E. W. Bull, Concord, Massachusetts. It was introduced in 1869.

Vine vigorous, healthy, hardy. Canes rough, hairy, long, numerous, dark brown; nodes enlarged; shoots very pubescent; tendrils continuous, bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, glossy, smooth or rugose; lower surface tinged with bronze, pubescent; leaf entire with terminal acute; petiolar sinus deep and wide; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers self-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit does not keep well. Clusters of medium size, broad, cylindrical, sometimes single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, thick with a few small warts; brush dark red. Berries of medium size, round, dull black with heavy bloom, drop badly from pedicel, firm; skin thick, tender, adherent with dark purplish-red pigment, astringent; flesh juicy, tough, solid, foxy; good. Seeds free, one to four, large, broad, blunt, light brown.

CREVELING

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Bloom, Bloomburg, Catawissa, Columbia Bloom

Creveling was long a favorite black grape for the garden, where, if planted in good soil, it produces fine clusters of large, handsome, very good grapes. Under any but the best of care, however, the vine is unproductive and sets loose, straggling bunches. The variety is markedly self-sterile. The origin of Creveling is uncertain. It was introduced about 1857 by F. F. Merceron, Catawissa, Pennsylvania.

Vine vigorous, not hardy, often unproductive. Canes long, numerous, thick, reddish-brown; nodes enlarged, flattened; internodes long; shoots glabrous; tendrils continuous, long, trifid or bifid. Leaves large, thick; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three, or obscurely five, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, closed, overlapping; basal sinus very shallow; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers on plan of six, self-sterile, open in mid-season; stamens reflexed.

Fruit early, does not keep well. Clusters long, broad, irregularly tapering, single-shouldered, the shoulder often connected to the cluster by a long stem, loose; brush thick, dark wine-color. Berries large, oval, dull black, covered with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thick, tough, adherent with wine-colored pigment, astringent; flesh pale green, translucent, juicy, stringy, tender, coarse, foxy; good. Seeds free, one to five, broad, notched, blunt, light brown.

CROTON

(Vinifera, Labrusca, Bourquiniana)

The fruit of Croton is a feast both to the eye and to the palate. Unfortunately the vine is difficult to grow, being adapted to but few soils and proving unfruitful, weak in growth, precariously tender and subject to mildew and rot in unfavorable situations. The grapes have a delicate, sweet Vinifera flavor with melting flesh which readily separates from the few seeds. The crop hangs on the vines until frost and keeps well into the winter. In spite of high quality of fruit, Croton has never become widely distributed, wholly failing as a commercial variety. It originated with S. W. Underhill, Croton Point, New York, from a seed of Delaware pollinated by a European grape. Fruits were first exhibited in 1868.

Vine vigorous, tender, productive. Canes long, numerous, thick, dark reddish-brown; nodes enlarged; internodes short; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent, long, bifid. Leaves of medium size, hang late; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes five, terminal one blunt; basal sinus narrow; lateral sinus deep and narrow; petiolar sinus narrow, often closed and overlapping; teeth shallow, wide. Flowers self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit mid-season, keeps well. Clusters uniform, very large, long, slender, irregularly tapering with heavy shoulder, very loose; pedicel long, thick with inconspicuous warts; brush green. Berries irregular in size, round-elongated, yellowish-green with thin bloom, persistent, soft; skin thin, tough, adherent, unpigmented; flesh green, transparent, very juicy, melting, vinous, pleasant, agreeably sweet; very good. Seeds free, one to three, elongated, notched, sharply pointed.

CUNNINGHAM

(Bourquiniana)

Long, Prince Edward

Cunningham is cultivated very little in America, but in France, at one time, was one of the best-known grapes, both as a direct producer and as a stock for European varieties. It was much sought for by the French as a stock for large Vinifera cions, the size of the vine giving an opportunity for making a good graft. In the South, where the variety originated, Cunningham is not largely grown, as there are several other varieties of its type superior in fruit and vine. The vine is a capricious grower and is particular as to soil and climate. The grapes make a deep yellow wine of a very good quality but have little value as table-grapes. Cunningham originated with Jacob Cunningham, Prince Edward County, Virginia, about 1812.

Vine vigorous, spreading, productive. Canes large, long with stiff reddish hairs at base; shoots showing considerable bloom; tendrils intermittent, usually trifid. Leaves large, thick, round, entire or lobed; smooth and dark green above, yellowish green below, pubescent; petiolar sinus narrow, frequently overlapping.

Clusters of medium size, long, sometimes shouldered, very compact; pedicel long, slender with small warts; brush short, light brown. Berries small, purplish-black with thin bloom; skin thin, tough with much underlying pigment; flesh tender, juicy, sprightly; quality poor or but fair. Seeds two to five, oval.

CYNTHIANA

(AEstivalis, Labrusca)

Arkansas, Red River

There is controversy as to whether this variety differs from Norton. The two ripen at separate times, and the fruits differ a little so that they must be considered as distinct. Cynthiana is particular as to soil and location, preferring sandy loams and does not thrive on clays or limestones. While very resistant to phylloxera, this variety is not much used as a resistant stock because it is not easily propagated. The vines are resistant to mildew, black-rot, and anthracnose and are strong, vigorous growers. The cycle of vegetation for Cynthiana is long, the buds bursting forth early and the fruit maturing very late. The variety has no value as a table-grape but in the South is one of the best grapes for red wine. No doubt it will prove one of the best southern sorts for grape-juice. Cynthiana was received about 1850 by Prince, of Flushing, Long Island, from Arkansas, where it was found growing in the woods.

Vine vigorous, hardy, healthy, productive. Canes medium in length, numerous, reddish-brown with thick bloom; nodes enlarged; internodes short; shoots glabrous; tendrils intermittent or continuous, bifid. Leaves thick, firm; upper surface dark green, dull, rugose; lower surface tinged with blue, faintly pubescent, cobwebby; lobes variable in number, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus deep, narrow, closed, sometimes overlapping; basal sinus shallow; lateral sinus shallow, narrow; teeth shallow; stamens upright.

Fruit very late, keeps well. Clusters medium to small, long, tapering, often single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender, with numerous warts; brush short, thick, wine-colored. Berries small, round, black, covered with heavy bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent with purple pigment, astringent; flesh dark green, translucent, juicy, tough, firm, spicy, tart; poor in quality. Seeds adherent, one to six, small, short, blunt, dark brown.

DELAWARE

(Labrusca, Bourquiniana, Vinifera)

French Grape, Gray Delaware, Ladies' Choice, Powell, Ruff

Delaware (Plate VII) is used wherever American grapes are grown as the standard to gauge the quality of other grapes. Added to high quality in fruit, the variety withstands climatic conditions to which all but the most hardy varieties succumb, is adapted to many soils and conditions, and bears under most situations an abundant crop. These qualities make it, next to Concord, the most popular grape for garden and vineyard now grown in the United States. Besides the qualities named, the grapes mature sufficiently early to make the crop certain, are attractive in appearance, keep and ship well and are more immune than other commercial varieties to black-rot. Faults of the variety are: small vine, slow growth, susceptibility to mildew, capriciousness in certain soils and small berries. The first two faults make it necessary to plant the vines more closely than those of other commercial varieties. Delaware succeeds best in deep, rich, well-drained, warm soils, but even on these it must have good cultivation, close pruning and the crop must be thinned.

Delaware is grown North and South, westward to the Rocky Mountains. It is now proving profitable in many southern locations as an early grape to ship to northern markets. It is an especially desirable grape to cultivate in small gardens because of its delicious, handsome fruit, its compact habit of growth and its ample and lustrous green, delicately formed leaves which make it one of the most ornamental of the grapes. Delaware can be traced to the garden of Paul H. Provost, Frenchtown, New Jersey, where it was growing early in the nineteenth century, and from whence it was taken to Delaware, Ohio, in 1849 and from there distributed to fruit-growers.

Vine weak, hardy, productive. Canes short, numerous, slender, dark brown; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, short, bifid. Leaves small; upper surface dark green, dull, smooth; lower surface pale green, pubescent; lobes three to five in number, terminal one acute; petiolar sinus narrow; basal sinus narrow and shallow when present; lateral sinus deep, narrow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open late; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters small, slender, blunt, cylindrical, regular, shouldered, compact; pedicel short, slender, smooth; brush light brown. Berries uniform in size and shape, small, round, light red, covered with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent, unpigmented, astringent; flesh light green, translucent, juicy, tender, aromatic, vinous, refreshing, sweet; best in quality. Seeds free, one to four, broad, notched, short, blunt, light brown.

DIAMOND

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Few other grapes surpass Diamond in quality and beauty of fruit. When to its desirable fruit characters are added hardiness, productiveness and vigor of vine, the variety is surpassed by no other green grape. Diamond is a diluted hybrid between Labrusca and Vinifera and the touch of the exotic grape is just sufficient to give the fruit the richness in flavor of the Old World grape and not overcome the refreshing sprightliness of the native fox-grapes. The Vinifera characters are wholly recessive in vine and foliage, the plant resembling closely its American parent, Concord. Diamond is well established North and South and can be grown in as great a range of latitude as Concord. Jacob Moore, Brighton, New York, grew Diamond about 1870 from Concord seed fertilized by Iona.

Vine vigorous, hardy, productive. Canes short, brown with a slight red tinge; nodes enlarged; internodes short; tendrils intermittent, bifid. Leaves thick; upper surface light green, dull, smooth; lower surface light bronze, downy; lobes three in number, indistinct; petiolar sinus very shallow; teeth shallow. Flowers self-fertile, open early; stamens upright.

Fruit early, keeps well. Clusters medium to short, broad, blunt, cylindrical, often single-shouldered, compact; pedicel short, thick with a few inconspicuous warts; brush slender, pale green. Berries large, ovate, green with a tinge of yellow, glossy, covered with thin bloom, persistent, firm; skin thin, tough, adherent, astringent; flesh pale green, transparent, juicy, tender, melting, fine-grained, aromatic, sprightly; very good. Seeds free, one to four, broad and long, sharp-pointed, yellowish-brown.

DIANA

(Labrusca, Vinifera)

Diana (Plate XII) is a seedling of Catawba to which its fruit bears strong resemblance, differing chiefly in having lighter color, in being less pulpy and more juicy. The flavor resembles that of Catawba but has less of the wild taste. The chief point of superiority of Diana over Catawba is in earliness, the crop ripening ten days sooner, making possible its culture far to the north. The defects of Diana are: the vine is tender in cold winters; the grapes ripen unevenly; the berries and foliage are susceptible to fungi; and the vine is a shy bearer. Diana demands poor, dry, gravelly soil without much humus or nitrogen. On clays, loams or rich soils, the vines make a rank growth, and the fruits are few, late and of poor quality. The vine needs to be long pruned and to have all surplus bunches removed, leaving a small crop to mature. Diana is a satisfactory grape for the amateur, and where it does especially well proves profitable for the local market. Mrs. Diana Crehore, Milton, Massachusetts, grew Diana from seed of Catawba, planted about 1834.

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