Manual Of Egyptian Archaeology And Guide To The Study Of Antiquities In Egypt
by Gaston Camille Charles Maspero
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Upon this surface, the seventeenth chapter of The Book of the Dead was generally written in red and black inks, and in fine cursive hieroglyphs. The body of the chest is made with three horizontal planks for the bottom, and eight vertical planks, placed two and two, for the four sides. The outside is sometimes decorated with long strips of various colours ending in interlaced lotus-leaves, such as are seen on stone sarcophagi. More frequently, it is ornamented on the left side with two wide-open eyes and two monumental doors, and on the right with three doors exactly like those seen in contemporary catacombs. The sarcophagus is in truth the house of the deceased; and, being his house, its four walls were bound to contain an epitome of the prayers and tableaux which covered the walls of his tomb. The necessary formulae and pictured scenes were, therefore, reproduced inside, nearly in the same order in which they appear in the mastabas. Each side is divided in three registers, each register containing a dedication in the name of the deceased, or representations of objects belonging to him, or such texts from the Ritual as need to be repeated for his benefit. Skilfully composed, and painted upon a background made to imitate some precious wood, the whole forms a boldly-designed and harmoniously-coloured picture. The cabinet-maker's share of the work was the lightest, and the long boxes in which the dead of the earliest period were buried made no great demand upon his skill. This, however, was not the case when in later times the sarcophagus came to be fashioned in the likeness of the human body. Of this style we have two leading types. In the most ancient, the mummy serves as the model for his case. His outstretched feet and legs are in one. The form of the knee, the swell of the calf, the contours of the thigh and the trunk, are summarily indicated, and are, as it were, vaguely modelled under the wood. The head, apparently the only living part of this inert body, is wrought out in the round. The dead man is in this wise imprisoned in a kind of statue of himself; and this statue is so well balanced that it can stand on its feet if required, as upon a pedestal. In the other type of sarcophagus, the deceased lies at full length upon his tomb, and his figure, sculptured in the round, serves as the lid of his mummy-case. On his head is seen the ponderous wig of the period. A white linen vest and a long petticoat cover his chest and legs. His feet are shod with elegant sandals. His arms lie straight along his sides, or are folded upon his breast, the hands grasping various emblems, as the Ankh, the girdle-buckle, the Tat;[69] or, as in the case of the wife of Sennetmu at Gizeh, a garland of ivy. This mummiform type of sarcophagus is rarely met with under the Memphite dynasties, though that of Menkara, the Mycerinus of the Greeks, affords a memorable example. Under the Eleventh Dynasty, the mummy-case is frequently but a hollowed tree-trunk, roughly sculptured outside, with a head at one end and feet at the other. The face is daubed with bright colours, yellow, red, and green; the wig and headdress are striped with black and blue, and an elaborate collar is depicted on the breast. The rest of the case is either covered with the long, gilded wings of Isis and Nephthys, or with a uniform tint of white or yellow, and sparsely decorated with symbolic figures, or columns of hieroglyphs painted blue and black. Among the sarcophagi belonging to kings of the Seventeenth Dynasty which I recovered from Deir el Bahari, the most highly finished belonged to this type, and were only remarkable for the really extraordinary skill with which the craftsman had reproduced the features of the deceased sovereigns. The mask of Ahmes I., that of Amenhotep I., and that of Thothmes II., are masterpieces in their way. The mask of Rameses II. shows no sign of paint, except a black line which accentuates the form of the eye. The face is doubtless modelled in the likeness of the Pharaoh Herhor, who restored the funerary outfit of his puissant ancestor, and it will almost bear comparison with the best works of contemporary sculpture (fig. 262). Two mummy-cases found in the same place—namely, those of Queen Ahmesnefertari and her daughter, Aahhotep II.—are of gigantic size, and measure more than ten and a half feet in height (fig. 263). Standing upright, they might almost be taken for two of the caryatid statues from the first court at Medinet Habu, though on a smaller scale. The bodies are represented as bandaged, and but vaguely indicate the contours of the human form. The shoulders and bust of each are covered with a kind of network in relief, every mesh standing out in blue upon a yellow ground. The hands emerge from this mantle, are crossed upon the breast, and grasp the Ankh, or Tau-cross, symbolic of eternal life. The heads are portraits. The faces are round, the eyes large, the expression mild and characterless. Each is crowned with the flat-topped cap and lofty plumes of Amen or Maut. We cannot but wonder for what reason these huge receptacles were made. The two queens were small of stature, and their mummies—which were well-nigh lost in the cases—had to be packed round with an immense quantity of rags, to prevent them from shifting, and becoming injured. Apart from their abnormal size, these cases are characterised by the same simplicity which distinguishes other mummy-cases of royal or private persons of the same period. Towards the middle of the Nineteenth Dynasty, the fashion changed. The single mummy-case, soberly decorated, was superseded by two, three, and even four cases, fitting the one into the other, and covered with paintings and inscriptions. Sometimes the outer receptacle is a sarcophagus with convex lid and square ears, upon which the deceased is pictured over and over again upon a white ground, in adoration before the gods of the Osirian cycle. When, however, it is shaped in human form, it retains somewhat of the old simplicity. The face is painted; a collar is represented on the chest, a band of hieroglyphs extends down the whole length of the body to the feet, and the rest is in one uniform tone of black, brown, or dark yellow. The inner cases were extravagantly rich, the hands and faces being red, rose-coloured, or gilded; the jewellery painted, or sometimes imitated by means of small morsels of enamel encrusted in the wood-work; the surfaces frequently covered with many-coloured scenes and legends, and the whole heightened by means of the yellow varnish already mentioned. The lavish ornamentation of this period is in striking contrast with the sobriety of earlier times; but in order to grasp the reason of this change, one must go to Thebes, and visit the actual sepulchres of the dead. The kings and private persons of the great conquering dynasties[70] devoted their energies, and all the means at their disposal, to the excavation of catacombs. The walls of those catacombs were covered with sculptures and paintings. The sarcophagus was cut in one enormous block of granite or alabaster, and admirably wrought. It was therefore of little moment if the wooden coffin in which the mummy reposed were very simply decorated. But the Egyptians of the decadence, and their rulers, had not the wealth of Egypt and the spoils of neighbouring countries at command. They were poor; and the slenderness of their resources debarred them from great undertakings. They for the most part gave up the preparation of magnificent tombs, and employed such wealth as remained to them in the fabrication of fine mummy-cases carved in sycamore wood. The beauty of their coffins, therefore, but affords an additional proof of their weakness and poverty. When for a few centuries the Saite princes had succeeded in re-establishing the prosperity of the country, stone sarcophagi came once more into requisition, and the wooden coffin reverted to somewhat of the simplicity of the great period. But this Renaissance was not destined to last. The Macedonian conquest brought back the same revolution in funerary fashions which followed the fall of the Ramessides, and double and triple mummy cases, over-painted and over-gilded, were again in demand. If the craftsmen of Graeco-Roman time who attired the dead of Ekhmim for their last resting places were less skilful than those of earlier date, their bad taste was, at all events, not surpassed by the Theban coffin-makers who lived and worked under the latest princes of the royal line of Rameses.

A series of Graeco-Roman examples from the Fayum exhibit the stages by which portraiture in the flat there replaced the modelled mask, until towards the middle of the second century A.D. it became customary to bandage over the face of the mummy a panel-portrait of the dead, as he was in life (fig. 264).

The remainder of the funerary outfit supplied the cabinet-maker with as much work as the coffin-maker. Boxes of various shapes and sizes were required for the wardrobe of the mummy, for his viscera, and for his funerary statuettes. He must also have tables for his meals; stools, chairs, a bed to lie upon, a boat and sledge to convey him to the tomb, and sometimes even a war-chariot and a carriage in which to take the air.[71] The boxes for canopic vases, funerary statuettes, and libation-vases, are divided in several compartments. A couchant jackal is sometimes placed on the top, and serves for a handle by which to take off the lid. Each box was provided with its own little sledge, upon which it was drawn in the funeral procession on the day of burial. Beds are not very uncommon. Many are identical in structure with the Nubian angarebs, and consist merely of some coarse fabric, or of interlaced strips of leather, stretched on a plain wooden frame. Few exceed fifty-six inches in length; the sleeper, therefore, could never lie outstretched, but must perforce assume a doubled-up position. The frame is generally horizontal, but sometimes it slopes slightly downwards from the head to the foot. It was often raised to a considerable height above the level of the floor, and a stool, or a little portable set of steps, was used in mounting it. These details were known to us by the wall-paintings only until I myself discovered two perfect specimens in 1884 and 1885; one at Thebes, in a tomb of the Thirteenth Dynasty, and the other at Ekhmim, in the Graeco-Roman necropolis. In the former, two accommodating lions have elongated their bodies to form the framework, their heads doing duty for the head of the bed, and their tails being curled up under the feet of the sleeper.

The bed is surmounted by a kind of canopy, under which the mummy lay in state. Rhind had already found a similar canopy, which is now in the Museum of Edinburgh[72] (fig. 265). In shape it is a temple, the rounded roof being supported by elegant colonnettes of painted wood. A doorway guarded by serpents is supposed to give access to the miniature edifice. Three winged discs, each larger than the one below it, adorn three superimposed cornices above the door, the whole frontage being surmounted by a row of erect uraei, crowned with the solar disc. The canopy belonging to the Thirteenth Dynasty bed is much more simple, being a mere balustrade in cut and painted wood, in imitation of the water-plant pattern with which temple walls were decorated; the whole is crowned with an ordinary cornice. In the bed of Graeco-Roman date (fig. 266), carved and painted figures of the goddess Ma, sitting with her feather on her knee, are substituted for the customary balustrades. Isis and Nephthys stand with their winged arms outstretched at the head and foot. The roof is open, save for a row of vultures hovering above the mummy, which is wept over by two kneeling statuettes of Isis and Nephthys, one at each end. The sledges upon which mummies were dragged to the sepulchre were also furnished with canopies, but in a totally different style. The sledge canopy is a panelled shrine, like those which I discovered in 1886, in the tomb of Sennetmu at Kurnet Murraee. If light was admitted, it came through a square opening, showing the head of the mummy within. Wilkinson gives an illustration of a sledge canopy of this kind, from the wall paintings of a Theban tomb (fig. 267). The panels were always made to slide. As soon as the mummy was laid upon his sledge, the panels were closed, the corniced roof placed over all, and the whole closed in. With regard to chairs, many of those in the Louvre and the British Museum were made about the time of the Eleventh Dynasty. These are not the least beautiful specimens which have come down to us, one in particular (fig. 268) having preserved an extraordinary brilliancy of colour. The framework, formerly fitted with a seat of strong netting, was originally supported on four legs with lions' feet. The back is ornamented with two lotus flowers, and with a row of lozenges inlaid in ivory and ebony upon a red ground. Stools of similar workmanship (fig. 269), and folding stools, the feet of which are in the form of a goose's head, may be seen in all museums. Pharaohs and persons of high rank affected more elaborate designs. Their seats were sometimes raised very high, the arms being carved to resemble running lions, and the lower supports being prisoners of war, bound back to back (fig. 270). A foot-board in front served as a step to mount by, and as a foot-stool for the sitter. Up to the present time, we have found no specimens of this kind of seat.[73]

We learn from the tomb paintings that netted or cane-bottomed chairs were covered with stuffed seats and richly worked cushions. These cushions and stuffed seats have perished, but it is to be concluded that they were covered with tapestry. Tapestry was undoubtedly known to the Egyptians, and a bas-relief subject at Beni Hasan (fig. 271)[74] shows the process of weaving. The frame, which is of the simplest structure, resembles that now in use among the weavers of Ekhmim. It is horizontal, and is formed of two slender cylinders, or rather of two rods, about fifty-four inches apart, each held in place by two large pegs driven into the ground about three feet distant from each other. The warps of the chain were strongly fastened, then rolled round the top cylinder till they were stretched sufficiently tight. Mill sticks placed at certain distances facilitated the insertion of the needles which carried the thread. As in the Gobelins factory, the work was begun from the bottom. The texture was regulated and equalised by means of a coarse comb, and was rolled upon the lower cylinder as it increased in length. Hangings and carpets were woven in this manner; some with figures, others with geometrical designs, zigzags, and chequers (fig. 272). A careful examination of the monuments has, however, convinced me that most of the subjects hitherto supposed to represent examples of tapestry represent, in fact, examples of cut and painted leather. The leather-worker's craft flourished in ancient Egypt. Few museums are without a pair of leather sandals, or a specimen of mummy braces with ends of stamped leather bearing the effigy of a god, a Pharaoh, a hieroglyphic legend, a rosette, or perhaps all combined. These little relics are not older than the time of the priest-kings, or the earlier Bubastites. It is to the same period that we must attribute the great cut-leather canopy in the Gizeh Museum. The catafalque upon which the mummy was laid when transported from the mortuary establishment to the tomb, was frequently adorned with a covering made of stuff or soft leather. Sometimes the sidepieces hung down, and sometimes they were drawn aside with bands, like curtains, and showed the coffin.

The canopy of Deir el Bahari was made for the Princess Isiemkheb, daughter of the High Priest Masahirti, wife of the High Priest Menkheperra, and mother of the High Priest Pinotem III. The centrepiece, in shape an oblong square, is divided into three bands of sky-blue leather, now faded to pearl-grey. The two side-pieces are sprinkled with yellow stars. Upon the middle piece are rows of vultures, whose outspread wings protect the mummy. Four other pieces covered with red and green chequers are attached to the ends and sides. The longer pieces which hung over the sides are united to the centre-piece by an ornamental bordering. On the right, scarabaei with extended wings alternate with the cartouches of King Pinotem II., and are surmounted by a lance-head frieze. On the left side, the pattern is more complicated (fig. 273). In the centre we see a bunch of lotus lilies flanked by royal cartouches. Next come two antelopes, each kneeling upon a basket; then two bouquets of papyrus; then two more scarabaei, similar to those upon the other border. The lance-head frieze finishes it above, as on the opposite side. The technical process is very curious. The hieroglyphs and figures were cut out from large pieces of leather; then, under the open spaces thus left, were sewn thongs of leather of whatever colour was required for those ornaments or hieroglyphs. Finally, in order to hide the patchwork effect presented at the back, the whole was lined with long strips of white, or light yellow, leather. Despite the difficulties of treatment which this work presented, the result is most remarkable.[75] The outlines of the gazelles, scarabaei, and flowers are as clean-cut and as elegant as if drawn with the pen upon a wall-surface or a page of papyrus. The choice of subjects is happy, and the colours employed are both lively and harmonious.

The craftsmen who designed and executed the canopy of Isiemkheb had profited by a long experience of this system of decoration, and of the kind of patterns suitable to the material. For my own part, I have not the slightest doubt that the cushions of chairs and royal couches, and the sails of funeral and sacred boats used for the transport of mummies and divine images, were most frequently made in leather-work. The chequer- patterned sail represented in one of the boat subjects painted on the wall of a chamber in the tomb of Rameses III. (fig. 274), might be mistaken for one of the side pieces of the canopy at Gizeh. The vultures and fantastic birds depicted upon the sails of another boat (fig. 275) are neither more strange nor more difficult to make in cut leather than the vultures and gazelles of Isiemkheb.

We have it upon the authority of ancient writers that the Egyptians of olden time embroidered as skilfully as those of the Middle Ages. The surcoats given by Amasis, one to the Lacedaemonians, and the other to the temple of Athena at Lindos, were of linen embroidered with figures of animals in gold thread and purple, each thread consisting of three hundred and sixty-five distinct filaments. To go back to a still earlier period, the monumental tableaux show portraits of the Pharaohs wearing garments with borders, either woven or embroidered, or done in applique work. The most simple patterns consist of one or more stripes of brilliant colour parallel with the edge of the material. Elsewhere we see palm patterns, or rows of discs and points, leaf-patterns, meanders, and even, here and there, figures of men, gods, or animals, worked most probably with the needle. None of the textile materials yet found upon royal mummies are thus decorated; we are therefore unable to pronounce upon the quality of this work, or the method employed in its production. Once only, upon the body of one of the Deir el Bahari princesses, did I find a royal cartouche embroidered in pale rose-colour. The Egyptians of the best periods seem to have attached special value to plain stuffs, and especially to white ones. These they wove with marvellous skill, and upon looms in every respect identical with those used in tapestry work. Those portions of the winding sheet of Thothmes III. which enfolded the royal hands and arms, are as fine as the finest India muslin, and as fairly merit the name of "woven air" as the gauzes of the island of Cos. This, of course, is a mere question of manufacture, apart from the domain of art. Embroideries and tapestries were not commonly used in Egypt till about the end of the Persian period, or the beginning of the period of Greek rule. Alexandria became partly peopled by Phoenician, Syrian, and Jewish colonists, who brought with them the methods of manufacture peculiar to their own countries, and founded workshops which soon developed into flourishing establishments. It is to the Alexandrians that Pliny ascribes the invention of weaving with several warps, thus producing the stuff called brocades (polymita); and in the time of the first Caesars, it was a recognised fact that "the needle of Babylon was henceforth surpassed by the comb of the Nile." The Alexandrian tapestries were not made after exclusively geometrical designs, like the products of the old Egyptian looms; but, according to the testimony of the ancients, were enriched with figures of animals, and even of men. Of the masterpieces which adorned the palaces of the Ptolemies no specimens remain. Many fragments which may be attributed to the later Roman time have, however, been found in Egypt, such as the piece with the boy and goose described by Wilkinson, and a piece representing marine divinities bought by myself at Coptos.[76] The numerous embroidered winding sheets with woven borders which have recently been discovered near Ekhmim, and in the Fayum, are nearly all from Coptic tombs, and are more nearly akin to Byzantine art than to the art of Egypt.

[68] We have a considerable number of specimens of these borderings, cartouches, and painted tiles representing foreign prisoners, in the British Museum; but the finest examples of the latter are in the Ambras Collection, Vienna. For a highly interesting and scholarly description of the remains found at Tell el Yahudeh in 1870, see Professor Hayter Lewis's paper in vol. iii. of the Transactions of the Biblical Archaeological Society.—A.B.E.

[69] The Tat amulet was the emblem of stability.—A.B.E.

[70] That is, the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties.

[71] There is a fine specimen of one of these sledges in the Leyden Museum, and the Florentine Museum contains a celebrated Egyptian war-chariot in fine preservation.—A.B.E.

[72] See the coloured frontispiece to Thebes; its Tombs and their Tenants, by A.H. Rhind. 1862.—A.B.E.

[73] Since the publication of this work in the original French, a very splendid specimen of a royal Egyptian chair of state, the property of Jesse Haworth, Esq., was placed on view at the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition. It is made of dark wood, apparently rosewood; the legs being shaped like bull's legs, having silver hoofs, and a solid gold cobra snake twining round each leg. The arm-pieces are of lightwood with cobra snakes carved upon the flat in low relief, each snake covered with hundreds of small silver annulets, to represent the markings of the reptile. This chair, dated by a fragment of a royal cartouche, belonged to Queen Hatshepsut, of the Eighteenth Dynasty. It is now in the British Museum.—A.B.E.

[74] In this cut, as well as in the next, the loom is represented as if upright; but it is supposed to be extended on the ground.—A.B.E.

[75] For a chromolithographic reproduction of this work as a whole, with drawings of the separate parts, facsimiles of the inscriptions, etc., see The Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen, by H. Villiers Stuart.—A.B.E.

[76] An unusually fine specimen of carpet, or tapestry work from Ekhmim, representing Cupids rowing in papyrus skiffs, landscapes, etc., has recently been presented to the British Museum by the Rev. G.J. Chester. The tapestry found at Ekhmim is, however, mostly of the Christian period, and this specimen probably dates from about A.D. 700 or A.D. 600.—A.B.E.


The Egyptians classified metals under two heads—namely, the noble metals, as gold, electrum, and silver; and the base metals, as copper, iron, lead, and, at a later period, tin. The two lists are divided by the mention of certain kinds of precious stones, such as lapis lazuli and malachite.

Iron was reserved for weapons of war, and tools, in use for hard substances, such as sculptors' and masons' chisels, axe and adze heads, knife-blades, and saws. Lead was comparatively useless, but was sometimes used for inlaying temple-doors, coffers, and furniture. Also small statuettes of gods were occasionally made in this metal, especially those of Osiris and Anubis. Copper was too yielding to be available for objects in current use; bronze, therefore, was the favourite metal of the Egyptians. Though often affirmed, it is not true that they succeeded in tempering bronze so that it became as hard as iron or steel; but by varying the constituents and their relative proportions, they were able to give it a variety of very different qualities. Most of the objects hitherto analysed have yielded precisely the same quantities of copper and tin commonly used by the bronze founders of the present day. Those analysed by Vauquelin in 1825 contained 84 per cent. of copper 14 per cent. of tin, and 1 per cent. of iron and other substances. A chisel brought from Egypt by Sir Gardner Wilkinson contained only from 5 to 9 per cent. of tin, 1 per cent. of iron, and 94 of copper. Certain fragments of statuettes and mirrors more recently subjected to analysis have yielded a notable quantity of gold and silver, thus corresponding with the bronzes of Corinth. Other specimens resemble brass, both in their colour and substance. Many of the best Egyptian bronzes offer a surprising resistance to damp, and oxidise with difficulty. While yet hot from the mould, they were rubbed with some kind of resinous varnish which filled up the pores and deposited an unalterable patina upon the surface. Each kind of bronze had its special use. The ordinary bronze was employed for weapons and common amulets; the brazen alloys served for household utensils; the bronzes mixed with gold and silver were destined only for mirrors, costly weapons, and statuettes of value. In none of the tomb-paintings which I have seen is there any representation of bronze-founding or bronze-working; but this omission is easily supplemented by the objects themselves. Tools, arms, rings, and cheap vases were sometimes forged, and sometimes cast whole in moulds of hard clay or stone. Works of art were cast in one or several pieces according to circumstances; the parts were then united, soldered, and retouched with the burin. The method most frequently employed was to prepare a core of mixed clay and charcoal, or sand, which roughly reproduced the modelling of the mould into which it was introduced. The layer of metal between this core and the mould was often so thin that it would have yielded to any moderate pressure, had they not taken the precaution to consolidate it by having the core for a support.

Domestic utensils and small household instruments were mostly made in bronze. Such objects are exhibited by thousands in our museums, and frequently figure in bas-reliefs and mural paintings. Art and trade were not incompatible in Egypt; and even the coppersmith sought to give elegance of form, and to add ornaments in a good style, to the humblest of his works. The saucepan in which the cook of Rameses III. concocted his masterpieces is supported on lions' feet. Here is a hot-water jug which looks as if it were precisely like its modern successors (fig. 276); but on a closer examination we shall find that the handle is a full-blown lotus, the petals, which are bent over at an angle to the stalk, resting against the edge of the neck (fig. 277). The handles of knives and spoons are almost always in the form of a duck's or goose's neck, slightly curved. The bowl is sometimes fashioned like an animal—as, for instance, a gazelle ready bound for the sacrifice (fig. 278). On the hilt of a sabre we find a little crouching jackal; and the larger limb of a pair of scissors in the Gizeh Museum is made in the likeness of an Asiatic captive, his arms tied behind his back. A lotus leaf forms the disk of a mirror, and its stem is the handle. One perfume box is a fish, another is a bird, another is a grotesque deity. The lustration vases, or situlae, carried by priests and priestesses for the purpose of sprinkling either the faithful, or the ground traversed by religious processions, merit the special consideration of connoisseurs. They are ovoid or pointed at the bottom, and decorated with subjects either chased or in relief. These sometimes represent deities, each in a separate frame, and sometimes scenes of worship. The work is generally very minute.

Bronze came into use for statuary purposes from a very early period; but time unfortunately has preserved none of those idols which peopled the temples of the ancient empire. Whatsoever may be said to the contrary, we possess no bronze statuettes of any period anterior to the expulsion of the Hyksos. Some Theban figures date quite certainly from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. The chased lion's head found with the jewels of Queen Aahhotep, the Harpocrates of Gizeh inscribed with the names of Kames and Ahmes I., and several statuettes of Amen, said to have been discovered at Medinet Habu and Sheikh Abd el Gurneh, are of that period. Our most important bronzes belong, however, to the Twenty-second Dynasty, or, later still, to the time of the Saite Pharaohs. Many are not older than the first Ptolemies. A fragment found in the ruins of Tanis and now in the possession of Count Stroganoff, formed part of a votive statue dedicated by King Pisebkhanu. It was originally two-thirds the size of life, and is the largest specimen known. A portrait statuette of the Lady Takushet, given to the Museum of Athens by M. Demetrio, the four statuettes from the Posno collection now at the Louvre, and the kneeling genius of Gizeh, are all from the site of Bubastis, and date probably from the years which immediately preceded the accession of Psammetichus I. The Lady Takushet is standing, the left foot advanced, the right arm hanging down, the left raised and brought close to the body (fig. 279). She wears a short robe embroidered with religious subjects, and has bracelets on her arms and wrists. Upon her head she has a wig with flat curls, row above row. The details both of her robe and jewels are engraved in incised lines upon the surface of the bronze, and inlaid with silver threads. The face is evidently a portrait, and represents a woman of mature age. The form, according to the traditions of Egyptian art, is that of a younger woman, slender, firm, and supple. The copper in this bronze is largely intermixed with gold, thus producing a chastened lustre which is admirably suited to the richness of the embroidered garment. The kneeling genius of Gizeh is as rude and repellent as the Lady Takushet is delicate and harmonious. He has a hawk's head, and he worships the sun, as is the duty of the Heliopolitan genii. His right arm is uplifted, his left is pressed to his breast. The style of the whole is dry, and the granulated surface of the skin adds to the hard effect of the figure. The action, however, is energetic and correct, and the bird's head is adjusted with surprising skill to the man's neck and shoulders. The same qualities and the same faults distinguish the Horus of the Posno collection (fig. 280). Standing, he uplifted a libation vase; now lost, and poured the contents upon a king who once stood face to face with him. This roughness of treatment is less apparent in the other three Posno figures; above all in that which bears the name of Mosu engraved over the place of the heart (fig. 281). Like the Horus, this Mosu stands upright, his left foot advanced, and his left arm pendent. His right hand is raised, as grasping the wand of office. The trunk is naked, and round his loins he wears a striped cloth with a squared end falling in front. His head is clad in a short wig covered with short curls piled one above the other. The ear is round and large. The eyes are well opened, and were originally of silver; but have been stolen by some Arab. The features have a remarkable expression of pride and dignity. After these, what can be said for the thousands of statuettes of Osiris, of Isis, of Nephthys, of Horus, of Nefertum, which have been found in the sands and ruins of Sakkarah, Bubastis, and other cities of the Delta? Many are, without doubt, charming objects for glass-cases, and are to be admired for perfection of casting and delicacy of execution; but the greater number are mere articles of commerce, made upon the same pattern, and perhaps in the self- same moulds, century after century, for the delight of devotees and pilgrims. They are rounded, vulgar, destitute of originality, and have no more distinction than the thousands of coloured statuettes of saints and Virgins which stock the shelves of our modern dealers in pious wares. An exception must, however, be made in favour of the images of animals, such as rams, sphinxes, and lions, which to the last retained a more pronounced stamp of individuality. The Egyptians had a special predilection for the feline race. They have represented the lion in every attitude—giving chase to the antelope; springing upon the hunter; wounded, and turning to bite his wound; couchant, and disdainfully calm—and no people have depicted him with a more thorough knowledge of his habits, or with so intense a vitality. Several gods and goddesses, as Shu, Anhur, Bast, Sekhet, Tefnut, have the form of the lion or of the cat; and inasmuch as the worship of these deities was more popular in the Delta than elsewhere, so there never passes a year when from amid the ruins of Bubastis, Tanis, Mendes, or some less famous city, there is not dug up a store of little figures of lions and lionesses, or of men and women with lions' heads, or cats' heads. The cats of Bubastis and the lions of Tell es Seba crowd our museums. The lions of Horbeit may be reckoned among the chefs-d'oeuvre of Egyptian statuary. Upon one of the largest among them is inscribed the name of Apries (fig. 282); but if even this evidence were lacking, the style of the piece would compel us to attribute it to the Saite period. It formed part of the ornamentation of a temple or naos door; and the other side was either built into a wall or imbedded in a piece of wood. The lion is caught in a trap, or, perhaps, lying down in an oblong cage, with only his head and fore feet outside. The lines of the body are simple and full of power; the expression of the face is calm and strong. In breadth and majesty he almost equals the fine limestone lions of Amenhotep III.

The idea of inlaying gold and other precious metals upon the surface of bronze, stone, or wood was already ancient in Egypt in the time of Khufu. The gold is often amalgamated with pure silver. When amalgamated to the extent of 20 per cent, it changes its name, and is called electrum (asimu). This electrum is of a fine light-yellow colour. It pales as the proportion of silver becomes larger, and at 60 per cent. it is nearly white. The silver came chiefly from Asia, in rings, sheets, and bricks of standard weight. The gold and electrum came partly from Syria in bricks and rings; and partly from the Soudan in nuggets and gold-dust. The processes of refining and alloying are figured on certain monuments of the early dynasties. In a bas-relief at Sakkarah, we see the weighed gold entrusted to the craftsman for working; in another example (at Beni Hasan) the washing and melting down of the ore is represented; and again at Thebes, the goldsmith is depicted seated in front of his crucible, holding the blow-pipe to his lips with the left hand, and grasping his pincers with the right, thus fanning the flame and at the same time making ready to seize the ingot (fig. 283). The Egyptians struck neither coins nor medals. With these exceptions, they made the same use of the precious metals as we do ourselves. We gild the crosses and cupolas of our churches; they covered the doors of their temples, the lower part of their wall-surfaces, certain bas-reliefs, pyramidions of obelisks, and even whole obelisks, with plates of gold. The obelisks of Queen Hatshepsut at Karnak were coated with electrum. "They were visible from both banks of the Nile, and when the sun rose between them as he came up from the heavenly horizon, they flooded the two Egypts with their dazzling rays."[77] These plates of metal were forged with hammer and anvil. For smaller objects, they made use of little pellets beaten flat between two pieces of parchment. In the Museum of the Louvre we have a gilder's book, and the gold-leaf which it contains is as thin as the gold-leaf used by the German goldsmiths of the past century. Gold was applied to bronze surfaces by means of an ammoniacal solvent. If the object to be gilt were a wooden statuette, the workman began by sticking a piece of fine linen all over the surface, or by covering it with a very thin coat of plaster; upon this he laid his gold or silver leaf. It was thus that wooden statuettes of Thoth, Horus, and Nefertum were gilded, from the time of Khufu. The temple of Isis, the "Lady of the Pyramid," contained a dozen such images; and this temple was not one of the largest in the Memphite necropolis. There would seem to have been hundreds of gilded statues in the Theban temples, at all events in the time of the victorious dynasties of the new empire; and as regards wealth, the Ptolemaic sanctuaries were in no wise inferior to those of the Theban period.

Bronze and gilded wood were not always good enough for the gods of Egypt. They exacted pure gold, and their worshippers gave them as much of it as possible. Entire statues of the precious metals were dedicated by the kings of the ancient and middle empires; and the Pharaohs of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties, who drew at will upon the treasures of Asia, transcended all that had been done by their predecessors. Even in times of decadence, the feudal lords kept up the traditions of the past, and, like Prince Mentuemhat, replaced the images of gold and silver which had been carried off from Karnak by the generals of Sardanapalus at the time of the Assyrian invasions. The quantity of metal thus consecrated to the service of the gods must have been considerable, If many figures were less than an inch in height, many others measured three cubits, or more. Some were of gold, some of silver; others were part gold and part silver. There were even some which combined gold with sculptured ivory, ebony, and precious stones, thus closely resembling the chryselephantine statues of the Greeks. Aided by the bas-relief subjects of Karnak, Medinet Habu, and Denderah, as well as by the statues in wood and limestone which have come down to our day, we can tell exactly what they were like. However the material might vary, the style was always the same. Nothing is more perishable than works of this description. They are foredoomed to destruction by the mere value of the materials in which they are made. What civil war and foreign invasion had spared, and what had chanced to escape the rapacity of Roman princes and governors, fell a prey to Christian iconoclasm. A few tiny statuettes buried as amulets upon the bodies of mummies, a few domestic divinities buried in the ruins of private houses, a few ex-votos forgotten, perchance, in some dark corner of a fallen sanctuary, have escaped till the present day. The Ptah and Amen of Queen Aahhotep, another golden Amen also at Gizeh, and the silver vulture found in 1885 at Medinet Habu, are the only pieces of this kind which can be attributed with certainty to the great period of Egyptian art. The remainder are of Saite or Ptolemaic work, and are remarkable only for the perfection with which they are wrought. The gold and silver vessels used in the service of the temples, and in the houses of private persons, shared the fate of the statues. At the beginning of the present century, the Louvre acquired some flat-bottomed cups which Thothmes III. presented as the reward of valour to one of his generals named Tahuti. The silver cup is much mutilated, but the golden cup is intact and elegantly designed (fig. 284). The upright sides are adorned with a hieroglyphic legend. A central rosette is engraved at the bottom. Six fish are represented in the act of swimming round the rosette; and these again are surrounded by a border of lotus-bells united by a curved line. The five vases of Thmuis, in the Gizeh Museum, are of silver. They formed part of the treasure of the temple, and had been buried in a hiding- place, where they remained till our own day. We have no indication of their probable age; but whether they belong to the Greek or the Theban period, the workmanship is purely Egyptian. Of one vessel, only the cover is left, the handle being formed of two flowers upon one stem. The others are perfect, and are decorated in repousse work with lotus-lilies in bud and blossom (fig. 285).

The form is simple and elegant, the ornamentation sober and delicate; the relief low. One is, however, surrounded by a row of ovoid bosses (fig. 286), which project in high relief, and somewhat alter the shape of the body of the vase. These are interesting specimens; but they are so few in number that, were it not for the wall-paintings, we should have but a very imperfect idea of the skill of the Egyptian goldsmiths.

The Pharaohs had not our commercial resources, and could not circulate the gold and silver tribute-offerings of conquered nations in the form of coin. When the gods had received their share of the booty, there was no alternative but to melt the rest down into ingots, fashion it into personal ornaments, or convert it into gold and silver plate. What was true of the kings held good also for their subjects. For the space of at least six or eight centuries, dating from the time of Ahmes I., the taste for plate was carried to excess. Every good house was not only stocked with all that was needful for the service of the table, such as cups, goblets, plates, ewers, and ornamental baskets chased with figures of fantastic animals (fig. 287); but also with large ornamental vases which were dressed with flowers, and displayed to visitors on gala days. Some of these vases were of extraordinary richness. Here, for instance, is a crater, the handles modelled as two papyrus buds, and the foot as a full-blown papyrus. Two Asiatic slaves in sumptuous garments are represented in the act of upheaving it with all their strength (fig. 288). Here, again, is a kind of hydria with a lid in the form of an inverted lotus flanked by the heads of two gazelles (fig. 289). The heads and necks of two horses, bridled and fully caparisoned, stand back to back on either side of the foot of the vase. The body is divided into a series of horizontal zones, the middle zone being in the likeness of a marshland, with an antelope coursing at full speed among the reeds. Two enamelled cruets (fig. 290) have elaborately wrought lids, one fashioned as the head of a plumed eagle, and the other as the head of the god Bes flanked by two vipers (fig. 291). But foremost among them all is a golden centrepiece offered by a viceroy of Ethiopia to Amenhotep III. The design reproduces one of the most popular subjects connected with the foreign conquests of Egypt (fig. 292). Men and apes are seen gathering fruits in a forest of dom palms. Two natives, each with a single feather on his head and a striped kilt about his loins, lead tame giraffes with halters. Others, apparently of the same nationality, kneel with upraised hands, as if begging for quarter. Two negro prisoners lying face downwards upon the ground, lift their heads with difficulty. A large vase with a short foot and a lofty cone-shaped cover stands amid the trees.[78] The craftsmen who made this piece evidently valued elegance and beauty less than richness. They cared little for the heavy effect and bad taste of the whole, provided only that they were praised for their skill, and for the quantity of metal which they had succeeded in using. Other vases of the same type, pictured in a scene of presentations to Rameses II. in the great temple of Abu Simbel, vary the subject by showing buffaloes running in and out among the trees, in place of led giraffes. These were costly playthings wrought in gold, such as the Byzantine emperors of the ninth century accumulated in their palace of Magnaura, and which they exhibited on state occasions in order to impress foreigners with a profound sense of their riches and power. When a victorious Pharaoh returned from a distant campaign, the vessels of gold and silver which formed part of his booty figured in the triumphal procession, together with his train of foreign captives. Vases in daily use were of slighter make and less encumbered with inconvenient ornaments. The two leopards which serve as handles to a crater of the time of Thothmes III. (fig. 293) are not well proportioned, neither do they combine agreeably with the curves of the vase; but the accompanying cup (fig. 294), and a cruet belonging to the same service (fig. 295), are very happily conceived, and have much purity of form. These vessels of engraved and repousse gold and silver, some representing hunting scenes and incidents of battle, were imitated by Phoenician craftsmen, and, being exported to Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy, carried Egyptian patterns and subjects into distant lands. The passion for precious metals was pushed to such extremes under the reigns of the Ramessides that it was no longer enough to use them only at table.

Rameses II. and Rameses III. had thrones of gold—not merely of wood plated with gold, but made of the solid metal and set with precious stones. These things were too valuable to escape destruction, and were the first to disappear. Their artistic value, however, by no means equalled their intrinsic value, and the loss is not one for which we need be inconsolable.

Orientals, men and women alike, are great lovers of jewellery. The Egyptians were no exception to this rule. Not satisfied to adorn themselves when living with a profusion of trinkets, they loaded the arms, the fingers, the neck, the ears, the brow, and the ankles of their dead with more or less costly ornaments. The quantity thus buried in tombs was so considerable that even now, after thirty centuries of active search, we find from time to time mummies which are, so to say, cuirassed in gold. Much of this funerary jewellery was made merely for show on the day of the funeral, and betrays its purpose by the slightness of the workmanship. The favourite jewels of the deceased person were, nevertheless, frequently buried with him, and the style and finish of these leave nothing to be desired. Chains and rings have come down to us in large numbers, as indeed might be expected. The ring, in fact, was not a simple ornament, but an actual necessary. Official documents were not signed, but sealed; and the seal was good in law. Every Egyptian, therefore, had his seal, which he kept about his person, ready for use if required. The poor man's seal was a simple copper or silver ring; the ring of the rich man was a more or less elaborate jewel covered with chasing and relief work. The bezel was movable, and turned upon a pivot. It was frequently set with some kind of stone engraved with the owner's emblem or device; as, for example, a scorpion (fig. 296), a lion, a hawk, or a cynocephalous ape. As in the eyes of her husband his ring was the one essential ornament, so was her necklace in the estimation of the Egyptian lady. I have seen a chain in silver which measured sixty-three inches in length. Others, on the contrary, do not exceed two, or two and a half inches. They are of all sizes and patterns, some consisting of two or three twists, some of large links, some of small links, some massive and heavy, others as light and flexible as the finest Venetian filigree. The humblest peasant girl, as well as the lady of highest rank, might have her necklet; and the woman must be poor indeed whose little store comprised no other ornament. No mere catalogue of bracelets, diadems, collarettes, or insignia of nobility could give an idea of the number and variety of jewels known to us by pictured representations or existing specimens. Pectorals of gold cloisonne work inlaid with vitreous paste or precious stones, and which bear the cartouches of Amenemhat II., Usertesen II., and Usertesen III. (fig. 297), exhibit a marvellous precision of taste, lightness of touch, and dexterity of fine workmanship. So fresh and delicate are they we forget that the royal ladies to whom they belonged have been dead, and their bodies stiffened and disfigured into mummies, for nearly five thousand years. At Berlin may be seen the parure of an Ethiopian Candace; at the Louvre we have the jewels of Prince Psar; at Gizeh are preserved the ornaments of Queen Aahhotep. Aahhotep was the wife of Kames, a king of the Seventeenth Dynasty, and she was probably the mother of Ahmes I., first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Her mummy had been stolen by one of the robber bands which infested the Theban necropolis towards the close of the Twentieth Dynasty. They buried the royal corpse till such time as they might have leisure to despoil it in safety; and they were most likely seized and executed before they could carry that pretty little project into effect. The secret of their hiding- place perished with them, till discovered in 1860 by some Arab diggers. Most of the objects which this queen took with her into the next world were exclusively women's gear; as a fan-handle plated with gold, a bronze-gilt mirror mounted upon an ebony handle enriched with a lotus in chased gold (fig. 298). Her bracelets are of various types. Some are anklets and armlets, and consist merely of plain gold rings, both solid and hollow, bordered with plaited chainwork in imitation of filigree. Others are for wearing on the wrist, like the bracelets of modern ladies, and are made of small beads in gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian, and green felspar. These are strung on gold wire in a chequer pattern, each square divided diagonally in halves of different colours. Two gold plates, very lightly engraved with the cartouches of Ahmes I., are connected by means of a gold pin, and form the fastening. A fine bracelet in the form of two semicircles joined by a hinge (fig. 299), also bears the name of Ahmes I. The make of this jewel reminds us of cloisonne enamels. Ahmes kneels in the presence of the god Seb and his acolytes, the genii of Sop and Khonu.

The figures and hieroglyphs are cut out in solid gold, delicately engraved with the burin, and stand in relief upon a ground-surface filled in with pieces of blue paste and lapis lazuli artistically cut. A bracelet of more complicated workmanship, though of inferior execution, was found on the wrist of the queen (fig. 300). It is of massive gold, and consists of three parallel bands set with turquoises. On the front a vulture is represented with outspread wings, the feathers composed of green enamel, lapis lazuli, and carnelian, set in "cloisons" of gold. The hair of the mummy was drawn through a massive gold diadem, scarcely as large as a bracelet. The name of Ahmes is incrusted in blue paste upon an oblong plaque in the centre, flanked at each side by two little sphinxes which seem as if in the act of keeping watch over the inscription (fig. 301). Round her neck was a large flexible gold chain, finished at each end by a goose's head reversed. These heads could be linked one in the other, when the chain needed to be fastened. The scarabaeus pendant to this chain is incrusted upon the shoulder and wing-sheaths with blue glass paste rayed with gold, the legs and body being in massive gold. The royal parure was completed by a large collar of the kind known as the Usekh (fig. 302). It is finished at each end with a golden hawk's head inlaid with blue enamel, and consists of rows of scrolls, four-petalled fleurettes, hawks, vultures, winged uraei, crouching jackals, and figures of antelopes pursued by tigers. The whole of these ornaments are of gold repousse work, and they were sewn upon the royal winding sheet by means of a small ring soldered to the back of each. Upon the breast, below this collar, hung a square jewel of the kind known as "pectoral ornaments" (fig. 303). The general form is that of a naos, or shrine. Ahmes stands upright in a papyrus-bark, between Amen and Ra, who pour the water of purification upon his head and body. Two hawks hover to right and left of the king, above the heads of the gods. The figures are outlined in cloisons of gold, and these were filled in with little plaques of precious stones and enamel, many of which have fallen out. The effect of this piece is somewhat heavy, and if considered apart from the rest of the parure, its purpose might seem somewhat obscure. In order to form a correct judgment, we have, however, to remember in what fashion the women of ancient Egypt were clad. They wore a kind of smock of semi- transparent material, which came very little higher than the waist. The chest and bosom, neck and shoulders, were bare; and the one garment was kept in place by only a slender pair of braces. The rich clothed these uncovered parts with jewellery. The Usekh collar half hid the shoulders and chest. The pectoral masked the hollow between the breasts. Sometimes even the breasts were covered with two golden cups, either painted or enamelled. Besides the jewels found upon the mummy of Queen Aahhotep, a number of arms and amulets were heaped inside her coffin; namely, three massive gold flies hanging from a slender chain; nine small hatchets, three of gold and six of silver; a golden lion's head of very minute workmanship; a wooden sceptre set in gold spirals; two anklets; and two poignards. One of these poignards (fig. 304) has a golden sheath and a wooden hilt inlaid with triangular mosaics of carnelian, lapis lazuli, felspar, and gold. Four female heads in gold repousse form the pommel; and a bull's head reversed covers the junction of blade and hilt. The edges of the blade are of massive gold; the centre of black bronze damascened with gold. On one side is the solar cartouche of Ahmes, below which a lion pursues a bull, the remaining space being filled in with four grasshoppers in a row. On the other side we have the family name of Ahmes and a series of full-blown flowers issuing one from another and diminishing towards the point. A poignard found at Mycenae by Dr. Schliemann is similarly decorated; the Phoenicians, who were industrious copyists of Egyptian models, probably introduced this pattern into Greece. The second poignard is of a make not uncommon to this day in Persia and India (fig. 305). The blade is of yellowish bronze fixed into a disk-shaped hilt of silver. When wielded, this lenticular[79] disk fits to the hollow of the hand, the blade coming between the first and second fingers. Of what use, it may be asked, were all these weapons to a woman— and a dead woman? To this we may reply that the other world was peopled with foes—Typhonian genii, serpents, gigantic scorpions, tortoises, monsters of every description—against which it was incessantly needful to do battle. The poignards placed inside the coffin for the self-defence of the soul were useful only for fighting at close quarters; certain weapons of a projectile kind were therefore added, such as bows and arrows, boomerangs made in hard wood, and a battle-axe. The handle of this axe is fashioned of cedar-wood covered with sheet gold (fig. 306). The legend of Ahmes is inlaid thereon in characters of lapis lazuli, carnelian, turquoise, and green felspar. The blade is fixed in a cleft of the wood, and held in place by a plait-work of gold wire. It is of black bronze, formerly gilt. On one side, it is ornamented with lotus flowers upon a gold ground; on the other, Ahmes is represented in the act of slaying a barbarian, whom he grasps by the hair of the head. Beneath this group, Mentu, the Egyptian war-god, is symbolised by a griffin with the head of an eagle. In addition to all these objects, there were two small boats, one in gold and one in silver, emblematic of the bark in which the mummy must cross the river to her last home, and of that other bark in which she would ultimately navigate the waters of the West, in company with the immortal gods. When found, the silver boat rested upon a wooden truck with four bronze wheels; but as it was in a very dilapidated state, it has been dismounted and replaced by the golden boat (fig. 307). The hull is long and slight, the prow and stem are elevated, and terminate in gracefully-curved papyrus blossoms. Two little platforms surrounded by balustrades on a panelled ground are at the prow and on the poop, like quarter-decks. The pilot stands upon the one, and the steersman before the other, with a large oar in his hand. This oar takes the place of the modern helm. Twelve boatmen in solid silver are rowing under the orders of these two officers; Kames himself being seated in the centre, hatchet and sceptre in hand. Such were some of the objects buried with one single mummy; and I have even now enumerated only the most remarkable among them. The technical processes throughout are irreproachable, and the correct taste of the craftsman is in no wise inferior to his dexterity of hand. Having arrived at the perfection displayed in the parure of Aahhotep, the goldsmith's art did not long maintain so high a level. The fashions changed, and jewellery became heavier in design. The ring of Rameses II., with his horses standing upon the bezel (fig. 308), and the bracelet of Prince Psar, with his griffins and lotus flowers in cloisonne enamel (fig. 309), both in the Louvre, are less happily conceived than the bracelets of Ahmes. The craftsmen who made these ornaments were doubtless as skilful as the craftsmen of the time of Queen Aahhotep, but they had less taste and less invention. Rameses II. was condemned either to forego the pleasure of wearing his ring, or to see his little horses damaged and broken off by the least accident. Already noticeable in the time of the Nineteenth Dynasty, this decadence becomes more marked as we approach the Christian era. The earrings of Rameses IX. in the Gizeh Museum are an ungraceful assemblage of filigree disks, short chains, and pendent uraei, such as no human ear could have carried without being torn, or pulled out of shape. They were attached to each side of the wig upon the head of the mummy. The bracelets of the High Priest Pinotem III., found upon his mummy, are mere round rings of gold incrusted with pieces of coloured glass and carnelian, like those still made by the Soudanese blacks. The Greek invasion began by modifying the style of Egyptian gold-work, and ended by gradually substituting Greek types for native types. The jewels of an Ethiopian queen, purchased from Ferlini by the Berlin Museum, contained not only some ornaments which might readily have been attributed to Pharaonic times, but others of a mixed style in which Hellenic influences are distinctly traceable. The treasure discovered at Zagazig in 1878, at Keneh in 1881, and at Damanhur in 1882, consisted of objects having nothing whatever in common with Egyptian traditions. They comprise hairpins supporting statuettes of Venus, zone-buckles, agraffes for fastening the peplum, rings and bracelets set with cameos, and caskets ornamented at the four corners with little Ionic columns. The old patterns, however, were still in request in remote provincial places, and village goldsmiths adhered "indifferent well" to the antique traditions of their craft. Their city brethren had meanwhile no skill to do aught but make clumsy copies of Greek and Roman originals.

In this rapid sketch of the industrial arts there are many lacunae. When referring to examples, I have perforce limited myself to such as are contained in the best-known collections. How many more might not be discovered if one had leisure to visit provincial museums, and trace what the hazard of sales may have dispersed through private collections! The variety of small monuments due to the industry of ancient Egypt is infinite, and a methodical study of those monuments has yet to be made. It is a task which promises many surprises to whomsoever shall undertake it.

[77] From the inscription upon the obelisk of Hatshepsut which is still erect at Karnak. For a translation in full see Records of the Past, vol. xii., p. 131, et seqq.—A.B.E.

[78] Mr. Petrie suggests that this curious central object may be a royal umbrella with flaps of ox-hide and tiger-skin.—A.B.E.

[79] That is, lentil-shaped, or a double convex.—A.B.E.


For the following notes, to which reference numbers will be found in the text, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. W.M. Flinders Petrie, author of "The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh" (Field & Tuer), "Tanis" (Egypt Exploration Fund), "Naukratis" (Egypt Exploration Fund), etc., etc.


(1) More striking than these are the towns of Tell Atrib, Kom Baglieh, Kom Abu Billu, and Tell Nebesheh, the houses of which may be traced without any special excavations.

(2) There is much skill needed in mixing the mud and sand in such proportions as to dry properly; when rightly adjusted there is no cracking in drying, and the grains of sand prevent the mud from being washed away in the rains.

(3) In the Delta, at least, the sizes of bricks from the Twenty-first Dynasty down to Arab times decrease very regularly; under the Twenty-first Dynasty they are about 18 x 9 x 5 inches; early in the Twenty-sixth, 16-1/2 x 8-1/4 x 5; later 15 x 7-1/2; in early Ptolemaic times, 14 x 7; in Roman times, 12 x 6, in Byzantine times, 10 x 5; and Arab bricks are 8 x 4, and continue so very generally to our times. The thickness is always least certain, as it depends on the amount placed in the mould, but the length and breadth may in most cases be accepted as a very useful chronological scale.

(4) They are found of Ramesside age at Nebesheh and Defenneh; even there they are rare, and these are the only cases I have yet seen in Egypt earlier than about the third century A.D.

(5) This system was sometimes used to raise a fort above the plain, as at Defenneh; or the chambers formed store-rooms, as at the fort at Naukratis.

(6) In the fine early work at Gizeh they sawed the paving blocks of basalt, and then ground only just the edges flat, while all the inside of the joint was picked rough to hold the mortar.

(7) A usual plan in early times was to dress the joint faces of the block in the quarry, leaving its outer face with a rough excess of a few inches; the excess still remains on the granite casing of the pyramid of Menkara, and the result of dressing it away may be seen in the corners of the granite temple at Gizeh.

(8) Otherwise called the Granite Temple of Gizeh, or Temple of Khafra, as its connection with the Sphinx is much disputed, while it is in direct communication with the temple of the pyramid of Khafra, by a causeway in line with the entrance passage.

(9) The casing of the open air court on the top of it was of fine limestone; only a few blocks of this remain. For full plan and measurements see Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.

(10) One of the air slits, or ventilators, remains complete, opening to the upper court, from the top of the niche chamber.

(11) Below these lines, there is often a scene of offering at the bottom of the Obelisk.

(12) Mastaba is the Arabic name for a bench or platform, and was applied by the natives to such tombs on account of the resemblance in shape.

(13) In the few cases where the top remains perfect at Gizeh, the side ends in a parabolic curve which turns over into the top surface without any cornice or moulding; the tops of walls in the courts of mastabas are similar.

(14) Another view is that they are derived from the cumulative mastabas, such as the so-called step pyramid of Sakkarah.

(15) In the later pyramids; but the Gizeh pyramids are entirely built of Turah limestone.

(16) Still more conclusive is the fact that in the greatest of the pyramids the passages are such that it would have been impossible to build it by successive coats of enlargement.

(17) In only one case (that of Menkara) has a pyramid been clearly enlarged, and that was done at one step and not by many stages.

(18) The earliest—at Gizeh—are very accurate.

(19) These slabs of pavement do not extend beneath the pyramid, but only around it.

(20) Only fragments of the finest limestone casing have been found; the variety of colour was probably due to weathering.

(21) This would be impossible with the exquisitely fine joints of the masonry; a temporary staging of stone built up over part of the finished face would easily allow of raising the stones.

(22) There is no evidence that the facing block which covered the granite plugs was of granite; it was more probably of limestone.

(23) The entrance to the upper passages was never forced from the entrance passage, but was accidentally found by the Arabs, after they had forced a long tunnel in the masonry, being in ignorance of the real entrance, which was probably concealed by a hinging block of stone.

(24) Or rather it rose at an angle of 23-1/2 deg., like the descent of the entrance passage, thus making angles of 47 deg. and 133 deg. with it.

(25) This gallery has obtained a great reputation for the fineness of its joints, perhaps because they are coarse enough to be easily seen; but some joints of the entrance passage, and the joints in the queen's chamber, are hardly visible with the closest inspection.

(26) The only signs of portcullises are those in the vestibule or antechamber.

(27) No traces of three of the portcullises remain, if they ever existed, and the other never could reach the floor or interrupt the passage, so its use is enigmatical.

(28) There is some evidence that the pyramid was opened in the early days, perhaps before the middle kingdom.

(29) Two rows of beams which rest on the side wall as corbels or cantilevers, only touching at the top, without necessarily any thrust. Such at least is the case in the queen's chamber, and in the pyramid of Pepi, where such a roof is used.

(30) The end walls have sunk throughout a considerable amount, and the side walls have separated; thus all the beams of the upper chambers have been dragged, and every beam of the roof of the chamber is broken through. This is probably the result of earthquakes.

(31) This only covered the lower sixteen courses; the larger part above it was of limestone.

(32) Similar finished faces may be seen as far in as near the middle of the mass. This is not a true pyramid in form, but a cumulative mastaba, the faces of which are at the mastaba angle (75 deg.), and the successive enlargements of which are shown by numerous finished facings now within the masonry. The step form is the result of carrying upwards the mastaba form, at the same time that it was enlarged outwards.

(33) Not in all cases apparently, for the hieroglyphs on the passage of Pepi's pyramid are not injured, as they would be if plugs had been withdrawn.

(34) Pepi's roof is formed by a row of large beams which rested independently on the side walls as corbels or cantilevers (see Note 29).

(35) The mastaba angle is 75 deg., and the pyramid angle 50 deg. to 55 deg..

(36) Its present appearance is an accident of its demolition; it was originally, like the "step-pyramid" of Sakkarah, a cumulative mastaba, as is shown by the remains of the lower steps still in the mounds at its base, and by the mediaeval description of it.


Aahhotep, 157, 323-30. Aahhotep II., 288-9. Aalu, fields of, 163-4, 167. Abacus, 52-4, 58, 61, 116. Abi, 273. Abu Roash, 113, 134. Abu Simbel (see TEMPLES, etc.). Abusir, 114, 131, 134, 138, 140. Abydos (see FORTRESSES, TEMPLES, TOMBS, etc.). Acacia, 203, 274. Adze, of iron, 283, 304. Affi (see TOMB). Agate, 247. Ahmes I., 267, 307, 317, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329. Ahmes II., 269 and note. (see AMASIS). Ahmesnefertari, 288-9. Ahnas el Medineh, 259. Ai, 15, 155, 158. Aimadua (see TOMB). Akhonuti, 16. Alabaster, 6, 42, 47, 65, 128, 141, 166, 169, 180, 252, 253-4. Albumen, 203. Alexander, his tomb, 242. Alexander II., colossus of, 241. Alexandria, 52, 241, 243, 303. Alumina, 260. Amasis, 269 and note, 302 (see AHMES II.). Amber, 247. Ambras Collection, in Vienna, 272 (note). Amen (see GODS). Amen Ra (see GODS). Amenemhat II., 76, 322. Amenemhat III., 76, 143, 228 (see MOERIS). Amenhotep I., 157, 229, 287. Amenhotep II., 53. Amenhotep III., 67, 69, 76, 77, 80, 103, 147, 158, 179, 226, 229, 230, 266, 275, 312, 318. (see MEMNON). Ameni (see TOMB). Ameni Entef Amenemhat, 107. Ameniritis, 235 and note. Amethyst, 246, 250. Amphorae 35, 36, 127, 264. Ampullae, 269. Amset, genius, 258 (note). Amulets, materials and forms of, 100, 167, 246-50, 259, 265, 286. Ancient Empire,— art of (see BAS-RELIEF, SCULPTURE, and STATUE). domestic architecture of, 19. fortress of, 27. tombs of (see MASTABAS and PYRAMIDS). Andro-sphinx, 89, 228-9. Angareb, or Nubian bed, 281, 292. Anhur (see GODS). Ankh, 286, 288. Ankhnesraneferab, sarcophagus of, 165 (note). Anklets, 321. Anna (see TOMB). Antelopes, 176, 299, 326. Antimony, 254, 267 (see KOHL). Antonines, 244, 245. Antoninus Pius, his chapel at Philae, 100. Anubis (see GODS). Anvil, 313. Apapi, the serpent, 164. Ape, 171, 176, 199, 254, 269, 322. Apepi, King of Avaris, 228. Apet (see GODDESSES, TAURT, THUERIS). Apis (see GODS). Apries, 269 and note, 311 (see HOPHRA and UAHABRA). Aquamarine, the, 246. Arabs,— their destructive conquest, 134. their name for table of offerings, 107. Archers, 29, 184. Architecture,— military, 24-34. of private dwellings, 1-20. of public works, 34-45. temples, 46-110. tombs, 111-168. (see MASTABAS, PYRAMIDS, etc.). Architraves, 46, 52, 53, 54, 63, 65, 93. Argo, colossi of, 227. Arms, 157, 166. battle-axe, 329. boomerangs, 273, 329. bows and arrows, 184, 329. bronze, 305. lance, 232. poignards, 273, 327-8. Arsenic, sulphuret of, orpiment, 203. Ascalon, 31. Asia, 91, 312. Asia Minor, 248, 280, 320. Asimu (see ELECTRUM). Ass, in drawings, 171, 175. Assyria, invasion of Egypt by, 314. Astronomical tables, 92-4, 164. Asuan, 45, 53, 67, 148-50, 209 and note, 226, 228, 256 (note), 259, 265. (see SYENE and TOMBS). Athena, 302. Athens, bronze of the Lady Takushet at, 308. Ati, pyramid of, 142. Avaris, 228. Avenue of Sphinxes, 67. at Karnak, 87, 88-9, 230. Axe,— battle, 327, 329. iron, 304. stone, 201. Axum, obelisk at, 106.

Ba, or Bi, the soul, 111, 112. abode of the, 128. abode of the, its decoration, 142, 156-7, 162-5. following the sun at night, 159. statuettes to serve as body for, 167. transmigration of, 164. Bab el Mandeb, 109 (note). Ba-en-pet, 196 and note. (see IRON). Bakenrenf (see TOMB). Bakhtan, stela of, 109 and note. Bari, or boat of the Sun, 108. Barks, sacred and funerary, 66, 77, 95, 108, 159, 164, 166, 249, 301, 329-30. Basalt, 42, 127, 169, 196, 236, 237, 252. Basilisk, 201 (see URAEUS.) Bas-relief,— Abu Simbel, 229. Egyptian forms of, 197-9. gems, 249. gilded, 313. ivory, 273. models for study of, 197. New Empire, 228-9. painting of, 205-6. preparation of walls for, 192-3. Roman period, 245. sketches for, 193-5. speos of Horemheb, 232. Tell el Amarna, 231. Temple of Abydos, 232. Tomb of Seti I., 232. (See PAINTING, SCULPTURE, and WALL-SCENES.) Bast (see GODDESSES). Bastions, 28, 29, 32. Battlements, 14, 24, 25, 32, 50. Beads, 168, 247, 261, 324. Beams, 6, 30. of stone, 140. Beard,— false, of statue of Horemheb, 233. of sphinx, 208. Bedawin, 20, 42, 101. Beds, 281, 292. funerary, 292-4. Beer, at funerary feast, 180. Beetles (see SCARABAEI). Begig, obelisk of, 105. Beit el Wally (see TEMPLES and HEMI-SPEOS). Beni Hasan (see TOMBS). Beni Suef, 38. Berlin Museum, parure of jewels at, 322. Bersheh (see TOMBS). Bes (see GODS). Bezel, of rings, 321-2, 331. Bi (see BA). Bird, human-handed, 91. Birket el Kurun, lake of, 38, 39. Blocks, building,— dressing, 47, Notes 6 and 7. in pyramids, 132, Note 15, 139, Note 33. raising, 49. sizes, 49. working, 49, Note 7. Boats, toy, 282. transport by, 45, 132. (See BARKS.) Bonding, 48-9. Bone, work in, 272-3. Book of Knowing that which is in Hades, 172. Book of Ritual of Burial, 157. Book of Ritual of Embalmment, 157. Book of the Dead, 129, 157, 165, 172-5, 205, 284-5. Book of the Opening of the Mouth, 165. Bowls, of blue glazed pottery, 268. Bracelets, 249, 276, 308, 324-5, 331, 332. Braces, 298, 327. Bread,— making of, depicted in tombs, etc., 124, 127, 224. offerings of, 166. Breccia, 42, 236, 254. Bricks,— baked, 4. for pyramids, 132. glazed, 4, 270, Note 4. in civil and military architecture, 46. making of, 3-4, Notes 2 and 3. of mud and straw, 3, 114. sun-dried, 3, 21, 113-14, 145. without straw, 113, 145. Brickwork,— civil and military architecture, 46. dikes, 38. domestic architecture, 3,5-6. enclosure walls of temples, 67, 87. foundations, 48. mastabas, 113, 114. panels, 22. pyramid-mastabas, 145-6. undulating courses, 22, 27. Bridge of Zaru, 35. Bridges, rarity of, 35. British Museum, 171, 270 (note), 272 (note), 295, 303. Brocade (polymita), 303. Bronze, 105, 195, 196, 248, 260, 261, 304 et seq., 328. Bronzes, 307-12. Brush, hair, 203. reed, 170, 171. Bubastis, 1, 52, 58, 88, 266, 308, 310 (see TELL BASTA). Bubastites (see DYNASTY XXII.). "Bulak, Wooden Man of," 214 (note). (see RAEMKA and SHEIKH EL BELED). Bull, 199. (see GODS, APIS). Burin, 305, 325.

Cabinet-making, 124. 273. 282 et seq. Caesars (see ROMAN PERIOD). Calaite, 247. Caligula, 245. Cameos, 332. Canaanites, 31. Canal of Zaru, 35. Canals, 37, 45. Canopic vases, 167, 252-3, 258-9, 292. Canopy, funerary, 293-5, 299-301. Capitals (see COLUMNS and PILLARS). Caricatures, 171-2. Carnelian, 247, 250, 324, 325, 328. Cartonnage, 167. Cartouches, 4, 48, 61, 250, 262, 271, 278, 299, 302, 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 329. Caryatid statues, 288. Casing stones, 47, 65, Notes 7 and 9, 132, Note 15, 134, Note 20, 138, Note 32. Cat, 171, 172, 311. Cattle, 13, 25, 155. Cedar wood, 329. Ceiling decoration, 18-9, 92, 94, 141, 163-4. Cella, 58. Cellars, 35, 36. Cement, 52, 192, 194. Census, 155. Ceremonies, religious, performed by king, 95-7, 101-3. Chains, 155, 325-6. measuring, 155. Chairs, 179, 281, 295-6. Champollion, 26, 55, 271. Chapel,— furniture of, 166. of mastabas, 116 et pas. of pyramids, 131 et pas., 144. painting and sculpture in, 121 et seq., 141-2. reception room of Ka, 118 et seq. (See ABUSIR, ABYDOS, AMENHOTEP, AMENI, APIS, DAHSHUR, GIZEH, GURNEH, KHNUMHOTEP, MEDINET HABU, MEROE, RAMESSEUM, THUERIS.) Chariots, 183, 292. Chenoboscion, 45 (note). (see KASR ES SAID). Cheops (see KHUFU). Chephren (see KHAFRA). Chester, the Rev. G.J., 303 (note). Chests, 281, 283. Chisels, 45, 195, 214, 304.

Chlamys, 242. Chrysoprase, 246. Cinnabar, 203. Cisterns, 41. Claudius, 245. Clay, potter's, of Nile valley, 254-5. (see BRICKS, POTTERY). Clerestory, 71. Coffins, 157, 259 (see MUMMY-CASES and SARCOPHAGI). Coins and medals, no Egyptian, 313. Collar, Order of the Golden, 155. Colonnade, 17, 48, 67-8, 75, 79. Colossi, 83, 103, 106, 202, 226-30, 232, 241. Columns, monolithic, and built in courses, 52. campaniform, 56-9. Hathor-headed, 61-2. lotus-bud, 59-61. types of, 55. Concrete, 128. Cones, funerary, 166, 257. Contra Esneh, 57. Contra Latopolis, 61. (see EL KAB). Copper, 35, 105, 203, 304, 305, 321. Coptic embroidery, 303 and note. Coptos (Koft), 1, 243, 245, 303. Coral, 247. "Corbelling," 51, 52. Corn, 36-7, 97. Cornice, 9, 15, 24, 50, 53, 61, 148. Cos, 302. Courtyard,— of houses, 9, 16. of temples, 67, 144. Covering walls, 25, 29, 30, 32. Cramps, metal, 48. Crane, machine, 49, Crio-sphinx, 88, 89. Crocodile, 171, 189. Cruets, 318, 320. Crypts, of temples, 75, 84. Crystals, 250. Cups,— of glazed pottery, 268. of gold and silver, 316-17. Curtain wall, 30. Curve, favourite ancient Egyptian, 283. Cylinders, of enamelled stone, 265. Cynocephali, 164, 167, 199, 322. Cyprus, supposed glass of, 263.

Dahshur, 113, 114, 131, 134, 142, 323. Dakkeh, 2. Damanhur, 332. Dams,— embanked, 38. of stone, 40-1. Dancers, 177, 178. Daphnae, 36 and note (see TAHPANHES and TELL DEFENNEH). Dapur, 30, 31. Date palms, 15, 274. Decani, 93. Decoration, subjects of, 11, 12, 18-20, 21-2. geometrical, 19, 256, 258, 295, 298. (See COLUMNS, PAINTING, SCULPTURE.) Deir el Bahari, 51, 53, 61, 83, 85 and note, 109 (note), 180, 229, 264, 266, 287, 299, 302. Deir el Gebrawi (see TOMBS). Deirel Medineh (see TEMPLES). Delta, the, 4, 31, 37, 209, 235, 241, 243, 310, 311. Denderah (see TEMPLES). Derr, 84. Deveria, T., 196 (note). Dice, of ivory, 273. Die, of column, 57. Dike,— of Kosheish, 38. Wady Garraweh, 40. Wady Genneh, 41. Diorite, 42, 169, 196, 224, 254. Disc, winged, 294. Dolls, 282. Dom palms, 15, 274, 318. Door, 9, 25, 68, 104, 135, 150, 151, 160, 285. false, for KA, 115, 119-21, 125, 130, 141. Door-jambs, 26, 46, 47, 116, 119, 151. Double, the (see KA). Dovetails, 48. Drah Abu'l Neggeh, 147, 158, 266. Draught-box, 273. Drawing, 169-70. conventional system of, 175-9. teaching of, 169-70. want of perspective in, 182-91. (See PAINTING AND SCULPTURE.) Dress, 219, 274-6, 327. articles of,— braces, 298, 327. girdle, 178, 274, 278. head-dress, 241, 276, 286. kilt, 201, 275. klaft, 227, 267. petticoat, 276, 286. robe, embroidered, 308. sandals, 168, 286, 298. surcoat, 302. tunic, 225, 279. vest, 275, 286. wig, 236, 275, 286, 308, 310. Drill, 195, 247, 250, 282. Duality, 96-7. Ducks, 15, 20, 306. Duemichen, 109 (note). Dwarf, statue of, 224-6. Dynasty III. (Memphite),— possible wood panels of, 210. Dynasty IV. (Memphite),— decoration, 89-90. funerary temples, 64 and note, 66. mastabas of, 117, 118, 124, 125, 126, 128. obelisks, 104. pigments, 202 (note). pyramids, 134-7, 140. sarcophagus, 19, 20, 21. scarabaei, 250. statuary, 214. Dynasty V. (Memphite),— Abydos, 22. elephants, 273. flesh tints, 204. ivory statuette, 273. mastabas, 117, 119, 120, 122. models of offerings, 252. monuments, 208-9. painters' palettes, 202. panels, carved wood, 210. pyramids, 139-40. tables of offerings, 107. Dynasty VI. (Elephantine),— in Abydos, Asuan, the Delta, Hermopolis, Thebes, 209 and note. bricks, 113. flesh tints, 204. fortress, 2. mastabas, 157. pyramids, 140, 142. scarabaei, 250. tomb-paintings, 21. tombs, 128, 129, 130, 149 (note), 155, 204, 209 (note). Dynasty XI. (Theban),— blue glaze, 265-6. canopic vases, 167. chairs, 295. fortress, 23. funerary statuettes, 253. mummy-cases, 286. statuary, 226. tombs, 147.

Dynasty XII. (Theban),— blue glaze, 266. fortress, 23, 28. houses, 7, 8, 12, 281-2. jewellery 322, 323 (see KAHUN). Karnak, 76. models of offerings, 252. pyramids 132, 142, 143. statuary, 228, 229. temples, 66. tombs 149 (note), 156 (see BENI HASAN). Dynasty XIII. (Theban),— funerary couch, 293-4. Karnak, 76. statuary, 226-7, 229, 273-4. statuettes, 233, 273. Dynasty XIV. (Xoite),— Karnak, 76. statuary, 226-7. Dynasty XVII. (Theban),— draught-box, 273. jewellery, 323 et seq. sarcophagi, 287. Dynasty XVIII. (Theban),— in Abydos, 22. blue glaze, 268. Book of the Dead, 173. bronzes, 307. canopic vases, 258. chair, 296-7 (note). colossi, 229-30. domestic architecture, 14 et seq. gold and silver plate, 316, 318, 319, 320. gold and silver statues, 314-15. jewellery, 323 et seq. Karnak, 76-7. in Memphis, 88. mummy-cases, 288-9. painters' palettes, 202. scarabaei, 250. sculpture, 229-31. Speos-sanctuaries, 82, 83, 85. stelae, 45. in Thebes, 88-9. tomb-paintings, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17. tombs, 155 et seq. wars, 31. Dynasty XIX. (Theban),— blue glaze of, 268. bronzes, 307. colossi, 234. domestic architecture, 19. flesh tints, 205. fortifications, 31, 34. gold and silver plate, 317, 321. gold and silver statues, 314. jewellery, 331. Karnak, 78. mummy-cases, 289. tombs, 158 et pas. Dynasty XX. (Theban),— blue glaze, 268. canopic vases, 258. domestic architecture, 19. fortresses 33 (see MEDINET HABU). gold and silver plate, 317. jewellery, 332. leather-work, 300, 301. sketches, 171. stela of Bakhtan, 109 (note). temple of Khonsu, 70-2. tiles (Tell el Yahudeh), 270-2. tomb-paintings, 20. tomb-robberies, 323. tombs, 158 et pas.. varnish, 203-4. wood-carving, 235, 274. Dynasty XXI. (Priest-kings),— papyri, 174. sculpture, 228. tomb 158 (tomb of Herhor). Dynasty XXII. (Bubastite),— bronzes, 307. leather-work, 299, 300. Karnak, 79. Dynasty XXV. (Ethiopian),— art, 235. Karnak, 79. Dynasty XXVI. (Saite),— ampullae, 268, 269. bronzes, 307, 311-12. glass, 263. gold statuettes, 315. Renaissance, 235 et seq. sculpture, 236 et seq. table of offerings, 252. tombs, 165. Dynasty XXXI. (Persian),— tapestry, 303.

Earrings, 331, 332. Earthquake,— building to resist, 22. of B.C. 27, at Karnak, 79. of B.C. 22, at Thebes, 244. Ebony, 295, 323. Edfu (see TEMPLES). Edinburgh Museum, funerary canopy in, 293-4. Eggs, 259. Egypt Exploration Fund,— at Bersheh, 148 (note). at Bubastis, 52 (note). at Daphnae, 36 (note). at Deir el Bahari, 83, 85. at Pithom, 36 (note). at Tanis, 104 (note). at Tell Gemayemi, 200 (note), 262 (note). Ekhmim, 14, 247, 259, 291, 293, 297, 303 and note. El Agandiyeh, 1. El Hibeh, 2, 33. at Beni Hasan, 148 (note). El Kab, 2, 20, 26, 27, 54, 69, 88, 228, 265 (see CONTRA LATOPOLIS). El Khozam, 256. Electrum, 304, 312, 313. Elephant, 273. Elephantine, 148, 209 (note), 273, 275. (see TEMPLES). Embroidery, 276, 302, 303, 308. Emerald, 41, 246, 250. Enamel, 265-72. in jewellery, 289, 322, 325, 327. Erman, on Stela of Bakhtan, 109 (note). Erment, 247. Esneh, 92, 144, 245. Ethiopia, 106, 318. Ethiopian Dynasty (see DYNASTY XXV.). Etruria, imitated scarabs of, 248. Eye,— as amulet, 247-8. in decoration, 268. on sarcophagi, 285. sacred, 168. (See UTA). Eyes of statues, 261, 310.

Fan, 323. Fayum, the, 19, 38, 39, 66, 105, 134, 243, 259, 261, 304. Feast,— funerary, 118, 123, 125, 166. funerary of Horemheb, 179-80. Feasts, 118. Felspar, 247, 250, 324, 328, 329. Ferry, 34. Feshn, 33. Figs, 267. Fires, 2, 12. Fire-sticks, 282. Fish,— in decoration, 268, 278, 316. in enamel, 267. offerings of, 228. Florence Museum, Egyptian war-chariot in, 292 (note). Flowers (see LOTUS),— in temples, 67. offerings of, 180, 228. Fords, 34. Fortresses, 20-34. of Abydos, 20-6. of El Kab, 20, 27. of Kom el Ahmar, 25, 26. of Kummeh, 28-9. of Semneh, 28-30. Foundations, 47, 48. Frieze, 97. Frog, as amulet, 247. Frontier, 28, 31, 36-7. Furnaces, glass, 259, 260. Furniture, 281-4. ancient Egyptian love of beautiful, 246. funerary, 128, 166-8, 251 et seq., 292 et seq. funerary, of poor, 167-8, 255.

Galleries,— in houses, 17. Garden, of private house, 13, 14, 15. Garnet, 246. scarabaei of, 250. Gazelle, 123, 128, 153, 171, 176, 180, 252. Gebel Abufeydeh, 44, 45. Gebel Barkal (see TEMPLES). Gebel Sheikh Herideh, 45. Gebel Silsileh (see TEMPLES). Gebeleyn, 33, 256. Geese, 15, 19, 166, 171, 177, 296, 306. Genii, 159, 164, 258 (note). of On, Sop, and Khonu, 96, 324. Gerf Husein, 85. Girgeh, 14, 38. Gizeh (see PYRAMIDS, TEMPLES, TOMBS). Gizeh, Museum, 4, 106, 107, 171, 174, 195, 214, 216-26, 227, 229, 232-3, 237, 239, 241, 242, 244, 262, 265, 267, 268, 271, 273, 274, 275, 278, 286, 298, 301, 306, 307, 308, 309, 315, 316, 323-30, 331. Glass, 259-65. factories, at El Kab, the Ramesseum, Tell el Amarna, Tell Eshmuneyn, 265. factory at Tell Gemayemi, 262 (note). Glazed stone and ware, 165-72 (see POTTERY). Goat, 176. Gods,— Amen, 33, 97, 101, 104, 105, 109, 171, 231, 232, 249, 268, 289, 307, 315, 327. Amen Ra, 96. Anhur, 311. Anubis, 168, 304. Apis, 147, 263. Bes, 53, 57, 254, 277, 318. Harpocrates, 307. Hor (Horus), 96, 105. Horus (Hor), 64, 96, 105, 207, 259, 267, 309-10, 314. Khonsu, 60, 64, 70, 72, 74, 75, 97, 109 and note, 235. Mentu, 97, 329. Min, 118. Nefertum, 310, 314. Osiris, 20, 53, 54, 95, 142, 168, 189, 237, 249, 304. Ptah, 168, 315. Ra, 208, 327. Ra Harmakhis, 105. Seb, 324. Set (Typhon), 96, 196. Shu, 311. Thoth, 96, 118, 167, 259, 314. Tum, 105. Goddesses,— Apet, 237 (note). Bast, 168, 311. Hathor, 53, 54, 55, 61, 62, 69, 70, 82, 83, 97, 168, 237. Isis, 95, 241, 247, 249, 250, 287, 294, 310, 314. Khuit, 259. Ma, 262, 294. Maut, 97, 289. Neith, 250. Nekheb, 92. Nephthys, 237, 249, 250, 287, 294, 310. Pakhet, 42, 82. Sekhet, 250, 277, 311. Sothis, 118. Taurt, 237 (note). Tefnut, 311. Thueris, 237. Uati, 92. Gold, 11, 304, 312-21. Goldsmith, 313. Golenischeff, 228. Gouge, 195. Granaries, 1, 10, 36. Granite, 6, 47, 66, 76, 103, 132, 136, 137, 169,196, 197, 199, 214, 247, 254, 290. black, 42, 165, 233. grey, 41, 236, 244. red, 42, 52, 65, 77, 107, 127, 165, 232, 236. Grapes, models, 166, 267. Greeks,— Egyptian fortification in time of, 34. Egyptian patterns among, 320. their imitation scarabs, 248. their influence on astronomical tables, 93. their influence on columns, 56. their influence on jewellery, 332. their influence on sculpture, 241-4. their peripteral temples, 69. their similar system of building construction, 48. their theory of mounds, 5. (See PTOLEMAIC PERIOD.) Grenfell, Major-General Sir F., 149 (note), and 209 (note). Greyhound, in drawings, 176. Griffith, F. Ll., 200 (note), 262 (note). Grindstone, 247. Gum tragacanth, 203. Gurneh, 60. Gypsum, 203.

Hadrian, 243, 245 (note). Hairpins, 277. Hammamat, valley of, 41. Hammer, 195, 313. Hapi, genius, 258 (note). Hapizefa (see TOMB). Harpocrates (see GODS). Hatasu (see HATSHEPSUT). Hathor (see GODDESSES). Hatshepsut (Hatasu), 42, 77, 85, 104, 105, 109 and note, 296 (note), 313 and note. Hawara, 257, 291. Hawk, 254, 259, 267, 322, 326. Haworth, Mr. Jesse, 296 (note). Headrest, 128, 166, 277. Hedgehog, 254, 267. Hekalli, 144. Heliopolis, 26, 32, 103, 104, 309. Helwan, dam at baths of, 40. Hematite, 247, 250. Hemi-speos,— Beit el Wally, 84, 205 (note), 235. Deir el Bahari, 83, 85. Derr, 84. Gerf Husein, 85. Wady Sabuah, 85. Herhor, 158, 261, 288. Hermopolis, 209. Herodotus, 38, 39-40, 88, 195. Hesi, 210. Hieroglyphs, 55, 60, 180, 236, 257, 261-2 and note, 268, 270, 284, 285, 289, 300, 316, 325. Hippopotamus, 189, 236. Hittites, 31, 185. (see KHETA). Honey, 203, 254. Hophra, the biblical, 269. Hor Horus (see GODS). Hor, portrait statue of one, 242. Horbeit, 311, 312. Horemheb, 50, 52, 53, 82, 155, 158, 179-80, 205, 231, 232, 233. Horhotep (see TOMB). Hori Ra, wooden statuette of, 275. Hori, scribe, ushabtiu of, 257. Horn, objects in, 272. Horse, date of introduction of, 153-4. Horshesu, 64 and note. 207. Horus (see GODS). Horuta, 257. Houses, 1-20. Hui (see TOMB). Hunefer, his papyrus, 173-4. Huts, 20, 8. Hyksos sphinxes (see PERIOD). Hypostyle hall, 72, 74, 76, 89, 92, 102, 106. Abu Simbel, 84. Abydos, 60, 85-6. Gurneh, 60. Kalaat Addah, 82. Karnak, 34 (note), 46, 57, 60, 62-3,76, 78, 79, 100. temple of Khonsu, 71. Medinet Habu, 60. Ramesseum, 57, 60.

Ibis, 259. Ibrahim, Prince, 240. Illahun, 39, 143. Incense, 95, 126, 273. Ink, black, 4, 170, 193, 285. red, 44, 170, 171, 193, 285. Inscriptions, absence of in Temple of Sphinx, 66. obelisk, 313 and note. pyramid of Unas, 163. sarcophagi, 127, 157, 165. tombs, 141-2, 151, 155-6. (See HIEROGLYPHS). Iron, 195-7, 304. Irrigation, 35, 37-41. Isiemkheb, 180, 299-300. Isis (see GODDESSES). Italy, Egyptian patterns in, 320. Ivory, 272, 273-4, 283.

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