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Manners and Monuments of Prehistoric Peoples
by The Marquis de Nadaillac
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[181] — Broca: "Les Ossements des Eyzies," Paris, 1868.

[182] — Lartet and Chaplain-Duparc: "Une Sepulture des Anciens Troglodytes des Pyrenees."

[183] — BULL. SOC. ANTH., 1878, p. 215. The Baumes-Chaudes caves are the most complete charnel houses of Neolithic times yet discovered. Dr. Prunieres collected in them as many as three hundred skeletons.

[184] — "In a large proportion of the long barrows I have opened, the skulls exhumed have been found to be cleft apparently with a blunt weapon, such as a club or stone axe." — ARCHAEOLOGIA, vol. xlii., p. 161, etc.

[185] — Wilson: "Prehistoric Annals of Scotland," 2d ed., vol. i., p. 187.

[186] — Keller: "Pfahlbauten," SIEBENTER BERICHT, P. 27, Zurich, 1876.

[187] — "Habitants Primitifs de la Scandinavie," pp. 212 and 213.

[188] — "On the Occurrence of Fossil Bones in South America."

[189] — JOURNAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY, May, 1882.

[190] — Wyman: REPORT PEABODY MUSEUM, 1874, p, 40.

[191] — This skill was not always shown, for Dr. Topinard speaks of a femur found at Feigneux which had been so clumsily set that one part greatly overlapped the other. — Bul. Soc. ANTH., P. 534.

[192] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1883, pp. 258 — 301; 1885, p. 412. BUL. SOC. POLYMATIQUE DU MORBIHAN, 1883, p. 12.

[193] — NATURE, January 2, 1886.

[194] — BUL. SOC. ANTH. DE LYON, 1883 — 1884.

[195] — Belucci: CONGRES PREHISTORIQUE DE LISBONNE, 1880, p. 471.

[196] — "Uber trepanirte Schadel won Giebiechenstein" (VERH. DER BERLINER GESELLSCHAFT FUR ANTH., 1879, p. 64).

[197] — MATERIAUX POUR L'HISTOIRE DE L'HOMME, Aout, 1886.

[198] — American Ass., Detroit, 1875, Nashville, 1877; "Ancient Men of the Great Lakes" "Additional Facts Concerning Artificial Perforation of the Cranium in Ancient Mounds in Michigan." See also on this question generally Fletcher "On Prehistoric Trepanning and Cranial Amulets," Washington, 1882.

[199] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., February 17, 1881.

[200] — Jehan Taxil: "Traite de l'Epilepsie, Maladie Appalee Vulgairement la Gouttete aux Petits Enfants."

[201] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1887, p. 527.

[202] — De Baye: "Trepanations Prehistoriques," p. 28, fig. 11.

[203] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1877, p. 42. Broca constantly dwells on this idea. "This funeral rite," he said, addressing the Anthropological Society, "implies belief in another life."

[204] — ASS. FRANCAISE, Lille, 1874, p. 631.

[205] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1864, p. 199.

[206] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1882, pp. 143, 535.

[207] — ASS. FRANCAISE, Blois, 1884, p. 417.

[208] — Boulogne: MEM. DE MEDECINE ET DE CHIRURGIE MILITAIRES, 3d series, Paris, 1868. Vedrenes: "Le Trepanation du Crane" (REV. ANTH., October, 1886).

[209] — On this point an admirable book should be consulted, by De la Noe: "Enceintes Prehistoriques," MAT., 1888, p. 324, in which the author says that positions protected by escarpments bordering the greater party of the circumference of the ENCEINTE were at all times chosen for the erection of fortifications. The absence of water, however, often makes him hesitate in coming to a decision, and leads him to think that the remains where it is absent must have been temples for the worship of deities.

[210] — CONGRES PREHISTORIQUES, Brussels, 1872, p. 318.

[211] — "De Bello Gallico," book vii., chap. xxiii.

[212] — Dupont: "Les Temps Prehistoriques en Belgique," p. 235.

[213] — H. Bauduin: BUL. SOC. BELGE DE GEOGRAPHIE, 1879.

[214] — RECUEIL DES TRAVAUX DE LA SOCIETE DE L'EURE, Evreux, 1879.

[215] — REV. D'ANTH., 1880, p. 469.

[216] — "Notice sur Quelques Monuments Trouves sur le Sommet des Vosges" (SOC. DES MONUMENTS HISTORIQUES DE L'ALSACE, vol. i.).

[217] — REV. D'ANTH., 1880, p. 295.

[218] — We may also mention the Pen Richard in Charente Inferieure, so well described by Cartailhac in his "France Prehistorique," p. 131.

[219] — Arcelin: "L'Age de Pierre et la Classification Prehistorique," Paris, 1873. Flouest: "Notice sur le Camp de Chassey." Perrault: "Un Foyer de l'Age de la Pierre Polie au Camp de Chassey" (MAT., 1870). Coynart: "Fouilles au Camp de Chassey" (REV. ARCH., 1866 and 1867).

[220] — Ponthieux, "Le Camp de Catenoy" (Oise).

[221] — "Hist. Francorum," book i., chap. xxxii.

[222] — De Rosemont: "Etude sur les Antiquites anterieures aux Romains." Desjardins: "Les Camps Retranches des Environs de Nice." Riviere: ASS. FRANCAISE, Rheims, 1880, p. 628.

[223] — Pigorini: "Terramara dell'Eta del Bronzo Situata in Castione de' Marchesi."

[224] — NATURE, 1887, second week, p. 62.

[225] — Memoranda read to the Royal Society of Antiquaries in London (ARCHAEOLOGIA, vol. xlii., pp. 27 — 76). Lane Fox: BRITISH ASSOCIATION, Bristol, 1875. Evans: "Stone Age."

[226] — "Solent et subterraneos specus aperire, eosque multo insuper fimo onerant, suffugium hiemi et receptaculum frugibus" ("De Moribus Germanorum," chap. xvi.).

[227] — AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY.

[228] — ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANTHROPOLOGIE, 1874, p. 115; 1875, p. 127.

[229] — Zaborowski: "Monuments Prehistoriques de la Basse Vistule."

[230] — Ribeiro: "Notice sur Quelques Monuments Prehistoriques du Portugal," Lisbon, 1878.

[231] — "Noticia de Algunas Estarves e Monumentos Prehistoricos."

[232] — H. and L. Siret: "Les Premiers Ages du Metal dans le Sud-est de l'Espagne."

[233] — CONGRES PREHISTORIQUE DE COPENHAGUE, p. 118.

[234] — Putnam: "Report Peabody Museum," vol. iii., p. 348.

[235] — "Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley."

[236] — See Dr. Hibbert in the TRANSACTIONS OF THE SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF SCOTLAND, vol. iv., Appendix, p. 181.

[237] — ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ETHNOGRAPHIE, 1870, p. 270.

[238] — Pomerol: "Murailles Vitrifiees de Chateauneuf," ASS. FRANC., Blois, 1884.

[239] — CONGRES SOC. SAV., Sorbonne, 1882.

[240] — J. Marion: BUL. DES SOC. SAVANTES, 4th series, vol. iv. Daubree: REV. ARCH., July, 1881.

[241] — Sir J. Lubbock compares the ruins of Aztalan, in America, with the vitrified forts of Scotland; but we think this is a mistake, for the walls of Aztalan consisted of irregularly shaped masses of hard, reddish clay, full of hollows, retaining the impression of the straw or dried grass with which the clay was mixed before it was subjected to the action of heat, whether the application of that heat was intentional or accidental. There is nothing about this at all resembling the melted granite of the vitrified forts.

[242] — De Cassac: "Notes sur les Forts Vitrifies de la Creuse." Thuot: "La Forteresse Vitrifiee du Pay de Gaudy," p. 102.

[243] — We take most of these details from a note by M. A. de Montaiglon published in the BULLETIN DES SOCIETES SAVANTES.

[244] — MAT., 1881, p. 371.

[245] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1884, p. 816, etc.

[246] — Fouque, NATURE, 1876, second week, p. 65.

[247] — Book vi., chap. xvi. and xx. — Pliny the Elder, uncle and father by adoption of Pliny the Younger, lost his life in this catastrophe, which took place in 79 A. D.

[248] — Cigalla: ACAD. DES SCIENCES, November 12, 1866. Fouque: ACAD. DES SCIENCES, March 25, 1867. "Un Pompei Prehistorique," REVUE DES DEUX-MONDES, October 15, 1869.

[249] — Schliemann: "Troy and its Remains," translated by Philip Smith, London, Murray, 1875; "Ilios Ville et Pays des Troyens," translated by Mme. E. Egger, Paris, Hachette, 1885; E. Burnouf: REVUE DES DEUX-MONDES, January 1, 1874; Virchow: "Alt Trojanische Graber and Schadel."

[250] — Iliad, canto v., v., 692.

[251] — Egyptologists tell us that in the fourth year of the reign of Ramses II., or about 1406 B.C., the Hittites placed themselves at the head of a coalition against the Egyptian Pharaoh. With these Hittites, or Khittas, whose descendants still dwell in the north of Syria, were the Mysians, the Lycians, the Dardanians, and other tribes.

[252] — "Amerique Prehistorique" (Masson), translated by Nancy Bell (N. D'Anvers), and published by Murray, London; Putnam, New York.

[253] — "Troy and its Remains," plate ix. See also excellent essay on the same subject by S. Reinach, which appeared in the REVUE ARCHEOLOGIQUE in 1885. Later investigations by Dr. Schliemann also brought to light a remarkable resemblance between the buildings at Hissarlik and those of Tiryns.

[254] — The British Museum contains a manuscript of the fourteenth century, in which is a letter from Julian, written when he was emperor, between 361 and 363 A.D., and relating to his visit to Ilium.

[255] — The potter's wheel was, however, in use at a very remote antiquity. In China its invention is attributed to the legendary Emperor Hwang-Ti, who is supposed to have lived about 2697 B.C. The wheel was also known from the very earliest times in Egypt, and Homer (Iliad, c. xviii., v. 599) compares the light motions of the dancers represented on the shield of Achilles to the rapid rotation of the potter's wheel.

[256] — Rivett-Carnac: "Memorandum on Clay Discs Called Spindle Whorls and Votive Seals Found at Sankisa" (Behar), JOURNAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL, vol. xlix., p. 1.

[257] — "De Sacris AEdificiis," ch. ix., p. 128.

[258] — It is interesting to note the discovery of urns closely resembling those of Troy, and containing human remains, in Persia (Sir W. Ouseley: "Travels in Persia"), and at Travancore, in the south of Malabar, where, according to tradition, they were intended to receive the remains of young virgins sacrificed in honor of the gods. — "Some Vestiges of Girl Sacrifices," JOURN. ANTH. INST., May, 1882.

[259] — The vulva was sometimes represented by a large triangle. The same peculiarity occurs on some black marble statuettes, found in the tombs of the Cyclades and Attica. Three such statuettes from the island of Paros are in the Louvre, and the British Museum owns a rich collection. Dr. Schliemann also mentions a female idol made in lead of very coarse workmanship, in which the sexual organs are represented by a double cross.

[260] — The PHALLUS was, as we have already stated, the symbol of generative force. Its worship extended throughout India and Syria; a gigantic Phallus adorned the temple of the mother of the gods at Hierapolis, and it was carried in triumph in processions through Egypt and Greece. It is still worshipped in some places at the present day. Near Niombo, in Africa, there is a temple containing several phallic statues; at Stanley-Pool the fete of the PHALLUS is celebrated with obscene rites. The Kroomen observe similar ceremonies at the time of the new moon, and in Japan on certain fete clays young girls flourish gigantic PHALLI at the end of long poles. The PHALLUS is also often represented on the monuments of Central America — on the stones of the temples of Izamal and the island of Zapatero, for instance. Possibly the worship of the productive and generative forces of nature was the earliest religion of many primitive peoples, but all that is said on the subject must be sifted with considerable care.

[261] — Similar hatchets of pure copper (Fig. 2) have been found in Hungary, and Butler ("Prehistoric Wisconsin") speaks of them also as being found in North America.

[262] — The tin used is making bronze probably came from Spain or Cornwall, perhaps also from the Caucasus, where small quantities of it are still found. It was doubtless imported by the Phoenicians, the great navigators of antiquity. See Rudolf Virchow's "Das Gruberfeld Von Koban im Laude der Osseten," Berlin, 1883.

[263] — This idea gains probability from the fact that the remains of a key were picked up near the treasure, which we have reason to suppose belonged to Priam.

[264] — The gold may have come from the mines of Astyra, not far from Troy.

[265] — Electrum was the ancient name for amber, but was also given to an alloy of gold and silver, the yellow color of which resembles that of amber.

[266] — Dr. Schliemann gives a very careful description of all these objects. See "Troy and its Remains," Figs. 174 to 497, pp. 260 to 353.

[267] — The qr'hdemnon or diadem of the wife of Menelaus is a narrow fillet from which hang several little chains formed of links alternating with small leaves, and ending in rather larger leaves, these leaves all representing the woman with the owl's head, so characteristic of Trojan art. The golden objects are all soldered with the same metals, which modern goldsmiths seem unable to do. At Tiryns, which we believe to have been contemporary with Troy, the art of soldering was unknown, and ornaments were merely screwed together.

[268] — Bastian, ZEITSCHRIFT DER BERLINER GESELLSCHAFT FUR ERDKUNDE, vol. xiii., plates 1 and 2.

[269] — If we accept 1200 B.C. as the date of the Trojan war and the eighth century as that of the foundation of Ilium, the towns that succeeded each other on the hill of Hissarlik only lasted four centuries altogether.

[270] — In the Vedas the word SWASTI is often used in the sense of happiness or good-fortune.

[271] — Comte Goblet d'Auriella, BUL. ACAD. ROYALE DE BELGIQUE, 1889.

[272] — G. Atkinson, CONGRES PREHISTORIQUE, Lisbon, 1880, p. 466.

[273] — "Ages Prehistoriques en Espagne et Portugal," figs 410, 411, 412, p. 286.

[274] — Aussland, 1883. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR MUSEOLOGIE AND ANTEQUATEN KUNDE, 1884. Musoeon, 1888 and 1889.

[275] — Virchow, who visited the remains at Hissarlik, treats this idea as FURCHTBAREN UNSINN (ridiculous nonsense).

[276] — The true name of this cave is the BETCHE AUX ROCHES. A very excellent essay on the subject was read by the explorers, MM. de Puydt and Lohest, in August, 1886, to the Historic Society of Belgium, and "Les Fouilles de Spy," by Dr. Collignon, published in the REVUE D'ANTHROPOLOGIE, 1887, may also be consulted. Excavations were also carried on in the same cave in 1879 by M. Bucquoy (BUL. SOC. ANTH. DE BELGIQUE, 1887). He distinguished five ossiferous levels and picked up some flints of the Mousterien type, and even some Chelleen hatchets, to which he gave the name of coups DE POING. — Fraipont and Lohest; "Recherches sur les Ossements Humains Decouvertes dans les Depots Quaternaires d'un grotte a Spy."

[277] — We borrow these details from a valuable work by Cartailhac (MAL., 1886, p. 441; REV. D'ANTH., 1886, p. 448). The conclusions of our learned colleague are that we really know nothing of the funeral rites of the men of Chelles and Moustier, and that it is to the Solutreen period that we must assign the first really authenticated tombs. Cartailhac's admirable book, "La France Prehistorique," p. 302, should also be consulted.

[278] — "Ipui Antichi Sepolcri dell Italia."

[279] — ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, vol. xxii.

[280] — MATERIAUX, 1885, p. 299.

[281] — This dolmen was carefully excavated by MM. Hahn and Millescamps, BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1883, p. 312.

[282] — Riviere; CONGRES DES SCIENCES GEOGRAPHIQUES, Paris, 1878.

[283] — ATTI DELLA R. ACAD. DEI LINCEI, 1879 — 1880. Pigorini: BUL. DE PAL. ITALIANA, 1880, p. 33.

[284] — SOC. ANTH. DE MUNICH, 1886.

[285] — SOC. ANTH. DE LYON, 1889.

[286] — "Histoire du Travail en Gaule," p. 24.

[287] — Troyon: "De l' Attitude Repliee dans la Sepulture Antique," REVUE ARCH., 1864.

[288] — MATERIAUX, 1875, p. 327.

[289] — A. Nicaise: MATERIAUX, 1880, p. 186.

[290] — ARCH. PREHISTORIQUE, p. 178.

[291] — CONGRES PREHISTORIQUE DE BRUXELLES, p. 299.

[292] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1876, p. 191. Grad: NATURE, 1877, 1st week, p. 314.

[293] — MEMORIE SULLE SCOPERTE PALEOETHNOLOGICHE DELLA CAMPAGNA ROMANA. Pigorini adds in his turn: "I CADAVERI ERANO ABITUALMENTE ADAGIATI SUL FIANCO SINISTRO, COL CRANIO APPOGIATO SULLA MANO SINISTRE E LE GINOCCHIA ALQUANTO PIEGATE IN GUISA CHE TAVOLTA SI TROVARONO LE TIBIE ASSAI PROSSIME ALLA CASSA TORACICA."

[294] — Pallery: "Mon. Megalithiques de Mascara," BUL. SOC. ETHN., 1887.

[295] — Bancroft: "The Native Races of the Pacific," vol. i., pp. 365, etc. Moreno: "Les Paraderos de la Patagonie," REV. D'ANTH., 1874.

[296] — "Necropole de Colonna, prov. de Grosseto," R. ACAD. DEI LINCEI, Roma, 1885.

[297] — BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1880, p. 895.

[298] — Abbe Baudry et Ballereau: "Les Puits Funeraires du Bernard," La Roche-sur-Yon, 1873.

[299] — "Renseignements sur une Ancienne Necropole Manzabotta, pres de Bologna," Bologna, 1871.

[300] — Gross: "Les Proto-Helvetes." Morel-Fatio: "Sepultures des Populations Lacustres de Chamblandes." As at Auvernier, a great many bears' tusks were found lying near the dead, which may possibly also have had something to do with a funeral rite.

[301] — D. Charnay: NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW, January, 1881.

[302] — Stuart: "The Early Modes of Burial."

[303] — Vidal Seneze; BUL. SOC. ANTH., 1877, p. 561.

[304] — "Histoire des Incas," Paris, 1744, chap. xviii.

[305] — Conestabile: "De l'incineration chez les Etrusques."

[306] — A. Bertrand: "Arch. Celtique et Gauloise," Introduction.

[307] — ASS. FRANCAISE, Nantes, 1875; Havre, 1877.

[308] — Luco: "Exposition de Trois Monuments Quadrilateres par feu James Miln," Vannes, 1883.

[309] — P. du Chatellier: "Mem. Soc. d'Emulation des Cotes-du-Nord," Saint Brieuc, 1883.

[310] — PROCEEDINGS SOC. ANTH. OF SCOTLAND, January 11, 1886.

[311] — "On the Ancient Modes of Sepulchre in the Orkneys" (BRITISH ASSOCIATION, 1877).

[312] — Kohn and Mehlis: "Zur Vorgeschichte des Menschen im Ostlichen Europa," Iena, 1879.

[313] — Hochstetter: "Die neueste Graber Funde von Watsch. und S. Margarethen und der Kultur Kreiss der Hallstadter Period," Wien, 1883. Siebenter: "Bericht der Prehistorischen Commission," Wien, 1884.

[314] — In these tombs were found 61 gold objects, 5,574 bronze, 593 iron, 270 amber, 73 glass, and 1,813 terra-cotta. A. Bertrand: REV. D ETHNOGRAPHIE, 1883.

[315] — SMITHSONIAN REPORT, 1881.

[316] — Putnam, xii. and XX. REPORTS OF THE PEABODY MUSEUM.

[317] — "De Bello Gallico," book vi., cap. xix. Consult also Pomponius Mela: "De Situ Orbis," book iii., cap. ii.

[318] — In his fruitful excavations of Gallic, Gallo-Roman, and Merovingian tombs, Moreau collected no less than 31,515 flint celts or hatchets, which had evidently been votive offerings. See Album de Caranda: "Fouilles de Sainte Restitute, de Trugny, d'Armentiere, d'Arcy, de Brenny," etc.

THE END

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