This stripped-down text file is intended for users whose computers or text readers cannot display any of the more complete versions: UTF-8 (best), Latin-1 (Windows) or Mac format. As much information as possible has been preserved, but some changes were necessary to make the text readable.
Long vowels are shown as a: e: i: o: u: y: A: E: I: O: U: in the introductory section on pronunciation (Secs. 1-18), in vocabulary lists, and in charts of inflectional endings. Elsewhere in the text, long-vowel markings have generally been omitted.
The breve symbol, representing a short vowel, has also been omitted. This symbol was used only in the pronunciation section and in one or two vocabulary entries.
The notation [oo] represents short "oo".
Letters shown with combined breve and macron have been expanded as "-ei or -e:i", "-ius or -i:us".
To make this unpaginated e-text easier to use, each chapter's Special Vocabulary has been included with its chapter in addition to its original location near the end of the book. The same was done with the irregular verbs. The vocabulary lists are at the beginning of each chapter, as far as possible from the Exercises.
Boldface ("heavy type"), when needed, is shown by /diagonals. Italics are shown by lines.
Bracketed passages in the original are shown in [[double brackets]].]
* * * * * * * * * * * * * *
LATIN FOR BEGINNERS
BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE, Ph.D.
Professor in the Michigan State Normal College
Ginn and Company Boston - New York - Chicago - London
Copyright, 1909, 1911 by Benjamin L. D'Ooge Entered at Stationers' Hall All Rights Reserved 013.4
The Athenaeum Press Ginn and Company - Proprietors - Boston - U.S.A.
* * * * *
To make the course preparatory to Caesar at the same time systematic, thorough, clear, and interesting is the purpose of this series of lessons.
The first pages are devoted to a brief discussion of the Latin language, its history, and its educational value. The body of the book, consisting of seventy-nine lessons, is divided into three parts.
Part I is devoted to pronunciation, quantity, accent, and kindred introductory essentials.
Part II carries the work through the first sixty lessons, and is devoted to the study of forms and vocabulary, together with some elementary constructions, a knowledge of which is necessary for the translation of the exercises and reading matter. The first few lessons have been made unusually simple, to meet the wants of pupils not well grounded in English grammar.
Part III contains nineteen lessons, and is concerned primarily with the study of syntax and of subjunctive and irregular verb forms. The last three of these lessons constitute a review of all the constructions presented in the book. There is abundant easy reading matter; and, in order to secure proper concentration of effort upon syntax and translation, no new vocabularies are introduced, but the vocabularies in Part II are reviewed.
It is hoped that the following features will commend themselves to teachers:
The forms are presented in their natural sequence, and are given, for the most part, in the body of the book as well as in a grammatical appendix. The work on the verb is intensive in character, work in other directions being reduced to a minimum while this is going on. The forms of the subjunctive are studied in correlation with the subjunctive constructions.
The vocabulary has been selected with the greatest care, using Lodge's "Dictionary of Secondary Latin" and Browne's "Latin Word List" as a basis. There are about six hundred words, exclusive of proper names, in the special vocabularies, and these are among the simplest and commonest words in the language. More than ninety-five per cent of those chosen are Caesarian, and of these more than ninety per cent are used in Caesar five or more times. The few words not Caesarian are of such frequent occurrence in Cicero, Vergil, and other authors as to justify their appearance here. But teachers desiring to confine word study to Caesar can easily do so, as the Caesarian words are printed in the vocabularies in distinctive type. Concrete nouns have been preferred to abstract, root words to compounds and derivatives, even when the latter were of more frequent occurrence in Caesar. To assist the memory, related English words are added in each special vocabulary. To insure more careful preparation, the special vocabularies have been removed from their respective lessons and placed by themselves. The general vocabulary contains about twelve hundred words, and of these above eighty-five per cent are found in Caesar.
The syntax has been limited to those essentials which recent investigations, such as those of Dr. Lee Byrne and his collaborators, have shown to belong properly to the work of the first year. The constructions are presented, as far as possible, from the standpoint of English, the English usage being given first and the Latin compared or contrasted with it. Special attention has been given to the constructions of participles, the gerund and gerundive, and the infinitive in indirect statements. Constructions having a logical connection are not separated but are treated together.
Exercises for translation occur throughout, those for translation into Latin being, as a rule, only half as long as those for translation into English. In Part III a few of the commoner idioms in Caesar are introduced and the sentences are drawn mainly from that author. From first to last a consistent effort is made to instill a proper regard for Latin word order, the first principles of which are laid down early in the course.
Selections for reading are unusually abundant and are introduced from the earliest possible moment. These increase in number and length as the book progresses, and, for the most part, are made an integral part of the lessons instead of being massed at the end of the book. This arrangement insures a more constant and thorough drill in forms and vocabulary, promotes reading power, and affords a breathing spell between succeeding subjects. The material is drawn from historical and mythological sources, and the vocabulary employed includes but few words not already learned. The book closes with a continued story which recounts the chief incidents in the life of a Roman boy. The last chapters record his experiences in Caesar's army, and contain much information that will facilitate the interpretation of the Commentaries. The early emphasis placed on word order and sentence structure, the simplicity of the syntax, and the familiarity of the vocabulary, make the reading selections especially useful for work in sight translation.
Reviews are called for at frequent intervals, and to facilitate this branch of the work an Appendix of Reviews has been prepared, covering both the vocabulary and the grammar.
The illustrations are numerous, and will, it is hoped, do much to stimulate interest in the ancient world and to create true and lasting impressions of Roman life and times.
A consistent effort has been made to use simple language and clear explanation throughout.
As an aid to teachers using this book a "Teacher's Manual" has been prepared, which contains, in addition to general suggestions, notes on each lesson.
The author wishes to express his gratitude to the numerous teachers who tested the advance pages in their classes, and, as a result of their experience, have given much valuable aid by criticism and suggestion. Particular acknowledgments are due to Miss A. Susan Jones of the Central High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan; to Miss Clara Allison of the High School at Hastings, Michigan; and to Miss Helen B. Muir and Mr. Orland O. Norris, teachers of Latin in this institution.
BENJAMIN L. D'OOGE
MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL COLLEGE
TO THE STUDENT—By way of Introduction 1-4
PART I. THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN
ALPHABET, SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS, SYLLABLES, QUANTITY, ACCENT, HOW TO READ LATIN 5-11
PART II. WORDS AND FORMS
I-VI. FIRST PRINCIPLES—Subject and Predicate, Inflection, Number, Nominative Subject, Possessive Genitive, Agreement of Verb, Direct Object, Indirect Object, etc.—DIALOGUE 12-24
VII-VIII. FIRST OR A-DECLENSION—Gender, Agreement of Adjectives, Word Order 25-30
IX-X. SECOND OR O-DECLENSION—GENERAL RULES FOR DECLENSION—Predicate Noun, Apposition—DIALOGUE 31-35
XI. ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS 36-37
XII. NOUNS IN -ius AND -ium—GERMANIA 38-39
XIII. SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)—Nouns in -er and -ir—ITALIA—DIALOGUE 39-41
XIV. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS 42-43
XV. ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH—Cause, Means, Accompaniment, Manner—THE ROMANS PREPARE FOR WAR 44-46
XVI. THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES 46-47
XVII. THE DEMONSTRATIVE /is, ea, id—DIALOGUE 48-50
XVIII. CONJUGATION—Present, Imperfect, and Future of /sum— DIALOGUE 51-53
XIX. PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF amo AND moneo 54-56
XX. IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF amo AND moneo— Meaning of the Imperfect—NIOBE AND HER CHILDREN 56-57
XXI. FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF amo AND moneo— NIOBE AND HER CHILDREN (Concluded) 58-59
XXII. REVIEW OF VERBS—The Dative with Adjectives— CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS 59-61
XXIII. PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF rego AND audio— CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS (Concluded) 61-63
XXIV. IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF rego AND audio— The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs 63-65
XXV. FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF rego AND audio 65-66
XXVI. VERBS IN -io—Present, Imperfect, and Future Active Indicative of /capio—The Imperative 66-68
XXVII. PASSIVE VOICE—Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative of /amo and /moneo—PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA 68-71
XXVIII. PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF rego AND audio—PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (Continued) 72-73
XXIX. PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF -io VERBS—PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE 73-75
XXX. SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS—THE ABLATIVE DENOTING FROM—Place from Which, Separation, Personal Agent 75-78
XXXI. PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF sum— DIALOGUE 79-81
XXXII. PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS—Meanings of the Perfect—PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (Continued) 81-83
XXXIII. PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE— PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE 84-85
XXXIV. REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE—PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (Concluded) 86-87
XXXV. PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE—PERFECT PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE 88-90
XXXVI. REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS—Prepositions, Yes-or-No Questions 90-93
XXXVII. CONJUGATION OF possum—The Infinitive used as in English—Accusative Subject of an Infinitive— THE FAITHLESS TARPEIA 93-96
XXXVIII. THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN— Agreement of the Relative—THE FAITHLESS TARPEIA (Concluded) 97-101
XXXIX-XLI. THE THIRD DECLENSION—Consonant Stems 101-106
XLII. REVIEW LESSON—TERROR CIMBRICUS 107
XLIII. THIRD DECLENSION—I-Stems 108-110
XLIV. IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION— GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION—THE FIRST BRIDGE OVER THE RHINE 111-112
XLV. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION—THE ROMANS INVADE THE ENEMY'S COUNTRY 113-115
XLVI. THE FOURTH OR U-DECLENSION 116-117
XLVII. EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE—Place to Which, Place from Which, Place at or in Which, the Locative— Declension of /domus—DAEDALUS AND ICARUS 117-121
XLVIII. THE FIFTH OR E-DECLENSION—Ablative of Time —DAEDALUS AND ICARUS (Continued) 121-123
XLIX. PRONOUNS—Personal and Reflexive Pronouns—DAEDALUS AND ICARUS (Concluded) 123-126
L. THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN ipse AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE idem—HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE 126-127
LI. THE DEMONSTRATIVES hic, iste, ille—A GERMAN CHIEFTAIN ADDRESSES HIS FOLLOWERS—HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE (Continued) 128-130
LII. THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS—HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE (Concluded) 130-132
LIII. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 133-135
LIV. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES—Ablative with Comparatives 135-136
LV. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Continued)— Declension of /plus 137-138
LVI. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Concluded)— Ablative of the Measure of Difference 138-139
LVII. FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 140-142
LVIII. NUMERALS—Partitive Genitive 142-144
LIX. NUMERALS (Continued)—Accusative of Extent— CAESAR IN GAUL 144-146
LX. DEPONENT VERBS—Prepositions with the Accusative 146-147
PART III. CONSTRUCTIONS
LXI. THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD—Inflection of the Present— Indicative and Subjunctive Compared 148-152
LXII. THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE 152-153
LXIII. INFLECTION OF THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE—Sequence of Tenses 153-155
LXIV. INFLECTION OF THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE—Substantive Clauses of Purpose 156-159
LXV. SUBJUNCTIVE OF possum—Verbs of Fearing 160-161
LXVI. THE PARTICIPLES—Tenses and Declension 161-164
LXVII. THE IRREGULAR VERBS volo, nolo, malo— Ablative Absolute 164-166
LXVIII. THE IRREGULAR VERB fio—Subjunctive of Result 167-168
LXIX. SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC—Predicate Accusative 169-171
LXX. CONSTRUCTIONS WITH cum—Ablative of Specification 171-173
LXXI. VOCABULARY REVIEW—Gerund and Gerundive— Predicate Genitive 173-177
LXXII. THE IRREGULAR VERB eo—Indirect Statements 177-180
LXXIII. VOCABULARY REVIEW—THE IRREGULAR VERB fero— Dative with Compounds 181-183
LXXIV. VOCABULARY REVIEW—Subjunctive in Indirect Questions 183-185
LXXV. VOCABULARY REVIEW—Dative of Purpose or End for Which 185-186
LXXVI. VOCABULARY REVIEW—Genitive and Ablative of Quality or Description 186-188
LXXVII. REVIEW OF AGREEMENT—Review of the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative 189-190
LXXVIII. REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE 191-192
LXXIX. REVIEW OF THE SYNTAX OF VERBS 192-193
INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS 194-195
THE LABORS OF HERCULES 196-203
P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY 204-215
APPENDIXES AND VOCABULARIES
APPENDIX I. TABLES OF DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS, ETC. 226-260
APPENDIX II. RULES OF SYNTAX 261-264
APPENDIX III. REVIEWS 265-282
SPECIAL VOCABULARIES 283-298
LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 299-331
ENGLISH-LATIN VOCABULARY 332-343
LATIN FOR BEGINNERS
TO THE STUDENT—BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION
What is Latin? If you will look at the map of Italy on the opposite page, you will find near the middle of the peninsula and facing the west coast a district called Latium, and Rome its capital. The Latin language, meaning the language of Latium, was spoken by the ancient Romans and other inhabitants of Latium, and Latin was the name applied to it after the armies of Rome had carried the knowledge of her language far beyond its original boundaries. As the English of to-day is not quite the same as that spoken two or three hundred years ago, so Latin was not always the same at all times, but changed more or less in the course of centuries. The sort of Latin you are going to learn was in use about two thousand years ago. And that period has been selected because the language was then at its best and the greatest works of Roman literature were being produced. This period, because of its supreme excellence, is called the Golden Age of Roman letters.
[Footnote 1: Pronounce La:'shi-um.]
The Spread of Latin. For some centuries after Rome was founded, the Romans were a feeble and insignificant people, their territory was limited to Latium, and their existence constantly threatened by warlike neighbors. But after the third century before Christ, Rome's power grew rapidly. She conquered all Italy, then reached out for the lands across the sea and beyond the Alps, and finally ruled over the whole ancient world. The empire thus established lasted for more than four hundred years. The importance of Latin increased with the growth of Roman power, and what had been a dialect spoken by a single tribe became the universal language. Gradually the language changed somewhat, developing differently in different countries. In Italy it has become Italian, in Spain Spanish, and in France French. All these nations, therefore, are speaking a modernized form of Latin.
The Romans and the Greeks. In their career of conquest the Romans came into conflict with the Greeks. The Greeks were inferior to the Romans in military power, but far superior to them in culture. They excelled in art, literature, music, science, and philosophy. Of all these pursuits the Romans were ignorant until contact with Greece revealed to them the value of education and filled them with the thirst for knowledge. And so it came about that while Rome conquered Greece by force of arms, Greece conquered Rome by force of her intellectual superiority and became her schoolmaster. It was soon the established custom for young Romans to go to Athens and to other centers of Greek learning to finish their training, and the knowledge of the Greek language among the educated classes became universal. At the same time many cultured Greeks—poets, artists, orators, and philosophers—flocked to Rome, opened schools, and taught their arts. Indeed, the preeminence of Greek culture became so great that Rome almost lost her ambition to be original, and her writers vied with each other in their efforts to reproduce in Latin what was choicest in Greek literature. As a consequence of all this, the civilization and national life of Rome became largely Grecian, and to Greece she owed her literature and her art.
Rome and the Modern World. After conquering the world, Rome impressed her language, laws, customs of living, and modes of thinking upon the subject nations, and they became Roman; and the world has remained largely Roman ever since. Latin continued to live, and the knowledge of Latin was the only light of learning that burned steadily through the dark ages that followed the downfall of the Roman Empire. Latin was the common language of scholars and remained so even down to the days of Shakespeare. Even yet it is more nearly than any other tongue the universal language of the learned. The life of to-day is much nearer the life of ancient Rome than the lapse of centuries would lead one to suppose. You and I are Romans still in many ways, and if Caesar and Cicero should appear among us, we should not find them, except for dress and language, much unlike men of to-day.
Latin and English. Do you know that more than half of the words in the English dictionary are Latin, and that you are speaking more or less Latin every day? How has this come about? In the year 1066 William the Conqueror invaded England with an army of Normans. The Normans spoke French—which, you remember, is descended from Latin—and spread their language to a considerable extent over England, and so Norman-French played an important part in the formation of English and forms a large proportion of our vocabulary. Furthermore, great numbers of almost pure Latin words have been brought into English through the writings of scholars, and every new scientific discovery is marked by the addition of new terms of Latin derivation. Hence, while the simpler and commoner words of our mother tongue are Anglo-Saxon, and Anglo-Saxon forms the staple of our colloquial language, yet in the realms of literature, and especially in poetry, words of Latin derivation are very abundant. Also in the learned professions, as in law, medicine, and engineering, a knowledge of Latin is necessary for the successful interpretation of technical and scientific terms.
Why study Latin? The foregoing paragraphs make it clear why Latin forms so important a part of modern education. We have seen that our civilization rests upon that of Greece and Rome, and that we must look to the past if we would understand the present. It is obvious, too, that the knowledge of Latin not only leads to a more exact and effective use of our own language, but that it is of vital importance and of great practical value to any one preparing for a literary or professional career. To this it may be added that the study of Latin throws a flood of light upon the structure of language in general and lays an excellent foundation for all grammatical study. Finally, it has been abundantly proved that there is no more effective means of strengthening the mind than by the earnest pursuit of this branch of learning.
Review Questions. Whence does Latin get its name? Where is Latium? Where is Rome? Was Latin always the same? What sort of Latin are we to study? Describe the growth of Rome's power and the spread of Latin. What can you say of the origin of Italian, French, and Spanish? How did the ancient Greeks and Romans compare? How did Greece influence Rome? How did Rome influence the world? In what sense are we Romans still? What did Latin have to do with the formation of English? What proportion of English words are of Latin origin, and what kind of words are they? Why should we study Latin?
THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN
1. The Latin alphabet contains the same letters as the English except that it has no w and no j.
2. The vowels, as in English, are a, e, i, o, u, y. The other letters are consonants.
3. I is used both as a vowel and as a consonant. Before a vowel in the same syllable it has the value of a consonant and is called I consonant.
Thus in Iu:-li-us the first i is a consonant, the second a vowel.
SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS
[Footnote 1: N.B. The sounds of the letters are best learned by hearing them correctly pronounced. The matter in this section is, therefore, intended for reference rather than for assignment as a lesson. As a first step it is suggested that the teacher pronounce the examples in class, the pupils following.]
4. Latin was not pronounced like English. The Romans at the beginning of the Christian era pronounced their language substantially as described below.
5. The vowels have the following sounds:
VOWELS LATIN EXAMPLES
a: as in father ha:c, sta:s a like the first a in aha', never as in hat a'-mat, ca-na:s e: as in they te:'-la, me:'-ta e as in met te'-net, mer'-ce:s i: as in machine ser'-ti:, pra:'-ti: i as in bit si'-tis, bi'-bi: o: as in holy Ro:'-ma, o:'-ris o as in wholly, never as in hot mo'-do, bo'-no:s u: as in rude, or as oo in boot u:'-mor, tu:'-ber u as in full, or as oo in foot ut, tu:'-tus
NOTE. It is to be observed that there is a decided difference in sound, except in the case of a, between the long and the short vowels. It is not merely a matter of quantity but also of quality.
[Footnote 2: Long vowels are marked ^, short ones ... ]
[Transcriber's Note: In this version of the text, long vowels are shown as a:, e:, i: ... and short vowels are unmarked, as described in the introductory notes.]
6. In /diphthongs (two-vowel sounds) both vowels are heard in a single syllable.
DIPHTHONGS LATIN EXAMPLES
/ae as ai in aisle tae'-dae /au as ou in out gau'-det /ei as ei in eight dein'-de /eu as e'[oo] (a short e followed by a short u in one syllable) seu /oe like oi in toil foe'-dus /ui like [oo]'i (a short u followed by a short i in one syllable. Cf. English we) cui, huic
NOTE. Give all the vowels and diphthongs their proper sounds and do not slur over them in unaccented syllables, as is done in English.
7. Consonants are pronounced as in English, except that
CONSONANTS LATIN EXAMPLES
/c is always like c in cat, never as in cent ca'-do:, ci'-bus, ce:'-na /g is always like g in get, never as in gem ge'-mo:, gig'-no: /i consonant is always like y in yes iam, io'-cus /n before c, qu, or g is like ng in sing (compare the sound of n in anchor) an'-co-ra (ang'-ko-ra) /qu, /gu, and sometimes /su before a vowel have the sound of qw, gw, and sw. Here u has the value of consonant v and is not counted a vowel in'-quit, qui:, lin'-gua, san'-guis, sua:'-de-o: /s is like s in sea, never as in ease ro'-sa, is /t is always like t in native, never as in nation ra'-ti-o:, na:'-ti-o: /v is like w in wine, never as in vine vi:'-num, vir /x has the value of two consonants (cs or gs) and is like x in extract, not as in exact ex'-tra:, ex-a:c'-tus /bs is like ps and /bt like pt urbs, ob-ti'-ne-o: /ch, /ph, and /th are like c, p, t pul'-cher, Phoe'-be:, the-a:'-trum
a. In combinations of consonants give each its distinct sound. Doubled consonants should be pronounced with a slight pause between the two sounds. Thus pronounce tt as in rat-trap, not as in rattle; pp as in hop-pole, not as in upper. Examples, /mit'-to:, /Ap'pi-us, /bel'-lum.
8. A Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. Thus /aes-ta:'-te has three syllables, /au-di-en'-dus has four.
a. Two vowels with a consonant between them never make one syllable, as is so often the case in English. Compare English inside with Latin i:n-si:'-de.
9. Words are divided into syllables as follows:
1. A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second. Thus /a-ma:'-bi-lis, /me-mo'-ri-a, /in-te'-re-a:, /a'-best, /pe-re:'-git.
[Footnote 3: In writing and printing it is customary to divide the parts of a compound, as /inter-ea:, /ab-est, /sub-a:ctus, /per-e:git, contrary to the correct phonetic rule.]
2. Combinations of two or more consonants:
a. A consonant followed by l or r goes with the l or r. Thus /pu:'-bli-cus, /a'-gri:.
EXCEPTION. Prepositional compounds of this nature, as also ll and rr, follow rule b. Thus /ab'-lu-o:, /ab-rum'-po:, /il'-le, /fer'-rum.
b. In all other combinations of consonants the first consonant goes with the preceding vowel. Thus /mag'-nus, /e-ges'-ta:s, /vic-to:'-ri-a, /hos'-pes, /an'-nus, /su-ba:c'-tus.
[Footnote 4: The combination nct is divided nc-t, as fu:nc-tus, sa:nc-tus.]
3. The last syllable of a word is called the ul'-ti-ma; the one next to the last, the pe-nult'; the one before the penult, the an'-te-pe-nult'.
Divide the words in the following passage into syllables and pronounce them, placing the accent as indicated:
Va:'de ad formi:'cam, O: pi'ger, et co:nsi:'dera: vi'a:s e'ius et di'sce sapie'ntiam: quae cum no:n ha'beat du'cem nec praecepto:'rem nec pri:'ncipem, pa'rat in aesta:'te ci'bum si'bi et co'ngregat in me'sse quod co'medat.
[[Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise: which, having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer and gathereth her food in the harvest.]]
11. The quantity of a vowel or a syllable is the time it takes to pronounce it. Correct pronunciation and accent depend upon the proper observance of quantity.
12. Quantity of Vowels. Vowels are either long (^) or short. In this book the long vowels are marked. Unmarked vowels are to be considered short.
[Transcriber's Note: The wording of Sec. 12 is as in the original, except that the macron (long-vowel symbol) has been replaced with a caret ("hat"), and the breve (short-vowel symbol) has been omitted.]
1. A vowel is short before another vowel or h; as /po-e:'-ta, /tra'-ho:.
2. A vowel is short before nt and nd, before final m or t, and, except in words of one syllable, before final l or r. Thus /a'-mant, /a-man'-dus, /a-ma:'-bam, /a-ma:'-bat, /a'-ni-mal, /a'-mor.
3. A vowel is long before nf, ns, nx, and nct. Thus /i:n'-fe-ro:, /re'-ge:ns, /sa:n'-xi:, /sa:nc'-tus.
4. Diphthongs are always long, and are not marked.
13. Quantity of Syllables. Syllables are either long or short, and their quantity must be carefully distinguished from that of vowels.
1. A syllable is short,
a. If it ends in a short vowel; as /a'-mo:, /pi'-gri.
NOTE. In final syllables the short vowel may be followed by a final consonant. Thus the word /me-mo'-ri-am contains four short syllables. In the first three a short vowel ends the syllable, in the last the short vowel is followed by a final consonant.
2. A syllable is long,
a. If it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, as /cu:'-ro:, /poe'-nae, /aes-ta:'-te.
b. If it ends in a consonant which is followed by another consonant, as /cor'-pus, /mag'-nus.
NOTE. The vowel in a long syllable may be either long or short, and should be pronounced accordingly. Thus in /ter'-ra, /in'-ter, the first syllable is long, but the vowel in each case is short and should be given the short sound. In words like /saxum the first syllable is long because x has the value of two consonants (cs or gs).
3. In determining quantity h is not counted a consonant.
NOTE. Give about twice as much time to the long syllables as to the short ones. It takes about as long to pronounce a short vowel plus a consonant as it does to pronounce a long vowel or a diphthong, and so these quantities are considered equally long. For example, it takes about as long to say /cur'-ro: as it does /cu:'-ro:, and so each of these first syllables is long. Compare /mol'-lis and /mo:'-lis, /a:-mis'-si: and /a:-mi'-si:.
14. Words of two syllables are accented on the first, as /me:n'-sa, /Cae'-sar.
15. Words of more than two syllables are accented on the penult if the penult is long. If the penult is short, accent the antepenult. Thus /mo-ne:'-mus, /re'-gi-tur, /a-gri'-co-la, /a-man'-dus.
NOTE. Observe that the position of the accent is determined by the length of the syllable and not by the length of the vowel in the syllable. (Cf. Sec. 13.2, Note.)
16. Certain little words called enclit'ics which have no separate existence, are added to and pronounced with a preceding word. The most common are /-que, and; /-ve, or; and /-ne, the question sign. The syllable before an enclitic takes the accent, regardless of its quantity. Thus /populus'que, /dea'que, /re:gna've, /audit'ne.
[Footnote 5: Enclitic means leaning back, and that is, as you see, just what these little words do. They cannot stand alone and so they lean back for support upon the preceding word.]
HOW TO READ LATIN
17. To read Latin well is not so difficult, if you begin right. Correct habits of reading should be formed now. Notice the quantities carefully, especially the quantity of the penult, to insure your getting the accent on the right syllable. (Cf. Sec. 15.) Give every vowel its proper sound and every syllable its proper length. Then bear in mind that we should read Latin as we read English, in phrases rather than in separate words. Group together words that are closely connected in thought. No good reader halts at the end of each word.
18. Read the stanzas of the following poem by Longfellow, one at a time, first the English and then the Latin version. The syllables inclosed in parentheses are to be slurred or omitted to secure smoothness of meter.
EXCELSIOR [[HIGHER]]! 
The shades of night were falling fast, As through an Alpine village passed A youth, who bore, 'mid snow and ice, A banner with the strange device, Excelsior!
Cade:bant noctis umbrae, dum Ibat per vi:cum Alpicum Gelu: nivequ(e) adole:sce:ns, Ve:xillum cum signo: fere:ns, Excelsior!
His brow was sad; his eye beneath, Flashed like a falchion from its sheath, And like a silver clarion rung The accents of that unknown tongue, Excelsior!
Fro:ns tri:stis, micat oculus Velut e: va:gi:na: gladius; Sonantque simile:s tubae Accentu:s lingu(ae) incognitae, Excelsior!
In happy homes he saw the light Of household fires gleam warm and bright; Above, the spectral glaciers shone, And from his lips escaped a groan, Excelsior!
In domibus videt cla:ra:s Foco:rum lu:ce:s calida:s; Relucet glacie:s a:cris, Et rumpit gemitu:s labri:s, Excelsior!
"Try not the Pass!" the old man said; "Dark lowers the tempest overhead, The roaring torrent is deep and wide!" And loud that clarion voice replied, Excelsior!
Di:cit senex, "Ne: tra:nsea:s! Supra: nigre:scit tempesta:s; La:tus et altus est torre:ns." Cla:ra ve:nit vo:x responde:ns, Excelsior!
At break of day, as heavenward The pious monks of Saint Bernard Uttered the oft-repeated prayer, A voice cried through the startled air, Excelsior!
Iam lu:ce:sce:bat, et fra:tre:s Sa:ncti: Bernardi: vigile:s O:ra:bant prece:s solita:s, Cum vo:x cla:ma:vit per aura:s, Excelsior!
A traveler, by the faithful hound, Half-buried in the snow was found, Still grasping in his hand of ice That banner with the strange device, Excelsior!
Se:mi-sepultus via:tor Can(e) a: fi:do: reperi:tur, Compre:nde:ns pugno: gelido: Illud ve:xillum cum signo:, Excelsior!
There in the twilight cold and gray, Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay, And from the sky, serene and far, A voice fell, like a falling star, Excelsior!
Iacet corpus exanimum Sed lu:ce fri:gida: pulchrum; Et caelo: procul exie:ns Cadit vo:x, ut Stella cade:ns, Excelsior!
[Footnote 6: Translation by C. W. Goodchild in Praeco Latinus, October, 1898.]
WORDS AND FORMS
19. Subject and Predicate. 1. Latin, like English, expresses thoughts by means of sentences. A sentence is a combination of words that expresses a thought, and in its simplest form is the statement of a single fact. Thus,
Galba is a farmer Galba est agricola The sailor fights Nauta pugnat
In each of these sentences there are two parts:
SUBJECT PREDICATE Galba is a farmer Galba The sailor fights Nauta pugnat
2. The subject is that person, place, or thing about which something is said, and is therefore a noun or some word which can serve the same purpose.
a. Pronouns, as their name implies (pro, "instead of," and noun), often take the place of nouns, usually to save repeating the same noun, as, Galba is a farmer; /he is a sturdy fellow.
3. The predicate is that which is said about the subject, and consists of a verb with or without modifiers.
a. A verb is a word which asserts something (usually an act) concerning a person, place, or thing.
20. The Object. In the two sentences, The boy hit the ball and The ball hit the boy, the same words are used, but the meaning is different, and depends upon the order of the words. The /doer of the act, that about which something is said, is, as we have seen above, the /subject. /That to which something is done is the /direct object of the verb. The boy hit the ball is therefore analyzed as follows:
SUBJECT PREDICATE /—————- The boy hit the ball (verb) (direct object)
a. A verb whose action passes over to the object directly, as in the sentence above, is called a /transitive verb. A verb which does not admit of a direct object is called /intransitive, as, I walk, he comes.
21. The Copula. The verb to be in its different forms—are, is, was, etc.—does not tell us anything about the subject; neither does it govern an object. It simply connects the subject with the word or words in the predicate that possess a distinct meaning. Hence it is called the /copula, that is, the joiner or link.
22. In the following sentences pronounce the Latin and name the nouns, verbs, subjects, objects, predicates, copulas:
1. America est patria mea America is fatherland my
2. Agricola filiam amat (The) farmer (his) daughter loves
3. Filia est Iulia (His) daughter is Julia
4. Iulia et agricola sunt in insula Julia and (the) farmer are on (the) island
5. Iulia aquam portat Julia water carries
6. Rosam in comis habet (A) rose in (her) hair (she) has
7. Iulia est puella pulchra Julia is (a) girl pretty
8. Domina filiam pulchram habet (The) lady (a) daughter beautiful has
a. The sentences above show that Latin does not express some words which are necessary in English. First of all, Latin has no article /the or /a; thus agricola may mean the farmer, a farmer, or simply farmer. Then, too, the personal pronouns, I, you, he, she, etc., and the possessive pronouns, my, your, his, her, etc., are not expressed if the meaning of the sentence is clear without them.
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)
23. Inflection. Words may change their forms to indicate some change in sense or use, as, is, are; was, were; who, whose, whom; farmer, farmer's; woman, women. This is called /inflection. The inflection of a noun, adjective, or pronoun is called its /declension, that of a verb its /conjugation.
24. Number. Latin, like English, has two numbers, singular and plural. In English we usually form the plural by adding -s or -es to the singular. So Latin changes the singular to the plural by changing the ending of the word. Compare
Naut-a pugnat The sailor fights Naut-ae pugnant The sailors fight
25. RULE. Nouns that end in -a in the singular end in -ae in the plural.
26. Learn the following nouns so that you can give the English for the Latin or the Latin for the English. Write the plural of each.
agri'cola, farmer (agriculture) aqua, water (aquarium) causa, cause, reason do'mina, lady of the house, mistress (dominate) filia, daughter (filial) fortu'na, fortune fuga, flight (fugitive) iniu'ria, wrong, injury luna, moon (lunar) nauta, sailor (nautical) puel'la, girl silva, forest (silvan) terra, land (terrace)
[Footnote 1: The words in parentheses are English words related to the Latin. When the words are practically identical, as /causa, cause, no comparison is needed.]
27. Compare again the sentences
Nauta pugna-t The sailor fights Nautae pugna-nt The sailors fight
In the first sentence the verb /pugna-t is in the third person singular, in the second sentence /pugna-nt is in the third person plural.
28. RULE. Agreement of Verb. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject.
29. RULE. In the conjugation of the Latin verb the third person singular active ends in -t, the third person plural in -nt. The endings which show the person and number of the verb are called /personal endings.
30. Learn the following verbs and write the plural of each. The personal pronouns he, she, it, etc., which are necessary in the inflection of the English verb, are not needed in the Latin, because the personal endings take their place. Of course, if the verb's subject is expressed we do not translate the personal ending by a pronoun; thus /nauta pugnat is translated the sailor fights, not the sailor he fights.
ama-t he (she, it) loves, is loving, does love (amity, amiable) labo:'ra-t " " " labors, is laboring, does labor nu:ntia-t " " " announces, is announcing, does announce porta-t " " " carries, is carrying, does carry (porter) pugna-t " " " fights, is fighting, does fight (pugnacious)
[Footnote 2: The u in /nu:ntio: is long by exception. (Cf. Sec. 12.2.)]
I. 1. The daughter loves, the daughters love. 2. The sailor is carrying, the sailors carry. 3. The farmer does labor, the farmers labor. 4. The girl is announcing, the girls do announce. 5. The ladies are carrying, the lady carries.
II. 1. Nauta pugnat, nautae pugnant. 2. Puella amat, puellae amant. 3. Agricola portat, agricolae portant. 4. Filia laborat, filiae laborant. 5. Nauta nuntiat, nautae nuntiant. 6. Dominae amant, domina amat.
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)
32. Declension of Nouns. We learned above (Secs. 19, 20) the difference between the subject and object, and that in English they may be distinguished by the order of the words. Sometimes, however, the order is such that we are left in doubt. For example, the sentence The lady her daughter loves might mean either that the lady loves her daughter, or that the daughter loves the lady.
1. If the sentence were in Latin, no doubt could arise, because the subject and the object are distinguished, not by the order of the words, but by the endings of the words themselves. Compare the following sentences:
Domina filiam amat Filiam domina amat Amat filiam domina Domina amat filiam The lady loves her daughter
Filia dominam amat Dominam filia amat Amat dominam filia Filia amat dominam The daughter loves the lady
a. Observe that in each case the subject of the sentence ends in -a and the object in -am. The form of the noun shows how it is used in the sentence, and the order of the words has no effect on the essential meaning.
2. As stated above (Sec. 23), this change of ending is called /declension, and each different ending produces what is called a /case. When we decline a noun, we give all its different cases, or changes of endings. In English we have three cases,—nominative, possessive, and objective; but, in nouns, the nominative and objective have the same form, and only the possessive case shows a change of ending, by adding 's or the apostrophe. The interrogative pronoun, however, has the fuller declension, who? whose? whom?
33. The following table shows a comparison between English and Latin declension forms, and should be thoroughly memorized:
ENGLISH CASES LATIN CASES - - Declension Name of case Declension of Name of case of who? and use /domina and use and translation - - Who? Nominative do'min-a Nominative S case of the the lady case of the I subject subject N G Whose? Possessive domin-ae Genitive U case of the the lady's case of the L possessor of the lady possessor A R Whom? Objective domin-am Accusative case of the the lady case of the object direct object - - Who? Nominative domin-ae Nominative case of the the ladies case of the P subject subject L U Whose? Possessive domin-a:'rum Genitive R case of the the ladies' case of the A possessor of the ladies possessor L Whom? Objective domin-a:s Accusative case of the the ladies case of the object direct object - -
When the nominative singular of a noun ends in -a, observe that
a. The nominative plural ends in -ae.
b. The genitive singular ends in -ae and the genitive plural in -a:rum.
c. The accusative singular ends in -am and the accusative plural in -a:s.
d. The genitive singular and the nominative plural have the same ending.
Pronounce the following words and give their general meaning. Then give the number and case, and the use of each form. Where the same form stands for more than one case, give all the possible cases and uses.
1. Silva, silvas, silvam. 2. Fugam, fugae, fuga. 3. Terrarum, terrae, terras. 4. Aquas, causam, lunas. 5. Filiae, fortunae, lunae. 6. Iniurias, agricolarum, aquarum. 7. Iniuriarum, agricolae, puellas. 8. Nautam, agricolas, nautas. 9. Agricolam, puellam, silvarum.
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)
[See Transcriber's Note at beginning of text.]
NOUNS /dea, goddess (deity) Dia:'na, Diana /fera, a wild beast (fierce) La:to:'na, Latona /sagit'ta, arrow
VERBS /est, he (she, it) is; /sunt, they are /necat, he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill
CONJUNCTION[A] /et, and
PRONOUNS /quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who? /cuius (pronounced c[oo]i'y[oo]s, two syllables), interrog. pronoun, gen. sing., whose?
[Footnote A: A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.]
35. We learned from the table (Sec. 33) that the Latin nominative, genitive, and accusative correspond, in general, to the nominative, possessive, and objective in English, and that they are used in the same way. This will be made even clearer by the following sentence:
Filia agricolae nautam amat, the farmer's daughter (or the daughter of the farmer) loves the sailor
What is the subject? the direct object? What case is used for the subject? for the direct object? What word denotes the possessor? In what case is it?
36. RULE. Nominative Subject. The subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative and answers the question Who? or What?
37. RULE. Accusative Object. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the Accusative and answers the question Whom? or What?
38. RULE. Genitive of the Possessor. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the Genitive and answers the question Whose?
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.
I. 1. Diana est dea. 2. Latona est dea. 3. Diana et Latona sunt deae. 4. Diana est dea lunae. 5. Diana est filia Latonae. 6. Latona Dianam amat. 7. Diana est dea silvarum. 8. Diana silvam amat. 9. Diana sagittas portat. 10. Diana feras silvae necat. 11. Ferae terrarum pugnant.
For the order of words imitate the Latin above.
II. 1. The daughter of Latona does love the forests. 2. Latona's daughter carries arrows. 3. The farmers' daughters do labor. 4. The farmer's daughter loves the waters of the forest. 5. The sailor is announcing the girls' flight. 6. The girls announce the sailors' wrongs. 7. The farmer's daughter labors. 8. Diana's arrows are killing the wild beasts of the land.
Translate the questions and answer them in Latin. The answers may be found in the exercises preceding.
1. Quis est Diana? 2. Cuius filia est Diana? 3. Quis Dianam amat? 4. Quis silvam amat? 5. Quis sagittas portat? 6. Cuius filiae laborant?
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)
NOUNS /coro:'na, wreath, garland, crown fa:'bula, story (fable) /pecu:'nia, money (pecuniary) /pugna, battle (pugnacious) /victo:'ria, victory
VERBS /dat, he (she, it) gives na:rrat, he (she, it) tells (narrate)
CONJUNCTION[A] /quia or /quod, because
/cui (pronounced c[oo]i, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing., to whom? for whom?
[Footnote A: A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.]
41. The Dative Case. In addition to the relationships between words expressed by the nominative, genitive (possessive), and accusative (objective) cases, there are other relationships, to express which in English we use such words as from, with, by, to, for, in, at.
[Footnote 1: Words like to, for, by, from, in, etc., which define the relationship between words, are called /prepositions.]
Latin, too, makes frequent use of such prepositions; but often it expresses these relations without them by means of case forms which English does not possess. One of the cases found in the Latin declension and lacking in English is called the dative.
42. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the dative singular ends in -ae and the dative plural in -i:s.
NOTE. Observe that the genitive singular, the dative singular, and the nominative plural all have the same ending, -ae; but the uses of the three cases are entirely different. The general meaning of the sentence usually makes clear which case is intended.
a. Form the dative singular and plural of the following nouns: /fuga, /causa, /fortuna, /terra, /aqua, /puella, /agricola, /nauta, /domina.
43. The Dative Relation. The dative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions to, towards, for.
These prepositions are often used in English in expressions of motion, such as She went to town, He ran towards the horse, Columbus sailed for America. In such cases the dative is not used in Latin, as motion through space is foreign to the dative relation. But the dative is used to denote that to or towards which a benefit, injury, purpose, feeling, or quality is directed, or that for which something serves or exists.
a. What dative relations do you discover in the following?
The teacher gave a prize to John because he replied so promptly to all her questions—a good example for the rest of us. It is a pleasure to us to hear him recite. Latin is easy for him, but it is very hard for me. Some are fitted for one thing and others for another.
44. The Indirect Object. Examine the sentence
Nauta fugam nuntiat, the sailor announces the flight
Here the verb, /nuntiat, governs the direct object, /fugam, in the accusative case. If, however, we wish to mention the persons /to whom the sailor announces the flight, as, The sailor announces the flight /to the farmers, the verb will have two objects:
1. Its direct object, flight (fugam) 2. Its indirect object, farmers
According to the preceding section, to the farmers is a relation covered by the dative case, and we are prepared for the following rule:
45. RULE. Dative Indirect Object. The indirect object of a verb is in the Dative.
a. The indirect object usually stands before the direct object.
46. We may now complete the translation of the sentence The sailor announces the flight to the farmers, and we have
Nauta agricolis fugam nuntiat
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.
Point out the direct and indirect objects and the genitive of the possessor.
I. 1. Quis nautis pecuniam dat? 2. Filiae agricolae nautis pecuniam dant. 3. Quis fortunam pugnae nuntiat? 4. Galba agricolis fortunam pugnae nuntiat. 5. Cui domina fabulam narrat? 6. Filiae agricolae domina fabulam narrat. 7. Quis Dianae coronam dat? 8. Puella Dianae coronam dat quia Dianam amat. 9. Dea lunae sagittas portat et feras silvarum necat. 10. Cuius victoriam Galba nuntiat? 11. Nautae victoriam Galba nuntiat.
Imitate the word order of the preceding exercise.
II. 1. To whom do the girls give a wreath? 2. The girls give a wreath to Julia, because Julia loves wreaths. 3. The sailors tell the ladies a story, because the ladies love stories. 4. The farmer gives his (Sec. 22.a) daughter water. 5. Galba announces the cause of the battle to the sailor. 6. The goddess of the moon loves the waters of the forest. 7. Whose wreath is Latona carrying? Diana's.
[Footnote 2: Observe that in English the indirect object often stands without a preposition to to mark it, especially when it precedes the direct object.]
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)
ADJECTIVES /bona, good /gra:ta, pleasing /magna, large, great /mala, bad, wicked /parva, small, little /pulchra, beautiful, pretty /so:la, alone
NOUNS ancil'la, maidservant Iu:lia, Julia
ADVERBS[A] /cu:r, why /no:n, not
PRONOUNS /mea, my; /tua, thy, your (possesives) /quid, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., what?
/-ne, the question sign, an enclitic (Sec. 16) added to the first word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as /amat, he loves, but /amat'ne? does he love? /est, he is; /estne? is he? Of course /-ne is not used when the sentence contains /quis, /cu:r, or some other interrogative word.
[Footnote A: An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is very talented; she began to sing very early.]
48. The Ablative Case. Another case, lacking in English but found in the fuller Latin declension, is the ab'la-tive.
49. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the ablative singular ends in -a: and the ablative plural in -i:s.
a. Observe that the final -a of the nominative is short, while the final -a: of the ablative is long, as,
Nom. filia Abl. filia:
b. Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural.
c. Form the ablative singular and plural of the following nouns: /fuga, /causa, /fortuna, /terra, /aqua, /puella, /agricola, /nauta, /domina.
50. The Ablative Relation. The ablative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions from, with, by, at, in. It denotes
1. That from which something is separated, from which it starts, or of which it is deprived—generally translated by from.
2. That with which something is associated or by means of which it is done—translated by with or by.
3. The place where or the time when something happens—translated by in or at.
a. What ablative relations do you discover in the following?
In our class there are twenty boys and girls. Daily at eight o'clock they come from home with their books, and while they are at school they read with ease the books written by the Romans. By patience and perseverance all things in this world can be overcome.
51. Prepositions. While, as stated above (Sec. 41), many relations expressed in English by prepositions are in Latin expressed by case forms, still prepositions are of frequent occurrence, but only with the accusative or ablative.
52. RULE. Object of a Preposition. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the Accusative or Ablative case.
53. Prepositions denoting the ablative relations from, with, in, on, are naturally followed by the ablative case. Among these are
a: or ab, from, away from de:, from, down from e: or ex, from, out from, out of cum, with in, in, on
[Footnote 1: /a: and /e: are used only before words beginning with a consonant; /ab and /ex are used before either vowels or consonants.]
1. Translate into Latin, using prepositions. In the water, on the land, down from the forest, with the fortune, out of the forests, from the victory, out of the waters, with the sailors, down from the moon.
54. Adjectives. Examine the sentence
Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess
In this sentence /parva (little) and /bonam (good) are not nouns, but are descriptive words expressing quality. Such words are called adjectives, and they are said to belong to the noun which they describe.
[Footnote 2: Pick out the adjectives in the following: "When I was a little boy, I remember that one cold winter's morning I was accosted by a smiling man with an ax on his shoulder. 'My pretty boy,' said he, 'has your father a grindstone?' 'Yes, sir,' said I. 'You are a fine little fellow,' said he. 'Will you let me grind my ax on it?'"]
You can tell by its ending to which noun an adjective belongs. The ending of /parva shows that it belongs to /puella, and the ending of /bonam that it belongs to /deam. Words that belong together are said to agree, and the belonging-together is called agreement. Observe that the adjective and its noun agree in number and case.
55. Examine the sentences
Puella est parva, the girl is little Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess
In the first sentence the adjective /parva is separated from its noun by the verb and stands in the predicate. It is therefore called a predicate adjective. In the second sentence the adjectives /parva and /bonam are closely attached to the nouns /puella and /deam respectively, and are called attributive adjectives.
a. Pick out the attributive and the predicate adjectives in the following:
Do you think Latin is hard? Hard studies make strong brains. Lazy students dislike hard studies. We are not lazy.
JULIA AND GALBA
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.
I. Quis, Galba, est Diana? G. Diana, Iulia, est pulchra dea lunae et silvarum. I. Cuius filia, Galba, est Diana? G. Latonae filia, Iulia, est Diana. I. Quid Diana portat? G. Sagittas Diana portat. I. Cur Diana sagittas portat? G. Diana sagittas portat, Iulia, quod malas feras silvae magnae necat. I. Amatne Latona filiam? G. Amat, et filia Latonam amat. I. Quid filia tua parva portat? G. Coronas pulchras filia mea parva portat. I. Cui filia tua coronas pulchras dat? G. Dianae coronas dat. I. Quis est cum filia tua? Estne sola? G. Sola non est; filia mea parva est cum ancilla mea.
a. When a person is called or addressed, the case used is called the voc'ative (Latin vocare, "to call"). In form the vocative is regularly like the nominative. In English the name of the person addressed usually stands first in the sentence. The Latin vocative rarely stands first. Point out five examples of the vocative in this dialogue.
b. Observe that questions answered by yes or no in English are answered in Latin by repeating the verb. Thus, if you wished to answer in Latin the question Is the sailor fighting? /Pugnatne nauta? you would say /Pugnat, he is fighting, or /Non pugnat, he is not fighting.
THE FIRST OR A:-DECLENSION
NOUNS /casa, -ae, f., cottage ce:na, -ae, f., dinner /galli:'na, -ae, f., hen, chicken /i:n'sula, ae, f., island (pen-insula)
ADVERBS /de-in'de, then, in the next place /ubi, where
PREPOSITION /ad, to, with acc. to express motion toward
PRONOUN /quem, interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., whom?
VERBS ha'bitat, he (she, it) lives, is living, does live (inhabit) /laudat, he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise (laud) /parat, he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare /vocat, he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites, is inviting, does invite (vocation)
57. In the preceding lessons we have now gone over all the cases, singular and plural, of nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a. All Latin nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a belong to the First Declension. It is also called the A-Declension because of the prominent part which the vowel /a plays in the formation of the cases. We have also learned what relations are expressed by each case. These results are summarized in the following table:
- - -+ CASE NOUN TRANSLATION USE AND GENERAL MEANING OF EACH CASE + - - - SINGULAR - - -+ Nom. do'min-a the lady The subject Gen. domin-ae of the lady, The possessor or the lady's of something Dat. domin-ae to or for Expressing the relation the lady to or for, especially the indirect object Acc. domin-am the lady The direct object Abl. domin-a: from, with, by, Separation (from), in, the lady association or means (with, by), place where or time when (in, at) + - - - PLURAL - - -+ Nom. domin-ae the ladies Gen. domin-a:'rum of the ladies, or the ladies' Dat. domin-i:s to or for The same as the ladies the singular Acc. domin-a:s the ladies Abl. domin-i:s from, with, by, in, the ladies + - - -
58. The Base. That part of a word which remains unchanged in inflection and to which the terminations are added is called the base.
Thus, in the declension above, domin- is the base and -a is the termination of the nominative singular.
59. Write the declension of the following nouns, separating the base from the termination by a hyphen. Also give them orally.
/pugna, /terra, /luna, /ancil'la, /coro'na, /in'sula, /silva
60. Gender. In English, names of living beings are either masculine or feminine, and names of things without life are neuter. This is called /natural gender. Yet in English there are some names of things to which we refer as if they were feminine; as, "Have you seen my yacht? She is a beauty." And there are some names of living beings to which we refer as if they were neuter; as, "Is the baby here? No, the nurse has taken it home." Some words, then, have a gender quite apart from sex or real gender, and this is called /grammatical gender.
Latin, like English, has three genders. Names of males are usually masculine and of females feminine, but names of things have grammatical gender and may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. Thus we have in Latin the three words, /lapis, a stone; /rupes, a cliff; and /saxum, a rock. /Lapis is masculine, /rupes feminine, and /saxum neuter. The gender can usually be determined by the ending of the word, and must always be learned, for without knowing the gender it is impossible to write correct Latin.
61. Gender of First-Declension Nouns. Nouns of the first declension are feminine unless they denote males. Thus /silva is feminine, but /nauta, sailor, and /agricola, farmer, are masculine.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.
I. 1. Agricola cum filia in casa habitat. 2. Bona filia agricolae cenam parat. 3. Cena est grata agricolae et agricola bonam filiam laudat. 4. Deinde filia agricolae gallinas ad cenam vocat. 5. Gallinae filiam agricolae amant. 6. Malae filiae bonas cenas non parant. 7. Filia agricolae est grata dominae. 8. Domina in insula magna habitat. 9. Domina bonae puellae parvae pecuniam dat.
II. 1. Where does the farmer live? 2. The farmer lives in the small cottage. 3. Who lives with the farmer? 4. (His) little daughter lives with the farmer. 5. (His) daughter is getting (parat) a good dinner for the farmer. 6. The farmer praises the good dinner. 7. The daughter's good dinner is pleasing to the farmer.
[Footnote 1: Note that the relation expressed by the dative case covers that to which a feeling is directed. (Cf. Sec. 43.)]
What Latin words are suggested by this picture?
Answer the questions in Latin.
1. Quis cum agricola in casa habitat? 2. Quid bona filia agricolae parat? 3. Quem agricola laudat? 4. Vocatne filia agricolae gallinas ad cenam? 5. Cuius filia est grata dominae? 6. Cui domina pecuniam dat?
FIRST DECLENSION (Continued)
NOUNS /Italia, -ae, f., Italy Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily /tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube) /via, -ae, f., way, road, street (viaduct)
ADJECTIVES /alta, high, deep (altitude) /cla:ra, clear, bright; famous /la:ta, wide (latitude) /longa, long (longitude) /nova, new (novelty)
64. We have for some time now been using adjectives and nouns together and you have noticed an agreement between them in case and in number (Sec. 54). They agree also in gender. In the phrase /silva magna, we have a feminine adjective in -a agreeing with a feminine noun in -a.
65. RULE. Agreement of Adjectives. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.
66. Feminine adjectives in -a are declined like feminine nouns in -a, and you should learn to decline them together as follows:
NOUN ADJECTIVE domina (BASE domin-), bona (BASE bon-), f., lady good
SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. do'mina bona -a Gen. dominae bonae -ae Dat. dominae bonae -ae Acc. dominam bonam -am Abl. domina: bona: -a:
PLURAL Nom. dominae bonae -ae Gen. domina:'rum bona:'rum -a:rum Dat. domini:s boni:s -i:s Acc. domina:s bona:s -a:s Abl. domini:s boni:s -i:s
a. In the same way decline together /puella mala, the bad girl; /ancil'la parva, the little maid; /fortu'na magna, great fortune.
67. The words /dea, goddess, and /filia, daughter, take the ending -a:bus instead of -i:s in the dative and ablative plural. Note the dative and ablative plural in the following declension:
dea bona (BASES de- bon-)
SINGULAR PLURAL Nom. dea bona deae bonae Gen. deae bonae dea:'rum bona:'rum Dat. deae bonae dea:'bus boni:s Acc. deam bonam dea:s bona:s Abl. dea: bona: dea'bus boni:s
a. In the same way decline together /filia parva.
68. Latin Word Order. The order of words in English and in Latin sentences is not the same.
In English we arrange words in a fairly fixed order. Thus, in the sentence My daughter is getting dinner for the farmers, we cannot alter the order of the words without spoiling the sentence. We can, however, throw emphasis on different words by speaking them with more force. Try the effect of reading the sentence by putting special force on my, daughter, dinner, farmers.
In Latin, where the office of the word in the sentence is shown by its ending (cf. Sec. 32.1), and not by its position, the order of words is more free, and position is used to secure the same effect that in English is secured by emphasis of voice. To a limited extent we can alter the order of words in English, too, for the same purpose. Compare the sentences
I saw a game of football at Chicago last November (normal order) /Last November I saw a game of football at Chicago At Chicago, last November, I saw a game of /football
1. In a Latin sentence the most emphatic place is the first; next in importance is the last; the weakest point is the middle. Generally the subject is the most important word, and is placed first; usually the verb is the next in importance, and is placed last. The other words of the sentence stand between these two in the order of their importance. Hence the normal order of words—that is, where no unusual emphasis is expressed—is as follows:
subject—modifiers of the subject—indirect object— direct object—adverb—verb
Changes from the normal order are frequent, and are due to the desire for throwing emphasis upon some word or phrase. Notice the order of the Latin words when you are translating, and imitate it when you are turning English into Latin.
2. Possessive pronouns and modifying genitives normally stand after their nouns. When placed before their nouns they are emphatic, as
filia mea, my daughter; mea filia, /my daughter; casa Galbae, Galba's cottage; Galbae casa, /Galba's cottage.
Notice the variety of emphasis produced by writing the following sentence in different ways:
Filia mea agricolis cenam parat (normal order) Mea filia agricolis parat cenam (/mea and /cenam emphatic) Agricolis filia mea cenam parat (/agricolis emphatic)
3. An adjective placed before its noun is more emphatic than when it follows. When great emphasis is desired, the adjective is separated from its noun by other words.
Filia mea casam parvam non amat (/parvam not emphatic) Filia mea parvam casam non amat (/parvam more emphatic) Parvam filia mea casam non amat (/parvam very emphatic)
4. Interrogative words usually stand first, the same as in English.
5. The copula (as /est, /sunt) is of so little importance that it frequently does not stand last, but may be placed wherever it sounds well.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.
Note the order of the words in these sentences and pick out those that are emphatic.
1. Longae non sunt tuae viae. 2. Suntne tubae novae in mea casa? Non sunt. 3. Quis lata in silva habitat? Diana, lunae clarae pulchra dea, lata in silva habitat. 4. Nautae altas et latas amant aquas. 5. Quid ancilla tua portat? Ancilla mea tubam novam portat. 6. Ubi sunt Lesbia et Iulia? In tua casa est Lesbia et Iulia est in mea. 7. Estne Italia lata terra? Longa est Italia, non lata. 8. Cui Galba agricola fabulam novam narrat? Filiabus dominae clarae fabulam novam narrat. 9. Clara est insula Sicilia. 10. Quem laudat Latona? Latona laudat filiam.
* * * * *
First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar, Secs. 502-505
* * * * *
THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION
NOUNS /bellum, -i:, n., war (re-bel) /co:nstantia, -ae, f., firmness, constancy, steadiness dominus, -i:, m., master, lord (dominate) /equus, -i:, m., horse (equine) /fru:mentum, -i:, n., grain /le:ga:tus, -i:, m., lieutenant, ambassador (legate) /Ma:rcus, -i:, m., Marcus, Mark /mu:rus, -i:, m., wall (mural) /oppida:nus, -i:, m., townsman /oppidum, -i:, n., town /pi:lum, -i:, n., spear (pile driver) /servus, -i:, m., slave, servant Sextus, -i:, m., Sextus
VERBS /cu:rat, he (she, it) cares for, with acc. /properat, he (she, it) hastens
70. Latin nouns are divided into five declensions.
The declension to which a noun belongs is shown by the ending of the genitive singular. This should always be learned along with the nominative and the gender.
71. The nominative singular of nouns of the Second or O-Declension ends in -us, -er, -ir, or -um. The genitive singular ends in -i:.
72. Gender. Nouns in -um are neuter. The others are regularly masculine.
73. Declension of nouns in -us and -um. Masculines in -us and neuters in -um are declined as follows:
dominus (BASE domin-), pi:lum (BASE pi:l-), m., master n., spear
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS SINGULAR Nom. do'minus -us pi:lum -um Gen. domini: -i: pi:li: -i: Dat. domino: -o: pi:lo: -o: Acc. dominum -um pi:lum -um Abl. domino: -o: pi:lo: -o: Voc. domine -e pi:lum -um
PLURAL Nom. domini: -i: pi:la -a Gen. domino:'rum -o:rum pi:lo:'rum -o:rum Dat. domini:s -i:s pi:li:s -i:s Acc. domino:s -o:s pi:la -a Abl. domini:s -i:s pi:li:s -i:s
[Footnote 1: Compare the declension of /domina and of /dominus.]
a. Observe that the masculines and the neuters have the same terminations excepting in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural.
b. The vocative singular of words of the second declension in -us ends in -e, as /domine, O master; /serve, O slave. This is the most important exception to the rule in Sec. 56.a.
74. Write side by side the declension of /domina, /dominus, and /pilum. A comparison of the forms will lead to the following rules, which are of great importance because they apply to all five declensions:
a. The vocative, with a single exception (see Sec. 73.b), is like the nominative. That is, the vocative singular is like the nominative singular, and the vocative plural is like the nominative plural.
b. The nominative, accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are alike, and in the plural end in -a.
c. The accusative singular of masculines and feminines ends in -m and the accusative plural in -s.
d. The dative and ablative plural are always alike.
e. Final -i and -o are always long; final -a is short, except in the ablative singular of the first declension.
75. Observe the sentences
Lesbia est bona, Lesbia is good Lesbia est ancilla, Lesbia is a maidservant
We have learned (Sec. 55) that /bona, when used, as here, in the predicate to describe the subject, is called a predicate adjective. Similarly a noun, as /ancilla, used in the predicate to define the subject is called a /predicate noun.
76. RULE. Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.
GALBA AND MARCUS
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.
G. Quis, Marce, est legatus cum pilo et tuba? M. Legatus, Galba, est Sextus. G. Ubi Sextus habitat? M. In oppido Sextus cum filiabus habitat. G. Amantne oppidani Sextum? M. Amant oppidani Sextum et laudant, quod magna cum constantia pugnat. G. Ubi, Marce, est ancilla tua? Cur non cenam parat? M. Ancilla mea, Galba, equo legati aquam et frumentum dat. G. Cur non servus Sexti equum domini curat? M. Sextus et servus ad murum oppidi properant. Oppidani bellum parant.
[Footnote 2: /habitat is here translated does live. Note the three possible translations of the Latin present tense: /habitat he lives he is living he does live Always choose the translation which makes the best sense.]
[Footnote 3: Observe that the verb /paro means not only to prepare but also to prepare for, and governs the accusative case.]
Translate the questions and answer them in Latin.
1. Ubi filiae Sexti habitant? 2. Quem oppidani amant et laudant? 3. Quid ancilla equo legati dat? 4. Cuius equum ancilla curat? 5. Quis ad murum cum Sexto properat? 6. Quid oppidani parant?
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)
NOUNS /ami:cus, -i:, m., friend (amicable) /Germa:nia, -ae, f., Germany /patria, -ae, f., fatherland /populus, -i:, m., people /Rhe:nus, -i:, m., the Rhine /vi:cus, -i:, m., village
79. We have been freely using feminine adjectives, like /bona, in agreement with feminine nouns of the first declension and declined like them. Masculine adjectives of this class are declined like /dominus, and neuters like pilum. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter, are therefore declined as follows:
MASCULINE NOUN AND ADJECTIVE NEUTER NOUN AND ADJECTIVE dominus bonus, the good master pi:lum bonum, the good spear BASES domin- bon- BASES pi:l- bon-
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS SINGULAR Nom. do'minus bonus -us pi:lum bonum -um Gen. domini: boni: -i: pi:li: boni: -i: Dat. domino: bono: -o: pi:lo: bono: -o: Acc. dominum bonum -um pi:lum bonum -um Abl. domino: bono: -o: pi:lo: bono: -o: Voc. domine bone -e pi:lum bonum -um
PLURAL Nom. domini: boni: -i: pi:la bona -a Gen. domino:'rum bono:'rum -o:rum pi:lo:'rum bono:'rum -o:rum Dat. domini:s boni:s -is pi:li:s boni:s -i:s Acc. domino:s bono:s -o:s pi:la bona -a Abl. domini:s boni:s -i:s pi:li:s boni:s -i:s
Decline together /bellum longum, /equus parvus, /servus malus, /murus altus, /frumentum novum.
80. Observe the sentences
Lesbia ancilla est bona, Lesbia, the maidservant, is good Filia Lesbiae ancillae est bona, the daughter of Lesbia, the maidservant, is good Servus Lesbiam ancillam amat, the slave loves Lesbia, the maidservant
In these sentences /ancilla, /ancillae, and /ancillam denote the class of persons to which Lesbia belongs and explain who she is. Nouns so related that the second is only another name for the first and explains it are said to be in apposition, and are always in the same case.
81. RULE. Apposition. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.
I. 1. Patria servi boni, vicus servorum bonorum, bone popule. 2. Populus oppidi magni, in oppido magno, in oppidis magnis. 3. Cum pilis longis, ad pila longa, ad muros latos. 4. Legate male, amici legati mali, cena grata domino bono. 5. Frumentum equorum parvorum, domine bone, ad legatos claros. 6. Rhenus est in Germania, patria mea. 7. Sextus legatus pilum longum portat. 8. Oppidani boni Sexto legato clara pecuniam dant. 9. Mali servi equum bonum Marci domini necant. 10. Galba agricola et Iulia filia bona laborant. 11. Marcus nauta in insula Sicilia habitat.
II. 1. Wicked slave, who is your friend? Why does he not praise Galba, your master? 2. My friend is from (ex) a village of Germany, my fatherland. 3. My friend does not love the people of Italy. 4. Who is caring for the good horse of Galba, the farmer? 5. Mark, where is Lesbia, the maidservant? 6. She is hastening to the little cottage of Julia, the farmer's daughter.
[Footnote 1: See footnote 1, p. 33. Remember that /curat is transitive and governs a direct object.]
[Footnote 2: Not the dative. (Cf. Sec. 43.)]
ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS
NOUNS /arma, armo:rum, n., plur., arms, especially defensive weapons /fa:ma, -ae, f., rumor; reputation, fame /galea, -ae, f., helmet /praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils (predatory) /te:lum, -i:, n., weapon of offense, spear
ADJECTIVES /du:rus, -a, -um, hard, rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome (durable) /Ro:ma:nus, -a, -um, Roman. As a noun, /Ro:ma:nus, -i:, m., a Roman
83. Adjectives of the first and second declensions are declined in the three genders as follows:
MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER SINGULAR Nom. bonus bona bonum Gen. boni: bonae boni: Dat. bono: bonae bono: Acc. bonum bonam bonum Abl. bono: bona: bono: Voc. bone bona bonum
PLURAL Nom. boni: bonae bona Gen. bono:rum bona:rum bono:rum Dat. boni:s boni:s boni:s Acc. bono:s bona:s bona Abl. boni:s boni:s boni:s
a. Write the declension and give it orally across the page, thus giving the three genders for each case.
b. Decline /gratus, -a, -um; /malus, -a, -um; /altus, -a, -um; /parvus, -a, -um.
84. Thus far the adjectives have had the same terminations as the nouns. However, the agreement between the adjective and its noun does not mean that they must have the same termination. If the adjective and the noun belong to different declensions, the terminations will, in many cases, not be the same. For example, /nauta, sailor, is masculine and belongs to the first declension. The masculine form of the adjective /bonus is of the second declension. Consequently, a good sailor is /nauta bonus. So, the wicked farmer is /agricola malus. Learn the following declensions:
85. nauta bonus (bases naut- bon-), m., the good sailor
SINGULAR Nom. nauta bonus Gen. nautae boni: Dat. nautae bono: Acc. nautam bonum Abl. nauta: bono: Voc. nauta bone
PLURAL Nom. nautae boni: Gen. nauta:rum bono:rum Dat. nauti:s boni:s Acc. nauta:s bono:s Abl. nauti:s boni:s Voc. nautae boni:
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.
I. 1. Est in vico nauta bonus. 2. Sextus est amicus nautae boni. 3. Sextus nautae bono galeam dat. 4. Populus Romanus nautam bonum laudat. 5. Sextus cum nauta bono praedam portat. 6. Ubi, nauta bone, sunt anna et tela legati Romani? 7. Nautae boni ad bellum properant. 8. Fama nautarum bonorum est clara. 9. Pugnae sunt gratae nautis bonis. 10. Oppidani nautas bonos curant. 11. Cur, nautae boni, mali agricolae ad Rhenum properant? 12. Mali agricolae cum bonis nautis pugnant.
II. 1. The wicked farmer is hastening to the village with (his) booty. 2. The reputation of the wicked farmer is not good. 3. Why does Galba's daughter give arms and weapons to the wicked farmer? 4. Lesbia invites the good sailor to dinner. 5. Why is Lesbia with the good sailor hastening from the cottage? 6. Sextus, where is my helmet? 7. The good sailors are hastening to the toilsome battle. 8. The horses of the wicked farmers are small. 9. The Roman people give money to the good sailors. 10. Friends care for the good sailors. 11. Whose friends are fighting with the wicked farmers?
[Footnote 1: /Est, beginning a declarative sentence, there is.]
NOUNS IN -IUS AND -IUM
NOUNS /fi:lius, fi:li:, m., son (filial) fluvius, fluvi:, m., river (fluent) /gladius, gladi:, m., sword (gladiator) /praesidium, praesi'di:, n., garrison, guard, protection /proelium, proeli:, n., battle
ADJECTIVES /fi:nitimus, -a, -um, bordering upon, neighboring, near to. As a noun, /fi:nitimi:, -o:rum, m., plur., neighbors /Germa:nus, -a, -um, German. As a noun, /Germa:nus, -i:, m., a German /multus, -a, -um, much; plur., many
ADVERB /saepe, often
87. Nouns of the second declension in -ius and -ium end in -i: in the genitive singular, not in -ii:, and the accent rests on the penult; as, /fi:li: from /fi:lius (son), /praesi'di: from /praesi'dium (garrison).
88. Proper names of persons in -ius, and /fi:lius, end in -i: in the vocative singular, not in -e, and the accent rests on the penult; as, /Vergi'li:, O Vergil; /fi:li:, O son.
a. Observe that in these words the vocative and the genitive are alike.
89. praesidium (base praesidi-), fi:lius (base fi:li-), n., garrison m., son
SINGULAR Nom. praesidium fi:lius Gen. praesi'di: fi:li: Dat. praesidio: fi:lio: Acc. praesidium fi:lium Abl. praesidio: fi:lio: Voc. praesidium fi:li:
The plural is regular. Note that the -i- of the base is lost only in the genitive singular, and in the vocative of words like /filius.
Decline together /praesidium parvum; /filius bonus; /fluvius longus, the long river; /proelium clarum, the famous battle.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.
I. 1. Frumentum bonae terrae, gladi mali, belli longi. 2. Constantia magna, praesidia magna, clare Vergili. 3. Male serve, O clarum oppidum, male fili, filii mali, fili mali. 4. Fluvi longi, fluvii longi, fluviorum longorum, fama praesi'di magni. 5. Cum gladiis parvis, cum deabus claris, ad nautas claros. 6. Multorum proeliorum, praedae magnae, ad proelia dura.
II. Germania, patria Germanorum, est clara terra. In Germania sunt fluvii multi. Rhenus magnus et latus fluvius Germaniae est. In silvis latis Germaniae sunt ferae multae. Multi Germanii in oppidis magnis et in vicis parvis habitant et multi sunt agricolae boni. Bella Germanorum sunt magna et clara. Populus Germaniae bellum et proelia amat et saepe cum finitimis pugnat. Fluvius Rhenus est finitimus oppidis multis et claris.
[Footnote 1: Dative with /finitimus. (See Sec. 43.)]
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)
NOUNS /ager, agri:, m., field (acre) /co:pia, -ae, f., plenty, abundance (copious); plur., troops, forces /Corne:lius, Corne:'li:, m., Cornelius /lo:ri:'ca, -ae, f., coat of mail, corselet /praemium, praemi:, n., reward, prize (premium) /puer, pueri:, m., boy (puerile) /Ro:ma, -ae, f., Rome /scu:tum, -i:, n., shield (escutcheon) /vir, viri:, m., man, hero (virile)
ADJECTIVES /legio:na:rius, -a, -um,[A] legionary, belonging to the legion. As a noun, /legio:na:rii:, -o:rum, m., plur., legionary soldiers /li:ber, li:bera, li:berum, free (liberty) As a noun. /li:beri:, -o:rum, m., plur., children (lit. the freeborn) /pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty, beautiful
PREPOSITION /apud, among, with acc.
CONJUNCTION /sed, but
[Footnote A: The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -ii: and the vocative in -ie; not in -i:, as in nouns.]
91. Declension of Nouns in -er and -ir. In early Latin all the masculine nouns of the second declension ended in -os. This -os later became -us in words like /servus, and was dropped entirely in words with bases ending in -r, like /puer, boy; /ager, field; and /vir, man. These words are therefore declined as follows:
92. puer, m., boy ager, m., field vir, m., man BASE puer- BASE agr- BASE vir-
SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. puer ager vir —— Gen. pueri: agri: viri: -i: Dat. puero: agro: viro: -o: Acc. puerum agrum virum -um Abl. puero: agro: viro: -o:
PLURAL Nom. pueri: agri: viri: -i: Gen. puero:rum agro:rum viro:rum -o:rum Dat. pueri:s agri:s viri:s -i:s Acc. puero:s agro:s viro:s -o:s Abl. pueri:s agri:s viri:s -i:s
a. The vocative case of these words is like the nominative, following the general rule (Sec. 74.a).
b. The declension differs from that of /servus only in the nominative and vocative singular.
c. Note that in /puer the /e remains all the way through, while in /ager it is present only in the nominative. In /puer the /e belongs to the base, but in /ager (base agr-) it does not, and was inserted in the nominative to make it easier to pronounce. Most words in -er are declined like /ager. The genitive shows whether you are to follow /puer or /ager.
93. Masculine adjectives in -er of the second declension are declined like nouns in -er. A few of them are declined like /puer, but most of them like /ager. The feminine and neuter nominatives show which form to follow, thus,
MASC. FEM. NEUT. liber libera liberum (free) is like /puer pulcher pulchra pulchrum (pretty) is like /ager
For the full declension in the three genders, see Sec. 469.b. c.
94. Decline together the words /vir liber, /terra libera, /frumentum liberum, /puer pulcher, /puella pulchra, /oppidum pulchrum
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.
Magna est Italiae fama, patriae Romanorum, et clara est Roma, domina orbis terrarum. Tiberim, fluvium Romanum, quis non laudat et pulchros fluvio finitimos agros? Altos muros, longa et dura bella, claras victorias quis non laudat? Pulchra est terra Italia. Agri boni agricolis praemia dant magna, et equi agricolarum copiam frumenti ad oppida et vicos portant. In agris populi Romani laborant multi servi. Viae Italiae sunt longae et latae. Finitima Italiae est insula Sicilia.
[Footnote 1: In this selection note especially the emphasis as shown by the order of the words.]
[Footnote 2: /orbis terrarum, of the world.]
[Footnote 3: /Tiberim, the Tiber, accusative case.]
MARCUS AND CORNELIUS
C. Ubi est, Marce, filius tuus? Estne in pulchra terra Italia? M. Non est, Corneli, in Italia. Ad fluvium Rhenum properat cum copiis Romanis quia est fama Novi belli cum Germanis. Liber Germaniae populus Romanos Non amat. C. Estne filius tuus copiarum Romanarum legatus? M. Legatus non est, sed est apud legionarios. C. Quae arma portat? M. Scutum magnum et loricam duram et galeam pulchram portat. C. Quae tela portat? M. Gladium et pilum longum portat. C. Amatne legatus filium tuum? M. Amat, et saepe filio meo praemia pulchra et praedam multam dat. C. Ubi est terra Germanorum? M. Terra Germanorum, Corneli est finitima Rheno, fluvio magno et alto.
[Footnote 4: /est, before its subject, there is; so /sunt, there are.]
[Footnote 5: /Quae, what kind of, an interrogative adjective pronoun.]
[Footnote 6: What are the three possible translations of the present tense?]
THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS
NOUNS /auxilium, auxi'li:, n., help, aid (auxiliary) /castrum, -i:, n., fort (castle); plur., camp (lit. forts) /cibus, -i:, m., food /co:nsilium, co:nsi'li:, n., plan (counsel) /di:ligentia, -ae, f.. diligence, industry magister, magistri:, m., master, teacher[A]
ADJECTIVES /aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick /cre:ber, cre:bra, cre:brum, frequent /miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate (miser)
[Footnote A: Observe that /dominus, as distinguished from /magister, means master in the sense of owner.]
97. Observe the sentences
This is my shield This shield is mine
In the first sentence my is a possessive adjective; in the second mine is a possessive pronoun, for it takes the place of a noun, this shield is mine being equivalent to this shield is my shield. Similarly, in Latin the possessives are sometimes adjectives and sometimes pronouns.
98. The possessives my, mine, your, yours, etc. are declined like adjectives of the first and second declensions.
SINGULAR 1st Pers. meus, mea, meum my, mine 2d Pers. tuus, tua, tuum your, yours 3d Pers. suus, sua, suum his (own), her (own), its (own) PLURAL 1st Pers. noster, nostra, nostrum our, ours 2d Pers. vester, vestra, vestrum your, yours 3d Pers. suus, sua, suum their (own), theirs
NOTE. /Meus has the irregular vocative singular masculine /mi:, as /mi: fi:li:, O my son.
a. The possessives agree with the name of the thing possessed in gender, number, and case. Compare the English and Latin in
Sextus is calling /his boy Sextus } suum puerum vocat Julia is calling /her boy Iulia }
Observe that /suum agrees with /puerum, and is unaffected by the gender of Sextus or Julia.
b. When your, yours, refers to one person, use /tuus; when to more than one, /vester; as,
Lesbia, your wreaths are pretty Coronae tuae, Lesbia, sunt pulchrae Girls, your wreaths are pretty Coronae vestrae, puellae, sunt pulchrae
c. /Suus is a reflexive possessive, that is, it usually stands in the predicate and regularly refers back to the subject. Thus, /Vir suos servos vocat means The man calls his (own) slaves. Here his (suos) refers to man (vir), and could not refer to any one else.
d. Possessives are used much less frequently than in English, being omitted whenever the meaning is clear without them. (Cf. Sec. 22.a.) This is especially true of /suus, -a, -um, which, when inserted, is more or less emphatic, like our his own, her own, etc.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.
I. 1. Marcus amico Sexto consilium suum nuntiat 2. Est copia frumenti in agris nostris. 3. Amici mei bonam cenam ancillae vestrae laudant 4. Tua lorica, mi fili, est dura. 5. Scuta nostra et tela, mi amice, in castrls Romanis sunt. 6. Suntne viri patriae tuae liberi? Sunt. 7. Ubi, Corneli, est tua galea pulchra? 8. Mea galea, Sexte, est in casa mea. 9. Pilum longum est tuum, sed gladius est meus. 10. Iulia gallinas suas pulchras amat et gallinae dominam suam amant. 11. Nostra castra sunt vestra. 12. Est copia praedae in castris vestris. 13. Amici tui miseris et aegris cibum et pecuniam saepe dant.
II. 1. Our teacher praises Mark's industry. 2. My son Sextus is carrying his booty to the Roman camp. 3. Your good girls are giving aid to the sick and wretched. 4. There are  frequent battles in our villages. 5. My son, where is the lieutenant's food? 6. The camp is mine, but the weapons are yours.
[Footnote 1: Not the dative. Why?]
[Footnote 2: Here the adjectives sick and wretched are used like nouns.]
[Footnote 3: Where should /sunt stand? Cf. I. 2 above.]
THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH
NOUNS /carrus, -i:, m., cart, wagon /inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the opposite of /co:pia /studium, studi:, n., zeal, eagerness (study)
ADJECTIVES /arma:tus, -a, -um, armed /i:nfi:rmus, -a, -um, week, feeble (infirm) vali'dus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy
VERB /ma:tu:rat, he (she, it) hastens. Cf. properat
ADVERB /iam, already, now
/-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. Sec. 16) and always added to the second of two words to be connected, as /arma tela'que, arms and weapons.
100. Of the various relations denoted by the ablative case (Sec. 50) there is none more important than that expressed in English by the preposition with. This little word is not so simple as it looks. It does not always convey the same meaning, nor is it always to be translated by /cum. This will become clear from the following sentences:
a. Mark is feeble with (for or because of) want of food b. Diana kills the beasts with (or by) her arrows c. Julia is with Sextus d. The men fight with great steadiness
a. In sentence a, with want (of food) gives the cause of Mark's feebleness. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the /ablative of cause:
Marcus est infirmus inopia cibi
b. In sentence b, with (or by) her arrows tells /by means of what Diana kills the beasts. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the /ablative of means:
Diana sagittis suis feras necat
c. In sentence c we are told that Julia is not alone, but /in company with Sextus. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative with the preposition /cum, and the construction is called the /ablative of accompaniment: