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Latin for Beginners
by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
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II. 1. The boy is slow. He says that the boy is, was, (and) will be slow. 2. The horse is, has been, (and) will be strong. He judged that the horse was, had been, (and) would be strong. 3. We think that the army will go forth from the camp at the beginning of summer. 4. The next day we learned through scouts that the enemy's town was ten miles off.[2] 5. The king replied that the ornaments belonged to[3] the queen.

[Footnote 2: to be off, to be distant, /abesse.]

[Footnote 3: Latin, were of (Sec. 409).]



LESSON LXXIII

VOCABULARY REVIEW : THE IRREGULAR VERB FERO: THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUNDS

423. Review the word lists in Secs. 513, 514.

424. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of the verb /fero:, bear (Sec. 498).

1. Learn the principal parts and meanings of the following compounds of fero:, bear:

ad'fero:, adfer're, at'tuli:, adla:'tus, bring to; report co:n'fero:, co:nfer're, con'tuli:, conla:'tus, bring together, collect de'fero:, defer're, de'tuli:, dela:'tus, bring to; report; grant, confer i:n'fero:, i:nfer're, in'tuli:, inla:'tus, bring in, bring against re'fero:, refer're, ret'tuli:, rela:'tus, bear back, report

[ Conjugation given in Sec. 498:

PRINCIPAL PARTS fero:, ferre, tuli:, la:tus PRES. STEM fer- PERF. STEM tul- PART. STEM la:t-

INDICATIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Pres. fero: ferimus feror ferimur fers ferti:s ferris, -re ferimimi: fert ferunt fertur feruntur Impf. fere:bam fere:bar Fut. feram, fere:s, etc. ferar, fere:ris, etc. Perf. tuli: la:tus, -a, -um sum Plup. tuleram la:tus, -a, -um eram F. P. tulero: la:tus, -a, -um ero:

SUBJUNCTIVE Pres. feram, fera:s, etc. ferar, fera:ris, etc. Impf. ferrem ferrer Perf. tulerim la:tus, -a, -um sim Plup. tulissem la:tus, -a, -um essem

IMPERATIVE Pres. 2d Pers. fer ferte ferre ferimini: Fut. 2d Pers. ferto: ferto:te fertor 3d Pers. ferto: ferunto fertor feruntor

INFINITIVE Pres. ferre ferri: Perf. tulisse la:tus, -a, -um esse Fut. la:tu:rus, -a, -um esse ——

PARTICIPLES Pres. fere:ns, -entis Pres. —— Fut. la:tu:rus, -a, -um Ger. ferendus, -a, -um Perf. —— Perf. la:tus, -a, -um

GERUND Gen. ferendi: Dat. ferendo: Acc. ferendum Abl. ferendo:

SUPINE (Active Voice) Acc. [[la:tum]] Abl. [[la:tu:]] ]

425. The dative is the case of the indirect object. Many intransitive verbs take an indirect object and are therefore used with the dative (cf. Sec. 153). Transitive verbs take a direct object in the accusative; but sometimes they have an indirect object or dative as well. The whole question, then, as to whether or not a verb takes the dative, defends upon its capacity for governing an indirect object. A number of verbs, some transitive and some intransitive, which in their simple form would not take an indirect object, when compounded with certain prepositions, have a meaning which calls for an indirect object. Observe the following sentences:

1. Haec res exercitui magnam calamitatem attulit, this circumstance brought great disaster to the army.

2. Germani Gallis bellum inferunt, the Germans make war upon the Gauls.

3. Hae copiae proelio non intererant, these troops did not take part in the battle.

4. Equites fugientibus hostibus occurrunt, the horsemen meet the fleeing enemy.

5. Galba copiis filium praefecit, Galba put his son in command of the troops.

In each sentence there is a dative, and in each a verb combined with a preposition. In no case would the simple verb take the dative.

426. RULE. Dative with Compounds. Some verbs compounded with /ad, /ante, /con, /de, /in, /inter, /ob, /post, /prae, /pro, /sub, /super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative.

NOTE 1. Among such verbs are[1]

ad'fero, adfer're, at'tuli, adla'tus, bring to; report ad'sum, ades'se, ad'fui, adfutu'rus, assist; be present de'fero, defer're, de'tuli, delatus, report; grant, confer de'sum, dees'se, de'fui,——, be wanting, be lacking in'fero, infer're, in'tuli, inla'tus, bring against, bring upon inter'sum, interes'se, inter'fui, interfutu'rus, take part in occur'ro, occur'rere, occur'ri, occur'sus, run against, meet praefi'cio, praefi'cere, praefe'ci, praefec'tus, appoint over, place in command of prae'sum, praees'se, prae'fui, ——, be over, be in command

[Footnote 1: But the accusative with /ad or /in is used with some of these, when the idea of motion to or against is strong.]

427. IDIOMS

graviter or moleste ferre, to be annoyed at, to be indignant at, followed by the accusative and infinitive se conferre ad or in, with the accusative, to betake one's self to alicui bellum inferre, to make war upon some one pedem referre, to retreat (lit. to bear back the foot)

428. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fer, ferent, ut ferant, ferunt. 2. Ferte, ut ferrent, tulisse, tulerant. 3. Tulimus, ferens, latus esse, ferre. 4. Cum navigia insulae adpropinquarent, barbari terrore commoti pedem referre conati sunt. 5. Galli moleste ferebant Romanos agros vastare. 6. Caesar sociis imperavit ne finitimis suis bellum inferrent. 7. Exploratores, qui Caesari occurrerunt, dixerunt exercitum hostium vulneribus defessum sese in alium locum contulisse. 8. Hostes sciebant Romanos frumento egere et hanc rem Caesari summum periculum adlaturam esse. 9. Impedimentis in unum locum conlatis, aliqui militum flumen quod non longe aberat transierunt. 10. Hos rex hortatus est ut oraculum adirent et res auditas ad se referrent. 11. Quem imperator illi legioni praefecit? Publius illi legioni pracerat. 12. Cum esset Caesar in citeriore Gallia, crebri ad eum[2] rumores adferebantur litterisque quoque certior fiebat Gallos obsides inter se dare.

II. 1. The Gauls will make war upon Caesar's allies. 2. We heard that the Gauls would make war upon Caesar's allies. 3. Publius did not take part in that battle. 4. We have been informed that Publius did not take part in that battle. 5. The man who was in command of the cavalry was wounded and began to retreat. 6. Caesar did not place you in command of the cohort to bring[3] disaster upon the army.

[Footnote 2: Observe that when /adfero denotes motion to, it is not followed by the dative; cf. footnote, p. 182.]

[Footnote 3: Not the infinitive. (Cf. Sec. 352.)]

LESSON LXXIV

VOCABULARY REVIEW : THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS

429. Review the word lists in Secs. 517, 518.

430. When we report a statement instead of giving it directly, we have an indirect statement. (Cf. Sec. 414.) So, if we report a question instead of asking it directly, we have an indirect question.

DIRECT QUESTION INDIRECT QUESTION Who conquered the Gauls? He asked who conquered the Gauls

a. An indirect question depends, usually as object, upon a verb of asking (as peto, postulo, quaero, rogo) or upon some verb or expression of saying or mental action. (Cf. Sec. 420.)

431. Compare the following direct and indirect questions:

DIRECT INDIRECT

Quis Gallos vincit? { a. Rogat quis Gallos vincat Who is conquering the { He asks who is conquering the Gauls? { Gauls { b. Rogavit quis Gallos vinceret { He asked who was conquering { the Gauls

{ a. Rogat ubi sit Roma Ubi est Roma? { He asks where Rome is Where is Rome? { b. Rogavit ubi esset Roma { He asked where Rome was

{ a. Rogat num Caesar Gallos vicerit { He asks whether Caesar conquered Caesarne Gallos vicit? { the Gauls Did Caesar conquer the { b. /Rogavit num Caesar Gallos Gauls? { vicisset { He asked whether Caesar had { conquered the Gauls

a. The verb in a direct question is in the indicative mood, but the mood is subjunctive in an indirect question.

b. The tense of the subjunctive follows the rules for tense sequence.

c. Indirect questions are introduced by the same interrogative words as introduce direct questions, excepting thatyes-or-no direct questions (cf. Sec. 210) on becoming indirect are usually introduced by /num, whether.

432. RULE. Indirect Questions. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence.

433. IDIOMS

de tertia vigilia, about the third watch iniurias alicui inferre, to inflict injuries upon some one facere verba pro, with the ablative, to speak in behalf of in reliquum tempus, for the future

434. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rex rogavit quid legati postularent et cur ad se venissent. 2. Quaesivit quoque num nec recentis iniurias nec dubiam Romanorum amicitiam memoria tenerent. 3. Videtisne quae oppida hostes oppugnaverint? 4. Nonne scitis cur Galli sub montem sese contulerint? 5. Audivimus quas iniurias tibi Germani intulissent. 6. De tertia vigilia imperator misit homines qui cognoscerent quae esset natura montis. 7. Pro his orator verba fecit et rogavit cur consules navis ad plenem summi periculi locum mittere vellent. 8. Legatis convocatis demonstravit quid fieri vellet. 9. Nuntius referebat quid in Gallorum concilio de armis tradendis dictum esset. 10. Moneo ne in reliquum tempus pedites et equites trans flumen ducas.

II. 1. What hill did they seize? I see what hill they seized. 2. Who has inflicted these injuries upon our dependents? 3. They asked who had inflicted those injuries upon their dependents. 4. Whither did you go about the third watch? You know whither I went. 5. At what time did the boys return home? I will ask at what time the boys returned home.

LESSON LXXV

VOCABULARY REVIEW : THE DATIVE OF PURPOSE, OR END FOR WHICH

435. Review the word lists in Secs. 521, 522.

436. Observe the following sentences:

1. Exploratores locum castris delegerunt, the scouts chose a place for a camp.

2. Hoc erat magno impedimento Gallis, this was (for) a great hindrance to the Gauls.

3. Duas legiones praesidio castris reliquit, he left two legions as (lit. for) a guard to the camp.

In each of these sentences we find a dative expressing the purpose or end for which something is intended or for which it serves. These datives are /castris, /impedimento, and /praesidio. In the second and third sentences we find a second dative expressing the person or thing affected (Gallis and castris). As you notice, these are true datives, covering the relations of for which and to which. (Cf. Sec. 43.)

437. RULE. Dative of Purpose or End. The dative is used to denote the /purpose or end for which, often with another dative denoting the /person or thing affected.

438. IDIOMS

consilium omittere, to give up a plan locum castris deligere, to choose a place for a camp alicui magno usui esse, to be of great advantage to some one (lit. for great advantage to some one)

439. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rogavit cur illae copiae relictae essent. Responderunt illas copias esse praesidio castris. 2. Caesar misit exploratores ad locum deligendum castris. 3. Quisque existimavit ipsum nomen Caesaris magno terrori barbaris futurum esse. 4. Prima luce idem exercitus proelium acre commisit, sed gravia suorum vulnera magnae curae imperatori erant. 5. Rex respondit amicitiam populi Romani sibi ornamento et praesidio debere esse. 6. Quis praeerat equitatui quem auxilio Caesari socii miserant? 7. Aliquibus res secundae sunt summae calamitati et res adversae sunt miro usui. 8. Gallis magno ad pugnam erat impedimento quod equitatus a dextro cornu premebat. 9. Memoria pristinae virtutis non minus quam metus hostium erat nostris magno usui. 10. Tam densa erat silva ut progredi non possent.

II. 1. I advise you [1]to give up the plan [2]of making war upon the brave Gauls. 2. Do you know [3]where the cavalry has chosen a place for a camp? 3. The fear of the enemy will be of great advantage to you. 4. Caesar left three cohorts as (for) a guard to the baggage. 5. In winter the waves of the lake are so great [4]that they are (for) a great hindrance to ships. 6. Caesar inflicted severe[5] punishment on those who burned the public buildings.

[Footnote 1: Subjunctive of purpose. (Cf. Sec. 366.)]

[Footnote 2: Express by the genitive of the gerundive.]

[Footnote 3: Indirect question.]

[Footnote 4: A clause of result.]

[Footnote 5: /gravis, -e.]

LESSON LXXVI

VOCABULARY REVIEW : THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION

440. Review the word lists in Secs. 524, 525.

441. Observe the English sentences

(1) A man /of great courage, or (2) A man /with great courage

(3) A forest /of tall trees, or (4) A forest /with tall trees

Each of these sentences contains a phrase of quality or description. In the first two a man is described; in the last two a forest. The descriptive phrases are introduced by the prepositions of and with.

In Latin the expression of quality or description is very similar.

The prepositions of and with suggest the genitive and the ablative respectively, and we translate the sentences above

(1) /Vir magnae virtutis, or (2) /Vir magna virtute (3) /Silva altarum arborum, or (4) /Silva altis arboribus

There is, however, one important difference between the Latin and the English. In English we may say, for example, a man of courage, using the descriptive phrase without an adjective modifier. In Latin, however, an adjective modifier must always be used, as above.

a. Latin makes a distinction between the use of the two cases in that numerical descriptions of measure are in the genitive and descriptions of physical characteristics are in the ablative. Other descriptive phrases may be in either case.

442. EXAMPLES

1. Fossa duodecim pedum, a ditch of twelve feet.

2. Homo magnis pedibus et parvo capite, a man with big feet and a small head.

3. /Rex erat vir summa audacia or /rex erat vir summae audaciae, the king was a man of the greatest boldness.

443. RULE. Genitive of Description. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective.

444. RULE. Ablative of Description. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective.

445. RULE. Genitive or Ablative of Description. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective.

446. IDIOMS

Helvetiis in animo est, the Helvetii intend, (lit. it is in mind to the Helvetians) in matrimonium dare, to give in marriage nihil posse, to have no power fossam perducere, to construct a ditch (lit. to lead a ditch through)

447. EXERCISES

I. 1. Milites fossam decem pedum per eorum finis perduxerunt. 2. Princeps Helvetiorum, vir summae audaciae, principibus gentium finitimarum sorores in matrimonium dedit. 3. Eorum amicitiam confirmare voluit quo facilius Romanis bellum inferret. 4. Germani et Galli non erant eiusdem gentis. 5. Omnes fere Germani erant magnis corporum viribus.[1] 6. Galli qui oppidum fortiter defendebant saxa ingentis magnitudinis de muro iaciebant. 7. Cum Caesar ab exploratoribus quaereret qui illud oppidum incolerent, exploratores responderunt eos esse homines summa virtute et magno consilio. 8. Moenia viginti pedum a sinistra parte, et a dextra parte flumen magnae altitudinis oppidum defendebant. 9. Cum Caesar in Galliam pervenisset, erat rumor Helvetiis in animo esse iter per provinciam Romanam facere. 10. Caesar, ut eos ab finibus Romanis prohiberet, munitionem [2]multa milia passuum longam fecit.

II. 1. Caesar was a general of much wisdom and great boldness, and very skillful in the art of war. 2. The Germans were of great size, and thought that the Romans had no power. 3. Men of the highest courage were left in the camp as (for) a guard to the baggage. 4. The king's daughter, who was given in marriage to the chief of a neighboring state, was a woman of very beautiful appearance. 5. The soldiers will construct a ditch of nine feet around the camp. 6. A river of great width was between us and the enemy.

[Footnote 1: From /vis. (Cf. Sec. 468.)]

[Footnote 2: Genitives and ablatives of description are adjective phrases. When we use an adverbial phrase to tell how long or how high or how deep anything is, we must use the accusative of extent. (Cf. Sec. 336.) For example, in the sentence above /multa milia passuum is an adverbial phrase (accusative of extent) modifying /longam. If we should omit /longam and say a fortification of many miles, the genitive of description (an adjective phrase) modifying /munitionem would be used, as /munitionem multorum milium passuum.]



LESSON LXXVII

REVIEW OF AGREEMENT, AND OF THE GENITIVE, DATIVE, AND ACCUSATIVE

448. There are four agreements:

1. That of the predicate noun or of the appositive with the noun to which it belongs (Secs. 76, 81).

2. That of the adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle with its noun (Sec. 65).

3. That of a verb with its subject (Sec. 28).

4. That of a relative pronoun with its antecedent (Sec. 224).

449. The relation expressed by the /genitive is, in general, denoted in English by the preposition of. It is used to express

{ a. As attributive (Sec. 38). 1. Possession { { b. In the predicate (Sec. 409).

2. The whole of which a part is taken (partitive genitive) (Sec. 331).

3. Quality or description (Secs. 443, 445).

450. The relation expressed by the /dative is, in general, denoted in English by the prepositions to or for when they do not imply motion through space. It is used to express

{ a. With intransitive verbs and with { transitive verbs in connection with a { direct object in the accusative (Sec. 45). 1. The indirect object { b. With special intransitive verbs { (Sec. 154). { c. With verbs compounded with /ad, /ante, { /con, /de, /in, /inter, /ob, /post, { /prae, /pro, /sub, /super (Sec. 426).

2. The object to which the quality of an adjective is directed (Sec. 143).

3. The purpose, or end for which, often with a second dative denoting the person or thing affected (Sec. 437).

451. The /accusative case corresponds, in general, to the English objective. It is used to express

1. The direct object of a transitive verb (Sec. 37).

2. The predicate accusative together with the direct object after verbs of making, choosing, falling, showing, and the like (Sec. 392).

3. The subject of the infinitive (Sec. 214).

4. The object of prepositions that do not govern the ablative (Sec. 340).

5. The duration of time and the extent of space (Sec. 336).

6. The place to which (Secs. 263, 266).

452. EXERCISES

I. 1. Milites quos vidimus dixerunt imperium belli esse Caesaris imperatoris. 2. Helvetii statuerunt quam[1] maximum numerum equorum et carrorum cogere. 3. Totius Galliae Helvetii plurimum valuerunt. 4. Multas horas acriter pugnatum est neque quisquam poterat videre hostem fugientem. 5. Viri summae virtutis hostis decem milia passuum insecuti sunt. 6. Caesar populo Romano persuasit ut se consulem crearet. 7. Victoria exercitus erat semper imperatori gratissima. 8. Triduum iter fecerunt et Genavam, in oppidum[2] hostium, pervenerunt. 9. Caesar audivit Germanos bellum Gallis intulisse. 10. Magno usui militibus Caesaris erat quod prioribus proeliis sese exercuerant.

II. 1. One[3] of the king's sons and many of his men were captured. 2. There was no one who wished[4] to appoint her queen. 3. The grain supply was always a care (for a care) to Caesar, the general. 4. I think that the camp is ten miles distant. 5. We marched for three hours through a very dense forest. 6. The plan [5]of making war upon the allies was not pleasing to the king. 7. When he came to the hill he fortified it [6]by a twelve-foot wall.

[Footnote 1: What is the force of /quam with superlatives?]

[Footnote 2: /urbs or /oppidum, appositive to a name of a town, takes a preposition.]

[Footnote 3: What construction is used with numerals in preference to the partitive genitive?]

[Footnote 4: What mood? (Cf. Sec. 390.)]

[Footnote 5: Use the gerund or gerundive.]

[Footnote 6: Latin, by a wall of twelve feet.]

LESSON LXXVIII

REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE

453. The relations of the ablative are, in general, expressed in English by the prepositions with (or by), from (or by), and in (or at). The constructions growing out of these meanings are

I. Ablative rendered with (or by): 1. Cause (Sec. 102) 2. Means (Sec. 103) 3. Accompaniment (Sec. 104) 4. Manner (Sec. 105) 5. Measure of difference (Sec. 317) 6. With a participle (ablative absolute) (Sec. 381) 7. Description or quality (Secs. 444, 445) 8. Specification (Sec. 398)

II. Ablative rendered from (or by): 1. Place from which (Secs. 179, 264) 2. Ablative of separation (Sec. 180) 3. Personal agent with a passive verb (Sec. 181) 4. Comparison without /quam (Sec. 309)

III. Ablative rendered in (or at): 1. Place at or in which (Secs. 265, 266) 2. Time when or within which (Sec. 275)

454. EXERCISES

I. 1. Galli locis superioribus occupatis itinere exercitum prohibere conantur. 2. Omnes oppidani ex oppido egressi salutem fuga petere inceperunt. 3. Caesar docet se militum vitam sua salute habere multo cariorem. 4. Cum celerius omnium opinione pervenisset, hostes ad eum obsides miserunt 5. Vicus in valle positus montibus altissimis undique continetur. 6. Plurimum inter Gallos haec gens et virtute et hominum numero valebat. 7. Secunda vigilia nullo certo ordine neque imperio e castris egressi sunt. 8. Duabus legionibus Genavae relictis, proximo die cum reliquis domum profectus est. 9. Erant itinera duo quibus itineribus Helvetii domo exire possent. 10. Rex erat summa audacia et magna apud populum potentia. 11. Galli timore servitutis commoti bellum parabant. 12. Caesar monet legatos ut contineant milites, ne studio pugnandi aut spe praedae longius[1] progrediantur. 13. Bellum acerrimum a Caesare in Gallos gestum est.

II. 1. The lieutenant after having seized the mountain restrained his (men) from battle. 2. All the Gauls differ from each other in laws. 3. This tribe is much braver than the rest. 4. This road is [2]ten miles shorter than that. 5. In summer Caesar carried on war in Gaul, in winter he returned to Italy. 6. At midnight the general set out from the camp with three legions. 7. I fear that you cannot protect[3] yourself from these enemies. 8. [4]After this battle was finished peace was made by all the Gauls.

[Footnote 1: /longius, too far. (Cf. Sec. 305.)]

[Footnote 2: Latin, by ten thousands of paces.]

[Footnote 3: /defendere.]

[Footnote 4: Ablative absolute.]

LESSON LXXIX

REVIEW OF THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE, THE INFINITIVE, AND THE SUBJUNCTIVE

455. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns (Secs. 402, 406.1).

456. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual (Sec. 406.2).

457. The infinitive is used:

I. As in English.

a. As subject or predicate nominative (Sec. 216).

b. To complete the predicate with verbs of incomplete predication (complementary infinitive) (Sec. 215).

c. As object with subject accusative after verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like (Sec. 213).

II. In the principal sentence of an indirect statement after verbs of saying and mental action. The subject is in the accusative (Secs. 416, 418, 419).

458. The subjunctive is used:

1. To denote purpose (Secs. 349, 366, 372).

2. To denote consequence or result (Secs. 385, 386).

3. In relative clauses of characteristic or description (Sec. 390).

4. In /cum clauses of time, cause, and concession (Sec. 396).

5. In indirect questions (Sec. 432).

459. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar, cum pervenisset, milites hortabatur ne consilium oppidi capiendi omitterent. 2. Rex, castris prope oppidum positis, misit exploratores qui cognoscerent ubi exercitus Romanus esset. 3. Nemo relinquebatur qui arma ferre posset. 4. Nuntii viderunt ingentem armorum multitudinem de muro in fossani iactam esse. 5. Dux suos transire flumen iussit. Transire autem hoc flumen erat difficillimum. 6. Romani cum hanc calamitatem moleste ferrant, tamen terga vertere recusaverunt. 7. Hoc rumore audito, tantus terror omnium animos occupavit ut ne fortissimi quidem proelium committere vellent. 8. Erant qui putarent tempus anni idoneum non esse itineri faciendo. 9. Tam acriter ab utraque parte pugnabatur ut multa milia hominum occiderentur. 10. Quid times? Timeo ne Romanis in animo sit totam Galliam superare et nobis iniurias inferre.

II. 1. Do you not see who is standing on the wall? 2. We hear that the plan of taking the town has been given up. 3. Since the Germans thought that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Caesar ordered a bridge to be made. 4. When the bridge was finished, the savages were so terrified that they hid themselves. 5. They feared that Caesar would pursue them. 6. Caesar [1]asked the traders what the size of the island was. 7. The traders advised him not [2]to cross the sea. 8. He sent scouts [3]to choose a place for a camp.

[Footnote 1: /quaerere ab.]

[Footnote 2: Not infinitive.]

[Footnote 3: Use the gerundive with /ad.]



READING MATTER

INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS

/How to Translate. You have already had considerable practice in translating simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the meaning lies in the endings of the words. If these are neglected, no skill can make sense of the Latin. If they are carefully noted and accurately translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the following suggestions:

1. Read the Latin sentence through to the end, noting endings of nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.

2. Read it again and see if any of the words you know are nominatives or accusatives. This will often give you what may be called the backbone of the sentence; that is, subject, verb, and object.

3. Look up the words you do not know, and determine their use in the sentence from their endings.

4. If you cannot yet translate the sentence, put down the English meanings of all the words in the same order as the Latin words. You will then generally see through the meaning of the sentence.

5. Be careful to

a. Translate adjectives with the nouns to which they belong.

b. Translate together prepositions and the nouns which they govern.

c. Translate adverbs with the words that they modify.

d. Make sense. If you do not make sense, you have made a mistake. One mistake will spoil a whole sentence.

6. When the sentence is correctly translated, read the Latin over again, and try to understand it as Latin, without thinking of the English translation.

/The Parts of a Sentence. You will now meet somewhat longer sentences than you have had before. To assist in translating them, remember, first of all, that every sentence conveys a meaning and either tells us something, asks a question, or gives a command. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and the verb may always have an adverb, and, if transitive, will have a direct object.

However long a sentence is, you will usually be able to recognize its subject, verb, and object or predicate complement without any difficulty. These will give you the leading thought, and they must never be lost sight of while making out the rest of the sentence. The chief difficulty in translating arises from the fact that instead of a single adjective, adverb, or noun, we often have a phrase or a clause taking the place of one of these; for Latin, like English, has adjective, adverbial, and substantive clauses and phrases. For example, in the sentence The idle boy does not study, the word idle is an adjective. In The boy wasting his time does not study, the words wasting his time form an adjective phrase modifying boy. In the sentence The boy who wastes his time does not study, the words who wastes his time form an adjective clause modifying boy, and the sentence is complex. These sentences would show the same structure in Latin.

In translating, it is important to keep the parts of a phrase and the parts of a clause together and not let them become confused with the principal sentence. To distinguish between the subordinate clauses and the principal sentence is of the first importance, and is not difficult if you remember that a clause regularly contains a word that marks it as a clause and that this word usually stands first. These words join clauses to the words they depend on, and are called subordinate conjunctions. They are not very numerous, and you will soon learn to recognize them. In Latin they are the equivalents for such words as when, while, since, because, if, before, after, though, in order that, that, etc. Form the habit of memorizing the Latin subordinate conjunctions as you meet them, and of noting carefully the mood of the verb in the clauses which they introduce.



THE LABORS OF HERCULES

Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant he strangled some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his boyhood and youth he performed various marvelous feats of strength, and on reaching manhood he succeeded in delivering the Thebans from the oppression of the Minyae. In a fit of madness, sent upon him by Juno, he slew his own children; and, on consulting the Delphic oracle as to how he should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to submit himself for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to perform whatever tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during the twelve years of his servitude accomplished twelve extraordinary feats known as the Labors of Hercules. His death was caused, unintentionally, by his wife Deiani'ra. Hercules had shot with his poisoned arrows a centaur named Nessus, who had insulted Deianira. Nessus, before he died, gave some of his blood to Deianira, and told her it would act as a charm to secure her husband's love. Some time after, Deianira, wishing to try the charm, soaked one of her husband's garments in the blood, not knowing that it was poisoned. Hercules put on the robe, and, after suffering terrible torments, died, or was carried off by his father Jupiter.



LIII.[1] THE INFANT HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS

Di[2] grave supplicium summit de malis, sed ii qui legibus[3] deorum parent, etiam post mortem curantur. Illa vita dis[2] erat gratissima quae hominibus miseris utilissima fuerat. Omnium autem praemiorum summum erat immortalitas. Illud praemium Herculi datum est.

Herculis pater fuit Iuppiter, mater Alcmena, et omnium hominum validissimus fuisse dicitur. Sed Iuno, regina deorum, eum, adhuc infantem, interficere studebat; nam ei[1] et[2] Hercules et Alcmena erant invisi. Itaque misit duas serpentis, utramque saevissimam, quae media nocte domum[3] Alcmenae venerunt. Ibi Hercules, cum fratre suo, non in lectulo sed in scuto ingenti dormiebat. Iam audaces serpentes adpropinquaverant, iam scutum movebant. Tum frater, terrore commotus, magna voce matrem vocavit, sed Hercules ipse, fortior quam frater, statim ingentis serpentis manibus suis rapuit et interfecit.

[Footnote 1: This number refers to the lesson after which the selection may be read.]

[Footnote 2: /Di: and /di:s are from /deus. Cf. Sec. 468.]

[Footnote 3: /legibus, Sec. 501.14.]

[Footnote 1: /ei, to her, referring to Juno.]

[Footnote 2: /et ... et, both ... and.]

[Footnote 3: /domum, Sec. 501.20.]

LIV. HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINYAE

Hercules a puero[1] corpus suum gravissimis et difficillimis laboribus exercebat et hoc modo vires[2] suas confirmavit. Iam adulescens Thebis[3] habitabat. Ibi Creon quidam erat rex. Minyae, gens validissima, erant finitimi Thebanis, et, quia olim Thebanos vicerant, quotannis legatos mittebant et vectigal postulabant. Hercules autem constituit civis suos hoc vectigali liberare et dixit regi, "Da mihi exercitum tuum et ego hos superbos hostis superabo." Hanc condicionem rex non recusavit, et Hercules nuntios in omnis partis dimisit et copias coegit.[4] Tum tempore opportunissimo proelium cum Minyis commisit. Diu pugnatum est, sed denique illi impetum Thebanorum sustinere non potuerunt et terga verterunt fugamque ceperunt.

[Footnote 1: /a puero, from boyhood.]

[Footnote 2: /vires, from /vis. Cf. Sec. 468.]

[Footnote 3: /Thebis, Sec. 501.36.1.]

[Footnote 4: /coegit, from /cogo.]

HE COMMITS A CRIME AND GOES TO THE DELPHIAN ORACLE TO SEEK EXPIATION

Post hoc proelium Creon rex, tanta victoria laetus, filiam suam Herculi in matrimonium dedit. Thebis Hercules cum uxore sua diu vivebat et ab omnibus magnopere amabatur; sed post multos annos subito [1]in furorem incidit et ipse sua manu liberos suos interfecit. Post breve tempus [2]ad sanitatem reductus tantum scelus expiare cupiebat et constituit ad oraculum Delphicum iter facere. Hoc autem oraculum erat omnium clarissimum. Ibi sedebat femina quaedam quae Pythia appellabatur. Ea consilium dabat iis qui ad oraculum veniebant.

[Footnote 1: /in furorem incidit, went mad.]

[Footnote 2: /ad sanitatem reductus, lit. led back to sanity. What in good English?]



LV. HERCULES BECOMES SUBJECT TO EURYSTHEUS[1] : HE STRANGLES THE NEME'AN LION

Itaque Hercules Pythiae totam rem demonstravit nec scelus suum abdidit. Ubi iam Hercules finem fecit, Pythia iussit eum ad urbem Tiryntha[2] discedere et ibi regi Eurystheo sese committere. Quae[3] ubi audivit, Hercules ad illam urbem statim contendit et Eurystheo se in servitutem tradidit et dixit, "Quid primum, O rex, me facere iubes?" Eurystheus, qui perterrebatur vi et corpore ingenti Herculis et eum occidi[4] studebat, ita respondit: "Audi, Hercules! Multa mira[5] narrantur de leone saevissimo qui hoc tempore in valle Nemaea omnia vastat. Iubeo te, virorum omnium fortissimum, illo monstro homines liberare." Haec verba Herculi maxime placuerunt. "Properabo," inquit, "et parebo imperio[6] tuo." Tum in silvas in quibus leo habitabat statim iter fecit. Mox feram vidit et pluris impetus fecit; frustra tamen, quod neque sagittis neque ullo alio telo monstrum vulnerare potuit. Denique Hercules saevum leonem suis ingentibus bracchiis rapuit et faucis eius omnibus viribus compressit. Hoc modo brevi tempore eum interfecit. Tum corpus leonis ad oppidum in umeris reportavit et pellem postea pro[7] veste gerebat. Omnes autem quo eam regionem incolebant, ubi famam de morte leonis ingentis acceperunt, erant laetissimi et Herculem laudabant verbis amplissimis.

[Footnote 1: /Eu-rys'theus (pronounced U-ris'thus) was king of Ti'ryns, a Grecian city, whose foundation goes back to prehistoric times.]

[Footnote 2: /Tiryntha, the acc. case of /Tiryns, a Greek noun.]

[Footnote 3: /Quae, obj. of /audivit. It is placed first to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. This is called a connecting relative.]

[Footnote 4: /occidi, pres. pass. infin.]

[Footnote 5: /mira, marvelous things, the adj. being used as a noun. Cf. /omnia, in the next line.]

[Footnote 6: /imperio, Sec. 501.14.]

[Footnote 7: /pro, for, instead of.]

LVI. SLAYING THE LERNE'AN HYDRA

Deinde Hercules ab Eurystheo iussus est Hydram occidere. Itaque cum amico Iolao[1] contendit ad paludem Lernaeam ubi Hydra incolebat. Hoc autem monstrum erat serpens ingens quae novem capita habebat. Mox is monstrum repperit et summo[2] cum periculo collum eius sinistra manu rapuit et tenuit. Tum dextra manu capita novem abscidere incepit, sed frustra laborabat, quod quotiens hoc fecerat totiens alia nova capita videbat. Quod[3] ubi vidit, statuit capita igni cremare. Hoc modo octo capita delevit, sed extremum caput vulnerari non potuit, quod erat immortale. Itaque illud sub ingenti saxo Hercules posuit et ita victoriam reportavit.

[Footnote 1: /Iolao, abl. of I-o-la'us, the hero's best friend.]

[Footnote 2: Note the emphatic position of this adjective.]

[Footnote 3: /Quod ubi, when he saw this, another instance of the connecting relative. Cf. p. 199, l. 3.]

LVII. THE ARCADIAN STAG AND THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR

Postquam Eurystheo mors Hydrae nuntiata est, summus terror animum eius occupavit. Itaque iussit Herculem capere et ad se reportare cervum quendam; nam minime cupivit tantum virum in regno suo tenere. Hie autem cervus dicebatur aurea cornua et pedes multo[1] celeriores vento[2] habere. Primum Hercules vestigia animalis petivit, deinde, ubi cervum ipsum vidit, omnibus viribus currere incepit. Per plurimos dies contendit nec noctu cessavit. Denique postquam per totum annum cucurrerat—ita dicitur—cervum iam defessum cepit et ad Eurystheum portavit.

Tum vero iussus est Hercules aprum quendam capere qui illo tempore agros Erymanthios vastabat et homines illius loci magnopere perterrebat. Hercules laete negotium suscepit et in Arcadiam celeriter se recepit. Ibi mox aprum repperit. Ille autem; simul atque Herculem vidit, statim quam[3] celerrime fugit et metu perterritus in fossam altam sese abdidit. Hercules tamen summa cum difficultate eum extraxit, nec aper ullo modo sese liberare potuit, et vivus ad Eurystheum portatus est.

[Footnote 1: /multo, Sec. 501.27.]

[Footnote 2: /vento, Sec. 501.34.]

[Footnote 3: /quam. What is the force of /quam with a superlative?]

LVIII. HERCULES CLEANS THE AUGE'AN STABLES AND KILLS THE STYMPHALIAN BIRDS

Deinde Eurystheus Herculi hunc laborem multo graviorem imperavit. Augeas[1] quidam, qui illo tempore regnum Elidis[2] obtinebat, tria milia boum[3] habebat. Hi[4] ingenti stabulo continebantur. Hoc stabulum, quod per triginta annos non purgatum erat, Hercules intra spatium unius diei purgare iussus est. llle negotium alacriter suscepit, et primum labore gravissimo maximam fossam fodit per quam fluminis aquam de montibus ad murum stabuli duxit. Tum partem parvam muri delevit et aquam in stabulum immisit. Hoc modo finm operis fecit uno die facillime.

Post paucos dies Hercules ad oppidum Stymphalum iter fecit; nam Eurystheus iusserat eum avis Stymphalides occidere. Hae aves rostra ferrea habebant et homines miseros devorabant. Ille, postquam ad locum pervenit, lacum vidit in quo aves incolebant. Nullo tamen modo Hercules avibus adpropinquare potuit; lacus enim non ex aqua sed e limo constitit.[5] Denique autem aves [6]de aliqua causa perterritae in auras volaverunt et magna pars earum sagittis Herculis occisa est.

[Footnote 1: /Augeas, pronounced in English Aw-je'as.]

[Footnote 2: /Elidis, gen. case of /Elis, a district of Greece.]

[Footnote 3: /boum, gen. plur. of /bo:s. For construction see Sec. 501.11.]

[Footnote 4: /ingenti stabulo, abl. of means, but in our idiom we should say in a huge stable.]

[Footnote 5: /constitit, from /consto.]

[Footnote 6: /de aliqua causa perterritae, frightened for some reason.]



LIX. HERCULES CAPTURES THE CRETAN BULL AND CARRIES HIM LIVING TO EURYSTHEUS

Tum Eurystheus iussit Herculem portare vivum ex insula Creta taurum quendam saevissimum. Ille igitur navem conscendit—nam ventus erat idoneus—atque statim solvit. Postquam triduum navigavit, incolumis insulae adpropinquavit. Deinde, postquam omnia parata sunt, contendit ad eam regionem quam taurus vexabat. Mox taurum vidit ac sine ullo metu cornua eius corripuit. Tum ingenti labore monstrum ad navem traxit atque cum hac praeda ex insula discessit.

THE FLESH-EATING HORSES OF DIOME'DES

Postquam ex insula Creta domum pervenit, Hercules ab Eurystheo in Thraciam missus est. Ibi Diomedes quidam, vir saevissimus, regnum obtinebat et omnis a finibus suis prohibebat. Hercules iussus erat equos Diomedis rapere et ad Eurystheum ducere. Hi autem equi homines miserrimos devorabant de quibus rex supplicium sumere cupiebat. Hercules ubi pervenit, primum equos a rege postulavit, sed rex eos dedere recusavit. Deinde ille ira commotus regem occidit et corpus eius equis tradidit. Itaque is qui antea multos necaverat, ipse eodem supplicio necatus est. Et equi, nuper saevissima animalia, postquam domini sui corpus devoraverunt, mansueti erant.

LX. THE BELT OF HIPPOL'YTE, QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS

Gens Amazonum[1] dicitur[2] omnino ex mulieribus fuisse. Hae cum viris proelium committere non verebantur. Hippolyte, Amazonum regina, balteum habuit pulcherrimum. Hunc balteum possidere filia Eurysthei vehementer cupiebat. Itaque Eurystheus iussit Herculem impetum in Amazones facere. Ille multis cum copiis navem conscendit et paucis diebus in Amazonum finis pervenit, ac balteum postulavit. Eum tradere ipsa Hipporyte quidem cupivit; reliquis tamen Amazonibus[3] persuadere non potuit. Postridie Hercules proelium commisit. Multas horas utrimque quam fortissime pugnatum est Denique tamen mulieres terga verterunt et fuga salutem petierunt. Multae autem captae sunt, in quo numero erat ipsa Hippolyte. Hercules postquam balteum accepit, omnibus captivis libertatem dedit.

[Footnote 1: A fabled tribe of warlike women living in Asia Minor.]

[Footnote 2: /omnino, etc., to have consisted entirely of women.]

[Footnote 3: /Amazonibus, Sec. 501.14.]



THE DESCENT TO HADES AND THE DOG CER'BERUS

Iamque unus modo e duodecim laboribus relinquebatur sed inter omnis hic erat difficillimus. Iussus est enim canem Cerberum[4] ex Orco in lucem trahere. Ex Orco autem nemo antea reverterat. Praeterea Cerberus erat monstrum maxime horribile et tria capita habebat. Hercules postquam imperia Eurysthei accepit, statim profectus est et in Orcum descendit. Ibi vero non sine summo periculo Cerberum manibus rapuit et ingenti cum labore ex Orco in lucem et adurbem Eurysthei traxit.

Sic duodecim labores illi[5] intra duodecim annos confecti sunt. Demum post longam vitam Hercules a deis receptus est et Iuppiter filio suo dedit immortalitatem.

[Footnote 4: The dog Cerberus guarded the gate of Orcus, the abode of the dead.]

[Footnote 5: /illi, those famous.]



P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY[1]

LXI. PUBLIUS IS BORN NEAR POMPE'II

P. Cornelius Lentulus,[2] adulescens Romanus, amplissima familia[3] natus est; nam pater eius, Marcus, erat dux peritissimus, cuius virtute[4] et consilio multae victoriae reportatae erant; atque mater eius, lulia, a clarissimis maioribus orta est. Non vero in urbe sed ruri[5] Publius natus est, et cum matre habitabat in villa quae in maris litore et sub radicibus magni montis sita erat. Mons autem erat Vesuvius et parva urbs Pompeii octo milia[6] passuum[7] aberat. In Italia antiqua erant plurimae quidem villae et pulchrae, sed inter has omnis nulla erat pulchrior quam villa Marci Iuliaeque. Frons villae muro a maris fluctibus muniebatur. Hinc mare et litora et insulae longe lateque conspici[8] ac saepe naves longae et onerariae poterant. A tergo et ab utroque latere agri feracissimi patebant. Undique erat magna variorum florum copia et multa ingentium arborum genera quae aestate[9] umbram defessis agricolis gratissimam adferebant. Praeterea erant[10] in agris stabulisque multa animalium genera, non solum equi et boves sed etiam rarae aves. Etiam erat[10] magna piscina plena piscium; nam Romani piscis diligenter colebant.

[Footnote 1: This story is fiction with certain historical facts in Caesar's career as a setting. However, the events chronicled might have happened, and no doubt did happen to many a Roman youth.]

[Footnote 2: A Roman had three names, as, /Publius (given name), /Cornelius (name of the gens or clan), /Lentulus (family name).]

[Footnote 3: Abl. of source, which is akin to the abl. of separation (Sec. 501.32).]

[Footnote 4: /virtute, Sec. 501.24.]

[Footnote 5: /ruri, Sec. 501.36.1.]

[Footnote 6: /milia, Sec. 501.21.]

[Footnote 7: /passuum, Sec. 501.11.]

[Footnote 8: /conspici, infin. with poterant, Sec. 215. Consult the map of Italy for the approximate location of the villa.]

[Footnote 9: /aestate, Sec. 501.35.]

[Footnote 10: How are the forms of /sum translated when they precede the subject?]



LXII. HIS LIFE ON THE FARM

Huius villae Davus, servus Marci, est vilicus[1] et cum Lesbia uxore omnia curat. Vilicus et uxor in casa humili, mediis in agris sita, habitant. A prima luce usque ad vesperum se[2] gravibus laboribus exercent ut omni res bene gerant.[3] Plurima enim sunt officia Davi et Lesbiae. Vilicus servos regit ne tardi sint[3]; mittit alios qui agros arent,[3] alios qui hortos inrigent,[3] et opera in[4] totum diem imponit. Lesbia autem omnibus vestimenta parat, cibum coquit, panem facit.

Non longe ab horum casa et in summo colle situm surgebat domicilium ipsius domini dominaeque amplissimum. Ibi pluris annos[5] Publius cum matre vitam felicem agebat; nam pater eius, Marcus, in terris longinquis gravia rei publicae bella gerebat nec domum[6] reverti poterat. Neque puero quidem molestum est ruri[7] vivere. Eum multae res delectant. Magnopere amat silvas, agros, equos, boves, gallinas, avis, reliquaque animalia. Saepe pluris horas[8] ad mare sedet quo[9] melius fluctus et navis spectet. Nec omnino sine comitibus erat, quod Lydia, Davi filia, quae erat eiusdem aetatis, cum eo adhuc infante ludebat, inter quos cum annis amicitia crescebat. Lydia nullum alium ducem deligebat et Publius ab puellae latere raro discedebat. Itaque sub claro Italiae sole Publius et Lydia, amici fidelissimi, per campos collisque cotidie vagabantur. Modo in silva finitima ludebant ubi Publius sagittis[10] celeribus avis deiciebat et Lydia coronis variorum florum comas suas ornabat; modo aquam et cibum portabant ad Davum servosque defessos qui agros colebant: modo in casa parva aut horas lactas in ludo consumebant aut auxilium dabant Lesbiae, quae cibum viro et servis parabat vel alias res domesticas agebat.

[Footnote 1: The /vilicus was a slave who acted as overseer of a farm. He directed the farming operations and the sale of the produce.]

[Footnote 2: /se, reflexive pron., object of /exercent.]

[Footnote 3: For the construction, see Sec. 501.40.]

[Footnote 4: /in, for.]

[Footnote 5: /annos, Sec. 501.21.]

[Footnote 6: /domum, Sec. 501.20.]

[Footnote 7: /ruri, Sec. 501.36.1.]

[Footnote 8: /horas, cf. /annos, line 17.]

[Footnote 9: /quo ... spectet, Secs. 349, 350.]

[Footnote 10: /sagittis, Sec. 501.24.]

LXIII. MARCUS LENTULUS, THE FATHER OF PUBLIUS, IS SHIPWRECKED : JULIA RECEIVES A LETTER FROM HIM

Iam Publius[1] decem annos habebat cum M. Cornelius Lentulus, pater eius, qui quinque annos[2] grave bellum in Asia gerebat, non sine gloria domum[3] revertebatur. Namque multa secunda proelia fecerat, maximas hostium copias deleverat, multas urbis populo[4] Romano inimicas ceperat. Primum nuntius pervenit qui a Lentulo[5] missus erat[6] ut profectionem suam nuntiaret. Deinde pluris dies[7] reditum viri optimi mater filiusque exspectabant et animis[8] sollicitis deos immortalis frustra colebant. Tum demum has litteras summo cum gaudio acceperunt:

[9]"Marcus Iuliae suac salutem dicit. Si vales, bene est; ego valeo. Ex Graecia, quo[10] praeter spem et opinionem hodie perveni, has litteras ad te scribo. Namque navis nostra fracta est; nos autem—[11]dis est gratia—incolumes sumus. Ex Asiae[12] portu navem leni vento solvimus. Postquam[13] altum mare tenuimus [14]nec iam ullae terrae apparuerunt, caelum undique et undique fluctus, subito magna tempestas coorta est et navem vehementissime adflixit. Ventis fluctibusque adflictati[15] nec solem discernere nec cursum tenere poteramus et omnia praesentem mortem intentabant. Tris dies[16] et tris noctis[16] sine remis velisque agimur. Quarto die[17] primum terra visa est et violenter in saxa, quae non longe a litore aberant, deiecti sumus. Tum vero maiora pericula timebamus; sed nauta quidam, vir fortissimus, ex nave in fluctus iratos desiluit [18]ut funem ad litus portaret; quam rem summo labore vix effecit. Ita omnes servati sumus. Gratias igitur et honorem Neptuno debemus, qui deus nos e periculo eripuit. Nunc Athenis[19] sum, quo confugi ut mihi paucas horas ad quietem darem.[20] Quam primum autem aliam navem conducam ut iter ad Italiam reliquum conficiam et domum[21] ad meos caros revertar. Saluta nostrum Publium amicissime et valetudinem tuam cura diligenter. [22]Kalendis Martiis."

[Footnote 1: was ten years old.]

[Footnote 2: /annos, Sec. 501.21.]

[Footnote 3: /domum, Sec. 501.20.]

[Footnote 4: /populo, dat. with inimicas, cf. Sec. 501.16.]

[Footnote 5: /Lentulo, Sec. 501.33.]

[Footnote 6: /ut ... nuntiaret, Sec. 501.40.]

[Footnote 7: /dies, cf. annos, 1. 9.]

[Footnote 8: /animis, abl. of manner. Do you see one in line 15?]

[Footnote 9: This is the usual form for the beginning of a Latin letter. First we have the greeting, and then the expression Si vales, etc. The date of the letter is usually given at the end, and also the place of writing, if not previously mentioned in the letter.]

[Footnote 10: /quo, where.]

[Footnote 11: /dis est gratia, thank God, in our idiom.]

[Footnote 12: Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in Asia Minor.]

[Footnote 13: /altum mare tenuimus, we were well out to sea.]

[Footnote 14: /nec iam, and no longer.]

[Footnote 15: /adflictati, perf. passive part. tossed about.]

[Footnote 16: What construction?]

[Footnote 17: /die, Sec. 501.35.]

[Footnote 18: /ut ... portaret, Sec. 501.40.]

[Footnote 19: /Athenis, Sec. 501.36.1.]

[Footnote 20: /darem, cf. /portaret, l. 6.]

[Footnote 21: Why not /ad domum?]

[Footnote 22: /Kalendis Martiis, the Calends or first of March; abl. of time, giving the date of the letter.]

LXIV. LENTULUS REACHES HOME : PUBLIUS VISITS POMPEII WITH HIS FATHER

Post paucos dies navis M. Corneli Lentuli portum Miseni[1] petiit, qui portus non longe a Pompeiis situs est; quo in portu classis Romana ponebatur et ad pugnas navalis ornabatur. Ibi naves omnium generum conspici poterant. Iamque incredibili celeritate navis longa qua Lentulus vehebatur litori adpropinquavit; nam non solum vento sed etiam remis impellebatur. In alta puppe stabat gubernator et non procul aliqui milites Romani cum armis splendidis, inter quos clarissimus erat Lentulus. Deinde servi remis contendere cessaverunt[2]; nautae velum contraxerunt et ancoras iecerunt. Lentulus statim e navi egressus est et[3] ad villam suam properavit. Eum Iulia, Publius, totaque familia exceperunt. [4]Qui complexus, quanta gaudia fuerunt!

Postridie eius diei Lentulus filio suo dixit, "Veni, mi Publi, mecum. Pompeios iter hodie faciam. Mater tua suadet[5] ut fructus et cibaria emam. Namque pluris amicos ad cenam vocavimus et multis rebus[6] egemus. Ea hortatur ut quam primum proficiscamur." "Libenter, mi pater," inquit Publius. "Tecum esse mihi semper est gratum; nec Pompeios umquam vidi. Sine mora proficisci paratus sum." Tum celeriter currum conscenderunt et ad urbis muros vecti sunt. Stabiana porta[7] urbem ingressi sunt. Publius stratas vias miratur et saxa altiora quae in medio disposita erant et altas orbitas quas rotae inter haec saxa fecerant. Etiam strepitum miratur, multitudinem, carros, fontis, domos, tabernas, forum[8] cum statuis, templis, reliquisque aedificiis publicis.

[Footnote 1: Misenum had an excellent harbor, and under the emperor Augustus became the chief naval station of the Roman fleet. See map of Italy.]

[Footnote 2: Why is the infinitive used with /cessaverunt?]

[Footnote 3: See Plate I, Frontispiece.]

[Footnote 4: Observe that these words are exclamatory.]

[Footnote 5: What construction follows /suadeo? Sec. 501.41.]

[Footnote 6: /rebus, Sec. 501.32.]

[Footnote 7: This is the abl. of the way by which motion takes place, sometimes called the abl. of route. The construction comes under the general head of the abl. of means. For the scene here described, see Plate II, p. 53, and notice especially the stepping-stones for crossing the street (/saxa quae in medio disposita erant).]

[Footnote 8: The forum of Pompeii was surrounded by temples, public halls, and markets of various sorts. Locate Pompeii on the map.]

LXV. A DAY AT POMPEII

Apud forum e curru descenderunt et Lentulus dixit, "Hic sunt multa tabernarum genera, mi Publi. Ecce, trans viam est popina! [1]Hoc genus tabernarum cibaria vendit. Fructus quoque ante ianuam stant. Ibi cibaria mea emam." "Optime," respondit Publius. "At ubi, mi pater, crustula emere possumus? Namque mater nobis imperavit [2]ut haec quoque pararemus. Timeo ut[3] ista popina vendat crustula." "Bene dicis," inquit Lentulus. "At nonne vides illum fontem a dextra ubi aqua per leonis caput fluit? In illo ipso loco est taberna pistoris qui sine dubio vendit crustula."

Brevi tempore[4] omnia erant parata, iamque [5]quinta hora erat. Deinde Lentulus et filius ad cauponam properaverunt, quod fame[6] et siti[7] urgebantur. Ibi sub arboris umbra sederunt et puero imperaverunt ut sibi[8] cibum et vinum daret. Huic imperio[9] puer celeriter paruit. Tum laeti se[10] ex labore refecerunt.

Post prandium prefecti sunt ut alia urbis spectacula viderent. Illo tempore fuerunt Pompeiis[11] multa templa, duo theatra, thermae magnumque amphitheatrum, quae omnia post paucos annos flammis atque incendiis Vesuvi et terrae motu deleta sunt. Ante hanc calamitatem autem homines [12]nihil de monte veriti sunt. In amphitheatro quidem Publius morari cupivit ut spectacula gladiatoria videret, quae in[13] illum ipsum diem proscripta erant et iam [14]re vera inceperant. Sed Lentulus dixit, "Morari, Publi, [15]vereor ut possimus. Iam decima hora est et via est longa. Tempus suadet ut quam primum domum revertamur." Itaque servo imperavit ut equos iungeret, et solis occasu[16] ad villam pervenerunt.

[Footnote 1: We say, this kind of shop; Latin, this kind of shops.]

[Footnote 2: /ut ... pararemus, Sec. 501.41.]

[Footnote 3: How is /ut translated after a verb of fearing? How /ne:? Cf. Sec. 501.42.]

[Footnote 4: /tempore, Sec. 501.35.]

[Footnote 5: /quinta hora. The Romans numbered the hours of the day consecutively from sunrise to sunset, dividing the day, whether long or short, into twelve equal parts.]

[Footnote 6: /fame shows a slight irregularity in that the abl. ending -e is long.]

[Footnote 7: /sitis, thirst, has -im in the acc. sing., -i in the abl. sing., and no plural.]

[Footnote 8: Observe that the reflexive pronoun /sibi does not here refer to the subject of the subordinate clause in which it stands, but to the subject of the main clause. This so-called indirect use of the reflexive is often found in object clauses of purpose.]

[Footnote 9: What case? Cf. Sec. 501.14.]

[Footnote 10: /se, cf. p. 205, l. 7, and note.]

[Footnote 11: /Pompeiis, Sec. 501.36.1.]

[Footnote 12: /nihil ... veriti sunt, had no fears of the mountain.]

[Footnote 13: /in, for.]

[Footnote 14: /re vera, in fact.]

[Footnote 15: /vereor ut, Sec. 501.42.]

[Footnote 16: /occasu, Sec. 501.35.]

LXVI. LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON

A primis annis quidem Iulia ipsa filium suum docuerat, et Publius non solum [1]pure et Latine loqui poterat sed etiam commode legebat et scribebat. Iam Ennium[2] aliosque poetas legerat. Nunc vero Publius [3]duodecim annos habebat; itaque ei pater bonum magistrum, [4]virum omni doctrina et virtute ornatissimum, paravit, [5]qui Graeca, musicam, aliasque artis doceret. [6]Namque illis temporibus omnes fere gentes Graece loquebantur. Cum Publio alii pueri, Lentuli amicorum filii,[7] discebant. Nam saepe apud Romanos mos erat [8]non in ludum filios mittere sed domi per magistrum docere. Cotidie discipuli cum magistro in peristylo[9] Marci domus sedebant. Omnes pueri bullam auream, originis honestae signum, in collo gerebant, et omnes toga praetexta amicti erant, [10]quod nondum sedecim annos[11] nati sunt.

[Footnote 1: /pure ... poterat, freely, could speak Latin well. What is the literal translation?]

[Footnote 2: /Ennium, the father of Latin poetry.]

[Footnote 3: /duodecim ... habebat, cf. p. 206, l. 8, and note.]

[Footnote 4: /virum, etc., a very well-educated and worthy man. Observe the Latin equivalent.]

[Footnote 5: /qui ... doceret, a relative clause of purpose. Cf. Secs. 349, 350.]

[Footnote 6: In Caesar's time Greek was spoken more widely in the Roman world than any other language.]

[Footnote 7: /filii, in apposition with /pueri.]

[Footnote 8: /non ... mittere. This infinitive clause is the subject of /erat. Cf. Sec. 216. The same construction is repeated in the next clause, /domi ... docere. The object of /docere is /filios understood.]

[Footnote 9: The peristyle was an open court surrounded by a colonnade.]

[Footnote 10: At the age of sixteen a boy laid aside the bulla and the toga praetexta and assumed toga virilis or manly gown.]

[Footnote 11: /annos, Sec. 501.21. The expression /nondum sedecim annos nati sunt means literally, they were born not yet sixteen years. This is the usual expression for age. What is the English equivalent?]



SCENE IN SCHOOL : AN EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION

DISCIPULI. Salve, magister. MAGISTER. Vos quoque omnes, salvete. [1]Tabulasne portavistis et stilos? D. Portavimus. M. Iam fabulam Aesopi[2] discemus. Ego legam, vos in tabulis scribite. Et tu, Publi, da mihi e capsa[3] Aesopi volumen.[4] Iam audite omnes: Vulpes et Uva. Vulpes olim fame coacta uvam dependentem vidit. Ad uvam saliebat, sumere conans. Frustra diu conata, tandem irata erat et salire cessans dixit: "Illa uva est acerba; acerbam uvam [5]nihil moror." Omnia'ne scripsistis, pueri? D. Omnia, magister.

[Footnote 1: Tablets were thin boards of wood smeared with wax. The writing was done with a stylus, a pointed instrument like a pencil, made of bone or metal, with a knob at the other end. The knob was used to smooth over the wax in making erasures and corrections.]

[Footnote 2: /Aesopi, the famous Greek to whom are ascribed most of the fables current in the ancient world.]

[Footnote 3: A cylindrical box for holding books and papers, shaped like a hatbox.]

[Footnote 4: Ancient books were written on rolls made of papy'rus.]

[Footnote 5: /nihil moror, I care nothing for.]

LXVII. PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME TO FINISH HIS EDUCATION

Iamque Publius, [1]quindecim annos natus, [2]primis litterarum elementis confectis, Romam petere voluit ut scholas grammaticorum et philosophorum frequentaret. Et facillime patri[3] suo, qui ipse philosophiae studio tenebatur, persuasit. Itaque [4]omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatis, pater filiusque equis animosis vecti[5] ad magnam urbem profecti sunt. Eos proficiscentis Iulia totaque familia votis precibusque prosecutae sunt. Tum per loca[6] plana et collis silvis vestitos viam ingressi sunt ad Nolam, quod oppidum eos hospitio modico excepit. Nolae[7] duas horas morati sunt, quod sol meridianus ardebat. Tum recta via[8] circiter viginti milia[9] passuum[9] Capuam,[9] ad insignem Campaniae urbem, contenderunt. Eo[10] multa nocte defessi pervenerunt. [11]Postridie eius diei, somno et cibo recreati, Capua discesserunt et [13]viam Appiam ingressi, quae Capuam tangit et usque ad urbem Romam ducit, ante meridiem Sinuessam pervenerunt, quod oppidum tangit mare. Inde prima luce proficiscentes Formias[13] properaverunt, ubi Cicero, orator clarissimus, qui forte apud villam suam erat, eos benigne excepit. Hinc [14]itinere viginti quinque milium passuum facto, Tarracinam, oppidum in saxis altissimis situm, viderunt. Iamque non longe aberant paludes magnae, quae multa milia passuum undique patent. Per eas pedestris via est gravis et in nave viatores vehuntur. Itaque [15]equis relictis Lentulus et Publius navem conscenderunt, et, una nocte in transitu consumpta, Forum Appi venerunt. Tum brevi tempore Aricia eos excepit. Hoc oppidum, in colle situm, ab urbe Roma sedecim milia passuum abest. Inde declivis via usque ad latum campum ducit ubi Roma stat. Quem ad locum ubi Publius venit et Romam adhuc remotam, maximam totius orbis terrarum urbem, conspexit, summa admiratione et gaudio adfectus est. Sine mora descenderunt, et, medio intervallo quam celerrime superato, urbem porta Capena ingressi sunt.

[Footnote 1: /quindecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.]

[Footnote 2: /primis ... confectis, abl. abs. Cf. Sec. 501.28.]

[Footnote 3: /patri, dat. with /persuasit.]

[Footnote 4: /omnibus ... comparatis, cf. note 2.]

[Footnote 5: /vecti, perf. pass. part. of /veho.]

[Footnote 6: What is there peculiar about the gender of this word?]

[Footnote 7: /Nolae, locative case, Sec. 501.36.2.]

[Footnote 8: /via, cf. /porta, p. 208, l. 7, and note.]

[Footnote 9: What construction?]

[Footnote 10: /Eo, adv. there.]

[Footnote 11: /Postridie eius diei, on the next day.]

[Footnote 12: /viam Appiam, the most famous of all Roman roads, the great highway from Rome to Tarentum and Brundisium, with numerous branches. Locate on the map the various towns that are mentioned in the lines that follow.]

[Footnote 13: /Formias, Formiae, one of the most beautiful spots on this coast, and a favorite site for the villas of rich Romans.]

[Footnote 14: /itinere ... facto, abl. abs. The gen. /milium modifies /itinere.]

[Footnote 15: /equis relictis. What construction? Point out a similar one in the next line.]



LXVIII. PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS

Publius iam totum annum Romae morabatur[1] multaque urbis spectacula viderat et multos sibi[2] amicos paraverat. Ei[3] omnes favebant; [4]de eo omnes bene sperare poterant. Cotidie Publius scholas philosophorum et grammaticorum tanto studio frequentabat [5]ut aliis clarum exemplum praeberet. Saepe erat cum patre in curia[6]; quae res effecit [7]ut summos rei publicae viros et audiret et videret. Ubi [8]sedecim annos natus est, bullam[9] auream et togam praetextam more Romano deposuit atque virilem togam sumpsit. Virilis autem toga erat omnino alba, sed praetexta clavum purpureum in margine habebat. [10]Deponere togam praetextam et sumere togam virilem erat res gratissima puero Romano, quod postea vir et civis Romanus habebatur.

[11]His rebus gestis Lentulus ad uxorem suam has litteras scripsit:

[12]"Marcus Iuliae suae salutem dicit. Si vales, bene est; ego valeo. Accepi tuas litteras. Has nunc Roma per servum fidelissimum mitto ut de Publio nostro quam celerrime scias. Nam hodie ei togam virilem dedi. Ante lucem surrexi[13] et primum bullam auream de collo eius removi. Hac Laribus[14] consecrata et sacris factis, eum toga virili vestivi. Interim plures amici cum multitudine optimorum civium et honestorum clientium pervenerant [15]qui Publium domo in forum deducerent. Ibi in civitatem receptus est et nomen, Publius Cornelius Lentulus, apud civis Romanos ascriptum est. Omnes ei amicissimi fuerunt et magna[16] de eo praedicunt. Sapientior enim aequalibus[17] est et magnum ingenium habet. [18]Cura ut valeas."

[Footnote 1: /morabatur, translate as if pluperfect.]

[Footnote 2: /sibi, for himself.]

[Footnote 3: /Ei, why dat.?]

[Footnote 4: /de ... poterant, in English, all regarded him as a very promising youth; but what does the Latin say?]

[Footnote 5: /ut ... praeberet, Sec. 501.43.]

[Footnote 6: /curia, a famous building near the Roman Forum.]

[Footnote 7: /ut ... audiret et videret, Sec. 501.44.]

[Footnote 8: /sedecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.]

[Footnote 9: /bullam, cf. p. 210, l. 3, and note 4.]

[Footnote 10: These infinitive clauses are the subject of /erat. Cf. Sec. 216.]

[Footnote 11: /His rebus gestis, i.e. the assumption of the toga virilis and attendant ceremonies.]

[Footnote 12: Compare the beginning of this letter with the one on page 206.]

[Footnote 13: /surrexi, from /surgo.]

[Footnote 14: The Lares were the spirits of the ancestors, and were worshiped as household gods. All that the house contained was confided to their care, and sacrifices were made to them daily.]

[Footnote 15: /qui ... deducerent, Sec. 350.]

[Footnote 16: /magna, great things, a neuter adj. used as a noun.]

[Footnote 17: /aequalibus, Sec. 501.34.]

[Footnote 18: /Cura ut valeas, take good care of your health. How does the Latin express this idea?]

LXIX. PUBLIUS JOINS CAESAR'S ARMY IN GAUL

Publius iam adulescens postquam togam virilem sumpsit, aliis rebus studere incepit et praesertim usu[1] armorum se[2] diligenter exercuit. Magis magisque amavit illas artis quae militarem animum delectant. Iamque erant [3]qui ei cursum militarem praedicerent. Nec sine causa, quod certe patris isigne exemplum [4]ita multum trahebat. [5]Paucis ante annis C. Iulius Caesar, ducum Romanorum maximus, consul creatus erat et hoc tempore in Gallia bellum grave gerebat. Atque in exercitu eius plures adulescentes militabant, apud quos erat amicus quidam Publi. Ille Publium crebris litteris vehementer hortabatur [6]ut iter in Galliam faceret. Neque Publius recusavit, et, multis amicis ad portam urbis prosequentibus, ad Caesaris castra profectus est. Quarto die postquam iter ingressus est, ad Alpis, montis altissimos, pervenit. His summa difficultate superatis, tandem Gallorum in finibus erat. Primo autem veritus est ut[7] castris Romanis adpropinquare posset, quod Galli, maximis copiis coactis, Romanos obsidebant et vias omnis iam clauserant. His rebus commotus Publius vestem Gallicam induit ne a Gallis caperetur, et ita per hostium copias incolumis ad castra pervenire potuit. Intra munitiones acceptus, a Caesare benigne exceptus est. Imperator fortem adulescentem amplissimis verbis laudavit et eum [8]tribunum militum creavit.

[Footnote 1: Abl. of means.]

[Footnote 2: /se, reflexive object of /exercuit.]

[Footnote 3: /qui ... praedicerent, Sec. 501.45.]

[Footnote 4: /ita multum trahebat, had a great influence in that direction.]

[Footnote 5: /Paucis ante annis, a few years before; in Latin, before by a few years, /ante being an adverb and /annis abl. of degree of difference.]

[Footnote 6: /ut ... faceret, Sec. 501.41.]

[Footnote 7: /ut, how translated here? See Sec. 501.42.]

[Footnote 8: The military tribune was a commissioned officer nearly corresponding to our rank of colonel. The tribunes were often inexperienced men, so Caesar did not allow them much responsibility.]



HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED

Exercitus qui in hostium finibus bellum genit multis pericuis circumdatus est. [1]Quae pericula ut vitaret, Romani summam curam adhibere solebant. Adpropinquantees copiis hostium agmen ita disponebant [2]ut imperator ipse cum plaribus legionibus expeditis[3] primum agmen duceret. Post eas copias impedimenta[4] totius exercitus conlocabant. [5]Tum legiones quae proxime conscriptae erant totum agmen claudebant. Equites quoque in omnis partis dimittebantur qui loca explorarent; et centuriones praemittebantur ut locum castris idoneum deligerent. Locus habebatur idoneus castris [6]qui facile defendi posset et prope aquam esset. Qua de causa castra[7] in colle ab utraque parte arduo, a fronte leniter declivi saepe ponebantur; vel locus paludibus cinctus vel in fluminis ripis situs deligebatur. Ad locum postquam exercitus pervenit, alii militum [8]in armis erant, alii castra munire incipiebant. Nam [9]quo tutiores ab hostibus milites essent, neve incauti et imparati opprimerentur, castra fossa lata et vallo alto muniebant. In castris portae quattuor erant ut eruptio militum omnis in partis fieri posset. In angulis castrorum erant turres de quibus tela in hostis coniciebantur. [10]Talibus in castris qualia descripsimus Publius a Caesare exceptus est.

[Footnote 1: /Quae pericula, object of /vitarent. It is placed first to make a proper connection with the preceding sentence.]

[Footnote 2: /ut ... duceret, Sec. 501.43.]

[Footnote 3: /expeditis, i.e. without baggage and ready for action.]

[Footnote 4: /impedimenta. Much of the baggage was carried in carts and on beasts of burden, as is shown above; but, besides this, each soldier (unless /expeditus) carried a heavy pack. See also picture, p. 159.]

[Footnote 5: The newest legions were placed in the rear, because they were the least reliable.]

[Footnote 6: /qui ... posset ... esset, Sec. 501.45.]

[Footnote 7: /castra, subject of /ponebantur.]

[Footnote 8: /in armis erant, stood under arms.]

[Footnote 9: /quo ... essent. When is /quo used to introduce a purpose clause? See Sec. 350.I.]

[Footnote 10: /Talibus in castris qualia, in such a camp as. It is important to remember the correlatives /talis ... qualis, such ... as.]



LXX. THE RIVAL CENTURIONS

Illis in castris erant duo centuriones,[1] fortissimi viri, T. Pullo et L. Vorenus, quorum neuter alteri virtute[2] cedere volebat. Inter eos iam multos annos infensum certamen gerebatur. Tum demum finis controversiae hoc modo[3] factus est. Die tertio postquam Publius pervenit, hostes, maioribus copiis coactis, acerrimum impetum in castra fecerunt. Tum Pullo, [4]cum Romani tardiores[5] viderentur, "Cur dubitas," inquit, "Vorene? Quam commodiorem occasionem exspectas? Hic dies de virtute nostra iudicabit." Haec[6] cum dixisset, extra munitiones processit et in eam hostium partem quae cofertissima [7]videbatur inrupit. Neque Vorenus quidem tum vallo[8] sese continet, sed Pullonem subsequitur. Tum Pullo pilum in hostis immittit atque unum ex multitudine procurrentem traicit. Hunc percussum et exanimatum hostes scutis protegunt et in Pullonem omnes tela coniciunt. Eius scutum transfigitur et telum in balteo defigitur. Hic casus vaginam avertit et dextram manum eius gladium educere conantis[9] moratur. Eum ita impeditum hostes circumsistunt.

Tum vero [10]ei laboranti Vorenus, cum sit inimicus, tamen auxilium dat. Ad hunc confestim [11]a Pullone omnis multitudo se convertit. Gladio comminus pugnat Vorenus, atque, uno interfecto, reliquos paulum propellit. Sed instans cupidius[12] infelix, [13]pede se fallente, concidit.

Huic rursus circumvento auxilium dat Pullo, atque ambo incolumes, pluribus interfectis, summa cum laude intra munitiones se recipiunt. Sic inimicorum alter alteri auxilium dedit nec de eorum virtute quisquam iudicare potuit.

[Footnote 1: A centurion commanded a company of about sixty men. He was a common soldier who had been promoted from the ranks for his courage and fighting qualities. The centurions were the real leaders of the men in battle. There were sixty of them in a legion. The centurion in the picture (p. 216) has in his hand a staff with a crook at one end, the symbol of his authority.]

[Footnote 2: /virtute, Sec. 501.30.]

[Footnote 3: Abl. of manner.]

[Footnote 4: /cum ... viderentur, Sec. 501.46.]

[Footnote 5: /tardiores, too slow, a not infrequent translation of the comparative degree.]

[Footnote 6: /Haec, obj. of /dixisset. It is placed before /cum to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. What is the construction of /dixisset?]

[Footnote 7: /videbatur, inrupit. Why is the imperfect used in one case and the perfect in the other? Cf. Sec. 190.]

[Footnote 8: /vallo, abl. of means, but in English we should say within the rampart. Cf. /ingenti stabulo, p. 201, l. 13, and note.]

[Footnote 9: /conantis, pres. part. agreeing with /eius.]

[Footnote 10: /ei laboranti, indir. obj. of dat.]

[Footnote 11: /a Pullone, from Pullo, abl. of separation.]

[Footnote 12: /cupidius, too eagerly.]

[Footnote 13: /pede se fallente, lit. the foot deceiving itself; in our idiom, his foot slipping.]

LXXI. THE ENEMY BESIEGING THE CAMP ARE REPULSED

Cum iam sex horas pugnatum esset[1] ac non solum vires sed etiam tela Romanos deficerent[1], atque hostes acrius instarent,[1] et vallum scindere fossamque complere incepissent,[1] Caesar, vir rei militaris peritissimus, suis imperavit ut proelium paulisper intermitterent,[2] et, signo dato, ex castris erumperent.[2] [3]Quod iussi sunt faciunt, et subito ex omnibus portis erumpunt. Atque tam celeriter milites concurrerunt et tam propinqui erant hostes[4] ut spatium pila coniciendi[5] non daretur. Itaque reiectis pilis [6]comminus gladiis pugnatum est. Diu et audacter hostes restiterunt et in extrema spe salutis tantam virtutem praestiterunt ut a dextro cornu vehementer [7]multitudine suorum aciem Romanam premerent. [8]Id imperator cum animadvertisset, Publium adulescentem cum equitatu misit qui laborantibus[9] auxilium daret. Eius impetum sustinere non potuerunt hostes[10] et omnes terga verterunt. Eos in fugam datos Publius subsecutus est usque ad flumen Rhenum, quod ab eo loco quinque milia passuum aberat. Ibi pauci salutem sibi reppererunt. Omnibus reliquis interfectis, Publius et equites in castra sese receperunt. De hac calamitate finitimae gentes cum certiores factae essent, ad Caesarem legatos miserunt et se suaque omnia dediderunt.

[Footnote 1: /pugnatum esset, deficerent, instarent, incepissent. These are all subjunctives with /cum. Cf. Sec. 501.46.]

[Footnote 2: /intermitterent, erumperent. What use of the subjunctive?]

[Footnote 3: /Quod, etc., they do as ordered. The antecedent of /quod is /id understood, which would be the object of /faciunt.]

[Footnote 4: /ut ... daretur. Is this a clause of purpose or of result?]

[Footnote 5: /coniciendi, Sec. 402.]

[Footnote 6: /comminus gladiis pugnatum est, a hand-to-hand conflict was waged with swords.]

[Footnote 7: /multitudine suorum, by their numbers. /suorum is used as a noun. What is the literal translation of this expression?]

[Footnote 8: /Id imperator. Id is the obj. and /imperator the subj. of /animadvertisset.]

[Footnote 9: /laborantibus. This participle agrees with /iis understood, the indir. obj. of /daret; qui ... daret is a purpose clause, Sec. 501.40.]

[Footnote 10: /hostes, subj. of /potuerunt.]

LXXII. PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY : ITS GREAT FORESTS AND STRANGE ANIMALS

Inita aestate Caesar litteris certior fiebat et per exploratores cognoscebat pluris civitates Galliae novis rebus studere,[1] et contra populum Romanum coniurare[1] obsidesque [2]inter se dare,[1] atque cum his Germanos quosdam quoque sese coniuncturos esse.[1] His litteris nuntiisque commotus Caesar constituit quam celerrime in Gallos proficisci,[3] ut eos inopinantis opprimeret, et Labienum legatum cum duabus legionibus peditum et duobus milibus equitum in Germanos mittere.[3] [4]Itaque re frumentaria comparata castra movit. Ab utroque[5] res bene gesta est; nam Caesar tam celeriter in hostium finis pervenit ut spatium [6]copias cogendi non daretur[4]; et Labienus de Germanis tam grave supplicium sumpsit ut nemo ex ea gente in reliquum tempus Gallis auxilium dare auderet.[7]

Hoc iter in Germaniam Publius quoque fecit et, [8]cum ibi moraretur, multa mirabilia vidit. Praesertim vero ingentem silvam mirabatur, quae tantae magnitudinis esse dicebatur [9]ut nemo eam transire posset, nec quisquam sciret aut initium aut finem. Qua de re plura cognoverat a milite quodam qui olim captus a Germanis multos annos ibi incoluit. Ille[10] de silva dicens, "Infinitae magnitudinis est haec silva," inquit; "nee quisquam est [11]huius Germaniae [12]qui initium eius sciat aut ad finem adierit. Nascuntur illic multa talia animalium genera qualia reliquis in locis non inveniuntur. Sunt boves qui unum[13] cornu habent; sunt etiam animalia quae appellantur alces. Hae nullos crurum[14] articulos habent. Itaque, si forte conciderunt, sese erigere nullo modo possunt. Arbores habent pro[15] cubilibus; ad eas se applicant atque ita reclinatae quietem capiunt. Tertium est genus eorum qui uri appellantur. Hi sunt paulo minores elephantis.[16] Magna vis eorum est et magna velocitas. Neque homini neque ferae parcunt.[17]"

[Footnote 1: Observe that all these infinitives are in indirect statements after /certior fiebat, he was informed, and /cognoscebat, he learned. Cf. Sec. 501.48, 49.]

[Footnote 2: /inter se, to each other.]

[Footnote 3: /proficisci, mittere. These infinitives depend upon /constituit.]

[Footnote 4: Before beginning a campaign, food had to be provided. Every fifteen days grain was distributed. Each soldier received about two pecks. This he carried in his pack, and this constituted his food, varied occasionally by what he could find by foraging.]

[Footnote 5: Abl. of personal agent, Sec. 501.33.]

[Footnote 6: /copias cogendi, Sec. 501.37.1.]

[Footnote 7: /daretur, auderet, Sec. 501.43. /auderet is not from /audio.]

[Footnote 8: /cum ... moraretur, Sec. 501.46.]

[Footnote 9: /ut ... posset, ... sciret, Sec. 501.43.]

[Footnote 10: /Ille, subj. of /inquit.]

[Footnote 11: /huius Germaniae, of this part of Germany.]

[Footnote 12: /qui ... sciat ... adierit, Sec. 501.45.]

[Footnote 13: /unum, only one.]

[Footnote 14: /crurum, from /crus.]

[Footnote 15: /pro, for, in place of.]

[Footnote 16: /elephantis, Sec. 501.34.]

[Footnote 17: /parcunt. What case is used with this verb?]



LXXIII. THE STORMING OF A CITY

Publius pluris dies in Germania moratus[1] in Galliam rediit, et ad Caesaris castra se contulit. Ille quia moleste ferebat Gallos[2] eius regionis obsides dare recusavisse et exercitui frumentum praebere noluisse, constituit eis[3] bellum inferre. Agris vastatis, vicis incensis, pervenit ad oppidum validissimum quod et natura et arte munitum erat. Cingebatur muro viginti quinque pedes[4] alto. A lateribus duositum, praerupto fastigio ad planitiem vergegat; a quarto tantum[5] latere aditus erat facilis. Hoc oppidum oppugnare, [6]cum opus esset difficillimum, tamen constituit Caesar. Et castris munitis Publio negotium dedit ut res [7]ad oppugnandum necessarias pararet.

Romanorum autem oppugnatio est haec.[8] Primum turres aedificantur quibus milites in summum murum evadere possint[9]; vineae[10] fiunt quibus tecti milites ad murum succedant; plutei[11] parantur post quos milites tormenta[12] administrent; sunt quoque arietes qui murum et portas discutiant. His omnibus rebus comparatis, deinde [13]agger ab ea parte ubi aditus est facillimus exstruitur et cum vineis ad ipsum oppidum agitur. Tum turris in aggere promovetur; arietibus qui sub vineis conlocati erant murus et portae discutiuntur; ballistis, catapultis, reliquisque tormentis lapides et tela in oppidum coniciuntur. Postremo cum iam turris et agger altitudinem muri adaequant et arietes moenia perfregerunt,[14] signo dato milites inruunt et oppidum expugnant.

[Footnote 1: /moratus. Is this part. active or passive in meaning?]

[Footnote 2: /Gallos, subj. acc. of the infins. /recusavisse and /noluisse. The indirect statement depends upon /moleste ferebat.]

[Footnote 3: /eis, Sec. 501.15.]

[Footnote 4: /pedes, Sec. 501.21.]

[Footnote 5: /tantum, adv. only.]

[Footnote 6: /cum ... esset, a clause of concession, Sec. 501.46.]

[Footnote 7: /ad oppugnandum, a gerund expressing purpose.]

[Footnote 8: /haec, as follows.]

[Footnote 9: /possint, subjv. of purpose. Three similar constructions follow.]

[Footnote 10: /vineae. These /vineae were wooden sheds, open in front and rear, used to protect men who were working to take a fortification. They were about eight feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered with raw hides to protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or rollers.]

[Footnote 11: /plutei, large screens or shields with small wheels attached to them. These were used to protect besiegers while moving up to a city or while serving the engines of war.]

[Footnote 12: /tormenta. The engines of war were chiefly the catapult for shooting great arrows, and the ballista, for hurling large stones. They had a range of about two thousand feet and were very effective.]

[Footnote 13: The /agger, or mound, was of chief importance in a siege. It was begun just out of reach of the missiles of the enemy, and then gradually extended towards the point to be attacked. At the same time its height gradually increased until on a level with the top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber, and had covered galleries running through it for the use of the besiegers. Over or beside the agger a tower was moved up to the wall, often with a battering-ram (aries) in the lowest story. (See picture, p. 221.)]

[Footnote 14: /perfregerunt, from /perfringo.]





LXXIV. THE CITY IS TAKEN : THE CAPTIVES ARE QUESTIONED

Omnibus rebus necessariis ad oppugnandum a Publio comparatis, deliberatur in concilio quod consilium [1]oppidi expugnandi ineant.[2] Tum unus[3] ex centurionibus, vir rei militaris peritissimus, "Ego suadeo," inquit, "ut ab ea parte, ubi aditus sit[5] facillimus, aggerem exstruamus[4] et turrim promoveamus[6] atque ariete admoto simul murum discutere conemur.[5]" [6]Hoc consilium cum omnibus placeret, Caesar concilium dimisit. Deinde milites hortatus ut priores victorias memoria[7] tenerent, iussit aggerem exstrui, turrim et arietem admoveri. Neque oppidanis[8] consilium defuit. Alii ignem et omne genus telorum de muro in turrim coniecerunt, alii ingentia saxa in vineas et arietem devolverunt. Diu utrimque acerrime pugnatum est. Ne vulnerati quidem pedem rettulerunt. Tandem, [9]de tertia vigilia, Publius, quem Caesar illi operi[10] praefecerat, nuntiavit partem[11] muri ictibus arietis labefactam concidisse. Qua re audita Caesar signum dat; milites inruunt et magna cum caede hostium oppidum capiunt.

Postridie eius diei, hoc oppido expugnato, [12]captivorum qui nobilissimi sunt ad imperatorem ante praetorium[13] adducuntur. Ipse, lorica aurata et paludamento purpureo insignis, captivos per interpretem in hunc modum interrogat:[14] Vos qui estis[15]?

INTERPRES. Rogat imperator qui sitis.

CAPTIVI. Filii regis sumus.

INTERPRES. Dicunt se filios esse regis.

IMPERATOR. Cur mihi tantas iniurias intulistis?

INTERPRES. Rogat cur sibi tantas iniurias intuleritis.

CAPTIVI. Iniurias ei non intulimus sed pro patria bellum gessimus. Semper voluimus Romanis esse amici, sed Romani sine causa nos domo patriaque expellere conati sunt.

INTERPRES. [16]Negant se iniurias tibi intulisse, sed pro patria bellum gessisse. [17]Semper se voluisse amicos Romanis esse, sed Romanos sine causa se domo patriaque expellere conatos esse.

IMPERATOR. [18]Manebitisne in reliquum tempus in fide, hac rebellione condonata?

Tum vero captivi multis cum lacrimis iuraverunt se in fide mansuros esse, et Caesar eos incolumis domum dimisit.

[Footnote 1: /oppidi expugnandi. Is this a gerund or a gerundive construction? Cf. Sec. 501.37.]

[Footnote 2: /ineant. Sec. 501.50.]

[Footnote 3: /unus. subj. of /inquit.]

[Footnote 4: /sit. This is a so-called subjunctive by attraction, which means that the clause beginning with /ubi stands in such close connection with the subjv. clause beginning with /ut, that its verb is attracted into the same mood.]

[Footnote 5: All these verbs are in the same construction.]

[Footnote 6: /Hoc consilium, subj. of /placeret. For the order cf. /Haec cum, etc., p. 215, l. 22, and note; /Id imperator cum, p. 217, l. 8.]

[Footnote 7: /memoria, abl. of means.]

[Footnote 8: /oppidanis, Sec. 501.15.]

[Footnote 9: Between twelve and three o'clock in the morning. The night was divided into four watches.]

[Footnote 10: /operi, Sec. 501.15.]

[Footnote 11: /partem, subj. acc. of /concidisse.]

[Footnote 12: /captivorum ... sunt, the noblest of the captives.]

[Footnote 13: The general's headquarters.]

[Footnote 14: Study carefully these direct questions, indirect questions, and indirect statements.]

[Footnote 15: See Plate III, p. 148.]

[Footnote 16: /Negant, etc., they say that they have not, etc. /Negant is equivalent to /dicunt non, and the negative modifies /intulisse, but not the remainder of the indirect statement.]

[Footnote 17: /Semper, etc., that they have always, etc.]

[Footnote 18: /Manebitisne in fide, will you remain loyal?]

LXXV. CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN CAESAR AND POMPEY THE BATTLE OF PHARSALIA

Ne confecto[1] quidem bello Gallico, [2]bellum civile inter Caesarem et Pompeium exortum est. Nam Pompeius, qui summum imperium petebat, senatui persuaserat ut Caesarem rei publicae hostem[3] iudicaret et exercitum eius dimitti iuberet. Quibus cognitis rebus Caesar exercitum suum dimittere recusavit, atque, hortatus milites ut ducem totiens victorem ab inimicorum iniuriis defenderent, imperavit ut se Romam sequerentur. Summa cum alacritate milites paruerunt, et transito Rubicone[4] initium belli civilis factum est.

Italiae urbes quidem omnes fere [5]rebus Caesaris favebant et eum benigne exceperunt. Qua re commotus Pompeius ante Caesaris adventum Roma excessit et Brundisium[6] pervenit, inde [7]paucis post diebus cum omnibus copiis ad Epirum mare transiit. Eum Caesar cum septem legionibus et quingentis equitibus secutus est, et insignis inter Caesaris comitatum erat Publius.

Pluribus levioribus proeliis factis, tandem copiae adversae ad Pharsalum[8] in Thessalia sitam castra posuerunt. Cum Pompei exercitus esset bis tantus quantus Caesaris, tamen erant multi qui veteranas legiones quae Gallos et Germanos superaverant vehementer timebant. Quos[9] [10]ante proelium commissum Labienus[11] legatus, qui ab Caesare nuper defecerat, ita adlocutus est: "[12]Nolite existimare hunc esse exercitum veteranorum militum. Omnibus interfui proeliis[13] neque temere incognitam rem pronuntio. Perexigua pars illius exercitus qui Gallos superavit adhuc superest. Magna pars occisa est, multi domum discesserunt, multi sunt relicti in Italia. Hae copiae quas videtis in [14]citeriore Gallia nuper conscriptae sunt." Haec[15] cum dixisset, iuravit se nisi victorem in castra non reversurum esse. [16]Hoc idem Pompeius et omnes reliqui iuraverunt, et magna spe et laetitia, sicut certam ad victoriam, copiae e castris exierunt.

Item Caesar, animo[17] ad dimicandum paratus, exercitum suum eduxit et septem cohortibus [18]praesidio castris relictis copias triplici acie instruxit. Tum, militibus studio pugnae ardentibus, tuba signum dedit. Milites procurrerunt et pilis missis gladios strinxerunt. Neque vero virtus hostibus defuit. Nam et tela missa sustinuerunt et impetum gladiorum exceperunt et ordines conservaverunt. Utrimque diu et acriter pugnatum est nec quisquam pedem rettulit. Tum equites Pompei aciem Caesaris circumire conati sunt. Quod[19] ubi Caesar animadvertit, tertiam aciem,[20] quae ad id tempus quieta fuerat, procurrere iussit. Tum vero integrorum impetum[21] defessi hostes sustinere non potuerunt et omnes terga verterunt. Sed Pompeius de fortunis suis desperans se in castra equo contulit, inde mox cum paucis equitibus effugit.

[Footnote 1: With /ne: ... quidem the emphatic word stands between the two.]

[Footnote 2: The Civil War was caused by the jealousy and rivalry between Caesar and Pompey. It resulted in the defeat and subsequent death of Pompey and the elevation of Caesar to the lordship of the Roman world.]

[Footnote 3: /hostem, predicate accusative, Sec. 501.22.]

[Footnote 4: The Rubicon was a small stream in northern Italy that marked the boundary of Caesar's province. By crossing it with an armed force Caesar declared war upon Pompey and the existing government. Caesar crossed the Rubicon early in the year 49 B.C.]

[Footnote 5: /rebus Caesaris favebant, favored Caesar's side. In what case is /rebus?]

[Footnote 6: /Brundisium, a famous port in southern Italy whence ships sailed for Greece and the East. See map.]

[Footnote 7: /paucis post diebus, a few days later; literally, afterguards by a few days. Cf. /paucis ante annis, p. 213, l. 12, and note.]

[Footnote 8: The battle of Pharsalia was fought on August 9, 48 B.C. In importance it ranks as one of the great battles of the world.]

[Footnote 9: /Quos, obj. of /adlocutus est.]

[Footnote 10: /ante proelium commissum, before the beginning of the battle.]

[Footnote 11: /Labienus, Caesar's most faithful and skillful lieutenant in the Gallic War. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 49 B.C., he deserted Caesar and joined Pompey. His defection caused the greatest joy among the Pompeian party; but he disappointed the expectations of his new friends, and never accomplished anything of importance. He fought against his old commander in several battles and was slain at the battle of Munda in Spain, 45 B.C.]

[Footnote 12: /Nolite existimare, don't think.]

[Footnote 13: /proeliis, Sec. 501.15.]

[Footnote 14: /citeriore Gallia. This name is applied to Cisalpine Gaul, or Gaul south of the Alps.]

[Footnote 15: /Haec, obj. of /dixisset.]

[Footnote 16: /Hoc idem, obj. of /iuraverunt.]

[Footnote 17: /animo, Sec. 501.30.]

[Footnote 18: /praesidio castris, Sec. 501.17.]

[Footnote 19: /Quod, obj. of /animadvertit.]

[Footnote 20: /aciem, subj. of /procurrere.]

[Footnote 21: /impetum, obj. of /sustinere.]



LXXVI. THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR

Pompeio amicisque eius superatis atque omnibus hostibus ubique victis, Caesar imperator Romam rediit et [1]extra moenia urbis in campo Martio castra posuit. Tum vero amplissimis honoribus adfectus est. Dictator creatus est, et ei triumphus a senatu est decretus. [2]Quo die de Gallis triumphum egit, tanta multitudo hominum in urbem undique confluxit [3]ut omnia loca essent conferta. Templa patebant, arae fumabant, columnae sertis ornatae erant. [4]Cum vero pompa urbem intraret, quantus hominum fremitus ortus est! Primum per portam ingressi sunt senatus et magistratus. Secuti sunt tibicines, signiferi, pedites laurea coronati canentes: "Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, qui subegit Galliam," et "Mille, mille, mille, mille Gallos trucidavimus." Multi praedam captarum urbium portabant, arma, omnia belli instrumenta. Secuti sunt equites, animosis atque splendidissime ornatis equis vecti, inter quos Publius adulescens fortissimus habebatur. Adducebantur tauri, arietes, [5]qui dis immortalibus immolarentur. Ita longo agmine progrediens exercitus [6]sacra via per forum in Capitolium perrexit.

Imperator ipse cum urbem intraret, undique laeto clamore multitudinis salutatus est. Stabat in curru aureo quem quattuor albi equi vehebant. Indutus [7]toga picta, altera manu habenas et lauream tenebat, altera eburneum sceptrum. Post eum servus in curru stans auream coronam super caput eius tenebat. Ante currum miserrimi captivi, reges principesque superatarum gentium, catenis vincti, progrediebantur; et viginti quattuor lictores[8] laureatas fascis ferentes et signiferi currum Caesaris comitabantur. Concludit agmen multitudo captivorum, qui, in servitutem redacti,[9] demisso vultu, vinctis[10] bracchiis, sequuntur; quibuscum veniunt longissimo ordine milites, etiam hi praedam vel insignia militaria ferentes.



Caesar cum Capitolium ascendisset, in templo Iovi Capitolino sacra fecit. Simul[11] captivorum qui nobilissimi erant, abducti in carcerem,[12] interfecti sunt. Sacris factis Caesar de Capitolio descendit et in foro miitibus suis honores militaris dedit eisque pecuniam ex belli praeda distribuit.

His omnibus rebus confectis, Publius Caesarem valere[13] iussit et quam celerrime ad villam contendit ut patrem matremque salutaret.

[14]De rebus gestis P. Corneli Lentuli hactenus.

[Footnote 1: A victorious general with his army was not allowed to enter the city until the day of his triumph. A triumph was the greatest of all military honors.]

[Footnote 2: /Quo die, on the day that, abl. of time.]

[Footnote 3: /ut ... essent, Sec. 501.43.]

[Footnote 4: /Cum ... intraret, Sec. 501.46.]

[Footnote 5: /qui ... immolarentur, Sec. 501.40.]

[Footnote 6: The Sacred Way was a noted street running along one side of the Forum to the base of the Capitoline Hill, on whose summit stood the magnificent temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. This route was always followed by triumphal processions.]

[Footnote 7: The /toga picta worn by a general in his triumph was a splendid robe of Tyrian purple covered with golden stars. See Plate IV, p. 213.]

[Footnote 8: The lictors were a guard of honor that attended the higher magistrates and made a way for them through the streets. On their shoulders they carried the fasces, a bundle of rods with an ax in the middle, symbolizing the power of the law.]

[Footnote 9: /demisso vultu, with downcast countenance.]

[Footnote 10: /vinctis, from /vincio.]

[Footnote 11: /Simul, etc., At the same time those of the captives who were the noblest.]

[Footnote 12: The prison was a gloomy dungeon on the lower slopes of the Capitoline Hill.]

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