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Latin for Beginners
by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
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/incolo:, incolere, incolui:, —, transitive, inhabit; intransitive, dwell. Cf. /habito:, /vi:vo: /relinquo:, relinquere, reli:qui:, relictus, leave, abandon (relinquish) /statuo:, statuere, statui:, statu:tus, fix, decide (statute), usually with infin.

315. The following adjectives are irregular in the formation of the superlative and have no positive. Forms rarely used are in parentheses.

COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE citerior, hither (citimus, hithermost) interior, inner (intimus, inmost) prior, former pri:mus, first propior, nearer proximus, next, nearest ulterior, further ultimus, furthest

316. In the sentence Galba is a head taller than Sextus, the phrase a head taller expresses the /measure of difference in height between Galba and Sextus. The Latin form of expression would be Galba is taller than Sextus /by a head. This is clearly an ablative relation, and the construction is called the /ablative of the measure of difference.

EXAMPLES

Galba est altior capite quam Sextus Galba is a head taller (taller by a head) than Sextus. Illud iter ad Italiam est multo brevius That route to Italy is much shorter (shorter by much)

317. RULE. Ablative of the Measure of Difference. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference.

a. Especially common in this construction are the neuter ablatives

eo:, by this, by that nihilo:,[1] by nothing ho:c, by this paulo:, by a little multo:, by much

[Footnote 1: /nihil was originally /nihilum and declined like /pilum. There is no plural.]

318. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Barbari proelium committere statuerunt eo magis quod Romani infirmi esse videbantur. 2. Meum consilium est multo melius quam tuum quia multo facilius est. 3. Haec via est multo latior quam illa. 4. Barbari erant nihilo tardiores quam Romani. 5. Tuus equus est paulo celerior quam meus. 6. Ii qui paulo fortiores erant prohibuerunt reliquos aditum relinquere. 7. Inter illas civitates Germania milites habet optimos. 8. Propior via quae per hanc vallem ducit est inter portum et lacum. 9. Servi, qui agros citeriores incolebant, priores dominos relinquere non cupiverunt, quod eos amabant. 10. Ultimae Germaniae partes numquam in fidem Romanorum venerunt. 11. Nam trans Rhenum aditus erat multo difficilior exercitui Romano.

II. 1. Another way much more difficult (more difficult by much) was left through hither Gaul. 2. In ancient times no state was stronger than the Roman empire. 3. The states of further Gaul did not wish to give hostages to Caesar. 4. Slavery is no better (better by nothing) than death. 5. The best citizens are not loved by the worst. 6. The active enemy immediately withdrew into the nearest forest, for they were terrified by Caesar's recent victories.

LESSON LVII

FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

[Special Vocabulary]

/aequus, -a, -um, even, level; equal /cohors, cohortis (-ium), f., cohort, a tenth part of a legion, about 360 men /curro:, currere, cucurri:, cursus, run (course) /difficulta:s, -a:tis, f., difficulty /fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse) /ge:ns, gentis (-ium), f., race, tribe, nation (Gentile) /nego:tium, nego:ti:, n., business, affair, matter (negotiate) /regio:, -o:nis, f., region, district /ru:mor, ru:mo:ris, m., rumor, report. Cf. /fa:ma /simul atque, conj., as soon as

/suscipio:, suscipere, susce:pi:, susceptus, undertake /traho:, trahere, tra:xi:, tra:ctus, drag, draw (ex-tract) /valeo:, vale:re, valui:, valitu:rus, be strong; plu:rimum vale:re, to be most powerful, have great influence (value). Cf. validus

319. Adverbs are generally derived from adjectives, as in English (e.g. adj. sweet, adv. sweetly). Like adjectives, they can be compared; but they have no declension.

320. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declensions are formed and compared as follows:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE Adj. ca:rus, dear ca:rior ca:rissimus Adv. ca:re:, dearly ca:rius ca:rissime:

Adj. pulcher, beautiful pulchrior pulcherrimus Adv. pulchre:, beautifully pulchrius pulcherrime:

Adj. li:ber, free li:berior li:berrimus Adv. li:bere:, freely li:berius li:berrime:

a. The positive of the adverb is formed by adding -e: to the base of the positive of the adjective. The superlative of the adverb is formed from the superlative of the adjective in the same way.

b. The comparative of any adverb is the neuter accusative singular of the comparative of the adjective.

321. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declension are formed like those described above in the comparative and superlative. The positive is usually formed by adding -iter to the base of adjectives of three endings or of two endings, and -ter to the base of those of one ending;[1] as,

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE Adj. fortis, brave fortior fortissimus Adv. fortiter, bravely fortius fortissime:

Adj. auda:x, bold auda:cior auda:cissimus Adv. auda:cter, boldly auda:cius auda:cissime:

[Footnote 1: This is a good working rule, though there are some exceptions to it.]

322. Case Forms as Adverbs. As we learned above, the neuter accusative of comparatives is used adverbially. So in the positive or superlative some adjectives, instead of following the usual formation, use the accusative or the ablative singular neuter adverbially; as,

Adj. facilis, easy pri:mus, first Adv. facile (acc.), easily pri:mum (acc.), first pri:mo: (abl.), at first Adj. multus, many plu:rimus, most Adv. multum (acc.), much plu:rimum (acc.), most multo: (abl.), by much

323. Learn the following irregular comparisons:

bene, well melius, better optime:, best diu:, long (time) diu:tius, longer diu:tissime:, longest magnopere, greatly magis, more maxime:, most parum, little minus, less minime:, least prope, nearly, near propius, nearer proxime:, nearest saepe, often saepius, oftener saepissime:, oftenest

324. Form adverbs from the following adjectives, using the regular rules, and compare them: /laetus, /superbus, /molestus, /amicus, /acer, /brevis, /gravis, /recens.

325. RULE. Adverbs. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

326. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Nulla res melius gesta est quam proelium illud[2] ubi Marius multo minore exercitu multo maiores copias Germanorum in fugam dedit. 2. Audacter in Romanorum cohortis hostes impetus fecerunt 3. Marius autem omnes hos fortissime sustinuit. 4. Barbari nihilo fortiores erant quam Romani. 5. Primo barbari esse superiores videbantur, tum Romani acrius contenderunt. 6. Denique, ubi iam diutissime paene aequo proelio pugnatum est, barbari fugam petierunt. 7. Quaedam Germanorum gentes, simul atque rumorem illius calamitatis audiverunt, sese in ultimis regionibus finium suorum abdiderunt. 8. Romani saepius quam hostes vicerunt, quod meliora arma habebant. 9. Inter omnis gentis Romani plurimum valebant. 10. Hae cohortes simul atque in aequiorem regionem se receperunt, castra sine ulla difficultate posuerunt.

II. 1. Some nations are easily overcome by their enemies. 2. Germany is much larger than Gaul. 3. Were not the Romans the most powerful among the tribes of Italy? 4. On account of (his) wounds the soldier dragged his body from the ditch with the greatest difficulty. 5. He was able neither to run nor to fight. 6. Who saved him? A certain horseman boldly undertook the matter. 7. The rumors concerning the soldier's death were not true.

[Footnote 2: /ille standing after its noun means that well-known, that famous.]

LESSON LVIII

NUMERALS : THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE

[Special Vocabulary]

/commea:tus, -u:s, m.. provisions /la:titu:do:, -inis, f., width (latitude) /longitu:do:, -inis, f., length (longitude) /magnitu:do:, -inis, f., size, magnitude /merca:tor, merca:to:ris, m., trader, merchant /mu:ni:tio:, -o:nis, f., fortification (munition) /spatium, spati:, n., room, space, distance; time

/cogno:sco:, cogno:scere, cogno:vi:, cognitus, learn; in the perfect tenses, know (re-cognize) /co:go:, co:gere, coe:gi:, coa:ctus, collect; compel (cogent) /de:fendo:, de:fendere, de:fendi:, de:fe:nsus, defend /incendo:, incendere, incendi:, ince:nsus, set fire to, burn (incendiary). Cf. /cremo: /obtineo:, obtine:re, obtinui:, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold (obtain) /pervenio:, perveni:re, perve:ni:, perventus, come through, arrive

327. The Latin numeral adjectives may be classified as follows:

1. /Cardinal Numerals, answering the question how many? as, /u:nus, one; /duo, two; etc.

2. /Ordinal Numerals, derived in most cases from the cardinals and answering the question in what order? as, /pri:mus, first; /secundus, second; etc.

3. /Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time? as, /singuli:, one at a time.

328. The Cardinal Numerals. The first twenty of the cardinals are as follows:

1, u:nus 6, sex 11, u:ndecim 16, se:decim 2, duo 7, septem 12, duodecim 17, septendecim 3, tre:s 8, octo: 13, tredecim 18, duode:vi:ginti: 4, quattuor 9, novem 14, quattuordecim 19, u:nde:vi:ginti: 5, qui:nque 10, decem 15, qui:ndecim 20, vi:ginti:

a. Learn also /centum = 100, /ducenti: = 200, /mi:lle = 1000.

329. Declension of the Cardinals. Of the cardinals only /u:nus, /duo, /tre:s, the hundreds above one hundred, and /mi:lle used as a noun, are declinable.

a. /u:nus is one of the nine irregular adjectives, and is declined like /nu:llus (cf. Secs. 109, 470). The plural of /u:nus is used to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning, as, /u:na castra, one camp; and with other nouns in the sense of only, as, /Galli u:ni, only the Gauls.

b. Learn the declension of /duo, two; /tre:s, three; and /mi:lle, a thousand. (Sec. 479.)

c. The hundreds above one hundred are declined like the plural of /bonus; as,

ducenti:, -ae, -a ducento:rum, -a:rum, -o:rum etc. etc. etc.

330. We have already become familiar with sentences like the following:

Omnium avium aquila est velocissima Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest Hoc oraculum erat omnium clarissimum This oracle was the most famous of all

In such sentences the genitive denotes the whole, and the word it modifies denotes a part of that whole. Such a genitive, denoting the whole of which a part is taken, is called a /partitive genitive.

331. RULE. Partitive Genitive. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the /partitive genitive.

a. Words denoting a part are especially pronouns, numerals, and other adjectives. But cardinal numbers excepting /mille regularly take the ablative with /ex or /de instead of the partitive genitive.

b. /Mille, a thousand, in the singular is usually an indeclinable adjective (as, /mille milites, a thousand soldiers), but in the plural it is a declinable noun and takes the partitive genitive (as, /decem milia militum, ten thousand soldiers).

EXAMPLES:

Fortissimi horum sunt Germani The bravest of these are the Germans Decem milia hostium interfecta sunt Ten thousand (lit. thousands) of the enemy were slain Una ex captivis erat soror regis One of the captives was the king's sister

332. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Caesar maximam partem aedificiorum incendit. 2. Magna pars munitionis aqua fluminis deleta est. 3. Galli huius regionis quinque milia hominum coegerant. 4. Duo ex meis fratribus eundem rumorem audiverunt. 5. Quis Romanorum erat clarior Caesare? 6. Quinque cohortes ex illa legione castra quam fortissime defendebant. 7. Hic locus aberat aequo spatio[1] ab castris Caesaris et castris Germanorum. 8. Caesar simul atque pervenit, plus commeatus ab sociis postulavit. 9. Nonne mercatores magnitudinem insulae cognoverant? Longitudinem sed non latitudinem cognoverant. 10. Pauci hostium obtinebant collem quem exploratores nostri viderunt.

II. 1. I have two brothers, and one of them lives at Rome. 2. Caesar stormed that very town with three legions. 3. In one hour he destroyed a great part of the fortification. 4. When the enemy could no longer[2] defend the gates, they retreated to a hill which was not far distant.[3] 5. There three thousand of them bravely resisted the Romans.[4]

[Footnote 1: Ablative of the measure of difference.]

[Footnote 2: Not /longius. Why?]

[Footnote 3: Latin, was distant by a small space.]

[Footnote 4: Not the accusative.]

LESSON LIX

NUMERALS (Continued) : THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT

[Special Vocabulary]

/agmen, agminis, n., line of march, column; /pri:mum agmen, the van; /novissimum agmen, the rear /atque, /ac, conj., and; /atque is used before vowels and consonants, /ac before consonants only. Cf. /et and /-que /concilium, conci'li:, n., council, assembly /Helve:tii:, -o:rum, m., the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe /passus, passu:s, m., a pace, five Roman feet; /mi:lle passuum, a thousand (of) paces, a Roman mile /qua: de: causa:, for this reason, for what reason /va:llum, -i:, n., earth-works, rampart

/cado:, cadere, cecidi:, ca:su:rus, fall (decadence) /de:do:, de:dere, de:didi:, de:ditus, surrender, give up; with a reflexive pronoun, surrender one's self, submit, with the dative of the indirect object /premo:, premere, pressi:, pressus, press hard, harass /vexo:, vexa:re, vexa:vi:, vexa:tus, annoy, ravage (vex)

333. Learn the first twenty of the ordinal numerals (Sec. 478). The ordinals are all declined like /bonus.

334. The distributive numerals are declined like the plural of /bonus. The first three are

singuli:, -ae, -a, one each, one by one bi:ni:, -ae, -a, two each, two by two terni:, -ae, -a, three each, three by three

335. We have learned that, besides its use as object, the accusative is used to express space relations not covered by the ablative. We have had such expressions as /per plurimos annos, for a great many years; /per totum diem, for a whole day. Here the space relation is one of extent of time. We could also say /per decem pedes, for ten feet, where the space relation is one of extent of space. While this is correct Latin, the usual form is to use the accusative with no preposition, as,

Vir totum diem cucurrit, the man ran for a whole day Caesar murum decem pedes movit, Caesar moved the wall ten feet

336. RULE. Accusative of Extent. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative.

a. This accusative answers the questions how long? how far?

b. Distinguish carefully between the accusative of time how long and the ablative of time when, or within which.

Select the accusatives of time and space and the ablatives of time in the following:

When did the general arrive? He arrived at two o'clock. How long had he been marching? For four days. How far did he march? He marched sixty-five miles. Where has he pitched his camp? Three miles from the river, and he will remain there several days. The wall around the camp is ten feet high. When did the war begin? In the first year after the king's death.

337. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. Caesar in Gaul. Caesar bellum in Gallia septem annos gessit. Primo anno Helvetios vicit, et eodem anno multae Germanorum gentes ei sese dediderunt. Multos iam annos Germani Gallos vexabant[1] et duces Germani copias suas trans Rhenum saepe traducebant.[1] Non singuli veniebant, sed multa milia hominum in Galliam contendebant. Qua de causa principes Galliae concilium convocaverunt atque statuerunt legates ad Caesarem mittere. Caesar, simul atque hunc rumorem audivit, copias suas sine mora coegit. Prima luce fortiter cum Germanis proelium commisit. Totum diem acriter pugnatum est. Caesar ipse a dextro cornu acicm duxit. Magna pars exercitus Germani cecidit. Post magnam caedem pauci multa milia passuum ad flumen fugerunt.

II. 1. Caesar pitched camp two miles from the river. 2. He fortified the camp with a ditch fifteen feet wide and a rampart nine feet high. 3. The camp of the enemy was a great way off (was distant by a great space). 4. On the next day he hastened ten miles in three hours. 5. Suddenly the enemy with all their forces made an attack upon (/in with acc.) the rear. 6. For two hours the Romans were hard pressed by the barbarians. 7. In three hours the barbarians were fleeing.

[Footnote 1: Translate as if pluperfect.]

LESSON LX

DEPONENT VERBS

[Special Vocabulary]

/aut, conj., or; /aut ... aut, either ... or /causa:, abl. of /causa, for the sake of, because of. Always stands after the gen. which modifies it /fere:, adv., nearly, almost /opi:nio:, -o:nis, f., opinion, supposition, expectation /re:s fru:menta:ria, rei: fru:menta:riae, f. (lit. the grain affair), grain supply /timor, -o:ris, m., fear. Cf. /timeo: /undique, adv., from all sides

/co:nor, co:na:ri:, co:na:tus sum, attempt, try /e:gredior, e:gredi:, e:gressus sum, move out, disembark; /pro:gredior, move forward, advance (egress, progress) /moror, mora:ri:, mora:tus sum, delay /orior, oriri:, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born (from) (origin) /profici:scor, profici:sci:, profectus sum, set out /revertor, reverti:, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system. Perf. act., /reverti: /sequor, sequi:, secu:tus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following compounds of /sequor and the force of the different prefixes: /co:nsequor (follow with), overtake; /i:nsequor (follow against), pursue; /subsequor (follow under), follow close after

338. A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning; as, /hortor, I encourage; /vereor, I fear. Such verbs are called /deponent because they have laid aside (/de-ponere, to lay aside) the active forms.

a. Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs have also the future active infinitive and a few other active forms which will be noted later. (SecSecs. 375, 403.b.)

339. The principal parts of deponents are of course passive in form, as,

Conj. I hortor, hortari:, hortatus sum, encourage Conj. II vereor, vere:ri:, veritus sum, fear Conj. III (a) sequor, sequi:, secu:tus sum, follow (b) patior, pati:, passus sum, suffer, allow Conj. IV partior, parti:ri:, parti:tus sum, share, divide

Learn the synopses of these verbs. (See Sec. 493.) /Patior is conjugated like the passive of /capio (Sec. 492).

340. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

The prepositions with the accusative that occur most frequently are

ante, before apud, among circum, around contra:, against, contrary to extra:, outside of in, into, in, against, upon inter, between, among intra:, within ob, on account of (quam ob rem, wherefore, therefore) per, through, by means of post, after, behind propter, on account of, because of tra:ns, across, over

a. Most of these you have had before. Review the old ones and learn the new ones. Review the list of prepositions governing the ablative, Sec. 209.

341. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. 1. Tres ex legatis, contra Caesaris opinionem, iter facere per hostium finis verebantur. 2. Quis eos hortatus est? Imperator eos hortatus est et iis persuadere conatus est, sed non potuit. 3. Quid legatos perterruit? Aut timor hostium, qui undique premebant, aut longitudo viae eos perterruit. 4. Tamen omnes fere Caesarem multo magis quam hostis veriti sunt. 5. Fortissimae gentes Galliae ex Germanis oriebantur. 6. Quam ob rem tam fortes erant? Quia nec vinum nec alia quae virtutem delent ad se portari patiebantur. 7. Caesar ex mercatoribus de insula Britannia quaesivit, sed nihil cognoscere potuit. 8. Itaque ipse statuit hanc terram petere, et media fere aestate cum multis navibus longis profectus est. 9. Magna celeritate iter confecit et in opportunissimo loco egressus est. 10. Barbari summis viribus eum ab insula prohibere conati sunt. 11. Ille autem barbaros multa milia passuum insecutus est; tamen sine equitatu eos consequi non potuit.

II. 1. Contrary to our expectation, the enemy fled and the cavalry followed close after them. 2. From all parts of the multitude the shouts arose of those who were being wounded. 3. Caesar did not allow the cavalry to pursue too far.[1] 4. The cavalry set out at the first hour and was returning[2] to camp at the fourth hour. 5. Around the Roman camp was a rampart twelve feet high. 6. Caesar will delay three days because of the grain supply. 7. Nearly all the lieutenants feared the enemy and attempted to delay the march.

[Footnote 1: Comparative of /longe.]

[Footnote 2: Will this be a deponent or an active form?]

* * * * *

Seventh Review, Lessons LIII-LX, Secs. 524-526

* * * * *





PART III

CONSTRUCTIONS

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

The preceding part of this book has been concerned chiefly with forms and vocabulary. There remain still to be learned the forms of the Subjunctive Mood, the Participles, and the Gerund of the regular verb, and the conjugation of the commoner irregular verbs. These will be taken up in connection with the study of constructions, which will be the chief subject of our future work. The special vocabularies of the preceding lessons contain, exclusive of proper names, about six hundred words. As these are among the commonest words in the language, they must be mastered. They properly form the basis of the study of words, and will be reviewed and used with but few additions in the remaining lessons.

For practice in reading and to illustrate the constructions presented, a continued story has been prepared and may be begun at this point (see p. 204). It has been divided into chapters of convenient length to accompany progress through the lessons, but may be read with equal profit after the lessons are finished. The story gives an account of the life and adventures of Publius Cornelius Lentulus, a Roman boy, who fought in Caesar's campaigns and shared in his triumph. The colored plates illustrating the story are faithful representations of ancient life and are deserving of careful study.

LESSON LXI

THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

342. In addition to the indicative, imperative, and infinitive moods, which you have learned, Latin has a fourth mood called the subjunctive. The tenses of the subjunctive are

PRESENT } IMPERFECT } ACTIVE AND PASSIVE PERFECT } PLUPERFECT }

343. The tenses of the subjunctive have the same time values as the corresponding tenses of the indicative, and, in addition, each of them may refer to future time. No meanings of the tenses will be given in the paradigms, as the translation varies with the construction used.

344. The present subjunctive is inflected as follows:

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV ACTIVE VOICE SINGULAR 1. a'mem mo'neam re'gam ca'piam au'diam 2. a'me:s mo'nea:s re'ga:s ca'pia:s au'dia:s 3. a'met mo'neat re'gat ca'piat au'diat

PLURAL 1. ame:'mus monea:'mus rega:'mus capia:'mus audia:'mus 2. ame:'tis monea:'tis rega:'tis capia:'tis audia:'tis 3. a'ment mo'neant re'gant ca'piant au'diant

PASSIVE VOICE SINGULAR 1. a'mer mo'near re'gar ca'piar au'diar 2. ame:'ris monea:'ris rega:'ris capia:'ris audia:'ris (-re) (-re) (-re) (-re) (-re) 3. ame:'tur monea:'tur rega:'tur capia:'tur audia:'tur

PLURAL 1. ame:'mur monea:'mur rega:'mur capia:'mur audia:'mur 2. ame:'mini: monea:'mini: rega:'mini: capia:'mini: audia:'mini: 3. amen'tur monean'tur regan'tur capian'tur audian'tur

a. The present subjunctive is formed from the present stem.

b. The mood sign of the present subjunctive is -e:- in the first conjugation and -a:- in the others. It is shortened in the usual places (cf. Sec. 12), and takes the place of the final vowel of the stem in the first and third conjugations, but not in the second and fourth.

c. The personal endings are the same as in the indicative.

d. In a similar way inflect the present subjunctive of /curo, /iubeo, /sumo, /iacio, /munio.

345. The present subjunctive of the irregular verb /sum is inflected as follows:

{ 1. sim { 1. si:mus SING. { 2. si:s PLURAL { 2. si:tis { 3. sit { 3. sint

346. The Indicative and Subjunctive Compared.

1. The two most important of the finite moods are the indicative and the subjunctive. The indicative deals with facts either real or assumed. If, then, we wish to assert something as a fact or to inquire after a fact, we use the indicative.

2. On the other hand, if we wish to express a desire or wish, a purpose, a possibility, an expectation, or some such notion, we must use the subjunctive. The following sentences illustrate the difference between the indicative and the subjunctive ideas.

INDICATIVE IDEAS SUBJUNCTIVE IDEAS

1. He is brave 1. May he be brave Fortis est Fortis sit (idea of wishing) 2. We set out at once 2. Let us set out at once Statim proficiscimur Statim proficiscamur (idea of willing) 3. You hear him every day 3. You can hear him every day Cotidie eum audis Cotidie eum audias (idea of possibility) 4. He remained until the ship 4. He waited until the ship arrived should arrive Mansit dum navis pervenit Exspectavit dum navis perveniret[1] (idea of expectation) 5. Caesar sends men who find the 5. Caesar sends men bridge who are to find (or to find) the bridge Caesar mittit homines qui Caesar homines mittit qui pontem reperiunt pontem reperiant (idea of purpose)

[Footnote 1: /perveniret, imperfect subjunctive.]

NOTE. From the sentences above we observe that the subjunctive may be used in either independent or dependent clauses; but it is far more common in the latter than in the former.

347. EXERCISE

Which verbs in the following paragraph would be in the indicative and which in the subjunctive in a Latin translation?

There have been times in the history of our country when you might be proud of being an American citizen. Do you remember the day when Dewey sailed into Manila Bay to capture or destroy the enemy's fleet? You might have seen the admiral standing on the bridge calmly giving his orders. He did not even wait until the mines should be removed from the harbor's mouth, but sailed in at once. Let us not despair of our country while such valor exists, and may the future add new glories to the past.

LESSON LXII

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE

348. Observe the sentence

Caesar homines mittit qui pontem reperiant, Caesar sends men to find the bridge

The verb /reperiant in the dependent clause is in the subjunctive because it tells us what Caesar wants the men to do; in other words, it expresses his will and the purpose in his mind. Such a use of the subjunctive is called the subjunctive of purpose.

349. RULE. Subjunctive of Purpose. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause.

350. A clause of purpose is introduced as follows:

I. If something is wanted, by

/qui:, the relative pronoun (as above) /ut, conj., in order that, that /quo: (abl. of /qui:, by which), in order that, that, used when the purpose clause contains a comparative. The ablative /quo: expresses the measure of difference. (Cf. Sec. 317.)

II. If something is not wanted, by

/ne:, conj., in order that not, that not, lest

351. EXAMPLES

1. Caesar copias cogit quibus hostis insequatur Caesar collects troops with which to pursue the foe

2. Pacem petunt ut domum revertantur They ask for peace in order that they may return home

3. Pontem faciunt quo facilius oppidum capiant They build a bridge that they may take the town more easily (lit. by which the more easily)

4. Fugiunt ne vulnerentur They flee that they may not (or lest they) be wounded

352. Expression of Purpose in English. In English, purpose clauses are sometimes introduced by that or in order that, but much more frequently purpose is expressed in English by the infinitive, as We eat to live, She stoops to conquer. In Latin prose, on the other hand, /purpose is never expressed by the infinitive. Be on your guard and do not let the English idiom betray you into this error.

353. EXERCISES

I. 1. Veniunt ut { ducant, mittant, videant, audiant, { ducantur, mittantur, videantur, audiantur. 2. Fugimus ne: { capiamur, tradamur, videamus, { necemur, rapiamur, resistamus. 3. Mittit nuntios qui { dicant, audiant, veniant, { narrent, audiantur, in concilio sedeant. 4. Castra muniunt { sese defendant, impetum sustineant, quo: facilius { hostis vincant, salutem petant.

II. 1. The Helvetii send ambassadors to seek[1] peace. 2. They are setting out at daybreak in order that they may make a longer march before night. 3. They will hide the women in the forest (acc. with /in) that they may not be captured. 4. The Gauls wage many wars to free[1] their fatherland from slavery. 5. They will resist the Romans[2] bravely lest they be destroyed.

[Footnote 1: Not infinitive.]

[Footnote 2: Not accusative.]

LESSON LXIII

INFLECTION OF THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

354. The imperfect subjunctive may be formed by adding the personal endings to the present active infinitive.

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV ACTIVE 1. ama:'rem mone:'rem re'gerem ca'perem audi:'rem 2. ama:'re:s mone:'re:s re'gere:s ca'pere:s audi:'re:s 3. ama:'ret mone:'ret re'geret ca'peret audi:'ret

1. ama:re:'mus mone:re:'mus regere:'mus capere:'mus audi:re:'mus 2. ama:re:'tis mone:re:'tis regere:'tis capere:'tis audi:re:'tis 3. ama:'rent mone:'rent re'gerent ca'perent audi:'rent

PASSIVE 1. ama:'rer mone:'rer re'gerer ca'perer audi:'rer 2. ama:re:'ris mone:re:'ris regere:'ris capere:'ris audi:re:'ris (-re) (-re) (-re) (-re) (-re) 3. ama:re:'tur mone:re:'tur regere:'tur capere:'tur audi:re:'tur

1. ama:re:'mur mone:re:'mur regere:'mur capere:'mur —re:'mur 2. ama:re:'mini: mone:re:'mini: regere:'mini: capere:'mini: —re'mini: 3. ama:ren'tur mone:ren'tur regeren'tur caperen'tur —ren'tur

a. In a similar way inflect the imperfect subjunctive, active and passive, of /curo, /iubeo, /sumo, /iacio, /munio.

355. The imperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb /sum is inflected as follows:

{ 1. es'sem { 1. esse:'mus SING. { 2. es'se:s PLURAL { 2. esse:'tis { 3. es'set { 3. es'sent

356. The three great distinctions of time are present, past, and future. All tenses referring to present or future time are called /primary tenses, and those referring to past time are called /secondary tenses. Now it is a very common law of language that in a complex sentence the tense in the dependent clause should be of the same kind as the tense in the principal clause. In the sentence He /says that he /is coming, the principal verb, says, is present, that is, is in a primary tense; and is coming, in the dependent clause, is naturally also primary. If I change he says to he said,—in other words, if I make the principal verb secondary in character,—I feel it natural to change the verb in the dependent clause also, and I say, He /said that he /was coming. This following of a tense by another of the same kind is called tense sequence, from sequi:, "to follow."

In Latin the law of tense sequence is obeyed with considerable regularity, especially when an indicative in the principal clause is followed by a subjunctive in the dependent clause. Then a primary tense of the indicative is followed by a primary tense of the subjunctive, and a secondary tense of the indicative is followed by a secondary tense of the subjunctive. Learn the following table:

357. TABLE FOR SEQUENCE OF TENSES

+ -+ -+ -+ PRINCIPAL VERB DEPENDENT VERBS IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE P IN THE + -+ -+ R INDICATIVE Incomplete or Completed Action I Continuing Action M + -+ -+ -+ A Present R Future Present Perfect T Future perfect + -+ -+ -+ -+ S D E A Imperfect C R Perfect Imperfect Pluperfect O Y Pluperfect N- + -+ -+ -+ -+

358. RULE. Sequence of Tenses. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses and secondary by secondary.

359. EXAMPLES

I. Primary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

Mittit } Mittet } homines ut agros vastent Miserit }

{ sends } { that they may } He { will send } men { in order to } { will have sent } { to lay waste the fields }

II. Secondary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

Mittebat} Misit } homines ut agros vastarent Miserat }

{ was sending } { that they might } He { sent or has sent } men { in order to } { had sent } { to lay waste the fields }

360. EXERCISES

I. 1. Venerant ut {ducerent, mitterent, viderent, audirent, {ducerentur, mitterentur, viderentur, audirentur

2. Fugiebat ne {caperetur, traderetur, videretur, {necaretur, raperetur, resisteret.

3. Misit nuntios qui {dicerent, audirent, venirent {narrarent, audirentur, in concilio sederent.

4. Castra muniverunt {sese defenderent, impetum sustinerent, quo facilius {hostis vincerent, salutem peterent.

II. 1. Caesar encouraged the soldiers in order that they might fight more bravely. 2. The Helvetii left their homes to wage war. 3. The scouts set out at once lest they should be captured by the Germans. 4. Caesar inflicted punishment on them in order that the others might be more terrified. 5. He sent messengers to Rome to announce the victory.

LESSON LXIV

THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

361. The perfect and the pluperfect subjunctive active are inflected as follows:

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE SINGULAR 1. ama:'verim monu'erim re:'xerim ce:'perim audi:'verim 2. ama:'veris monu'eris re:'xeris ce:'peris audi:'veris 3. ama:'verit monu'erit re:'xerit ce:'perit audi:'verit

PLURAL 1. ama:ve'rimus monue'rimus re:xe'rimus ce:pe'rimus audi:ve'rimus 2. ama:ve'ritis monue'ritis re:xe'ritis ce:pe'ritis audi:ve'ritis 3. ama:'verint monu'erint re:'xerint ce:'perint audi:'verint

PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE ACTIVE SINGULAR 1. ama:vis'sem monuis'sem re:xis'sem ce:pis'sem audi:vis'sem 2. ama:vis'se:s monuis'se:s re:xis'se:s ce:pis'se:s audi:vis'se:m 3. ama:vis'set monuis'set re:xis'set ce:pis'set audi:vis'set

PLURAL 1. ama:visse:'mus —isse:'mus —isse:'mus —isse:'mus —isse:'mus 2. ama:visse:'tis —isse:'tis —isse:'tis —isse:'tis —isse:'tis 3. ama:vis'sent —is'sent —is'sent —is'sent —is'sent

a. Observe that these two tenses, like the corresponding ones in the indicative, are formed from the perfect stem.

b. Observe that the perfect subjunctive active is like the future perfect indicative active, excepting that the first person singular ends in -m and not in -o:.

c. Observe that the pluperfect subjunctive active may be formed by adding /-issem, -isse:s, etc. to the perfect stem.

d. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive active of /curo, /iubeo, /sumo, /iacio, /munio.

362. The passive of the perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with /sim, the present subjunctive of /sum.

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE SINGULAR 1. ama:'tus mo'nitus re:c'tus cap'tus audi:'tus sim sim sim sim sim 2. ama:'tus mo'nitus re:c'tus cap'tus audi:'tus si:s si:s si:s si:s si:s 3. ama:'tus mo'nitus re:c'tus cap'tus audi:'tus sit sit sit sit sit

PLURAL 1. ama:'ti: mo'niti: re:c'ti: cap'ti: audi:'ti: si:mus si:mus si:mus si:mus si:mus 2. ama:'ti: mo'niti: re:c'ti: cap'ti: audi:'ti: si:tis si:tis si:tis si:tis si:tis 3. ama:'ti: mo'niti: re:c'ti: cap'ti: audi:'ti: sint sint sint sint sint

363. The passive of the pluperfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with /essem, the imperfect subjunctive of /sum.

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE SINGULAR 1. ama:tus monitus re:ctus captus audi:tus essem essem essem essem essem 2. ama:tus monitus re:ctus captus audi:tus esse:s esse:s esse:s esse:s esse:s 3. ama:tus monitus re:ctus captus audi:tus esset esset esset esset esset PLURAL 1. ama:ti: moniti: re:cti: capti: audi:ti: esse:mus esse:mus esse:mus esse:mus esse:mus 2. ama:ti: moniti: re:cti: capti: audi:ti: esse:tis esse:tis esse:tis esse:tis esse:tis 3. ama:ti: moniti: re:cti: capti: audi:ti: essent essent essent essent essent

a. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive passive of /curo, /iubeo, /sumo, /iacio, /munio.

364. The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb /sum are inflected as follows:

PERFECT PLUPERFECT fu'erim fue'rimus fuis'sem fuisse:'mus fu'eris fue'ritis fuis'se:s fuisse:'tis fu'erit fu'erint fuis'set fuis'sent

365. A substantive clause is a clause used like a noun, as,

That the men are afraid is clear enough (clause as subject) He ordered them to call on him (clause as object)

We have already had many instances of infinitive clauses used in this way (cf. Sec. 213), and have noted the similarity between Latin and English usage in this respect. But the Latin often uses the subjunctive in substantive clauses, and this marks an important difference between the two languages.

366. RULE. Substantive Clauses of Purpose. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as the object of verbs of /commanding, /urging, /asking, /persuading, or /advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive.

EXAMPLES

1. The general ordered the soldiers to run Imperator militibus imperavit ut currerent 2. He urged them to resist bravely Hortatus est ut fortiter resisterent 3. He asked them to give the children food Petivit ut liberis cibum darent 4. He will persuade us not to set out Nobis persuadebit ne proficiscamur 5. He advises us to remain at home Monet ut domi maneamus

a. The object clauses following these verbs all express the purpose or will of the principal subject that something be done or not done. (Cf. Sec. 348.)

367. The following verbs are used with object clauses of purpose. Learn the list and the principal parts of the new ones.

hortor, urge impero, order (with the dative of the person ordered and a subjunctive clause of the thing ordered done) moneo, advise peto, quaero, rogo, ask, seek persuadeo, persuade (with the same construction as impero) postulo, demand, require suadeo, advise (cf. persuadeo)

N.B. Remember that /iubeo, order, takes the infinitive as in English. (Cf. Sec. 213.1.) Compare the sentences

Iubeo eum venire, I order him to come Impero ei ut veniat, I give orders to him that he is to come

We ordinarily translate both of these sentences like the first, but the difference in meaning between iubeo and impero in the Latin requires the infinitive in the one case and the subjunctive in the other.

368. EXERCISES

I. 1. Petit atque hortatur ut ipse dicat. 2. Caesar Helvetiis imperravit ne per provinciam iter facerent. 3. Caesar non iussit Helvetios per provinciam iter facere. 4. Ille civibus persuasit ut de finibus suis discederent. 5. Caesar principes monebit ne proelium committant. 6. Postulavit ne cum Helvetiis aut cum eorum sociis bellum gererent. 7. Ab iis quaesivi ne proficiscerentur. 8. Iis persuadere non potui ut domi manerent.

II. 1. Who ordered Caesar to make the march? (Write this sentence both with /impero and with /iubeo.) 2. The faithless scouts persuaded him to set out at daybreak. 3. They will ask him not to inflict punishment. 4. He demanded that they come to the camp. 5. He advised them to tell everything (omnia).

NOTE. Do not forget that the English infinitive expressing purpose must be rendered by a Latin subjunctive. Review Sec. 352.



LESSON LXV

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF POSSUM : VERBS OF FEARING

369. Learn the subjunctive of /possum (Sec. 495), and note especially the position of the accent.

370. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. We have learned that what we want done or not done is expressed in Latin by a subjunctive clause of purpose. In this class belong also clauses after verbs of fearing, for we fear either that something will happen or that it will not, and we either want it to happen or we do not. If we want a thing to happen and fear that it will not, the purpose clause is introduced by /ut. If we do not want it to happen and fear that it will, /ne: is used. Owing to a difference between the English and Latin idiom we translate /ut after a verb of fearing by that not, and /ne: by that or lest.

371. EXAMPLES

timeo } { veniat timebo } ut { timuero } { venerit

I fear, shall fear, shall have feared, that he will not come, has not come

timebam } { veniret timui } ut { timueram } { venisset

I was fearing, feared, had feared, that he would not come, had not come

The same examples with /ne: instead of /ut would be translated I fear that or lest he will come, has come, etc.

372. RULE. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by /ut (that not) or /ne: (that or lest).

373. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar verebatur ut supplicium captivorum Gallis placeret. 2. Romani ipsi magnopere verebantur ne Helvetii iter per provinciam facerent. 3. Timebant ut satis rei frumentariae mitti posset. 4. Vereor ut hostium impetum sustinere possim. 5. Timuit ne impedimenta ab hostibus capta essent. 6. Caesar numquam timuit ne legiones vincerentur. 7. Legiones pugnare non timuerunt.[1]

II. 1. We fear that they are not coming. 2. We fear lest they are coming. 3. We feared that they had come. 4. We feared that they had not come. 5. They feared greatly that the camp could not be defended. 6. Almost all feared[1] to leave the camp.

[Footnote 1: Distinguish between what one is afraid to do (complementary infinitive as here) and what one is afraid will take place or has taken place (substantive clause with the subjunctive).]

LESSON LXVI

THE PARTICIPLES

374. The Latin verb has the following Participles:[1]

[Transcriber's Note: For reasons of space, this table is given in two forms: first a reduced version without translation, and then the complete text, including translations, split into two elements.]

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV ACTIVE PRESENT ama:ns mone:ns rege:ns capie:ns audie:ns FUTURE ama:tu:rus monitu:rus re:ctu:rus captu:rus audi:tu:rus

PASSIVE PERFECT ama:tus monitus re:ctus captus audi:tus FUTURE[2] amandus monendus regendus capiendus audiendus

CONJ. I CONJ. II ACTIVE PRESENT ama:ns mone:ns loving advising FUTURE ama:tu:rus monitu:rus about to love about to advise

PASSIVE PERFECT ama:tus monitus loved, having advised, having been advised been loved FUTURE[2] amandus monendus to be loved to be advised

CONJ. III CONJ. IV ACTIVE PRESENT rege:ns capie:ns audie:ns ruling taking hearing FUTURE re:ctu:rus captu:rus audi:tu:rus about to rule about to take about to hear

PASSIVE PERFECT re:ctus captus audi:tus ruled, having taken, having heard, havinh been ruled been taken been heard FUTURE[2] regendus capiendus audiendus to be ruled to be taken to be heard

[Footnote 1: Review Sec. 203.]

[Footnote 2: The future passive participle is often called the gerundive.]

a. The present active and future passive participles are formed from the present stem, and the future active and perfect passive participles are formed from the participial stem.

b. The present active participle is formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -io: verbs of the third conjugation, and in the fourth conjugation, the stem is modified by the addition of -e:-, as /capi-e:-ns, /audi-e:-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the third declension. (Cf. Sec. 256.)

amans, loving BASE amant- STEM amanti-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. ama:ns ama:ns amante:s amantia Gen. amantis amantis amantium amantium Dat. amanti: amanti: amantibus amantibus Acc. amantem ama:ns amanti:s or -e:s amantia Abl. amanti: amanti: amantibus amantibus or -e or -e

(1) When used as an adjective the ablative singular ends in -i:; when used as a participle or as a substantive, in -e.

(2) In a similar way decline /monens, /regens, /capiens, /audiens.

c. The future active participle is formed by adding -u:rus to the base of the participial stem. We have already met this form combined with /esse to produce the future active infinitive. (Cf. Sec. 206.)

d. For the perfect passive participle see Sec. 201. The future passive participle or gerundive is formed by adding -ndus to the present stem.

e. All participles in -us are declined like /bonus.

f. Participles agree with nouns or pronouns like adjectives.

g. Give all the participles of the following verbs: /curo, /iubeo, /sumo, /iacio, /munio.

375. Participles of Deponent Verbs. Deponent verbs have the participles of the active voice as well as of the passive; consequently every deponent verb has four participles, as,

Pres. Act. horta:ns, urging Fut. Act. horta:tu:rus, about to urge Perf. Pass. (in form) horta:tus, having urged Fut. Pass. (Gerundive) hortandus, to be urged

a. Observe that the perfect participle of deponent verbs is passive in form but active in meaning. No other verbs have a perfect active participle. On the other hand, the future passive participle of deponent verbs is passive in meaning as in other verbs.

b. Give the participles of /conor, /vereor, /sequor, /patior, /partior.

376. Tenses of the Participle. The tenses express time as follows:

1. The present active participle corresponds to the English present active participle in -ing, but can be used only of an action occurring at the same time as the action of the main verb; as, /milites insequentes ceperunt multos, the soldiers, while pursuing, captured many. Here the pursuing and the capturing are going on together.

2. The perfect participle (excepting of deponents) is regularly passive and corresponds to the English past participle with or without the auxiliary having been; as, /auditus, heard or having been heard.

3. The future active participle, translated about to, etc., denotes time after the action of the main verb.

377. Review Secs. 203, 204, and, note the following model sentences:

1. /Milites currentes erant defessi, the soldiers who were running (lit. running) were weary.

2. /Caesar profecturus Romam non exspectavit, Caesar, when about to set out (lit. about to set out) for Rome, did not wait.

3. /Oppidum captum vidimus, we saw the town which had been captured (lit. captured town).

4. /Imperator triduum moratus profectus est, the general, since (when, or after) he had delayed (lit. the general, having delayed) three days, set out.

5. /Milites victi terga non verterunt, the soldiers, though they were conquered (lit. the soldiers conquered), did not retreat.

In each of these sentences the literal translation of the participle is given in parentheses. We note, however, that its proper translation usually requires a clause beginning with some conjunction (when, since, after, though, etc.), or a relative clause. Consider, in each case, what translation will best bring out the thought, and do not, as a rule, translate the participle literally.

378. EXERCISES

I. 1. Puer timens ne capiatur fugit. 2. Aquila ira commota avis reliquas interficere conata erat. 3. Milites ab hostibus pressi tela iacere non potuerunt. 4. Caesar decimam legionem laudaturus ad primum agmen progressus est. 5. Imperator hortatus equites ut fortiter pugnarent signum proelio dedit. 6. Milites hostis octo milia passuum insecuti multis cum captivis ad castra reverterunt. 7. Sol oriens multos interfectos vidit. 8. Romani consilium audax suspicati barbaris sese non commiserunt. 9. Navis e portu egressa nullo in periculo erat.

II.[3] 1. The army was in very great danger while marching through the enemy's country. 2. Frightened by the length of the way, they longed for home. 3. When the scouts were about to set out, they heard the shouts of victory. 4. When we had delayed many days, we set fire to the buildings and departed. 5. While living at Rome I heard orators much better than these. 6. The soldiers who are fighting across the river are no braver than we.

[Footnote 3: In this exercise use participles for the subordinate clauses.]

LESSON LXVII

THE IRREGULAR VERBS VOLO:, NO:LO:, MALO: THE ABLATIVE WITH A PARTICIPLE, OR ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE

379. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of /volo:, wish; /no:lo: (ne + volo:), be unwilling; /malo: (magis + volo:), be more willing, prefer (Sec. 497). Note the irregularities in the present indicative, subjunctive, and infinitive, and in the imperfect subjunctive. (Cf. Sec. 354.)

a. These verbs are usually followed by the infinitive with or without a subject accusative; as, /volunt venire, they wish to come; /volunt amico:s venire, they wish their friends to come. The English usage is the same.[1]

[Footnote 1: Sometimes the subjunctive of purpose is used after these verbs. (See Sec. 366.)]

[ Conjugations given in Sec. 497:

PRINCIPAL PARTS: volo:, velle, volui:, ——, be willing, will, wish no:lo:, no:lle, no:lui:, ——, be unwilling, will not ma:lo:, ma:lle, ma:lui:, ——, be more willing, prefer

INDICATIVE SINGULAR Pres. volo: no:lo: ma:lo: vi:s no:n vis ma:vi:s vult no:n vult ma:vult

PLURAL volumus no:lumus ma:lumus vultis no:n vultis ma:vul'tis volunt no:lunt ma:lunt

Impf. vole:bam no:le:bam ma:le:bam Fut. volam, no:lam, ma:lam, ma:le:s, etc. vole:s, etc. no:le:s, etc. Perf. volui: no:lui: ma:lui: Plup. volueram no:lueram ma:lueram F. P. voluero: no:luero: ma:luero:

SUBJUNCTIVE SINGULAR Pres. velim no:lim ma:lim veli:s no:li:s ma:li:s velit no:lit ma:lit

PLURAL veli:'mus no:li:'mus ma:li:'mus veli:'tis no:li:'tis ma:li:'tis velint no:lint ma:lint

Impf. vellem no:llem ma:llem Perf. voluerim no:luerim ma:luerim Plup. voluissem no:luissem ma:luissem

IMPERATIVE Pres. no:li: no:li:te Fut. no:li:to:, etc.

INFINITIVE Pres. velle no:lle ma:lle Perf. voluisse no:luisse ma:luisse

PARTICIPLE Pres. vole:ns, -entis no:le:ns, -entis ——]

380. Observe the following sentences:

1. Magistro laudante omnes pueri diligenter laborant, with the teacher praising, or since the teacher praises, or the teacher praising, all the boys labor diligently.

2. Caesare ducente nemo progredi timet, with Caesar leading, or when Caesar leads, or if Caesar leads, or Caesar leading, no one fears to advance.

3. His rebus cognitis milites fugerunt, when this was known, or since this was known, or these things having been learned, the soldiers fled.

4. Proelio commisso multi vulnerati sunt, after the battle had begun, or when the battle had begun, or the battle having been joined, many were wounded.

a. One of the fundamental ablative relations is expressed in English by the preposition with (cf. Sec. 50). In each of the sentences above we have a noun and a participle in agreement in the ablative, and the translation shows that in each instance the ablative expresses attendant circumstance. For example, in the first sentence the circumstance attending or accompanying the diligent labor of the boys is the praise of the teacher. This is clearly a with relation, and the ablative is the case to use.

b. We observe, further, that the ablative and its participle are absolutely independent grammatically of the rest of the sentence. If we were to express the thought in English in a similar way, we should use the nominative independent or absolute. In Latin the construction is called the Ablative Absolute, or the Ablative with a Participle. This form of expression is exceedingly common in Latin, but rather rare in English, so we must not, as a rule, employ the English absolute construction to translate the ablative abolute. The attendant circumstance may be one of time (when or after), or one of cause (since), or one of concession (though), or one of condition (if). In each case try to discover the precise relation, and tranlate the ablative and its participle by a clause which will best express the thought.

381. RULE. Ablative Absolute. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance.

NOTE 1. The verb /sum has no present participle. In consequence we often find two nouns or a noun and an adjective in the ablative absolute with no participle expressed; as, /te duce, you (being) leader, with you as leader; /patre infirmo, my father (being) weak.

NOTE 2. Be very careful not to put in the ablative absolute a noun and participle that form the subject or object of a sentence. Compare

a. The Gauls, having been conquered by Caesar, returned home

b. The Gauls having been conquered by Caesar, the army returned home

In a the subject is The Gauls having been conquered by Caesar, and we translate,

Galli a Caesare victi domum reverterunt

In b the subject is the army. The Gauls having been conquered by Caesar is nominative absolute in English, which requires the ablative absolute in Latin, and we translate,

Gallis a Caesare victis exercitus domum revertit

NOTE 3. The fact that only deponent verbs have a perfect active participle (cf. Sec. 375.a) often compels a change of voice when translating from one language to the other. For example, we can translate Caesar having encouraged the legions just as it stands, because /hortor is a deponent verb. But if we wish to say Caesar having conquered the Gauls, we have to change the voice of the participle to the passive because /vinco is not deponent, and say, the Gauls having been conquered by Caesar (see translation above).

382. EXERCISES

I. 1. Mavis, non vis, vultis, nolumus. 2. Ut nolit, ut vellemus, ut malit. 3. Noli, velle, noluisse, malle. 4. Vult, mavultis, ut nollet, nolite. 5. Sole oriente, aves cantare inceperunt. 6. Clamoribus auditis, barbari progredi recusabant. 7. Caesare legiones hortato, milites paulo fortius pugnaverunt. 8. His rebus cognitis, Helvetii finitimis persuaserunt ut secum iter facerent. 9. Laboribus confectis, milites a Caesare quaerebant ut sibi praemia daret. 10. Concilio convocato, principes ita responderunt. 11. Dux pluris dies in Helvetiorum finibus morans multos vicos incendit. 12. Magnitudine Germanorum cognita, quidam ex Romanis timebant. 13. Mercatoribus rogatis, Caesar nihilo plus reperire potuit.

II. 1. He was unwilling, lest they prefer, they have wished. 2. You prefer, that they might be unwilling, they wish. 3. We wish, they had preferred, that he may prefer. 4. Caesar, when he heard the rumor (the rumor having been heard), commanded (imperare) the legions to advance more quickly. 5. Since Caesar was leader, the men were willing to make the journey. 6. A few, terrified[2] by the reports which they had heard, preferred to remain at home. 7. After these had been left behind, the rest hastened as quickly as possible. 8. After Caesar had undertaken the business (Caesar, the business having been undertaken), he was unwilling to delay longer.[3]

[Footnote 2: Would the ablative absolute be correct here?]

[Footnote 3: Not /longius. Why?]

LESSON LXVIII

THE IRREGULAR VERB FIO: : THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT

383. The verb /fi:o:, be made, happen, serves as the passive of /facio:, make, in the present system. The rest of the verb is formed regularly from /facio:. Learn the principal parts and conjugation (Sec. 500). Observe that the /i is long except before -er and in /fit.

a. The compounds of /facio with prepositions usually form the passive regularly, as,

Active conficio, conficere, confeci, confectus Passive conficior, confici, confectus sum

[ Conjugation given in Sec. 500:

PRINCIPAL PARTS /fi:o:, fieri:, factus sum

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE Pres. fi:o: —— fi:am 2d Pers. fi: fi:te fi:s —— fit fi:unt Impf. fi:e:bam fierem Fut. fi:am ——

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE Perf. factus, -a, -um sum factus, -a, -um sim Plup. factus, -a, -um eram factus, -a, -um essem F. P. factus, -a, -um ero:

INFINITIVE PARTICIPLES Pres. fieri: Perf. factus, -a, -um Perf. factus, -a, -um esse Ger. faciendus, -a, -um Fut. [[factum i:ri:]]]

384. Observe the following sentences:

1. Terror erat tantus ut omnes fugerent, the terror was so great that all fled.

2. Terror erat tantus ut non facile milites sese reciperent, the terror was so great that the soldiers did not easily recover themselves.

3. Terror fecit ut omnes fugerent, terror caused all to flee (lit. made that all fled).

a. Each of these sentences is complex, containing a principal clause and a subordinate clause.

b. The principal clause names a cause and the subordinate clause states the consequence or result of this cause.

c. The subordinate clause has its verb in the subjunctive, though it is translated like an indicative. The construction is called the subjunctive of consequence or result, and the clause is called a consecutive or result clause.

d. In the last example the clause of result is the object of the verb /fecit.

e. The conjunction introducing the consecutive or result clause is /ut = so that; negative, /ut no:n = so that not.

385. RULE. Subjunctive of Result. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by /ut or /ut no:n and have the verb in the subjunctive.

386. RULE. Object clauses of result with /ut or /ut no:n are found after verbs of /effecting or /bringing about.

387. Purpose and Result Clauses Compared. There is great similarity in the expression of purpose and of result in Latin. If the sentence is affirmative, both purpose and result clauses may be introduced by /ut; but if the sentence is negative, the purpose clause has /ne: and the result clause /ut no:n. Result clauses are often preceded in the main clause by such words as /tam, /ita, /sic (so), and these serve to point them out. Compare

a. Tam graviter vulneratus est ut caperetur He was so severely wounded that he was captured b. Graviter vulneratus est ut caperetur He was severely wounded in order that he might be captured

Which sentence contains a result clause, and how is it pointed out?

388. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fit, fiet, ut fiat, fiebamus. 2. Fio, fies, ut fierent, fieri, fiunt. 3. Fietis, ut fiamus, fis, fiemus. 4. Milites erant tam tardi ut ante noctem in castra non pervenirent. 5. Sol facit ut omnia sint pulchra. 6. Eius modi pericula erant ut nemo proficisci vellet. 7. Equites hostium cum equitatu nostro in itinere contenderunt, ita tamen[1] ut nostri omnibus in partibus superiores essent. 8. Virtus militum nostrorum fecit ut hostes ne unum quidem[2] impetum sustinerent. 9. Homines erant tam audaces ut nullo modo contineri possent. 10. Spatium erat tam parvum ut milites tela iacere non facile possent. 11. Hoc proelio facto barbari ita perterriti sunt ut ab ultimis gentibus legati ad Caesarem mitterentur. 12. Hoc proelium factum est ne legati ad Caesarem mitterentur.

[Footnote 1: /ita tamen, with such a result however.]

[Footnote 2: /ne: ... quidem, not even. The emphatic word is placed between.]

II. 1. It will happen, they were being made, that it may happen. 2. It happens, he will be made, to happen. 3. They are made, we were being made, lest it happen. 4. The soldiers are so brave that they conquer. 5. The soldiers are brave in order that they may conquer. 6. The fortification was made so strong that it could not be taken. 7. The fortification was made strong in order that it might not be taken. 8. After the town was taken,[3] the townsmen feared that they would be made slaves. 9. What state is so weak that it is unwilling to defend itself?

[Footnote 3: Ablative absolute.]

LESSON LXIX

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC OR DESCRIPTION THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE

389. Akin to the subjunctive of consequence or result is the use of the subjunctive in clauses of characteristic or description.

This construction is illustrated in the following sentences:

1. Quis est qui suam domum non amet? who is there who does not love his own home?

2. Erant qui hoc facere nollent, there were (some) who were unwilling to do this.

3. Tu non is es qui amicos tradas, you are not such a one as to, or you are not the man to, betray your friends.

4. Nihil video quod timeam, I see nothing to fear (nothing of such as character as to fear it).

a. Each of these examples contains a descriptive relative clause which tells what kind of a person or thing the antecedent is. To express this thought the subjunctive is used. A relative clause that merely states a fact and does not describe the antecedent uses the indicative. Compare the sentences

Caesar is the man who is leading us, Caesar est is qui nos ducit (mere statement of fact, no description, with the indicative) Caesar is the man to lead us, Caesar est is qui nos ducat (descriptive relative clause with the subjunctive)

b. Observe that in this construction a demonstrative pronoun and a relative, as is /qui, are translated such a one as to, the man to.

c. In which of the following sentences would you use the indicative and in which the subjunctive?

These are not the men who did this These are not the men to do this

390. RULE. Subjunctive of Characteristic. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the /subjunctive of characteristic or description.

391. Observe the sentences

1. Romani /Caesarem consulem fecerunt, the Romans made /Caesar consul.

2. /Caesar consul a Romanis factus est, /Caesar was made /consul by the Romans.

a. Observe in 1 that the transitive verb /fecerunt, made, has two objects: (1) the direct object, /Caesarem; (2) a second object, /consulem, referring to the same person as the direct object and completing the predicate. The second accusative is called a Predicate Accusative.

b. Observe in 2 that when the verb is changed to the passive both of the accusatives become nominatives, the direct object becoming the subject and the predicate accusative the predicate nominative.

392. RULE. Two Accusatives. Verbs of /making, /choosing, /calling, /showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives.

393. The verbs commonly found with two accusatives are

creo, creare, creavi, creatus, choose appello, appellare, appellavi, appellatus } nomino, nominare, nominavi, nominatus } call voco, vocare, vocavi, vocatus } facio, facere, feci, factus, make

394. EXERCISES

I. 1. In Germaniae silvis sunt[1] multa genera ferarum quae reliquis in locis non visa sint. 2. Erant[1] itinera duo quibus Helvetii domo discedere possent. 3. Erat[1] manus nulla, nullum oppidum, nullum praesidium quod se armis defenderet. 4. Toto frumento rapto, domi nihil erat quo mortem prohibere possent. 5. Romani Galbam ducem creaverunt et summa celeritate profecti sunt. 6. Neque erat[1] tantae multitudinis quisquam qui morari vellet. 7. Germani non ii sunt qui adventum Caesaris vereantur. 8. Consulibus occisis erant qui[2] vellent cum regem creare. 9. Pace facta erat nemo qui arma tradere nollet. 10. Inter Helvetios quis erat qui nobilior illo esset?

II. 1. The Romans called the city Rome. 2. The city was called Rome by the Romans. 3. The better citizens wished to choose him king. 4. The brave soldier was not the man to run. 5. There was no one [3]to call me friend. 6. These are not the men to[4] betray their friends. 7. There were (some) who called him the bravest of all.

[Footnote 1: Remember that when the verb /sum precedes its subject it is translated there is, there are, there were, etc.]

[Footnote 2: /erant qui, there were (some) who. A wholly indefinite antecedent of /qui does not need to be expressed.]

[Footnote 3: A relative clause of characteristic or description.]

[Footnote 4: See Sec. 389.b.]

* * * * *

Eighth Review, Lessons LXI-LXIX, Secs. 527-528

* * * * *

LESSON LXX

THE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE CONJUNCTION CUM THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION

395. The conjunction /cum has the following meanings and constructions:

cum TEMPORAL = when, followed by the indicative or the subjunctive cum CAUSAL = since, followed by the subjunctive cum CONCESSIVE = although, followed by the subjunctive

As you observe, the mood after /cum is sometimes indicative and sometimes subjunctive. The reason for this will be made clear by a study of the following sentences:

1. Caesarem vidi tum cum in Gallia eram, I saw Caesar at the time when I was in Gaul.

2. Caesar in eos impetum fecit cum pacem peterent, Caesar made an attack upon them when they were seeking peace.

3. Hoc erat difficile cum pauci sine vulneribus essent, this was difficult, since only a few were without wounds.

4. Cum primi ordines fugissent, tamen reliqui fortiter consistebant, though the front ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood their ground.

a. The underlying principle is one already familiar to you (cf. Sec. 389.a). When the /cum clause states a fact and simply fixes the time at which the main action took place, the indicative mood is used. So, in the first example, /cum in Gallia eram fixes the time when I saw Caesar.

b. On the other hand, when the /cum clause describes the circumstances under which the main act took place, the subjunctive mood is used. So, in the second example, the principal clause states that Caesar made an attack, and the /cum clause describes the circumstances under which this act occurred. The idea of time is also present, but it is subordinate to the idea of description. Sometimes the descriptive clause is one of cause and we translate /cum by since; sometimes it denotes concession and /cum is translated although.

396. RULE. Constructions with Cum. The conjunction /cum means /when, /since, or /although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means /when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place.

NOTE. /Cum in clauses of description with the subjunctive is much more common than its use with the indicative.

397. Note the following sentences:

1. Oppidum erat parvum magnitudine sed magnum multitudine hominum, the town was small in size but great in population.

2. Homo erat corpore infirmus sed validus animo, the man was weak in body but strong in courage.

a. Observe that /magnitudine, /multitudine, /corpore, and /animo tell in what respect something is true. The relation is one covered by the ablative case, and the construction is called the ablative of specification.

398. RULE. Ablative of Specification. The ablative is used to denote /in what respect something is true.

399. IDIOMS

aliquem certiorem facere, to inform some one (lit. to make some one more certain) certior fieri, to be informed (lit. to be made more certain) iter dare, to give a right of way, allow to pass obsides inter se dare, to give hostages to each other

400. EXERCISES

I. 1. Helvetii cum patrum nostrorum tempore domo prefecti essent, consulis exercitum in fugam dederant. 2. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, Helvetii alios agros petebant. 3. Caesar cum in citeriore Gallia esset, tamen de Helvetiorum consiliis certior fiebat. 4. Cum Helvetii bello clarissimi essent, Caesar iter per provinciam dare recusavit. 5. Legatus cum haec audivisset, Caesarem certiorem fecit. 6. Cum principes inter se obsides darent, Romani bellum paraverunt. 7. Caesar, cum id nuntiatum esset, maturat ab urbe proficisci. 8. Ne virtute quidem Galli erant pares Germanis. 9. Caesar neque corpore neque animo infirmus erat. 10. Illud bellum tum incepit cum Caesar fuit consul.

Observe in each case what mood follows /cum, and try to give the reasons for its use. In the third sentence the /cum clause is concessive, in the fourth and sixth causal.

II. 1. That battle was fought at the time when (tum cum) I was at Rome. 2. Though the horsemen were few in number, nevertheless they did not retreat. 3. When the camp had been sufficiently fortified, the enemy returned home. 4. Since the tribes are giving hostages to each other, we shall inform Caesar. 5. The Gauls and the Germans are very unlike in language and laws.

LESSON LXXI

VOCABULARY REVIEW : THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE : THE PREDICATE GENITIVE

401. Review the word lists in Secs. 510, 511.

402. The Gerund. Suppose we had to translate the sentence

By overcoming the Gauls Caesar won great glory

We can see that overcoming here is a verbal noun corresponding to the English infinitive in -ing, and that the thought calls for the ablative of means. To translate this by the Latin infinitive would be impossible, because the infinitive is indeclinable and therefore has no ablative case form. Latin, however, has another verbal noun of corresponding meaning, called the /gerund, declined as a neuter of the second declension in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular, and thus supplying the cases that the infinitive lacks.[1] Hence, to decline in Latin the verbal noun overcoming, we should use the infinitive for the nominative and the gerund for the other cases, as follows:

Nom. supera:re, overcoming, to overcome INFINITIVE Gen. superandi:, of overcoming } Dat. superando:, for overcoming } Acc. superandum, overcoming } GERUND Abl. superando:, by overcoming }

Like the infinitive, the gerund governs the same case as the verb from which it is derived. So the sentence given above becomes in Latin

Superando Gallos Caesar magnam gloriam reportavit

[Footnote 1: Sometimes, however, the infinitive is used as an accusative.]

403. The gerund[2] is formed by adding /-ndi:, -ndo, -ndum, -ndo, to the present stem, which is shortened or otherwise changed, as shown below:

PARADIGM OF THE GERUND

CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV Gen. amandi: monendi: regendi: capiendi: audiendi: Dat. amando: monendo: regendo: capiendo: audiendo: Acc. amandum monendum regendum capiendum audiendum Abl. amando: monendo: regendo: capiendo: audiendo:

a. Give the gerund of /curo, /deleo, /sumo, /iacio, /venio.

b. Deponent verbs have the gerund of the active voice (see Sec. 493). Give the gerund of /conor, /vereor, /sequor, /patior, /partior.

[Footnote 2: The gerund is the neuter singular of the future passive participle used as a noun, and has the same formation. (Cf. Sec. 374.d.)]

404. The Gerundive. The gerundive is the name given to the future passive participle (Sec. 374.d) when the participle approaches the meaning of a verbal noun and is translated like a gerund. It is the adjective corresponding to the gerund. For example, to translate the plan of waging war, we may use the gerund with its direct object and say /consilium gerendi bellum; or we may use the gerundive and say /consilium belli gerendi, which means, literally, the plan of the war to be waged, but which came to have the same force as the gerund with its object, and was even preferred to it.

405. Compare the following parallel uses of the gerund and gerundive:

GERUND GERUNDIVE Gen. Spes faciendi pacem Spes faciendae pacis Dat. Locus idoneus pugnando Locus idoneus castris ponendis A place suitable for A place suitable for fighting pitching camp Acc. Misit equites ad insequendum Misit equites ad insequendos hostis He sent horsemen to pursue He sent horsemen to pursue the enemy Abl. Narrando fabulas magister Narrandis fabulis magister pueris placuit pueris placuit The teacher pleased the The teacher pleased the boys by telling stories boys by telling stories

a. We observe

(1) That the gerund is a noun and the gerundive an adjective. (2) That the gerund, being a noun, may stand alone or with an object. (3) That the gerundive, being an adjective, is used only in agreement with a noun.

406. RULE. Gerund and Gerundive.

1. The Gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns.

2. The Gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual.

407. RULE. Gerund or Gerundive of Purpose. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with /ad, or the genitive with /causa[3] (= for the sake of), is used to express purpose.

GERUND GERUNDIVE Ad audiendum venerunt or Ad urbem videndam venerunt or Audiendi causa venerunt Urbis videndae causa venerunt They came to hear They came to see the city

[Footnote 3: /causa always follows the genitive.]

NOTE. These sentences might, of course, be written with the subjunctive of purpose,—/venerunt ut audirent; /venerunt ut urbem viderent. In short expressions, however, the gerund and gerundive of purpose are rather more common.

408. We have learned that the word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive, as, /equus Galbae, Galba's horse. If, now, we wish to express the idea the horse is Galba's, Galba remains the possessor, and hence in the genitive as before, but now stands in the predicate, as, /equus est Galbae. Hence this is called the predicate genitive.

409. RULE. Predicate Genitive. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of /sum, and is then called the predicate genitive.

410. IDIOMS

alicui negotium dare, to employ someone (lit. to give business to some one) novis rebus studere, to be eager for a revolution (lit. to be eager for new things) rei militaris peritissimus, very skillful in the art of war se suaque omnia, themselves and all their possessions

411. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar cum in Gallia bellum gereret, militibus decimae legionis maxime favit quia rei militaris peritissimi erant. 2. Sociis negotium dedit rei frumentariae curandae. 3. Legati non solum audiendi causa sed etiam dicendi causa venerunt. 4. Imperator iussit exploratores locum idoneum munindo reperire. 5. Nuper hae gentes novis rebus studebant; mox iis persuadebo ut Caesari se suaque omnia dedant. 6. Iubere est reginae[4] et parere est multitudinis.[4] 7. Hoc proelio facto quidam ex hostibus ad pacem petendam venerunt. 8. Erant qui arma tradere nollent. 9. Hostes tam celeriter progressi sunt ut spatium pila in hostis iaciendi non daretur. 10. Spatium neque arma capiendi[5] neque auxili petendi[5] datum est.

II. 1. These ornaments [6]belong to Cornelia. 2. Men very skillful in the art of war were sent [7]to capture the town. 3. The scouts found a hill suitable for fortifying very near to the river. 4. Soon the cavalry will come [8]to seek supplies. 5. The mind of the Gauls is eager for revolution and for undertaking wars. 6. To lead the line of battle [9]belongs to the general. 7. [10]Whom shall we employ to look after the grain supply?

[Footnote 4: Predicate genitive.]

[Footnote 5: Which of these expressions is gerund and which gerundive?]

[Footnote 6: belong to = are of.]

[Footnote 7: Use the gerundive with /ad.]

[Footnote 8: Use the genitive with /causa. Where should /causa stand?]

[Footnote 9: Compare the first sentence.]

[Footnote 10: Compare the second sentence in the Latin above.]

LESSON LXXII

THE IRREGULAR VERB EO: : INDIRECT STATEMENTS

412. Learn the principal parts and the conjugation of /eo:, go (Sec. 499).

a. Notice that i:-, the root of /eo:, is changed to e- before a vowel, excepting in /iens, the nominative of the present participle. In the perfect system -v- is regularly dropped.

[ Conjugation given in Sec. 499:

PRINCIPAL PARTS eo:, i:re, ii: (i:vi:), itum (n. perf. part.) PRES. STEM i:- PERF. STEM i:- or i:v- PART. STEM it-

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE IMPERATIVE SING. PLUR. Pres. eo: i:mus eam _2d Pers._ i: i:te i:s i:tis it eunt Impf. i:bam i:rem _Fut. i:bo: —— _2d Pers._ i:to: i:to:te _3d Pers._ i:to: eunto: Perf. ii: (i:vi:) ierim (i:verim) Plup. ieram (i:veram) i:ssem (i:vissem) F. P. iero: (i:vero:)

INFINITIVE Pres. i:re Perf. i:sse (i:visse) Fut. itu:rus, -a, -um esse

PARTICIPLES Pres. ie:ns, gen. euntis (Sec. 472) Fut. itu:rus, -a, -um Ger. eundum

GERUND Gen. eundi: Dat. eundo: Acc. eundum Abl. eundo:

SUPINE Acc. [[itum]] Abl. [[itu:]] ]

413. Learn the meaning and principal parts of the following compounds of /eo: with prepositions:

ad'eo:, adi:'re, ad'ii:, ad'itus, go to, visit, with the accusative ex'eo:, exi:'re, ex'ii:, ex'itus, go forth, with /ex or /de and the ablative of the place from which in'eo:, ini:'re, in'ii:, in'itus, begin, enter upon, with the accusative red'eo:, redi:'re, red'ii:, red'itus, return, with /ad or /in and the accusative of the place to which tra:ns'eo:, tra:nsi:'re, tra:ns'ii:, tra:ns'itus, cross, with the accusative

414. Indirect Statements in English. Direct statements are those which the speaker or writer makes himself or which are quoted in his exact language. Indirect statements are those reported in a different form of words from that used by the speaker or writer. Compare the following direct and indirect statements:

{ 1. The Gauls are brave Direct statements { 2. The Gauls were brave { 3. The Gauls will be brave

Indirect statements { 1. He says that the Gauls are brave after a verb in { 2. He says that the Gauls were brave the present tense { 3. He says that the Gauls will be brave

Indirect statements { 1. He said that the Gauls were brave after a verb in { 2. He said that the Gauls had been brave a past tense { 3. He said that the Gauls would be brave

We see that in English

a. The indirect statement forms a clause introduced by the conjunction that.

b. The verb is finite (cf. Sec. 173) and its subject is in the nominative.

c. The tenses of the verbs originally used are changed after the past tense, He said.

415. Indirect Statements in Latin. In Latin the direct and indirect statements above would be as follows:

DIRECT { 1. Galli sunt fortes STATEMENTS { 2. Galli erant fortes { 3. Galli erunt fortes

{ 1. /Dicit or /Dixit Gallos esse fortis { (He says or He said { the Gauls to be brave)[1] INDIRECT { 2. /Dicit or /Dixit Gallos fuisse fortis STATEMENTS { (He says or He said { the Gauls to have been brave)[1] { 3. /Dicit or /Dixit Gallos futuros esse fortis { (He says or He said { the Gauls to be about to be brave)[1]

[Footnote 1: These parenthetical renderings are not inserted as translations, but merely to show the literal meaning of the Latin.]

Comparing these Latin indirect statements with the English in the preceding section, we observe three marked differences:

a. There is no conjunction corresponding to that.

b. The verb is in the infinitive and its subject is in the accusative.

c. The tenses of the infinitive are not changed after a past tense of the principal verb.

416. RULE. Indirect Statements. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive.

417. Tenses of the Infinitive. When the sentences in Sec. 415 were changed from the direct to the indirect form of statement, /sunt became /esse, /erant became /fuisse, and /erunt became /futuros esse.

418. RULE. Infinitive Tenses in Indirect Statements. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive.

NOTE. When translating into Latin an English indirect statement, first decide what tense of the indicative would have been used in the direct form. That will show you what tense of the infinitive to use in the indirect.

419. RULE. Verbs followed by Indirect Statements. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of /saying, /telling, /knowing, /thinking, and /perceiving.

420. Verbs regularly followed by indirect statements are:

a. Verbs of saying and telling: dico, dicere, dixi, dictus, say nego, negare, negavi, negatus, deny, say not nuntio, nuntiare, nuntiavi, nuntiatus, announce respondeo, respondere, respondi, responsus, reply

b. Verbs of knowing: cognosco, cognoscere, cognovi, cognitus, learn, (in the perf.) know scio, scire, scivi, scitus, know

c. Verbs of thinking: arbitror, arbitrari, arbitratus sum, think, consider existimo, existimare, existimavi, existimatus, think, believe iudico, iudicare, iudicavi, iudicatus, judge, decide puto, putare, putavi, putatus, reckon, think spero, sperare, speravi, speratus, hope

d. Verbs of perceiving: audio, audire, audivi, auditus, hear sentio, sentire, sensi, sensus, feel, perceive video, videre, vidi, visus, see intellego, intellegere, intellexi, intellectus, understand, perceive

Learn such of these verbs as are new to you.

421. IDIOMS postridie eius diei, on the next day (lit. on the next day of that day) inita aestate, at the beginning of summer memoria tenere, to remember (lit. to hold by memory) per exploratores cognoscere, to learn through scouts

422. EXERCISES

I. 1. It, imus, ite, ire. 2. Eunti, iisse or isse, ibunt, eunt. 3. Eundi, ut eant, ibitis, is. 4. Ne irent, i, ibant, ierat. 5. Caesar per exploratores cognovit Gallos flumen transisse. 6. Romani audiverunt Helvetios inita aestate de finibus suis exituros esse. 7. Legati responderunt neminem ante Caesarem illam insulam adisse. 8. Principes Gallorum dicunt se nullum consilium contra Caesaris imperium inituros esse. 9. Arbitramur potentiam reginae esse maiorem quam civium. 10. Romani negant se libertatem Gallis erepturos esse. 11. His rebus cognitis sensimus legatos non venisse ad pacem petendam. 12. Helvetii sciunt Romanos priores victorias memoria tenere. 13. Socii cum intellegerent multos vulnerari, statuerunt in suos finis redire. 14. Aliquis nuntiavit Marcum consulem creatum esse.

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