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Latin for Beginners
by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
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217. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Magister ludi liberos cum diligentia laborare iussit. 2. Egere cibo et vino est viris molestum. 3. Viri armati vetuerunt Gallos castra ibi ponere. 4. Estne legatus in castello an in muro? Is est pro porta. 5. Ubi nostri[1] fugere inceperunt, legatus ab vestris[1] captus est. 6. Galli castellum ibi oppugnaverant ubi praesidium erat infirmum. 7. Alii pugnare temptabant, alii portas petebant. 8. Feminae pro domiciliis sedebant neque resistere validis Gallis poterant. 9. Bellum est saevum, nec infirmis nec miseris favet. 10. Sed viri arma postulabant et studebant Gallos de muris agere. 11. Id castellum ab Gallis occupari Romanis non gratum erit. 12. Galli ubi a Romanis victi sunt, esse liberi[2] cessaverunt. 13. Diu sine aqua vivere non potestis.

II. 1. The girl began daily to carry water from the river to the gates. 2. The Gauls had pitched their camp in a place suitable for a battle. 3. For a long time they tried in vain to seize the redoubt. 4. Neither did they cease to hurl weapons against[3] the walls. 5. But they were not able to (could not) take the town.

[Footnote 1: Supply men. /nostri, /vestri, and /sui are often used as nouns in this way.]

[Footnote 2: Not children. The Romans used /liberi either as an adjective, meaning free, or as a noun, meaning the free, thereby signifying their free-born children. The word was never applied to children of slaves.]

[Footnote 3: /in with the accusative.]

218. THE FAITHLESS TARPE'IA

Sabini olim cum Romanis bellum gerebant et multas victorias reportaverant. Iam agros proximos muris vastabant, iam oppido adpropinquabant. Romani autem in Capitolium fugerant et longe periculo aberant. Muris validis et saxis altis credebant. Frustra Sabini tela iaciebant, frustra portas duras petebant; castellum occupare non poterant. Deinde novum consilium ceperunt.[4]

Tarpeia erat puella Romana pulchra et superba. Cotidie aquam copiis Romanis in Capitolium portabat. Ei[5] non nocebant Sabini, quod ea sine armis erat neque Sabini bellum cum feminis liberisque gerebant. Tarpeia autem maxime amabat ornamenta auri. Cotidie Sabinorum ornamenta videbat et mox ea desiderare incipiebat. Ei unus ex[6] Sabinis dixit, "Duc copias Sabinas intra portas, Tarpeia, et maxima erunt praemia tua."

[Footnote 4: /consilium capere, to make a plan. Why is the perfect tense used here and the imperfect in the preceding sentences? Explain the use of tenses in the next paragraph.]

[Footnote 5: Dative with /nocebant. (Cf. Sec. 154.)]

[Footnote 6: /ex, out of, i.e. from the nuumber of; best translated of.]



LESSON XXXVIII

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

219. Sentences are simple, compound, or complex.

a. A simple sentence is a sentence containing but one statement, that is, one subject and one predicate: The Romans approached the town.

b. A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independent statements: The Romans approached the town and the enemy fled.

NOTE. An independent statement is one that can stand alone; it does not depend upon another statement.

c. A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent statement and one or more dependent statements: When the Romans approached the town the enemy fled.

NOTE. A dependent or subordinate statement is one that depends on or qualifies another statement; thus the enemy fled is independent, and when the Romans approached the town is dependent or subordinate.

d. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are called clauses. In a complex sentence the independent statement is called the main clause and the dependent statement the subordinate clause.

220. Examine the complex sentence

The Romans killed the men who were taken

Here are two clauses:

a. The main clause, The Romans killed the men

b. The subordinate clause, who were taken

The word who is a pronoun, for it takes the place of the noun men. It also connects the subordinate clause who were taken with the noun men. Hence the clause is an adjective clause. A pronoun that connects an adjective clause with a substantive is called a relative pronoun, and the substantive for which the relative pronoun stands is called its antecedent. The relative pronouns in English are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.

221. The relative pronoun in Latin is /qui:, /quae, /quod, and it is declined as follows:

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. qui: quae quod qui: quae quae Gen. cuius cuius cuius quo:rum qua:rum quo:rum Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus Acc. quem quam quod quo:s qua:s quae Abl. quo: qua: quo: quibus quibus quibus

1. Review the declension of /is, Sec. 114, and note the similarity in the endings. The forms /qui:, /quae, and /quibus are the only forms showing new endings.

NOTE. The genitive /cuius and the dative /cui are pronounced c[oo]i'y[oo]s (two syllables) and c[oo]i (one syllable).

222. The Relative Pronoun is translated as follows:[1]

MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. who, that which, what, that Gen. of whom, whose of which, of what, whose Dat. to or for whom to or for which, to or for what Acc. whom, that which, what, that Abl. from, etc., whom from, etc., which or what

[Footnote 1: This table of meanings need not be memorized. It is inserted for reference when translating.]

a. We see from the table above that /qui:, when it refers to a person, is translated by some form of who or by that; and that when it refers to anything else it is translated by which, what, or that.

223. Note the following sentences:

The Romans killed the men who were taken The Romans killed the woman who was taken /Romani interfecerunt viros qui capti sunt /Romani interfecerunt feminam quae capta est

In the first sentence who (qui) refers to the antecedent men (viros), and is masculine plural. In the second, who (quae) refers to woman (feminam), and feminine singular. From this we learn that the relative must agree with its antecedent in gender and number. In neither of the sentences are the antecedents and relatives in the same case. /Viros and /feminam are accusatives, and /qui and /quae are nominatives, being the subjects of the subordinate clauses. Hence

224. RULE. Agreement of the Relative. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause.

225. Interrogative Pronouns. An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that asks a question. In English the interrogatives are who? which? what? In Latin they are /quis? /quid? (pronoun) and /qui:? /quae? /quod? (adjective).

226. Examine the sentences

a. Who is the man? Quis est vir? b. What man is leading them? Qui vir eos ducit?

In a, who is an interrogative pronoun. In b, what is an interrogative adjective. Observe that in Latin /quis, /quid is the pronoun and /qui:, /quae, /quod is the adjective.

227. 1. The interrogative adjective /qui:, /quae, /quod is declined just like the relative pronoun. (See Sec. 221.)

2. The interrogative pronoun /quis, /quid is declined like /qui:, /quae, /quod in the plural. In the singular it is declined as follows:

MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. quis, who? quid, what? which? Gen. cuius, whose? cuius, whose? Dat. cui, to or for whom? cui, to or for what or which? Acc. quem, whom? quid, what? which? Abl. quo:, from, etc., whom? quo:, from, etc., which or what?

NOTE. Observe that the masculine and feminine are alike and that all the forms are like the corresponding forms of the relative, excepting quis and quid.

228. EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis est aeger? Servus quem amo est aeger. 2. Cuius scutum habes? Scutum habeo quod legatus ad castellum misit. 3. Cui legatus suum scutum dabit? Filio meo scutum dabit. 4. Ubi Germani antiqui vivebant? In terra quae est proxima Rheno Germani vivebant. 5. Quibuscum[1] Germani bellum gerebant? Cum Romanis, qui eos superare studebant, Germani bellum gerebant. 6. Qui viri castra ponunt? Ii sunt viri quorum armis Germani victi sunt. 7. Quibus telis copiae nostrae eguerunt? Gladiis et telis nostrae copiae eguerunt. 8. A quibus porta sinistra tenebatur? A sociis porta sinistra tenebatur. 9. Quae provinciae a Romanis occupatae sunt? Multae provinciae a Romanis occupatae sunt. 10. Quibus viris dei favebunt? Bonis viris dei favebunt.

[Footnote 1: /cum is added to the ablative of relative, interrogative, and personal pronouns instead of being placed before them.]



II. 1. What victory will you announce? 2. I will announce to the people the victory which the sailors have won. 3. The men who were pitching camp were eager for battle. 4. Nevertheless they were soon conquered by the troops which Sextus had sent. 5. They could not resist our forces, but fled from that place without delay.

229. THE FAITHLESS TARPEIA (Concluded)[2]

Tarpeia, commota ornamentis Sabinorum pulchris, diu resistere non potuit et respondit: "Date mihi[3] ornamenta quae in sinistris bracchis geritis, et celeriter copias vestras in Capitolium ducam." Nec Sabini recusaverunt, sed per duras magnasque castelli portas properaverunt quo[1] Tarpeia duxit et mox intra validos et altos muros stabant. Tum sine mora in[2] Tarpeiam scuta graviter iecerunt; nam scuta quoque in sinistris bracchiis gerebant. Ita perfida puella Tarpeia interfecta est; ita Sabini Capitolium occupaverunt.

[Footnote 2: Explain the use of the tenses in this selection.]

[Footnote 3: to me.]

[Footnote 1: quo = whither, to the place where. Here /quo is the relative adverb. We have had it used before as the interrogative adverb, whither? to what place?]

[Footnote 2: upon.]

LESSON XXXIX

THE THIRD DECLENSION : CONSONANT STEMS

[Special Vocabulary]

/barbarus, -a, -um, strange, foreign, barbarous. As a noun, /barbari:, -o:rum, m., plur., savages, barbarians /dux, ducis, m., leader (duke). Cf. the verb /du:co: /eques, equitis, m., horseman, cavalryman (equestrian) iu:dex, iu:dicis, m., judge /lapis, lapidis, m., stone (lapidary) /mi:les, mi:litis, m., soldier (militia) /pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier (pedestrian) /pe:s, pedis,[A] m., foot (pedal) /pri:nceps, pri:ncipis, m., chief (principal) /re:x, re:gis, m., king (regal) /summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit) /virtu:s, virtu:tis, f., manliness, courage (virtue)

[Footnote A: Observe that /e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases.]

230. Bases and Stems. In learning the first and second declensions we saw that the different cases were formed by adding the case terminations to the part of the word that did not change, which we called the /base. If to the base we add -a: in the first declension, and -o in the second, we get what is called the /stem. Thus /porta has the base port- and the stem porta:-; /servus has the base serv- and the stem servo-.

These stem vowels, -a:- and -o-, play so important a part in the formation of the case terminations that these declensions are named from them respectively the A- and O-Declensions.

231. Nouns of the Third Declension. The third declension is called the Consonant or I-Declension, and its nouns are classified according to the way the stem ends. If the last letter of the stem is a consonant, the word is said to have a consonant stem; if the stem ends in -i-, the word is said to have an i-stem. In consonant stems the stem is the same as the base. In i-stems the stem is formed by adding -i- to the base. The presence of the /i makes a difference in certain of the cases, so the distinction is a very important one.

232. Consonant stems are divided into two classes:

I. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular. II. Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular.

CLASS I

233. Stems that add -s to the base in the nominative singular are either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows:

pri:nceps, mi:les, m., lapis, m., chief soldier m., stone BASES OR STEMS pri:ncip- mi:lit- lapid-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Nom. pri:nceps mi:les lapis -s Gen. pri:n'cipis mi:litis lapidis -is Dat. pri:n'cipi: mi:liti: lapidi: -i: Acc. pri:n'cipem mi:litem lapidem -em Abl. pri:n'cipe mi:lite lapide -e

PLURAL Nom. pri:n'cipe:s mi:lite:s lapide:s -e:s Gen. pri:n'cipum mi:litum lapidum -um Dat. pri:nci'pibus mi:litibus lapidibus -ibus Acc. pri:n'cipe:s mi:lite:s lapide:s -e:s Abl. pri:nci'pibus mi:litibus lapidibus -ibus

re:x, iu:dex, virtu:s, f., m., king m.,judge manliness BASES OR STEMS re:g- iu:dic- virtu:t-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Nom. re:x iu:dex virtu:s -s Gen. re:gis iu:dicis virtu:'tis -is Dat. re:gi: iu:dici: virtu:'ti: -i: Acc. re:gem iu:dicem virtu:'tem -em Abl. re:ge iu:dice virtu:'te -e

PLURAL Nom. re:ge:s iu:dice:s virtu:'te:s -e:s Gen. re:gum iu:dicum virtu:'tum -um Dat. re:gibus iu:dicibus virtu:'tibus -ibus Acc. re:ge:s iu:dice:s virtu:'te:s -e:s Abl. re:gibus iu:dicibus virtu:'tibus -ibus

1. The base or stem is found by dropping -is in the genitive singular.

2. Most nouns of two syllables, like /pri:nceps (pri:ncip-), /mi:les (mi:lit-), /iu:dex (iu:dic-), have /i in the base, but /e in the nominative.

a. /lapis is an exception to this rule.

3. Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the nominative:

a. A final -t or -d is dropped before -s; thus /miles for /milets, /lapis for /lapids, /virtus for /virtuts.

b. A final -c or -g unites with -s and forms -x; thus /iudec + /s = /iudex, /reg + /s = /rex.

4. Review Sec. 74 and apply the rules to this declension.

In like manner decline /dux, ducis, m., leader; /eques, equitis, m., horseman; /pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier; /pes, pedis, m.,foot.

234. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Neque pedites neque equites occupare castellum Romanum poterant. 2. Summa virtute muros altos cotidie oppugnabant. 3. Pedes militum lapidibus qui de muro iaciebantur saepe vulnerabantur. 4. Quod novum consilium dux cepit? 5. Is perfidam puellam pulchris ornamentis temptavit. 6. Quid puella fecit? 7. Puella commota auro milites per portas duxit. 8. Tamen praemia quae summo studio petiverat non reportavit. 9. Apud Romanos antiquos Tarpeia non est laudata.

II. 1. What ship is that which I see? That (illud) ship is the Victory. It is sailing now with a favorable wind and will soon approach Italy. 2. The judges commanded the savages to be seized and to be killed. 3. The chiefs of the savages suddenly began to flee, but were quickly captured by the horsemen. 4. The king led the foot soldiers to the wall from which the townsmen were hurling stones with the greatest zeal.



LESSON XL

THE THIRD DECLENSION : CONSONANT STEMS (Continued)

[Special Vocabulary]

/Caesar, -aris, m., Caesar /capti:vus, -i:, m., captive, prisoner /co:nsul, -is, m., consul /fra:ter, fra:tris, m., brother (fraternity) /homo:, hominis, m., man, human being /impedi:mentum, -i:, n., hindrance (impediment); plur. /impedi:menta, -o:rum, baggage /impera:tor, impera:to:ris, m., commander in chief, general (emperor) /legio:, legio:nis, f., legion /ma:ter, ma:tris, f., mother (maternal) /o:rdo:, o:rdinis, m., row, rank (order) /pater, patris, m., father (paternal) /salu:s, salu:tis, f., safety (salutary) /soror, soro:ris, f., sister (sorority)

CLASS II

235. Consonant stems that add no termination in the nominative are declined in the other cases exactly like those that add /-s. They may be masculine, feminine, or neuter.

236. PARADIGMS

MASCULINES AND FEMININES

co:nsul, legio:, f., o:rdo:, pater, m., m., consul legion m., row father BASES OR STEMS co:nsul- legio:n- o:rdin- patr-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Nom. co:nsul legio: o:rdo: pater — Gen. co:nsulis legio:nis o:rdinis patris -is Dat. co:nsuli: legio:ni: o:rdini: patri: -i: Acc. co:nsulem legio:nem o:rdinem patrem -em Abl. co:nsule legio:ne o:rdine patre -e

PLURAL Nom. co:nsule:s legio:ne:s o:rdine:s patre:s -e:s Gen. co:nsulum legio:num o:rdinum patrum -um Dat. co:nsulibus legio:nibus o:rdinibus patribus -ibus Acc. co:nsule:s legio:ne:s o:rdine:s patre:s -e:s Abl. co:nsulibus legio:nibus o:rdinibus patribus -ibus

1. With the exception of the nominative, the terminations are exactly the same as in Class I, and the base or stem is found in the same way.

2. Masculines and feminines with bases or stems in -in- and -o:n- drop -n- and end in -o: in the nominative, as legio: (base or stem legio:n-), o:rdo: (base or stem o:rdin-).

3. Bases or stems in -tr- have -ter in the nominative, as pater (base or stem patr-).

4. Note how the genitive singular gives the clue to the whole declension. Always learn this with the nominative.

237. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Audisne tubas, Marce? Non solum tubas audio sed etiam ordines militum et carros impedimentorum plenos videre possum. 2. Quas legiones videmus? Eae legiones nuper ex Gallia venerunt. 3. Quid ibi fecerunt? Studebantne pugnare an sine virtute erant? 4. Multa proelia fecerunt[1] et magnas victorias et multos captivos reportaverunt. 5. Quis est imperator earum legionum? Caesar, summus Romanorum imperator. 6. Quis est eques qui pulchram coronam gerit? Is eques est frater meus. Ei corona a consule data est quia summa virtute pugnaverat et a barbaris patriam servaverat.

II. 1. Who has seen my father to-day? 2. I saw him just now (nuper). He was hastening to your dwelling with your mother and sister. 3. When men are far from the fatherland and lack food, they cannot be restrained[2] from wrong[3]. 4. The safety of the soldiers is dear to Caesar, the general. 5. The chiefs were eager to storm a town full of grain which was held by the consul. 6. The king forbade the baggage of the captives to be destroyed.

[Footnote 1: /proelium facere = to fight a battle.]

[Footnote 2: /contineo. Cf. Sec. 180.]

[Footnote 3: Abl. iniuria.]

LESSON XLI

THE THIRD DECLENSION : CONSONANT STEMS (Concluded)

[Special Vocabulary]

/calamita:s, calamita:tis, f., loss, disaster, defeat (calamity) /caput, capitis, n., head (capital) /flu:men, flu:minis, n., river (flume) /labor, labo:ris, m., labor, toil /opus, operis, n., work, task /o:ra:tor, o:ra:to:ris, m., orator /ri:pa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream) /tempus, temporis, n., time (temporal) /terror, terro:ris, m., terror, fear /victor, victo:ris, m., victor

/accipio:, accipere, acce:pi:, acceptus, receive, accept /co:nfirmo:, co:nfi:rma:re, co:nfi:rma:vi:, co:nfi:rma:tus, strengthen, establish, encourage (confirm)

238. Neuter consonant stems add no termination in the nominative and are declined as follows:

flu:men, tempus, opus, caput, n., river n., time n., work n., head BASES OR STEMS flu:min- tempor- oper- capit-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. flu:men tempus opus caput — Gen. flu:minis temporis operis capitis -is Dat. flu:mini: temperi: operi: capiti: -i: Acc. flu:men tempus opus caput — Abl. flu:mine tempore opere capite -e

PLURAL Nom. flu:mina tempora opera capita -a Gen. flu:minum temporum operum capitum -um Dat. flu:minibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus Acc. flu:mina tempora opera capita -a Abl. flu:minibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus

1. Review Sec. 74 and apply the rules to this declension.

2. Bases or stems in -in- have -e- instead of -i- in the nominative, as flu:men, base or stem flu:min-.

3. Most bases or stems in -er- and -or- have -us in the nominative, as opus, base or stem oper-; tempus, base or stem tempor-.

239. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Barbari ubi Romam ceperunt, maxima regum opera deleverunt. 2. Romani multas calamitates a barbaris acceperunt. 3. Ubi erat summus terror apud oppidanos, animi dubii eorum ab oratore claro confirmati sunt. 4. Roma est in ripis fiuminis magni. 5. Ubi Caesar imperator milites suos arma capere iussit, ii a proelio contineri non potuerunt. 6. Ubi proelium factum est, imperator reperiri non potuit. 7. Imperator sagitta in capite vulneratus erat et stare non poterat. 8. Eum magno labore pedes ex proelio portavit. 9. Is bracchiis suis imperatorem tenuit et eum ex periculis summis servavit. 10. Virtute sua bonus miles ab imperatore coronam accepit.

II. 1. The consul placed a crown on the head of the victor. 2. Before the gates he was received by the townsmen. 3. A famous orator praised him and said, "By your labors you have saved the fatherland from disaster." 4. The words of the orator were pleasing to the victor. 5. To save the fatherland was a great task.



LESSON XLII

REVIEW LESSON

240. Review the paradigms in Secs. 233, 236, 238; and decline all nouns of the third declension in this selection.

TERROR CIMBRICUS[1]

Olim Cimbri et Teutones, populi Germaniae, cum feminis liberisque Italiae adpropinquaverant et copias Romanas maximo proelio vicerant. Ubi fuga legionum nuntiata est, summus erat terror totius Romae, et Romani, graviter commoti, sacra crebra deis faciebant et salutem petebant.

Tum Manlius orator animos populi ita confirmavit:—"Magnam calamitatem accepimus. Oppida nostra a Cimbris Teutonibusque capiuntur, agricolae interficiuntur, agri vastantur, copiae barbarorum Romae adpropinquant. Itaque, nisi novis animis proelium novum faciemus et Germanos ex patria nostra sine mora agemus, erit nulla salus feminis nostris liberisque. Servate liberos! Servate patriam! Antea superati sumus quia imperatores nostri fuerunt infirmi. Nunc Marius, clarus imperator, qui iam multas alias victorias reportavit, legiones ducet et animos nostros terrore Cimbrico liberare maturabit."

Marius tum in Africa bellum gerebat. Sine mora ex Africa in Italiam vocatus est. Copias novas non solum toti Italiae sed etiam provinciis sociorum imperavit.[2] Disciplina autem dura laboribusque perpetuis milites exercuit. Tum cum peditibus equitibusque, qui iam proelio studebant, ad Germanorum castra celeriter properavit. Diu et acriter pugnatum est.[3] Denique barbari fugerunt et multi in fuga ab equitibus sunt interfecti. Marius pater patriae vocatus est.

[Footnote 1: About the year 100 B.C. the Romans were greatly alarmed by an invasion of barbarians from the north known as Cimbri and Teutons. They were traveling with wives and children, and had an army of 300,000 fighting men. Several Roman armies met defeat, and the city was in a panic. Then the Senate called upon Marius, their greatest general, to save the country. First he defeated the Teutons in Gaul. Next, returning to Italy, he met the Cimbri. A terrible battle ensued, in which the Cimbri were utterly destroyed; but the terror Cimbricus continued to haunt the Romans for many a year thereafter.]

[Footnote 2: He made a levy (of troops) upon, /imperavit with the acc. and the dat.]

[Footnote 3: Cf. Sec. 200. II. 2.]

LESSON XLIII

THE THIRD DECLENSION : I-STEMS

[Special Vocabulary]

/animal, anima:lis (-ium[A]), n., animal /avis, avis (-ium), f., bird (aviation) /caede:s, caedis (-ium), f., slaughter calcar, calca:ris (-ium), n., spur /ci:vis, ci:vis (-ium), m. and f., citizen (civic) /clie:ns, clientis (-ium), m., retainer, dependent (client) /fi:nis, fi:nis (-ium), m., end, limit (final); plur., country, territory /hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f., enemy in war (hostile). Distinguish from /inimi:cus, which means a personal enemy /ignis, ignis (-ium), m., fire (ignite) /i:nsigne, i:nsignis (-ium), n. decoration, badge (ensign) /mare, maris (-ium[B]), n., sea (marine) /na:vis, na:vis (-ium), f., ship (naval); /na:vis longa, man-of-war /turris, turris (-ium), f., tower (turret) /urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city (suburb). An /urbs is larger than an /oppidum.

[Footnote A: The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.]

[Footnote B: The genitive plural of /mare is not in use.]

241. To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are

1. Masculines and feminines:

a. Nouns in -e:s and -i:s with the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative. Thus /caede:s, caedis, is an i-stem, but /mi:les, mi:litis, is a consonant stem.

b. Nouns in -ns and -rs.

c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant.

2. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar.

242. The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of consonant stems. Note the following differences:

a. Masculines and feminities have -ium in the genitive plural and -i:s or -e:s in the accusative plural.

b. Neuters have -i: in the ablative singular, and an -i- in every form of the plural.

243. Masculine and Feminine I-Stems. Masculine and feminine i-stems are declined as follows:

caede:s, f., hostis, urbs, f., clie:ns, m., slaughter m., enemy city retainer STEMS caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti- BASES caed- host- urb- client-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS M. AND F. Nom. caede:s hostis urbs clie:ns[1] -s, -is, or -e:s Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is Dat. caedi: hosti: urbi: clienti: -i: Acc. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im) Abl. caede hoste urbe cliente -e (-i:)

PLURAL Nom. caede:s hoste:s urbe:s cliente:s -e:s Gen. caedium hostium urbium clientium -ium Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus Acc. caedi:s, hosti:s, urbi:s, clienti:s, -i:s, -e:s -e:s -e:s -e:s -e:s Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus

[Footnote 1: Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before -nt. Cf. Sec. 12.2, 3.]

1. /avis, /ci:vis, /fi:nis, /ignis, /navis have the ablative singular in -i: or -e.

2. /turris has accusative /turrim and ablative /turri: or /turre.

244. Neuter I-Stems. Neuter i-stems are declined as follows:

i:nsigne, n., animal, n., calcar, decoration animal n., spur STEMS i:nsigni- anima:li- calca:ri- BASES i:nsign- anima:l- calca:r-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. i:nsigne animal calcar -e or — Gen. i:nsignis anima:lis calca:ris -is Dat. i:nsigni: anima:li: calca:ri: -i: Acc. i:nsigne animal calcar -e or — Abl. i:nsigni: anima:li: calca:ri: -i:

PLURAL Nom. i:nsignia anima:lia calca:ria -ia Gen. i:nsignium anima:lium calca:rium -ium Dat. i:nsignibus anima:libus calca:ribus -ibus Acc. i:nsignia anima:lia calca:ria -ia Abl. i:nsignibus anima:libus calca:ribus -ibus

1. Review Sec. 74 and see how it applies to this declension.

2. The final -i- of the stem is usually dropped in the nominative. If not dropped, it is changed to -e.

3. A long vowel is shortened before final -l or -r. (Cf. Sec. 12.2.)

245. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Quam urbem videmus? Urbs quam videtis est Roma. 2. Cives Romani urbem suam turribus altis et muris longis muniverant. 3. Venti navis longas prohibebant finibus hostium adpropinquare. 4. Imperator a clientibus suis calcaria auri et alia insignia accepit. 5. Milites Romani cum hostibus bella saeva gesserunt et eos caede magna superaverunt. 6. Alia animalia terram, alia mare amant. 7. Naves longae quae auxilium ad imperatorem portabant igni ab hostibus deletae sunt. 8. In eo mari avis multas vidimus quae longe a terra volaverant. 9. Nonne vidistis navis longas hostium et ignis quibus urbs nostra vastabatur? Certe, sed nec caedem civium nec fugam clientium vidimus. 10. Aves et alia animalia, ubi ignem viderunt, salutem fuga petere celeriter inceperunt. 11. Num. iudex in peditum ordinibus stabat? Minime, iudex erat apud equites et equus eius insigne pulchrum gerebat.



II. 1. Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were not able to live. 2. When the general[2] heard the rumor, he quickly sent a horseman to the village. 3. The horseman had a beautiful horse and wore spurs of gold. 4. He said to the citizens, "Send your retainers with horses and wagons to our camp, and you will receive an abundance of grain." 5. With happy hearts they hastened to obey his words.[3]

[Footnote 2: Place first.]

[Footnote 3: Not the accusative. Why?]

LESSON XLIV

IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION : GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION

[Special Vocabulary]

/arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor) /collis, collis (-ium), m., hill /de:ns, dentis (-ium), m., tooth (dentist) fo:ns, fontis (-ium), m.. fountain, spring; source /iter, itineris, n., march, journey, route (itinerary) /me:nsis, me:nsis (-ium), m., month /moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls, fortifications. Cf. /mu:rus /mo:ns, montis (-ium), m., mountain; /summus mo:ns, top of the mountain /numquam, adv., never /po:ns, pontis, m., bridge (pontoon) /sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood (sanguinary) /summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit) /tra:ns, prep, with acc., across (transatlantic) /vi:s (vi:s), gen. plur. /virium, f. strength, force, violence (vim)

246. PARADIGMS

[Transcriber's Note: The original text gives vi:- and vi:r- as the "Bases" of /vi:s, and omits the "Stems" for both words. The forms have been regularized to agree with the inflectional table in the Appendix.]

vi:s, f., force iter, n., march STEMS vi:- and vi:ri- iter- and itiner- BASES v- and vi:r- iter- and itiner-

SINGULAR Nom. vi:s iter Gen. vi:s (rare) itineris Dat. vi: (rare) itineri: Acc. vim iter Abl. vi: itinere

PLURAL Nom. vi:re:s itinera Gen. vi:rium itinerum Dat. vi:ribus itineribus Acc. vi:ri:s, or -e:s itinera Abl. vi:ribus itineribus

247. There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not present numerous exceptions.[1] The following rules, however, are of great service, and should be thoroughly mastered:

1. /Masculine are nouns in -or, -o:s, -er, -es (gen. -itis).

a. /arbor, tree, is feminine; and /iter, march, is neuter.

2. /Feminine are nouns in -o:, -is, -x, and in -s preceded by a consonant or by any long vowel but /o:.

a. Masculine are /collis (hill), /lapis, /me:nsis (month), /o:rdo:, /pe:s, and nouns in -nis and -guis—as /ignis, /sanguis (blood)—and the four monosyllables

/de:ns, a tooth; /mo:ns, a mountain /po:ns, a bridge; /fo:ns, a fountain

3. /Neuters are nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, -us, and /caput.

[Footnote 1: Review Sec. 60. Words denoting males are, of course, masculine, and those denoting females, feminine.]

248. Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which it is determined:

animal calamitas flumen lapis navis avis caput ignis legio opus caede:s eques i:nsigne mare salu:s calcar fi:nis labor mi:les urbs

249. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. The First Bridge over the Rhine. Salus sociorum erat semper cara Romanis. Olim Galli, amici Romanorum, multas iniurias ab Germanis qui trans flumen Rhenum vivebant acceperant. Ubi legati ab iis ad Caesarem imperatorem Romanum venerunt et auxilium postulaverunt, Romani magnis itineribus ad hostium finis properaverunt. Mox ad ripas magni fluminis venerunt. Imperator studebat copias suas trans fluvium ducere, sed nulla via[2] poterat. Nullas navis habebat. Alta erat aqua. Imperator autem, vir clarus, numquam adversa fortuna commotus, novum consilium cepit. Iussit suos[3] in[4] lato flumine facere pontem. Numquam antea pons in Rheno visus erat. Hostes ubi pontem quem Romani fecerant viderunt, summo terrore commoti, sine mora fugam parare inceperunt.

II. 1. The enemy had taken (possession of) the top of the mountain. 2. There were many trees on the opposite hills. 3. We pitched our camp near (ad) a beautiful spring. 4. A march through the enemies' country is never without danger. 5. The time of the month was suitable for the march. 6. The teeth of the monster were long. 7. When the foot soldiers[5] saw the blood of the captives, they began to assail the fortifications with the greatest violence.[2]

[Footnote 2: Abl. of manner.]

[Footnote 3: /suos, used as a noun, his men.]

[Footnote 4: We say build a bridge over; the Romans, make a bridge on.]

[Footnote 5: Place first.]

* * * * *

Fifth Review, Lessons XXXVII-XLIV, Secs. 517-520

* * * * *

LESSON XLV

ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION : I-STEMS

[Special Vocabulary]

/a:cer, a:cris, a:cre, sharp, keen, eager (acrid) /brevis, breve, short, brief /difficilis, difficile, difficult /facilis, facile, facile, easy /fortis, forte, brave (fortitude) /gravis, grave, heavy, severe, serious (grave) /omnis, omne, every, all (omnibus) /pa:r, gen. /paris, equal (par) /pauci:, -ae, -a, few, only a few (paucity) /secundus, -a, -um, second; favorable, opposite of adversus /signum, -i:, n., signal, sign, standard /ve:lo:x, gen. /ve:lo:cis, swift (velocity)

/conloco:, conloca:re, conloca:vi:, conloca:tus, arrange, station, place (collocation) /de:mo:nstro:, de:mo:nstra:re, de:mo:nstra:vi:, de:mo:nstra:tus, point out, explain (demonstrate) /mando:, manda:re, manda:vi:, manda:tus, commit, intrust (mandate)

250. Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like /bonus, /aeger, or /liber), or they are of the third declension.

251. Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems, and they are declined almost like nouns with i-stems.

252. Adjectives learned thus far have had a different form in the nominative for each gender, as, /bonus, m.; /bona, f.; /bonum, n. Such an adjective is called an adjective of three endings. Adjectives of the third declension are of the following classes:

I. Adjectives of three endings— a different form in the nominative for each gender.

II. Adjectives of two endings— masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different.

III. Adjectives of one ending— masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative all alike.

253. Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings; those in -is have two endings; the others have one ending.

CLASS I

254. Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows:

a:cer, a:cris, a:cre, keen, eager STEM a:cri- BASE a:cr-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. a:cer a:cris a:cre a:cre:s a:cre:s a:cria Gen. a:cris a:cris a:cris a:crium a:crium a:crium Dat. a:cri: a:cri: a:cri: a:cribus a:cribus a:cribus Acc. a:crem a:crem a:cre a:cri:s, -e:s a:cri:s, -e:s a:cria Abl. a:cri: a:cri: a:cri: a:cribus a:cribus a:cribus

CLASS II

255. Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows:

omnis, omne, every, all[1] STEM omni- BASE omn-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. omnis omne omne:s omnia Gen. omnis omnis omnium omnium Dat. omni: omni: omnibus omnibus Acc. omnem omne omni:s, -e:s omnia Abl. omni: omni: omnibus omnibus

[Footnote 1: /omnis is usually translated every in the singular and all in the plural.]

CLASS III

256. Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows:

pa:r, equal STEM pari- BASE par-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. pa:r pa:r pare:s paria Gen. paris paris parium parium Dat. pari: pari: paribus paribus Acc. parem pa:r pari:s, -e:s paria Abl. pari: pari: paribus paribus

1. All i-stem adjectives have -i: in the ablative singular.

2. Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural.

3. Decline /vir acer, /legio acris, /animal acre, /ager omnis, /scutum omne, /proelium par.

257. There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems.

258. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. The Romans invade the Enemy's Country. Olim pedites Romani cum equitibus velocibus in hostium urbem iter faciebant. Ubi non longe afuerunt, rapuerunt agricolam, qui eis viam brevem et facilem demonstravit. Iam Romani moenia alta, turris validas aliaque opera urbis videre poterant. In moenibus stabant multi principes. Principes ubi viderunt Romanos, iusserunt civis lapides aliaque tela de muris iacere. Tum milites fortes contineri a proelio non poterant et acer imperator signum tuba dari iussit. Summa vi omnes maturaverunt. Imperator Sexto legato impedimenta omnia mandavit. Sextus impedimenta in summo colle conlocavit. Grave et acre erat proelium, sed hostes non pares Romanis erant. Alii interfecti, alii capti sunt. Apud captivos erant mater sororque regis. Pauci Romanorum ab hostibus vulnerati sunt. Secundum proelium Romanis erat gratum. Fortuna fortibus semper favet.

II. 1. Some months are short, others are long. 2. To seize the top of the mountain was difficult. 3. Among the hills of Italy are many beautiful springs. 4. The soldiers were sitting where the baggage had been placed because their feet were weary. 5. The city which the soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong walls and high towers. 6. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown of gold and all his money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave had never before been faithless.



LESSON XLVI

THE FOURTH OR U-DECLENSION

[Special Vocabulary]

/adventus, -u:s, m., approach, arrival (advent) /ante, prep, with acc., before (ante-date) /cornu:, -u:s, n., horn, wing of an army (cornucopia); /a: dextro: cornu:, on the right wing; /a: sinistro: cornu:, on the left wing /equita:tus, -u:s, m., cavalry /exercitus, -u:s, m., army /impetus, -u:s, m., attack (impetus); /impetum facere in, with acc., to make an attack on /lacus, -u:s, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus, m., lake /manus, -u:s, f., hand; band, force (manual) /portus, -u:s, m., harbor (port) /post, prep, with acc., behind, after (post-mortem)

/cremo:, crema:re, crema:vi:, crema:tus, burn (cremate) /exerceo:, exerce:re, exercui:, exercitus, practice, drill, train (exercise)

259. Nouns of the fourth declension are either masculine or neuter.

260. Masculine nouns end in -us, neuters in -u:. The genitive ends in -u:s.

a. Feminine by exception are /domus, house; /manus, hand; and a few others.

PARADIGMS

[Transcriber's Note: The "Stems" are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.]

adventus, cornu:, m., arrival n., horn STEMS adventu- cornu- BASES advent- corn-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS MASC. NEUT. Nom. adventus cornu: -us -u: Gen. adventu:s cornu:s -u:s -u:s Dat. adventui: (u:) cornu: -ui: (u:) -u: Acc. adventum cornu: -um -u: Abl. adventu: cornu: -u: -u:

PLURAL Nom. adventu:s cornua -u:s -ua Gen. adventuum cornuum -uum -uum Dat. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus Acc. adventu:s cornua -u:s -ua Abl. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus

1. Observe that the base is found, as in other declensions, by dropping the ending of the genitive singular.

2. /lacus, lake, has the ending -ubus in the dative and ablative plural; /portus, harbor, has either -ubus or -ibus.

3. /cornu: is the only neuter that is in common use.

261. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Ante adventum Caesaris veloces hostium equites acrem impetum in castra fecerunt. 2. Continere exercitum a proelio non facile erat. 3. Post adventum suum Caesar iussit legiones ex castris duci. 4. Pro castris cum hostium equitatu pugnatum est. 5. Post tempus breve equitatus trans flumen fugit ubi castra hostium posita erant. 6. Tum victor imperator agros vastavit et vicos hostium cremavit. 7. Castra autem non oppugnavit quia milites erant defessi et locus difficilis. 8. Hostes non cessaverunt iacere tela, quae paucis nocuerunt. 9. Post adversum proelium principes Gallorum legatos ad Caesarem mittere studebant, sed populo persuadere non poterant.

II. 1. Did you see the man-of-war on the lake? 2. I did not see it (fem.) on the lake, but I saw it in the harbor. 3. Because of the strong wind the sailor forbade his brother to sail. 4. Caesar didn't make an attack on the cavalry on the right wing, did he? 5. No, he made an attack on the left wing. 6. Who taught your swift horse to obey? 7. I trained my horse with my (own) hands, nor was the task difficult. 8. He is a beautiful animal and has great strength.

LESSON XLVII

EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE : THE DECLENSION OF DOMUS

[Special Vocabulary]

Athe:nae, -a:rum, f., plur., Athens Corinthus, -i:, f., Corinth /domus, -u:s, locative /domi:, f., house, home (dome). Cf. /domicilium /Gena:va, -ae, f., Geneva Pompe:ii, -o:rum, m., plur., Pompeii, a city in Campania. See map /propter, prep. with acc., on account of, because of ru:s, ru:ris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. /ru:ra, n., country (rustic) /tergum, tergi:, n., back; /a: tergo:, behind, in the rear /vulnus, vulneris, n., wound (vulnerable)

/committo:, committere, commi:si:, commissus, intrust, commit; /proelium committere, join battle /convoco:, convoca:re, convoca:vi:, convoca:tus, call together, summon (convoke) /timeo:, time:re, timui:, ——, fear; be afraid (timid) /verto:, vertere, verti:, versus, turn, change (convert); /terga vertere, to turn the backs, hence to retreat

262. We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the following:

Galba ad (or in) oppidum properat Galba ab (de or ex) oppido properat Galba in oppido habitat

From these expressions we may deduce the following rules:

263. RULE. Accusative of the Place to. The /place to which is expressed by /ad or /in with the accusative. This answers the question Whither?

264. RULE. Ablative of the Place from. The /place from which is expressed by /a: or /ab, /de, /e: or /ex, with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? (Cf. Rule, Sec. 179.)

265. RULE. Ablative of the Place at or in. The /place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with /in. This answers the question Where?

a. The ablative denoting the place where is called the locative ablative (cf. /locus, place).

266. Exceptions. Names of towns, small islands,[1] /domus, home, /ru:s, country, and a few other words in common use omit the prepositions in expressions of place, as,

Galba Athenas properat, Galba hastens to Athens Galba Athenis properat, Galba hastens from Athens Galba Athenis habitat, Galba lives at (or in) Athens Galba domum properat, Galba hastens home Galba rus properat, Galba hastens to the country Galba domo properat, Galba hastens from home Galba rure properat, Galba hastens from the country Galba ruri (less commonly rure) habitat, Galba lives in the country

a. Names of countries, like /Germania, /Italia, etc., do not come under these exceptions. With them prepositions must not be omitted.

[Footnote 1: Small islands are classed with towns because they generally have but one town, and the name of the town is the same as the name of the island.]

267. The Locative Case. We saw above that the place-relation expressed by at or in is regularly covered by the locative ablative. However, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form known as the locative case. This case has been everywhere merged in the ablative excepting in the singular number of the first and second declensions. The form of the locative in these declensions is like the genitive singular, and its use is limited to names of towns and small islands, /domi:, at home, and a few other words.

268. RULE. Locative and Locative Ablative. To express the /place in which with names of towns and small islands, /if they are singular and of the first or second declension, use the locative; otherwise use the locative ablative without a preposition; as,

Galba Romae habitat, Galba lives at Rome Galba Corinthi habitat, Galba lives at Corinth Galba domi habitat, Galba lives at home

Here /Romae, /Corinthi, and /domi are locatives, being singular and of the first and second declensions respectively. But in

Galba Athenis habitat, Galba lives at Athens, Galba Pompeiis habitat, Galba lives at Pompeii

/Athenis and /Pompeiis are locative ablatives. These words can have no locative case, as the nominatives /Athenae and /Pompeii areplural and there is no plural locative case form.

269. The word /domus, home, house, has forms of both the second and the fourth declension. Learn its declension (Sec. 468).

270. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Corinthi omnia insignia auri a ducibus victoribus rapta erant. 2. Caesar Genavam exercitum magnis itineribus duxit. 3. Quem pontem hostes cremaverant? Pontem in Rheno hostes cremaverant. 4. Pompeiis multas Romanorum domos videre poteritis. 5. Roma consul equo veloci rus properavit. 6. Domi consulis homines multi sedebant. 7. Imperator iusserat legatum Athenas cum multis navibus longis navigare. 8. Ante moenia urbis sunt ordines arborum altarum. 9. Propter arbores altas nec lacum nec portum reperire potuimus. 10. Proeliis crebris Caesar legiones suas quae erant in Gallia exercebat. 11. Cotidie in loco idoneo castra ponebat et muniebat.

II. 1. Caesar, the famous general, when he had departed from Rome, hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.[2] 2. He had heard a rumor concerning the allies at Geneva. 3. After his arrival Caesar called the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle. 4. The enemy hastened to retreat, some because[3] they were afraid, others because[3] of wounds. 5. Recently I was at Athens and saw the place where the judges used to sit.[4] 6. Marcus and Sextus are my brothers; the one lives at Rome, the other in the country.

[Footnote 2: Latin says "by a swift horse." What construction?]

[Footnote 3: Distinguish between the English conjunction because (quia or quod) and the preposition because of (propter).]

[Footnote 4: used to sit, express by the imperfect.]



271. DAED'ALUS AND IC'ARUS

Creta est insula antiqua quae aqua alta magni maris pulsatur. Ibi olim Minos erat rex. Ad eum venit Daedalus qui ex Graecia patria fugiebat. Eum Minos rex benignis verbis accepit et ei domicilium in Creta dedit. [5]Quo in loco Daedalus sine cura vivebat et regi multa et clara opera faciebat. Post tempus longum autem Daedalus patriam caram desiderare incepit. Domum properare studebat, sed regi persuadere non potuit et mare saevum fugam vetabat.

[Footnote 5: And in this place; /quo does not here introduce a subordinate relative clause, but establishes the connection with the preceding sentence. Such a relative is called a connecting relative, and is translated by and and a demonstrative or personal pronoun.]

LESSON XLVIII

THE FIFTH OR E:-DECLENSION : THE ABLATIVE OF TIME

[Special Vocabulary]

/acie:s, -e:i:, f., line of battle /aesta:s, aesta:tis, f., summer /annus, -i:, m., year (annual) /die:s, die:i:, m., day (diary) /fide:s, fidei:, no plur., f., faith, trust; promise, word; protection; /in fidem veni:re, to come under the protection /fluctus, -u:s, m. wave, billow (fluctuate) /hiems, hiemis, f., winter /ho:ra, -ae, f., hour /lu:x, lu:cis, f., light (lucid); /pri:ma lux, daybreak /meri:die:s, acc. -em, abl. -e:, no plur., m., midday (meridian) /nox, noctis (-ium), f., night (nocturnal) /pri:mus, -a, -um, first (prime) /re:s, rei:, f., thing, matter (real); /re:s gestae, deeds, exploits (lit. things performed); /re:s adversae, adversity; /re:s secundae, prosperity /spe:s, spei:, f., hope

272. Gender. Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except /die:s, day, and /meri:die:s, midday, which are usually masculine.

273. PARADIGMS

[Transcriber's Note: The "Stems" are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.]

die:s, re:s, f., m., day thing STEMS die:- re:- BASES di- r-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS Nom. die:s re:s -e:s Gen. die:i: rei: -e:i: or -ei: Dat. die:i: rei: -e:i: or -ei: Acc. diem rem -em Abl. die: re: -e:

PLURAL Nom. die:s re:s -e:s Gen. die:rum re:rum -e:rum Dat. die:bus re:bus -e:bus Acc. die:s re:s -e:s Abl. die:bus re:bus -e:bus

1. The vowel /e which appears in every form is regularly long. It is shortened in the ending -ei: after a consonant, as in /r-ei:; and before -m in the accusative singular, as in /di-em. (Cf. Sec. 12.2.)

2. Only /die:s and /re:s are complete in the plural. Most other nouns of this declension lack the plural. /Acie:s, line of battle, and /spe:s, hope, have the nominative and accusative plural.

274. The ablative relation (Sec. 50) which is expressed by the prepositions at, in, or on may refer not only to place, but also to time, as at noon, in summer, on the first day. The ablative which is used to express this relation is called the ablative of time.

275. RULE. The Ablative of Time. The time /when or /within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.

a. Occasionally the preposition /in is found. Compare the English Next day we started and /On the next day we started.

276. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. Galba the Farmer. Galba agricola ruri vivit. Cotidie prima luce laborare incipit, nec ante noctem in studio suo cessat. Meridie Iulia filia eum ad cenam vocat. Nocte pedes defessos domum vertit. Aestate filii agricolae auxilium patri dant. Hieme agricola eos in ludum mittit. Ibi magister pueris multas fabulas de rebus gestis Caesaris narrat. Aestate filii agricolae perpetuis laboribus exercentur nec grave agri opus est iis molestum. Galba sine ulla cura vivit nec res adversas timet.

II. 1. In that month there were many battles in Gaul. 2. The cavalry of the enemy made an attack upon Caesar's line of battle. 3. In the first hour of the night the ship was overcome by the billows. 4. On the second day the savages were eager to come under Caesar's protection. 5. The king had joined battle, moved by the hope of victory. 6. That year a fire destroyed many birds and other animals. 7. We saw blood on the wild beast's teeth.

277. DAED'ALUS AND IC'ARUS (Continued)

Tum Daedalus gravibus curis commotus filio suo Icaro ita dixit: "Animus meus, Icare, est plenus tristitiae nec oculi lacrimis egent. Discedere ex Creta, Athenas properare, maxime studeo; sed rex recusat audire verba mea et omnem reditus spem eripit. Sed numquam rebus adversis vincar. Terra et mare sunt inimica, sed aliam fugae viam reperiam." Tum in artis ignotas animum dimittit et mirum capit consilium. Nam pennas in ordine ponit et veras alas facit.

LESSON XLIX

PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED : PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

[Special Vocabulary]

/ami:citia, -ae, f., friendship (amicable) /itaque, conj., and so, therefore, accordingly /littera, -ae, f., a letter of the alphabet; plur., a letter, an epistle /metus, metu:s, m., fear /nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing (nihilist) /nu:ntius, nu:nti:, m., messenger. Cf. /nu:ntio: /pa:x, pa:cis, f., peace (pacify) /re:gnum, -i:, n., reign, sovereignty, kingdom /supplicum, suppli'ci:, n., punishment; /supplicum su:mere de:, with abl., inflict punishment on; /supplicum dare, suffer punishment. Cf. /poena

/placeo:, place:re, placui:, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with dative. Cf. Sec. 154 /su:mo:, su:mere, su:mpsi:, su:mptus, take up, assume /sustineo:, sustine:re, sustinui:, sustentus, sustain

278. We have the same kinds of pronouns in Latin as in English. They are divided into the following eight classes:

1. /Personal pronouns, which show the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of; as, /ego, I; /tu, you; /is, he. (Cf. Sec. 279. etc.)

2. /Possessive pronouns, which denote possession; as, /meus, /tuus, /suus, etc. (Cf. Sec. 98.)

3. /Reflexive pronouns, used in the predicate to refer back to the subject; as, he saw himself. (Cf. Sec. 281.)

4. /Intensive pronouns, used to emphasize a noun or pronoun; as, I myself saw it. (Cf. Sec. 285.)

5. /Demonstrative pronouns, which point out persons or things; as, /is, this, that. (Cf. Sec. 112.)

6. /Relative pronouns, which connect a subordinate adjective clause with an antecedent; as, /qui, who. (Cf. Sec. 220.)

7. /Interrogative pronouns, which ask a question; as, /quis, who? (Cf. Sec. 225.)

8. /Indefinite pronouns, which point out indefinitely; as, some one, any one, some, certain ones, etc. (Cf. Sec. 296.)

279. The demonstrative pronoun /is, /ea, /id, as we learned in Sec. 115, is regularly used as the personal pronoun of the third person (he, she, it, they, etc.).

280. The personal pronouns of the first person are /ego, I; /no:s, we; of the second person, /tu:, thou or you; /vo:s, ye or you. They are declined as follows:

SINGULAR FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON Nom. ego, I tu:, you Gen. mei:, of me tui:, of you Dat. mihi, to or for me tibi, to or for you Acc. me:, me te:, you Abl. me:, with, from, etc., me te:, with, from, etc., you

PLURAL Nom. no:s, we vo:s, you Gen. nostrum or nostri:, of us vestrum or vestri:, of you Dat. no:bi:s, to or for us vo:bi:s, to or for you Acc. no:s, us vo:s, you Abl. no:bi:s, with, from, vo:bi:s, with, from, etc., us etc., you

1. The personal pronouns are not used in the nominative excepting for emphasis or contrast.

281. The Reflexive Pronouns. 1. The personal pronouns /ego and /tu: may be used in the predicate as reflexives; as,

video me, I see myself videmus nos, we see ourselves vides te, you see yourself videtis vos, you see yourselves

2. The reflexive pronoun of the third person (himself, herself, itself, themselves) has a special form, used only in these senses, and declined alike in the singular and plural.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL Gen. sui: Acc. se: Dat. sibi Abl. se:

EXAMPLES Puer se videt, the boy sees himself Puella se videt, the girl sees herself Animal se videt, the animal sees itself Ii se vident, they see themselves

a. The form /se: is sometimes doubled, /se:se:, for emphasis.

3. Give the Latin for

I teach myself We teach ourselves You teach yourself You teach yourselves He teaches himself They teach themselves

282. The preposition /cum, when used with the ablative of /ego, /tu:, or /sui:, is appended to the form, as, /me:cum, with me; /te:cum, with you; /no:bi:scum, with us; etc.

283. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. 1. Mea mater est cara mihi et tua mater est cara tibi. 2. Vestrae litterae erant gratae nobis et nostrae litterae erant gratae vobis. 3. Nuntius regis qui nobiscum est nihil respondebit. 4. Nuntii pacem amicitiamque sibi et suis sociis postulaverunt. 5. Si tu arma sumes, ego regnum occupabo. 6. Uter vestrum est civis Romanus? Neuter nostrum. 7. Eo tempore multi supplicium dederunt quia regnum petierant. 8. Sume supplicium, Caesar, de hostibus patriae acribus. 9. Prima luce alii metu commoti sese fugae mandaverunt; alii autem magna virtute impetum exercitus nostri sustinuerunt. 10. Soror regis, ubi de adverso proelio audivit, sese Pompeiis interfecit.

II. 1. Whom do you teach? I teach myself. 2. The soldier wounded himself with his sword. 3. The master praises us, but you he does not praise. 4. Therefore he will inflict punishment on you, but we shall not suffer punishment. 5. Who will march (i.e. make a march) with me to Rome? 6. I will march with you to the gates of the city. 7. Who will show us[1] the way? The gods will show you[1] the way.

[Footnote 1: Not accusative.]

DAED'ALUS AND IC'ARUS (Concluded)

284. Puer Icarus una[2] stabat et mirum patris opus videbat. Postquam manus ultima[3] alis imposita est, Daedalus eas temptavit et similis avi in auras volavit. Tum alas umeris fili adligavit et docuit eum volare et dixit, "Te veto, mi fili, adpropinquare aut soli aut mari. Si fluctibus adpropinquaveris,[4] aqua alis tuis nocebit, et si soli adpropinquaveris,[4] ignis eas cremabit." Tum pater et filius iter difficile incipiunt. Alas movent et aurae sese committunt. Sed stultus puer verbis patris non paret. Soli adpropinquat. Alae cremantur et Icarus in mare decidit et vitam amittit. Daedalus autem sine ullo periculo trans fluctus ad insulam Siciliam volavit.

[Footnote 2: Adverb, see vocabulary.]

[Footnote 3: /manus ultima, the finishing touch. What literally?]

[Footnote 4: Future perfect. Translate by the present.]

LESSON L

THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN IPSE AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE IDEM

[Special Vocabulary]

/corpus, corporis, n., body (corporal) /de:nsus, -a, -um, dense /i:dem, e'adem, idem, demonstrative pronoun, the same (identity) /ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pronoun, self; even, very /mi:rus, -a, -um, wonderful, marvelous (miracle) /o:lim, adv., formerly, once upon a time /pars, partis (-ium), f., part, region, direction /quoque, adv., also. Stands after the word which it emphasizes /so:l, so:lis, m., sun (solar) /ve:rus, -a, -um, true, real (verity)

/de:beo:, de:be:re, de:bui:, de:bitus, owe, ought (debt) /e:ripio:, e:ripere, e:ripui:, e:reptus, snatch from

285. /Ipse means -self (him-self, her-self, etc.) or is translated by even or very. It is used to emphasize a noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, with which it agrees like an adjective.

a. /Ipse must be carefully distinguished from the reflexive /sui. The latter is always used as a pronoun, while /ipse is regularly adjective. Compare

Homo se videt, the man sees himself (reflexive) Homo ipse periculum videt, the man himself (intensive) sees the danger Homo ipsum periculum videt, the man sees the danger itself (intensive)

286. Except for the one form /ipse, the intensive pronoun is declined exactly like the nine irregular adjectives (cf. Secs. 108, 109). Learn the declension (Sec. 481).

287. The demonstrative /idem, meaning the same, is a compound of /is. It is declined as follows:

SINGULAR MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. i:dem e'adem idem Gen. eius'dem eius'dem eius'dem Dat. ei:'dem ei:'dem ei:'dem Acc. eun'dem ean'dem idem Abl. eo:'dem ea:'dem eo:'dem

PLURAL Nom. ii:'dem eae'dem e'adem ei:'dem Gen. eo:run'dem ea:run'dem eo:run'dem Dat. ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem Acc. eo:s'dem ea:s'dem e'adem Abl. ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ii:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem ei:s'dem

a. From forms like /eundem (eum + -dem), /eo:rundem (eo:rum + -dem), we learn the rule that /m before /d is changed to /n.

b. The forms /ii:dem, /ii:sdem are often spelled and pronounced with one /i:.

288. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Ego et tu[1] in eadem urbe vivimus. 2. Iter ipsum non timemus sed feras saevas quae in silva densa esse dicuntur. 3. Olim nos ipsi idem iter fecimus. 4. Eo tempore multas feras vidimus. 5. Sed nobis non nocuerunt. 6. Caesar ipse scutum de manibus militis eripuit et in ipsam aciem properavit. 7. Itaque milites summa virtute tela in hostium corpora iecerunt. 8. Romani quoque gravia vulnera acceperunt. 9. Denique hostes terga verterunt et ommis in partis[2] fugerunt. 10. Eadem hora litterae Romam ab imperatore ipso missae sunt. 11. Eodem mense captivi quoque in Italiam missi sunt. 12. Sed multi propter vulnera iter difficile trans montis facere recusabant et Genavae esse dicebantur.

II. 1. At Pompeii there is a wonderful mountain. 2. When I was in that place, I myself saw that mountain. 3. On the same day many cities were destroyed by fire and stones from that very mountain. 4. You have not heard the true story of that calamity, have you?[3] 5. On that day the very sun could not give light to men. 6. You yourself ought to tell (to) us that story.

[Footnote 1: Observe that in Latin we say I and you, not you and I.]

[Footnote 2: Not parts, but directions.]

[Footnote 3: Cf. Sec. 210.]

289. HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE[4]

Tarquinius Superbus, septimus et ultimus rex Romanorum, ubi in exsilium ab iratis Romanis eiectus est, a Porsena, rege Etruscorum, auxilium petiit. Mox Porsena magnis cum copiis Romam venit, et ipsa urbs summo in periculo erat. Omnibus in partibus exercitus Romanus victus erat. Iam rex montem Ianiculum[5] occupaverat. Numquam antea Romani tanto metu tenebantur. Ex agris in urbem properabant et summo studio urbem ipsam muniebant.

[Footnote 4: The story of Horatius has been made familiar by Macaulay's well-known poem "Horatius" in his Lays of Ancient Rome. Read the poem in connection with this selection.]

[Footnote 5: The Janiculum is a high hill across the Tiber from Rome.]

LESSON LI

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS HIC, ISTE, ILLE

[Special Vocabulary]

/hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative pronoun, this (of mine); he, she, it /ille, illa, illud, demonstrative pronoun that (yonder); he, she, it /invi:sus, -a, -um, hateful, detested, with dative Cf. Sec. 143 /iste, ista, istud, demonstrative pronoun, that (of yours); he, she, it /li:berta:s, -a:tis, f., liberty /modus, -i:, m., measure; manner, way, mode /no:men, no:minis, n., name (nominate) /oculus, -i:, m., eye (oculist) /pri:stinus, -a, -um, former, old-time (pristine) /pu:blicus, -a, -um, public, belonging to the state; /re:s pu:blica, rei: pu:blicae, f., the commonwealth, the state, the republic /vesti:gium, vesti:'gi:, n., footprint, track; trace, vestige /vo:x, vo:cis, f., voice

290. We have already learned the declension of the demonstrative pronoun /is and its use. (Cf. Lesson XVII.) That pronoun refers to persons or things either far or near, and makes no definite reference to place or time. If we wish to point out an object definitely in place or time, we must use /hic, /iste, or /ille. These demonstratives, like /is, are used both as pronouns and as adjectives, and their relation to the speaker may be represented graphically thus:

hic iste ille SPEAKER ——————->———————>———————-> this, he; that, he; that, he (near); (remote); (more remote)

a. In dialogue /hic refers to a person or thing near the speaker; /iste, to a person or thing near the person addressed; /ille, to a person or thing remote from both. These distinctions are illustrated in the model sentences, Sec. 293, which should be carefully studied and imitated.

291. /Hic is declined as follows:

SINGULAR MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. hic haec hoc Gen. huius huius huius Dat. huic huic huic Acc. hunc hanc hoc Abl. ho:c ha:c ho:c

PLURAL Nom. hi: hae haec Gen. ho:rum ha:rum ho:rum Dat. hi:s hi:s hi:s Acc. ho:s ha:s haec Abl. hi:s hi:s hi:s

a. /Huius is pronounced h[oo]'y[oo]s, and /huic is pronounced h[oo]ic (one syllable).

292. The demonstrative pronouns /iste, /ista, /istud, and /ille, /illa, /illud, except for the nominative and accusative singular neuter forms /istud and /illud, are declined exactly like /ipse, /ipsa, /ipsum. (See Sec. 481.)

293. MODEL SENTENCES

Is this horse (of mine) strong? Estne hic equus validus?

That horse (of yours) is strong, but that one (yonder) is weak Iste equus est validus, sed ille est infirmus

Are these (men by me) your friends? Suntne hi amici tui?

Those (men by you) are my friends, but those (men yonder) are enemies Isti sunt amici mei, sed illi sunt inimici

294. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. A German Chieftain addresses his Followers. Ille fortis Germanorum dux suos convocavit et hoc modo animos eorum confirmavit. "Vos, qui in his finibus vivitis, in hunc locum convocavi[1] quia mecum debetis istos agros et istas domos ab iniuriis Romanorum liberare. Hoc nobis non difficile erit, quod illi hostes has silvas densas, feras saevas quarum vestigia vident, montes altos timent. Si fortes erimus, dei ipsi nobis viam salutis demonstrabunt. Ille sol, isti oculi calamitates nostras viderunt.[1] Itaque nomen illius rei publicae Romanae non solum nobis, sed etiam omnibus hominibus qui libertatem amant, est invisum. Ad arma vos voco. Exercete istam pristinam virtutem et vincetis."

[Footnote 1: The perfect definite. (Cf. Sec. 190.)]

II. 1. Does that bird (of yours)[2] sing? 2. This bird (of mine)[2] sings both[3] in summer and in winter and has a beautiful voice. 3. Those birds (yonder)[2] in the country don't sing in winter. 4. Snatch a spear from the hands of that soldier (near you)[2] and come home with me. 5. With those very eyes (of yours)[2] you will see the tracks of the hateful enemy who burned my dwelling and made an attack on my brother. 6. For (propter) these deeds (res) we ought to inflict punishment on him without delay. 7. The enemies of the republic do not always suffer punishment.

[Footnote 2: English words in parentheses are not to be translated. They are inserted to show what demonstratives should be used. (Cf. Sec. 290.)]

[Footnote 3: both ... and, /et ... et.]



295. HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE (Continued)

Altera urbis pars muris, altera flumine satis muniri videbatur. Sed erat pons in flumine qui hostibus iter paene dedit. Tum Horatius Cocles, fortis vir, magna voce dixit, "Rescindite pontem, Romani! Brevi tempore Porsena in urbem copias suas traducet." Iam hostes in ponte erant, sed Horatius cum duobus (cf. Sec. 479) comitibus ad extremam pontis partem properavit, et hi soli aciem hostium sustinuerunt. Tum vero cives Romani pontem a tergo rescindere incipiunt, et hostes frustra Horatium superare temptant.

LESSON LII

THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

[Special Vocabulary]

/incolumis, -e, unharmed /ne: ... quidem, adv., not even. The emphatic word stands between /ne: and /quidem /nisi, conj., unless, if ... not /paene, adv., almost (pen-insula) /satis, adv., enough, sufficiently (satisfaction) /tantus, -a, -um, so great /ve:ro:, adv., truly, indeed, in fact. As a conj. but, however, usually stands second, never first.

/de:cido:, de:cidere, de:cidi:, ——, fall down (deciduous) /de:silio:, de:sili:re, de:silui:, de:sultus, leap down, dismount /maneo:, mane:re, ma:nsi:, ma:nsu:rus, remain /tra:du:co:, tra:du:cere, tra:du:xi:, tra:ductus, lead across

296. The indefinite pronouns are used to refer to some person or some thing, without indicating which particular one is meant. The pronouns /quis and /qui, which we have learned in their interrogative and relative uses, may also be indefinite; and nearly all the other indefinite pronouns are compounds of /quis or /qui and declined almost like them. Review the declension of these words, Secs. 221, 227.

297. Learn the declension and meaning of the following indefinites:

MASC. FEM. NEUT. quis quid, some one, any one (substantive) qui: qua or quae quod, some, any (adjective), Sec. 483 aliquis aliquid, some one, any one (substantive), Sec. 487 aliqui: aliqua aliquod, some, any (adjective), Sec. 487 qui:dam quaedam quoddam, quiddam, a certain, a certain one, Sec. 485 quisquam quicquam or quidquam (no plural), any one (at all) (substantive), Sec. 486 quisque quidque, each one, every one (substantive), Sec. 484 quisque quaeque quodque, each, every (adjective), Sec. 484

[Transcriber's Note: In the original text, the combined forms (masculine/feminine) were printed in the "masculine" column.]

NOTE. The meanings of the neuters, something, etc., are easily inferred from the masculine and feminine.

a. In the masculine and neuter singular of the indefinites, quis-forms and quid-forms are mostly used as substantives, qui-forms and quod-forms as adjectives.

b. The indefinites /quis and /qui never stand first in a clause, and are rare excepting after /si, /nisi, /ne:, /num (as, si quis, if any one; si quid, if anything; nisi quis, unless some one). Generally /aliquis and /aliqui are used instead.

c. The forms /qua and /aliqua are both feminine nominative singular and neuter nominative plural of the indefinite adjectives /qui and /aliqui respectively. How do these differ from the corresponding forms of the relative /qui?

d. Observe that /qui:dam (qui: + -dam) is declined like /qui:, except that in the accusative singular and genitive plural /m of /qui: becomes /n (cf. Sec. 287.a): /quendam, /quandam, /quorundam, /quarundam; also that the neuter has /quiddam (substantive) and /quoddam (adjective) in the nominative and accusative singular. /Qui:dam is the least indefinite of the indefinite pronouns, and implies that you could name the person or thing referred to if you cared to do so.

e. /Quisquam and /quisque (substantive) are declined like /quis.

f. /Quisquam, any one (quicquam or quidquam, anything), is always used substantively and chiefly in negative sentences. The corresponding adjective any is /u:llus, -a, -um (Sec. 108).

298. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Aliquis de ponte in flumen decidit sed sine ullo periculo servatus est. 2. Est vero in vita cuiusque hominis aliqua bona fortuna. 3. Ne militum quidem[1] quisquam in castris mansit. 4. Si quem meae domi vides, iube eum discedere. 5. Si quis pontem tenet, ne tantus quidem exercitus capere urbem potest. 6. Urbs non satis munita erat et meridie rex quidam paene copias suas trans pontem traduxerat. 7. Denique miles quidam armatus in fluctus desiluit et incolumis ad alteram ripam oculos vertit. 8. Quisque illi forti militi aliquid dare debet. 9. Tanta vero virtus Romanus semper placuit. 10. Olim Corinthus erat urbs satis magna et paene par Romae ipsi; nunc vero moenia deciderunt et pauca vestigia urbis illius reperiri possunt. 11. Quisque libertatem amat, et aliquibus vero nomen regis est invisum.

II. 1. If you see a certain Cornelius at Corinth, send him to me. 2. Almost all the soldiers who fell down into the waves were unharmed. 3. Not even at Pompeii did I see so great a fire. 4. I myself was eager to tell something to some one. 5. Each one was praising his own work. 6. Did you see some one in the country? I did not see any one. 7. Unless some one will remain on the bridge with Horatius, the commonwealth will be in the greatest danger.

[Footnote 1: Observe that /qui:dam and /quidem are different words.]

299. HOW HORATIUS HELD THE BRIDGE (Concluded)

Mox, ubi parva pars pontis mansit, Horatius iussit comites discedere et solus mira constantia impetum illius totius exercitus sustinebat. Denique magno fragore pons in flumen decidit. Tum vero Horatius tergum vertit et armatus in aquas desiluit. In eum hostes multa tela iecerunt; incolumis autem per fiuctus ad alteram ripam tranavit. Ei propter tantas res gestas populus Romanus non solum alia magna praemia dedit sed etiam statuam Horati in loco publico posuit.

* * * * *

Sixth Review, Lessons XLV-LII, Secs. 521-523

* * * * *

LESSON LIII

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

[Special Vocabulary]

/aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline) /auda:x, gen. /auda:cis, adj., bold, audacious /celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick (celerity). Cf. /ve:lo:x /explo:rato:r, -o:ris, m., scout, spy (explorer) /inge:ns, gen. /ingentis, adj., huge, vast /medius, -a., -um, middle, middle part of (medium) /me:ns, mentis (-ium), f., mind (mental). Cf. /animus /opportu:nus, -a, -um, opportune /quam, adv., than. With the superlative /quam gives the force of as possible, as /quam auda:cissimi: viri:, men as bold as possible /recens, gen. /recentis, adj., recent /tam, adv., so. Always with an adjective or adverb, while /ita is generally used with a verb

/quaero:, quaerere, quaesi:vi:, quaesi:tus, ask, inquire, seek (question). Cf. /peto:

300. The quality denoted by an adjective may exist in either a higher or a lower degree, and this is expressed by a form of inflection called comparison. The mere presence of the quality is expressed by the positive degree, its presence in a higher or lower degree by the comparative, and in the highest or lowest of all by the superlative. In English the usual way of comparing an adjective is by using the suffix -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative; as, positive high, comparative higher, superlative highest. Less frequently we use the adverbs more and most; as, positive beautiful, comparative more beautiful, superlative most beautiful.

In Latin, as in English, adjectives are compared by adding suffixes or by using adverbs.

301. Adjectives are compared by using suffixes as follows:

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE cla:rus, -a, -um cla:rior, cla:ri:us cla:rissimus, -a, -um (bright) (brighter) (brightest) (BASE cla:r-) brevis, breve brevior, brevius brevissimus, -a, -um (short) (shorter) (shortest) (BASE brev-) ve:lo:x ve:lo:cior, ve:lo:cius ve:lo:cissimus, -a, -um (swift) (swifter) (swiftest) (BASE veloc-)

a. The comparative is formed from the base of the positive by adding -ior masc. and fem., and -ius neut.; the superlative by adding /-issimus, -issima, -issimum.

302. Less frequently adjectives are compared by using the adverbs /magis, more; /maxime:, most; as, /ido:neus, suitable; /magis ido:neus, more suitable; /maxime: ido:neus, most suitable.

303. Declension of the Comparative. Adjectives of the comparative degree are declined as follows:

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. cla:rior cla:ri:us cla:ri:o:re:s cla:rio:ra Gen. cla:rio:ris cla:rio:ris cla:rio:rum cla:rio:rum Dat. cla:rio:ri: cla:rio:ri: cla:rio:ribus cla:rio:ribus Acc. cla:rio:rem cla:rius cla:rio:re:s cla:rio:ra Abl. cla:rio:re cla:rio:re cla:rio:ribus cla:rio:ribus

a. Observe that the endings are those of the consonant stems of the third declension.

b. Compare /longus, long; /fortis, brave; /recens (base, recent-), recent; and decline the comparative of each.

304. Adjectives in -er form the comparative regularly, but the superlative is formed by adding -rimus, -a, -um to the nominative masculine of the positive; as,

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE a:cer, a:cris, a:cre a:crior, a:crius a:cerrimus, -a, -um (BASE acr-) pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum pulchrior, pulchrius pulcherrimus, (BASE pulchr-) -a, -um li:ber, li:bera, li:berum li:berior, li:berius li:berrimus, -a, -um (BASE li:ber-)

a. In a similar manner compare /miser, /aeger, /creber.

305. The comparative is often translated by quite, too, or somewhat, and the superlative by very; as, /altior, quite (too, somewhat) high; /altissimus, very high.

306. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Quid exploratores quaerebant? Exploratores tempus opportfuissimum itineri quaerebant. 2. Media in silva ignis quam creberrimos fecimus, quod feras tam audacis numquam antea videramus. 3. Antiquis temporibus Germani erant fortiores quam Galli. 4. Caesar erat clarior quam inimici[1] qui eum necaverunt. 5. Quisque scutum ingens et pilum longius gerebat. 6. Apud barbaros Germani erant audacissimi et fortissimi. 7. Mens hominum est celerior quam corpus. 8. Viri aliquarum terrarum sunt miserrimi. 9. Corpora Germanorum erant ingentiora quam Romanorum. 10. Acerrimi Gallorum principes sine ulla mora trans flumen quoddam equos velocissimos traduxerunt. 11. Aestate dies sunt longiores quam hieme. 12. Imperator quidam ab exploratoribus de recenti adventu navium longarum quaesivit.

II. 1. Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest. 2. Certain animals are swifter than the swiftest horse. 3. The Roman name was most hateful to the enemies of the commonwealth. 4. The Romans always inflicted the severest[2] punishment on faithless allies. 5. I was quite ill, and so I hastened from the city to the country. 6. Marcus had some friends dearer than Caesar.[3] 7. Did you not seek a more recent report concerning the battle? 8. Not even after a victory so opportune did he seek the general's friendship.

[Footnote 1: Why is this word used instead of /hostes?]

[Footnote 2: Use the superlative of /gravis.]

[Footnote 3: Accusative. In a comparison the noun after /quam is in the same case as the one before it.]

N.B. Beginning at this point, the selections for reading will be found near the end of the volume. (See p. 197.)

LESSON LIV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES THE ABLATIVE WITH COMPARATIVES WITHOUT QUAM

[Special Vocabulary]

/alacer, alacris, alacre, eager, spirited, excited (alacrity) /celerita:s, -a:tis, f., speed (celerity) /cla:mor, cla:mo:ris, m., shout, clamor /le:nis, le:ne, mild, gentle (lenient) /mulier, muli'eris, f., woman /multitu:do:, multitu:dinis, f., multitude /ne:mo, dat. /ne:mini:, acc. /ne:minem (gen. /nu:lli:us, abl. /nu:llo:, from /nu:llus), no plur., m. and f., no one /no:bilis, no:bile, well known, noble /noctu:, adv. (an old abl.), by night (nocturnal) /statim, adv., immediately, at once /subito:, adv., suddenly /tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy) /cupio:, cupere, cupi:vi:, cupi:tus, desire, wish (cupidity)

307. The following six adjectives in -lis form the comparative regularly; but the superlative is formed by adding -limus to the base of the positive. Learn the meanings and comparison.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE facilis, -e, easy facilior, -ius facillimus, -a, -um difficilis, -e, hard difficilior, -ius difficillimus, -a, -um similis, -e, like similior, -ius simillimus, -a, -um dissimilis, -e, unlike dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a, -um gracilis, -e, slender gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um humilis, -e, low humilior, -ius humillimus, -a, -um

308. From the knowledge gained in the preceding lesson we should translate the sentence Nothing is brighter than the sun

Nihil est clarius quam sol

But the Romans, especially in negative sentences, often expressed the comparison in this way,

Nihil est clarius sole

which, literally translated, is Nothing is brighter away from the sun; that is, starting from the sun as a standard, nothing is brighter. This relation is expressed by the separative ablative /sole. Hence the rule

309. RULE. Ablative with Comparatives. The comparative degree, if /quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative.

310. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Nemo milites alacriores Romanis vidit. 2. Statim imperator iussit nuntios quam celerrimos litteras Romam portare. 3. Multa flumina sunt leniora Rheno. 4. Apud Romanos quis erat clarior Caesare? 5. Nihil pulchrius urbe Roma vidi. 6. Subito multitudo audacissima magno clamore proelium acrius commisit. 7. Num est equus tuus tardus? Non vero tardus, sed celerior aquila. 8. Ubi Romae fui, nemo erat mihi amicior Sexto. 9. Quaedam mulieres cibum militibus dare cupiverunt. 10. Rex vetuit civis ex urbe noctu discedere. 11. Ille puer est gracilior hac muliere. 12. Explorator duas (two) vias, alteram facilem, alteram difficiliorem, demonstravit.

II. 1. What city have you seen more beautiful than Rome? 2. The Gauls were not more eager than the Germans. 3. The eagle is not slower than the horse. 4. The spirited woman did not fear to make the journey by night. 5. The mind of the multitude was quite gentle and friendly. 6. But the king's mind was very different. 7. The king was not like (similar to) his noble father. 8. These hills are lower than the huge mountains of our territory.



LESSON LV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Continued)

[Special Vocabulary]

/aedificium, aedifi'ci:, n., building, dwelling (edifice) /imperium, impe'ri:, n., command, chief power; empire /mors, mortis (-ium), f., death (mortal) /reliquus, -a, -um, remaining, rest of. As a noun, m. and n. plur., the rest (relic) /scelus, sceleris, n., crime /servitu:s, -u:tis, f., slavery (servitude) /valle:s, vallis (-ium), f., valley

/abdo:, abdere, abdidi:, abditus, hide /contendo:, contendere, contendi:, contentus, strain, struggle; hasten (contend) /occi:do:, occi:dere, occi:di:, occi:sus, cut down, kill. Cf. /neco:, /interficio: /perterreo:, perterre:re, perterrui:, perterritus, terrify, frighten /recipio:, recipere, rece:pi:, receptus, receive, recover; /se: recipere, betake one's self, withdraw, retreat /tra:do:, tra:dere, tra:didi:, tra:ditus, give over, surrender, deliver (traitor)

311. Some adjectives in English have irregular comparison, as good, better, best; many, more, most. So Latin comparison presents some irregularities. Among the adjectives that are compared irregularly are

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE bonus, -a, -um, good melior, melius optimus, -a, -um magnus, -a, -um, great maior, maius maximus, -a, -um malus, -a, -um, bad peior, peius pessimus, -a, -um multus, -a, -um, much ——, plu:s plu:rimus, -a, -um multi:, -ae, -a, many plu:re:s, plu:ra plu:rimi:, -ae, -a parvus, -a, -um, small minor, minus minimus, -a, -um

312. The following four adjectives have two superlatives. Unusual forms are placed in parentheses.

exterus, -a, -um, (exterior, -ius, { extre:mus, -a, -um } outward outer) {(extimus, -a, -um) } outermost, last i:nferus, -a, -um, i:nferior, -ius, { i:nfimus, -a, -um } low lower { i:mus, -a, -um } lowest posterus, -a, -um, (posterior, -ius, { postre:mus, -a, -um } next later) {(postumus, -a, -um) } last superus, -a, -um, superior, -ius { supre:mus, -a, -um } above higher { summus, -a, -um } highest

313. /Plu:s, more (plural more, many, several), is declined as follows:

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. Nom. —— plu:s plu:re:s plu:ra Gen. —— plu:ris plu:rium plu:rium Dat. —— —— plu:ribus plu:ribus Acc. —— plu:s plu:ri:s, -e:s plu:ra Abl. —— plu:re plu:ribus plu:ribus

a. In the singular /plu:s is used only as a neuter substantive.

314. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Reliqui hostes, qui a dextro cornu proelium commiserant, de superiore loco fugerunt et sese in silvam maximam receperunt. 2. In extrema parte silvae castra hostium posita erant. 3. Plurimi captivi ab equitibus ad Caesarem ducti sunt. 4. Caesar vero iussit eos in servitutem tradi. 5. Postero die magna multitudo mulierum ab Romanis in valle ima reperta est. 6. Hae mulieres maxime perterritae adventu Caesaris sese occidere studebant. 7. Eae quoque pluris fabulas de exercitus Romani sceleribus audiverant. 8. Fama illorum militum optima non erat. 9. In barbarorum aedificiis maior copia frumenti reperta est. 10. Nemo crebris proeliis contendere sine aliquo periculo potest.

II. 1. The remaining women fled from their dwellings and hid themselves. 2. They were terrified and did not wish to be captured and given over into slavery. 3. Nothing can be worse than slavery. 4. Slavery is worse than death. 5. In the Roman empire a great many were killed because they refused to be slaves. 6. To surrender the fatherland is the worst crime.

LESSON LVI

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Concluded) ABLATIVE OF THE MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE

[Special Vocabulary]

/aditus, -u:s, m., approach, access; entrance /ci:vita:s, ci:vita:tis, f., citizenship; body of citizens, state (city) /inter, prep, with acc., between, among (interstate commerce) /nam, conj., for /obses, obsidis, m. and f., hostage /paulo:, adv. (abl. n. of /paulus), by a little, somewhat

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