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Latin for Beginners
by Benjamin Leonard D'Ooge
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Iulia est cum Sexto

d. In sentence d we are told how the men fight. The idea is one of /manner. This is expressed in Latin by the ablative with /cum, unless there is a modifying adjective present, in which case /cum may be omitted. This construction is called the /ablative of manner:

Viri (cum) constantia magna pugnant

101. You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative denoting with:

102. RULE. Ablative of Cause. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what?

103. RULE. Ablative of Means. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? With what?

N.B. /Cum must never be used with the ablative expressing cause or means.

104. RULE. Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with /cum. This answers the question With whom?

105. RULE. Ablative of Manner. The ablative with /cum is used to denote the manner of an action. /Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? In what manner?

106. What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following passage, and what question does each answer?

The soldiers marched to the fort with great speed and broke down the gate with blows of their muskets. The inhabitants, terrified by the din, attempted to cross the river with their wives and children, but the stream was swollen with (or by) the rain. Because of this many were swept away by the waters and only a few, almost overcome with fatigue, with great difficulty succeeded in gaining the farther shore.

107. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. The Romans prepare for War. Romani, clarus Italiae populus, bellum parant. Ex agris suis, vicis, oppidisque magno studio viri validi ad arma properant. Iam legati cum legionariis ex Italia ad Rhenum, fluvium Germaniae altum et latum, properant, et servi equis et carris cibum frumentumque ad castra Romana portant. Inopia bonorum telorum infirmi sunt Germani, sed Romani armati galeis, loricis, scutis, gladiis, pilisque sunt validi.

II. 1. The sturdy farmers of Italy labor in the fields with great diligence. 2. Sextus, the lieutenant, and (his) son Mark are fighting with the Germans. 3. The Roman legionaries are armed with long spears. 4. Where is Lesbia, your maid, Sextus? Lesbia is with my friends in Galba's cottage. 5. Many are sick because of bad water and for lack of food. 6. The Germans, with (their) sons and daughters, are hastening with horses and wagons.

LESSON XVI

THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

108. There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and dative singular of all genders:

MASC. FEM. NEUT. Gen. -i:us -i:us -i:us Dat. -i: -i: -i:

Otherwise they are declined like /bonus, -a, -um. Learn the list and the meaning of each:

/alius, alia, aliud, other, another (of several) /alter, altera, alterum, the one, the other (of two) /u:nus, -a, -um, one, alone; (in the plural) only /u:llus, -a, -um, any /nu:llus, -a, -um, none, no /so:lus, -a, -um, alone /to:tus, -a, -um, all, whole, entire /uter, utra, utrum, which? (of two) /neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither (of two)

109. PARADIGMS

SINGULAR MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. nu:llus nu:lla nu:llum Gen. nu:lli:'us nu:lli:'us nu:lli:'us Dat. nu:lli: nu:lli: nu:lli: Acc. nu:llum nu:llam nu:llum Abl. nu:llo: nu:lla: nu:llo:

MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. alius alia aliud Gen. ali:'us ali:'us ali:'us Dat. alii: alii: alii: Acc. alium aliam aliud Abl. alio: alia: alio:

THE PLURAL IS REGULAR

a. Note the peculiar neuter singular ending in -d of /alius. The genitive /ali:us is rare. Instead of it use /alteri:us, the genitive of /alter.

b. These peculiar case endings are found also in the declension of pronouns (see Sec. 114). For this reason these adjectives are sometimes called the /pronominal adjectives.

110. Learn the following idioms:

/alter, -era, -erum ... /alter, -era, -erum, the one ... the other (of two) /alius, -a, -ud ... /alius, -a, -ud, one ... another (of any number) /alii, -ae, -a ... /alii, -ae, -a, some ... others

EXAMPLES

1. Alterum oppidum est magnum, alterum parvum, the one town is large, the other small (of two towns).

2. Aliud oppidum est validum, aliud infirmum, one town is strong, another weak (of towns in general).

3. Alii gladios, alii scuta portant, some carry swords, others shields.

111. EXERCISES

I. 1. In utra casa est Iulia? Iulia est in neutra casa. 2. Nulli malo puero praemium dat magister. 3. Alter puer est nauta, alter agricola. 4. Alii viri aquam, alii terram amant. 5. Galba unus (or solus) cum studio laborat. 6. Estne ullus carrus in agro meo? 7. Lesbia est ancilla alterius domini, Tullia alterius. 8. Lesbia sola cenam parat. 9. Cena nullius alterius ancillae est bona. 10. Lesbia nulli alii viro cenam dat.

NOTE. The pronominal adjectives, as you observe, regularly stand before and not after their nouns.

II. 1. The men of all Germany are preparing for war. 2. Some towns are great and others are small. 3. One boy likes chickens, another horses. 4. Already the booty of one town is in our fort. 5. Our whole village is suffering for (i.e. weak because of) lack of food. 6. The people are already hastening to the other town. 7. Among the Romans (there) is no lack of grain.

LESSON XVII

THE DEMONSTRATIVE IS, EA, ID

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS /agri: cultu:ra, -ae, f., agriculture /Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul /domicili:um, domi:ci'li:, n., dwelling place (domicile), abode /Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul /lacrima, -ae, f., tear /fe:mina, -ae, f., woman (female) /numerus, -i:, m., number (numeral)

ADJECTIVE /ma:tu:rus, -a, -um, ripe, mature

ADVERB quo:, whither

VERBS arat, he (she, it) plows (arable) /de:si:derat, he (she, it) misses, longs for (desire), with acc.

CONJUNCTION /an, or, introducing the second half of a double question, as Is he a Roman or a Gaul, /Estne Romanus an Gallus?

112. A demonstrative is a word that points out an object definitely, as this, that, these, those. Sometimes these words are pronouns, as, Do you hear these? and sometimes adjectives, as, Do you hear these men? In the former case they are called /demonstrative pronouns, in the latter /demonstrative adjectives.

113. Demonstratives are similarly used in Latin both as pronouns and as adjectives. The one used most is

/is, masculine; /ea, feminine; /id, neuter SINGULAR: this, that; PLURAL: these, those

114. /Is is declined as follows. Compare its declension with that of /alius, Sec. 109.

BASE e-

SINGULAR PLURAL MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT. Nom. is ea id ei: eae ea (or ii:) Gen. eius eius eius eo:rum ea:rum eo:rum Dat. ei: ei: ei: ei:s ei:s ei:s (or ii:s ii:s ii:s) Acc. eum eam id eo:s ea:s ea Abl. eo: ea: eo: ei:s ei:s ei:s (or ii:s ii:s ii:s)

Note that the base e- changes to i- in a few cases. The genitive singular /eius is pronounced eh'yus. In the plural the forms with two /i\'s are preferred and the two /i\'s are pronounced as one. Hence, pronounce /ii: as /i: and /ii:s as /i:s.

115. Besides being used as demonstrative pronouns and adjectives the Latin demonstratives are regularly used for the personal pronoun he, she, it. As a personal pronoun, then, /is would have the following meanings:

SINGULAR Nom. is, he; ea, she; id, it Gen. eius, of him or his; eius, of her, her, or hers; eius, of it or its Dat. ei:, to or for him; ei:, to or for her; ei:, to or for it Acc. eum, him; eam, her; id, it Abl. eo:, with, from, etc., him; ea:, with, from, etc., her; eo:, with, from, etc., it

PLURAL Nom. ei: or ii:, eae, ea, they Gen. eo:rum, ea:rum, eo:rum, of them, their Dat. ei:s or ii:s, ei:s or ii:s, ei:s or ii:s, to or for them Acc. eo:s, ea:s, ea, them Abl. ei:s or ii:s, ei:s or ii:s, ei:s or ii:s, with, from, etc., them

116. Comparison between suus and is. We learned above (Sec. 98.c) that /suus is a reflexive possessive. When his, her (poss.), its, their, do not refer to the subject of the sentence, we express his, her, its by /eius, the genitive singular of /is, /ea, /id; and their by the genitive plural, using /eorum to refer to a masculine or neuter antecedent noun and /earum to refer to a feminine one.

EXAMPLES

Galba calls his (own) son, Galba suum filium vocat Galba calls his son (not his own, but another's), Galba eius filium vocat Julia calls her (own) children, Iulia suos liberos vocat Julia calls her children (not her own, but another's), Iulia eius liberos vocat The men praise their (own) boys, viri suos pueros laudant The men praise their boys (not their own, but others'), viri eorum pueros laudant

117. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

1. He praises her, him, it, them. 2. This cart, that report, these teachers, those women, that abode, these abodes. 3. That strong garrison, among those weak and sick women, that want of firmness, those frequent plans.

4. The other woman is calling her chickens (her own). 5. Another woman is calling her chickens (not her own). 6. The Gaul praises his arms (his own). 7. The Gaul praises his arms (not his own). 8. This farmer often plows their fields. 9. Those wretched slaves long for their master (their own). 10. Those wretched slaves long for their master (not their own). 11. Free men love their own fatherland. 12. They love its villages and towns.

118. DIALOGUE[1]

CORNELIUS AND MARCUS

M. Quis est vir, Corneli, cum puero parvo? Estne Romanus et liber? C. Romanus non est, Marce. Is vir est servus et eius domicilium est in silvis Galliae. M. Estne puer filius eius servi an alterius? C. Neutrius filius est puer. Is est filius legati Sexti. M. Quo puer cum eo servo properat? C. Is cum servo properat ad latos Sexti agros.[2] Totum frumentum est iam maturum et magnus servorum numerus in Italiae[3] agris laborat. M. Agricolaene sunt Galli et patriae suae agros arant? C. Non agricolae sunt. Bellum amant Galli, non agri culturam. Apud eos viri pugnant et feminae auxilio liberorum agros arant parantque cibum. M. Magister noster pueris puellisque gratas Gallorum fabulas saepe narrat et laudat eos saepe. C. Mala est fortuna eorum et saepe miseri servi multis cum lacrimis patriam suam desiderant.

[Footnote 1: There are a number of departures from the normal order in this dialogue. Find them, and give the reason.]

[Footnote 2: When a noun is modified by both a genitive and an adjective, a favorite order of words is adjective, genitive, noun.]

[Footnote 3: A modifying genitive often stands between a preposition and its object.]

* * * * *

Second Review, Lessons IX-XVII, Secs. 506-509

* * * * *

LESSON XVIII

CONJUGATION THE PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE TENSES OF /SUM

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS lu:dus, -i:, m.,school /socius, soci:, m., companion, ally (social)

ADJECTIVES /i:ra:tus, -a, -um, angry, furious (irate) /laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad (social)

ADVERBS hodie:, to-day /ibi, there, in that place mox, presently, soon, of the immediate future /nunc, now, the present moment /nu:per, lately, recently, of the immediate past

119. The inflection of a verb is called its conjugation (cf. Sec. 23). In English the verb has but few changes in form, the different meanings being expressed by the use of personal pronouns and auxiliaries, as, I am carried, we have carried, they shall have carried, etc. In Latin, on the other hand, instead of using personal pronouns and auxiliary verbs, the form changes with the meaning. In this way the Romans expressed differences in tense, mood, voice, person, and number.

120. The Tenses. The different forms of a verb referring to different times are called its tenses. The chief distinctions of time are present, past, and future:

1. /The present, that is, what is happening now, or what usually happens, is expressed by THE PRESENT TENSE

2. /The past, that is, what was happening, used to happen, happened, has happened, or had happened, is expressed by THE IMPERFECT, PERFECT, AND PLUPERFECT TENSES

3. /The future, that is, what is going to happen, is expressed by THE FUTURE AND FUTURE PERFECT TENSES

121. The Moods. Verbs have inflection of mood to indicate the manner in which they express action. The moods of the Latin verb are the indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive.

a. A verb is in the indicative mood when it makes a statement or asks a question about something assumed as a fact. All the verbs we have used thus far are in the present indicative.

122. The Persons. There are three persons, as in English. The first person is the person speaking (I sing); the second person the person spoken to (you sing); the third person the person spoken of (he sings). Instead of using personal pronouns for the different persons in the two numbers, singular and plural, the Latin verb uses the personal endings (cf. Sec. 22 a; 29). We have already learned that -t is the ending of the third person singular in the active voice and -nt of the third person plural. The complete list of personal endings of the active voice is as follows:

SINGULAR PLURAL 1st Pers. I -m or -o: we -mus 2d Pers. thou or you -s you -tis 3d Pers. he, she, it -t they -nt

123. Most verbs form their moods and tenses after a regular plan and are called regular verbs. Verbs that depart from this plan are called irregular. The verb to be is irregular in Latin as in English. The present, imperfect, and future tenses of the indicative are inflected as follows:

PRESENT INDICATIVE SINGULAR PLURAL 1st Pers. su-m, I am su-mus, we are 2d Pers. e-s, you[1] are es-tis, you[1] are 3d Pers. es-t, he, she, or it is su-nt, they are

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE SINGULAR PLURAL 1st Pers. er-a-m, I was er-a:'-mus, we were 2d Pers. er-a:-s, you were er-a:'-tis, you were 3d Pers. er-a-t, he, she, or it was er-a:-nt, they were

FUTURE INDICATIVE SINGULAR PLURAL 1st Pers. er-o:, I shall be er'-i-mus, we shall be 2d Pers. er-i-s, you will be er'-i-tis, you will be 3d Pers. er-i-t, he will be er-u-nt, they will be

a. Be careful about vowel quantity and accent in these forms, and consult Secs. 12.2; 14; 15.

[Footnote 1: Observe that in English you are, you were, etc. may be either singular or plural. In Latin the singular and plural forms are never the same.]

124. DIALOGUE

THE BOYS SEXTUS AND MARCUS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

S. Ubi es, Marce? Ubi est Quintus? Ubi estis, amici? M. Cum Quinto, Sexte, in silva sum. Non soli sumus; sunt in silva multi alii pueri. S. Nunc laetus es, sed nuper non laetus eras. Cur miser eras? M. Miser eram quia amici mei erant in alio vico et eram solus. Nunc sum apud socios meos. Nunc laeti sumus et erimus. S. Eratisne in ludo hodie? M. Hodie non eramus in ludo, quod magister erat aeger. S. Eritisne mox in ludo? M. Amici mei ibi erunt, sed ego (I) non ero. S. Cur non ibi eris? Magister, saepe iratus, inopiam tuam studi diligentiaeque non laudat. M. Nuper aeger eram et nunc infirmus sum.

125. EXERCISE

1. You are, you were, you will be, (sing. and plur.). 2. I am, I was, I shall be. 3. He is, he was, he will be. 4. We are, we were, we shall be. 5. They are, they were, they will be.

6. Why were you not in school to-day? I was sick. 7. Lately he was a sailor, now he is a farmer, soon he will be a teacher. 8. To-day I am happy, but lately I was wretched. 9. The teachers were happy because of the boys' industry.



LESSON XIX

THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO: AND MONEO:

126. There are four conjugations of the regular verbs. These conjugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the present conjugation-stem.[1] This vowel is called the distinguishing vowel, and is best seen in the present infinitive.

[Footnote 1: The stem is the body of a word to which the terminations are attached. It is often identical with the base (cf. Sec. 58). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional terminations. This point is further explained in Sec. 230.]

Below is given the present infinitive of a verb of each conjugation, the present stem, and the distinguishing vowel.

DISTINGUISHING CONJUGATION PRES. INFIN. PRES. STEM VOWEL I. ama:'re, to love ama:- a: II. mone:'re, to advise mone:- e: III. re'gere, to rule rege- e IV. audi:'re, to hear audi- i:

a. Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by dropping -re, the ending of the present infinitive.

NOTE. The present infinitive of /sum is /esse, and es- is the present stem.

127. From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and future tenses.

128. The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first and of the second conjugation is as follows:

a'mo:, ama:'re (love) mo'neo:, mone:'re (advise) PRES. STEM ama:- PRES. STEM mone:-

SINGULAR PLURAL PERSONAL ENDINGS 1. a'mo:, I love mo'neo:, I advise -o: 2. a'ma:s, you love mo'ne:s, you advise -s 3. a'mat, he (she, it) loves mo'net, he (she, it) advises -t

1. ama:'mus, we love mone:'mus, we advise -mus 2. ama:'tis, you love mone:'tis, you advise -tis 3. a'mant, they love mo'nent, they advise -nt

1. The present tense is inflected by adding the personal endings to the present stem, and its first person uses -o and not -m. The form /amo: is for /ama-o:, the two vowels /a-o: contracting to /o:. In /moneo: there is no contraction. Nearly all regular verbs ending in -eo belong to the second conjugation.

2. Note that the long final vowel of the stem is shortened before another vowel (mone:-o: = mo'neo:), and before final -t (amat, monet) and -nt (amant, monent). Compare Sec. 12.2.

129. Like /amo: and /moneo: inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs[2]:

[Footnote 2: The only new verbs in this list are the five of the second conjugation which are starred. Learn their meanings.]

INDICATIVE PRESENT INFINITIVE PRESENT a'ro, I plow ara're, to plow cu'ro, I care for cura're, to care for *de:'leo:, I destroy de:le:'re, to destroy desi'dero, I long for desidera're, to long for do,[3] I give da're, to give *ha'beo:, I have habe:'re, to have ha'bito, I live, I dwell habita're, to live, to dwell *iu'beo:, I order iube:'re, to order labo'ro, I labor labora're, to labor lau'do, I praise lauda're, to praise matu'ro, I hasten matura're, to hasten *mo'veo:, I move move:'re, to move nar'ro, I tell narra're, to tell ne'co, I kill neca're, to kill nun'tio, I announce nuntia're, to announce pa'ro, I prepare para're, to prepare por'to, I carry porta're, to carry pro'pero, I hasten propera're, to hasten pug'no, I fight pugna're, to fight *vi'deo:, I see vide:'re, to see vo'co, I call voca're, to call

[Footnote 3: Observe that in /do:, dare, the /a is short, and that the present stem is da- and not da:-. The only forms of /do: that have a long are /da:s (pres. indic.), /da: (pres. imv.), and /da:ns (pres. part.).]

130. The Translation of the Present. In English there are three ways of expressing present action. We may say, for example, I live, I am living, or I do live. In Latin the one expression /habito covers all three of these expressions.

131. EXERCISES

Give the voice, mood, tense, person, and number of each form.

I. 1. Vocamus, properatis, iubent. 2. Movetis, laudas, vides. 3. Deletis, habetis, dant. 4. Maturas, desiderat, videmus. 5. Iubet, movent, necat. 6. Narramus, moves, vident. 7. Laboratis, properant, portas, parant. 8. Delet, habetis, iubemus, das.

N.B. Observe that the personal ending is of prime importance in translating a Latin verb form. Give that your first attention.

II. 1. We plow, we are plowing, we do plow. 2. They care for, they are caring for, they do care for. 3. You give, you are having, you do have (sing.). 4. We destroy, I do long for, they are living. 5. He calls, they see, we are telling. 6. We do fight, we order, he is moving, he prepares. 7. They are laboring, we kill, you announce.

LESSON XX

IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO: AND MONEO:

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS /fo:rma, -ae, f., form, beauty /regi:na, -ae, f., queen (regal) /poena, -ae, f., punishment, penalty superbia, -ae, f., pride, haughtiness /potentia, -ae, f., power (potent) /tri:sti:ti:a, -ae, f., sadness, sorrow

ADJECTIVES /septem, indeclinable, seven /superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty (superb)

CONJUNCTIONS /no:n so:lum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also

132. Tense Signs. Instead of using auxiliary verbs to express differences in tense, like was, shall, will, etc., Latin adds to the verb stem certain elements that have the force of auxiliary verbs. These are called tense signs.

133. Formation and Inflection of the Imperfect. The tense sign of the imperfect is -ba:-, which is added to the present stem. The imperfect consists, therefore, of three parts:

PRESENT STEM TENSE SIGN PERSONAL ENDING ama:- ba- m loving was I

The inflection is as follows:

CONJUGATION I CONJUGATION II PERSONAL SINGULAR ENDINGS 1. ama:'bam, I was loving mone:'bam, I was advising -m 2. ama:'ba:s, you were loving mone:'ba:s, you were advising -s 3. ama:'bat, he was loving mone:'bat, he was advising -t

PLURAL 1. ama:ba:'mus, we were loving mone:ba:'mus, we were advising -mus 2. ama:ba:'tis, you were loving mone:ba:'tis, you were advising -tis 3. ama:'bant, they were loving mone:'bant, they wereadvising -nt

a. Note that the /a: of the tense sign -ba:- is shortened before -nt, and before /m and /t when final. (Cf. Sec. 12.2.)

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in Sec. 129.

134. Meaning of the Imperfect. The Latin imperfect describes an act as going on or progressing in past time, like the English past-progressive tense (as, I was walking). It is the regular tense used to describe a past situation or condition of affairs.

135. EXERCISES

I. 1. Videbamus, desiderabat, maturabas. 2. Dabant, vocabatis, delebamus. 3. Pugnant, laudabas, movebatis. 4. Iubebant, properabatis, portabamus. 5. Dabas, narrabant, laborabatis. 6. Videbant, movebas, nuntiabamus. 7. Necabat, movebam, habebat, parabatis.

II. 1. You were having (sing. and plur.), we were killing, they were laboring. 2. He was moving, we were ordering, we were fighting. 3. We were telling, they were seeing, he was calling. 4. They were living, I was longing for, we were destroying. 5. You were giving, you were moving, you were announcing, (sing. and plur.). 6. They were caring for, he was plowing, we were praising.

136. NI'OBE AND HER CHILDREN

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

Niobe, regina Thebanorum, erat pulchra femina sed superba. Erat superba non solum forma[1] sua maritique potentia[1] sed etiam magno liberorum numero.[1] Nam habebat[2] septem filios et septem filias. Sed ea superbia erat reginae[3] causa magnae tristitiae et liberis[3] causa durae poenae.

NOTE. The words /Niobe, /Thebanorum, and /mariti will be found in the general vocabulary. Translate the selection without looking up any other words.

[Footnote 1: Ablative of cause.]

[Footnote 2: Translate had; it denotes a past situation. (See Sec. 134.)]

[Footnote 3: Dative, cf. Sec. 43.]

LESSON XXI

FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO: AND MONEO:

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS sacrum, -i:, n., sacrifice, offering, rite /verbum, -i:, n., word (verb)

VERBS sedeo:, -e:re, sit (sediment) volo:, -a:re, fly (volatile)

ADJECTIVES /interfectus, -a, -um, slain /molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying (molest) /perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual, continuous

/ego, personal pronoun, I (egotism). Always emphatic in the nominative.

137. The tense sign of the Future Indicative in the first and second conjugations is -bi-. This is joined to the present stem of the verb and followed by the personal ending, as follows:

PRESENT STEM TENSE SIGN PERSONAL ENDING ama:- bi- s love will you

138. The Future Active Indicative is inflected as follows.

CONJUGATION I CONJUGATION II SINGULAR 1. ama:'bo:, I shall love mone:'bo:, I shall advise 2. ama:'bis, you will love mone:'bis, you will advise 3. ama:'bit, he will love mone:'bit, he will advise

PLURAL 1. ama:'bimus, we shall love mone:'bimus, we shall advise 2. ama:'bitis you will love mone:'bitis, you will advise 3. ama:'bunt, they will love mone:'bunt, they will advise

a. The personal endings are as in the present. The ending -bo: in the first person singular is contracted from -bi-o:. The -bi- appears as -bu- in the third person plural. Note that the inflection is like that of /ero:, the future of /sum. Pay especial attention to the accent.

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in Sec. 129.

139. EXERCISES

I. 1. Movebitis, laudabis, arabo. 2. Delebitis, vocabitis, dabunt. 3. Maturabis, desiderabit, videbimus. 4. Habebit, movebunt, necabit. 5. Narrabimus, monebis, videbunt. 6. Laborabitis, curabunt, dabis. 7. Habitabimus, properabitis, iubebunt, parabit. 8. Nuntiabo, portabimus, iubebo.

II. 1. We shall announce, we shall see, I shall hasten. 2. I shall carry, he will plow, they will care for. 3. You will announce, you will move, you will give, (sing. and plur.). 4. We shall fight, we shall destroy, I shall long for. 5. He will call, they will see, you will tell (plur.). 6. They will dwell, we shall order, he will praise. 7. They will labor, we shall kill, you will have (sing. and plur.), he will destroy.

140. NI'OBE AND HER CHILDREN (Concluded)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apollo et Diana erant liberi Latonae. Iis Thebani sacra crebra parabant.[1] Oppidani amabant Latonam et liberos eius. Id superbae reginae erat molestum. "Cur," inquit, "Latonae et liberis sacra paratis? Duos liberos habet Latona; quattuordecim habeo ego. Ubi sunt mea sacra?" Latona iis verbis[2] irata liberos suos vocat. Ad eam volant Apollo Dianaque et sagittis[3] suis miseros liberos reginae superbae delent. Niobe, nuper laeta, nunc misera, sedet apud liberos interfectos et cum perpetuis lacrimis[4] eos desiderat.

NOTE. Consult the general vocabulary for /Apollo, /inquit, /duos, and /quattuordecim. Try to remember the meaning of all the other words.

[Footnote 1: Observe the force of the imperfect here, used to prepare, were in the habit of preparing; so /amabant denotes a past situation of affairs. (See Sec. 134.)]

[Footnote 2: Ablative of cause.]

[Footnote 3: Ablative of means.]

[Footnote 4: This may be either manner or accompaniment. It is often impossible to draw a sharp line between means, manner, and accompaniment. The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinction. It was enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case.]

LESSON XXII

REVIEW OF VERBS : THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS /discipli:na, -ae, f., training, culture, discipline /Ga:ius, Ga:i:, m., Caius, a Roman first name /o:rna:mentum, -i:, n., ornament, jewel Tiberius, Tibe'ri:, m., Tiberius, a Roman first name

VERB /doceo:, -e:re, teach (doctrine)

ADVERB /maxime:, most of all, especially

ADJECTIVE /anti:quus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique)

141. Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both orally and in writing, of /sum and the verbs in Sec. 129.

142. We learned in Sec. 43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in Sec. 44 that one of its commonest uses is with verbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed. We have already had a number of cases where /gratus, agreeable to, was so followed by a dative; and in the last lesson we had /molestus, annoying to, followed by that case. The usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule:

143. RULE. Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning /near, also /fit, /friendly, /pleasing, /like, and their opposites.

144. Among such adjectives memorize the following:

ido:neus, -a, -um, fit, suitable (for) ami:cus, -a, -um, friendly (to) inimicus, -a, -um, hostile (to) gra:tus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agreeable (to) molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), troublesome (to) fi:nitimus, -a, -um, neighboring (to) proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next (to)

145. EXERCISES

I. 1. Romani terram idoneam agri culturae habent. 2. Galli copiis Romanis inimici erant. 3. Cui dea Latona amica non erat? 4. Dea Latona superbae reginae amica non erat. 5. Cibus noster, Marce, erit armatis viris gratus. 6. Quid erat molestum populis Italiae? 7. Bella longa cum Gallis erant molesta populis Italiae. 8. Agri Germanorum fluvio Rheno finitimi erant. 9. Romani ad silvam oppido proximam castra movebant. 10. Non solum forma sed etiam superbia reginae erat magna. 11. Mox regina pulchra erit aegra tristitia. 12. Cur erat Niobe, regina Thebanorum, laeta? Laeta erat Niobe multis filiis et filiabus.

II. 1. The sacrifices of the people will be annoying to the haughty queen. 2. The sacrifices were pleasing not only to Latona but also to Diana. 3. Diana will destroy those hostile to Latona. 4. The punishment of the haughty queen was pleasing to the goddess Diana. 5. The Romans will move their forces to a large field[1] suitable for a camp. 6. Some of the allies were friendly to the Romans, others to the Gauls.

[Footnote 1: Why not the dative?]

146. CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apud antiquas dominas, Cornelia, Africani filia, erat[2] maxime clara. Filii eius erant Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus. Ii pueri cum Cornelia in oppido Roma, claro Italiae oppido, habitabant. Ibi eos curabat Cornelia et ibi magno cum studio eos docebat. Bona femina erat Cornelia et bonam disciplinam maxime amabat.

NOTE. Can you translate the paragraph above? There are no new words.

[Footnote 2: Observe that all the imperfects denote continued or progressive action, or describe a state of affairs. (Cf. Sec. 134.)]

LESSON XXIII

PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO: AND AUDIO:

147. As we learned in Sec. 126, the present stem of the third conjugation ends in -e, and of the fourth in -i:. The inflection of the Present Indicative is as follows:

CONJUGATION III CONJUGATION IV re'go:, re'gere (rule) au'dio, audi:'re (hear) PRES. STEM rege- PRES. STEM audi:-

SINGULAR 1. re'go:, I rule au'dio:, I hear 2. re'gis, you rule au'di:s, you hear 3. re'git, he (she, it) rules au'dit, he (she, it) hears

PLURAL 1. re'gimus, we rule audi:'mus, we hear 2. re'gitis, you rule audi:'tis, you hear 3. re'gunt, they rule au'diunt, they hear

1. The personal endings are the same as before.

2. The final short -e- of the stem rege- combines with the -o: in the first person, becomes -u- in the third person plural, and becomes -i- elsewhere. The inflection is like that of /ero:, the future of /sum.

3. In /audio: the personal endings are added regularly to the stem audi:-. In the third person plural -u- is inserted between the stem and the personal ending, as /audi-u-nt. Note that the long vowel of the stem is shortened before final -t just as in /amo and /moneo. (Cf. Sec. 12.2.)

Note that -i- is always short in the third conjugation and long in the fourth, excepting where long vowels are regularly shortened. (Cf. Sec. 12.1, 2.)

148. Like /rego and /audio inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs:

INDICATIVE PRESENT INFINITIVE PRESENT

ago:, I drive agere, to drive di:co:, I say di:cere, to say du:co:, I lead du:cere, to lead mitto:, I send mittere, to send mu:nio:, I fortify mu:ni:re, to fortify reperio:, I find reperi:re, to find venio:, I come veni:re, to come

149. EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis agit? Cur venit? Quem mittit? Quem ducis? 2. Quid mittunt? Ad quem veniunt? Cuius castra muniunt? 3. Quem agunt? Venimus. Quid puer reperit? 4. Quem mittimus? Cuius equum ducitis? Quid dicunt? 5. Munimus, venitis, dicit. 6. Agimus, reperitis, munis. 7. Reperis, ducitis, dicis. 8. Agitis, audimus, regimus.

II. 1. What do they find? Whom do they hear? Why does he come? 2. Whose camp are we fortifying? To whom does he say? What are we saying? 3. I am driving, you are leading, they are hearing. 4. You send, he says, you fortify (sing. and plur.). 5. I am coming, we find, they send. 6. They lead, you drive, he does fortify. 7. You lead, you find, you rule, (all plur.).

150. CORNELIA AND HER JEWELS (Concluded)

Proximum domicilio Corneliae erat pulchrae Campanae domicilium. Campana erat superba non solum forma sua sed maxime ornamentis suis. Ea[1] laudabat semper. "Habesne tu ulla ornamenta, Cornelia?" inquit. "Ubi sunt tua ornamenta?" Deinde Cornelia filios suos Tiberium et Gaium vocat. "Pueri mei," inquit, "sunt mea ornamenta. Nam boni liberi sunt semper bonae feminae ornamenta maxime clara."

NOTE. The only new words here are /Campana, /semper, and /tu.

[Footnote 1: /Ea, accusative plural neuter.]



LESSON XXIV

IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO: AND AUDIO: THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL INTRANSITIVE VERBS

151. PARADIGMS

CONJUGATION III CONJUGATION IV SINGULAR 1. rege:'bam, I was ruling audie:'bam, I was hearing 2. rege:'ba:s, you were riding audie:'ba:s, you were hearing 3. rege:'bat, he was ruling audie:'bat, he was hearing

PLURAL 1. rege:ba:'mus, we were ruling audie:ba:'mus, we were hearing 2. rege:ba:'tis, you were ruling audie:ba:'tis, you were hearing 3. rege:'bant, they were ruling audie:'bant, they were hearing

1. The tense sign is -ba:-, as in the first two conjugations.

2. Observe that the final -e- of the stem is lengthened before the tense sign -ba:-. This makes the imperfect of the third conjugation just like the imperfect of the second (cf. /mone:bam and /rege:bam).

3. In the fourth conjugation -e:- is inserted between the stem and the tense sign -ba:- (audi-e:-ba-m).

4. In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in Sec. 148.

152. EXERCISES

I. 1. Agebat, veniebat, mittebat, ducebant. 2. Agebant, mittebant, ducebas, muniebant. 3. Mittebamus, ducebatis, dicebant. 4. Muniebamus, veniebatis, dicebas. 5. Mittebas, veniebamus, reperiebat. 6. Reperiebas, veniebas, audiebatis. 7. Agebamus, reperiebatis, muniebat. 8. Agebatis, dicebam, muniebam.

II. 1. They were leading, you were driving (sing. and plur.), he was fortifying. 2. They were sending, we were finding, I was coming. 3. You were sending, you were fortifying, (sing. and plur.), he was saying. 4. They were hearing, you were leading (sing. and plur.), I was driving. 5. We were saying, he was sending, I was fortifying. 6. They were coming, he was hearing, I was finding. 7. You were ruling (sing. and plur.), we were coming, they were ruling.

153. The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs. We learned above (Sec. 20.a) that a verb which does not admit of a direct object is called an intransitive verb. Many such verbs, however, are of such meaning that they can govern an indirect object, which will, of course, be in the dative case (Sec. 45). Learn the following list of intransitive verbs with their meanings. In each case the dative indirect object is the person or thing to which a benefit, injury, or feeling is directed. (Cf. Sec. 43.)

cre:do:, cre:dere, believe (give belief to) faveo:, fave:re, favor (show favor to) noceo:, noce:re, injure (do harm to) pa:reo:, pa:re:re, obey (give obedience to) persua:deo:, persua:de:re, persuade (offer persuasion to) resisto:, resistere, resist (offer resistance to) studeo:, stude:re, be eager for (give attention to)

154. RULE. Dative with Intransitive Verbs. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs /credo, /faveo, /noceo, /pareo, /persuadeo, /resisto, /studeo, and others of like meaning.

155. EXERCISE

1. Credisne verbis sociorum? Multi verbis eorum non credunt. 2. Mei finitimi consilio tuo non favebunt, quod bello student. 3. Tiberius et Gaius disciplinae durae non resistebant et Corneliae parebant. 4. Dea erat inimica septem filiabus reginae. 5. Dura poena et perpetua tristitia reginae non persuadebunt. 6. Nuper ea resistebat et nunc resistit potentiae Latonae. 7. Mox sagittae volabunt et liberis miseris nocebunt.

LESSON XXV

FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGO: AND AUDIO:

156. In the future tense of the third and fourth conjugations we meet with a new tense sign. Instead of using -bi-, as in the first and second conjugations, we use -a:-[1] in the first person singular and -e:- in the rest of the tense. In the third conjugation the final -e- of the stem is dropped before this tense sign; in the fourth conjugation the final -i:- of the stem is retained.[2]

[Footnote 1: The -a:- is shortened before -m final, and -e:- before -t final and before -nt. (Cf. Sec. 12.2.)]

[Footnote 2: The -i:- is, of course, shortened, being before another vowel. (Cf. Sec. 12.1.)]

157. PARADIGMS

CONJUGATION III CONJUGATION IV SINGULAR 1. re'gam, I shall rule au'diam, I shall hear 2. re'ge:s, you will rule au'die:s, you will hear 3. re'get, he will rule au'diet, he will hear

PLURAL 1. rege:'mus, we shall rule audie:'mus, we shall hear 2. rege:'tis, you will rule audie:'tis, you will hear 3. re'gent, they will rule au'dient, they will hear

1. Observe that the future of the third conjugation is like the present of the second, excepting in the first person singular.

2. In the same manner inflect the verbs given in Sec. 148.

158. EXERCISES

I. 1. Dicet, ducetis, muniemus. 2. Dicent, dicetis, mittemus. 3. Munient, venient, mittent, agent. 4. Ducet, mittes, veniet, aget. 5. Muniet, reperietis, agemus. 6. Mittam, veniemus, regent. 7. Audietis, venies, reperies. 8. Reperiet, agam, ducemus, mittet. 9. Videbitis, sedebo, vocabimus.

II. 1. I shall find, he will hear, they will come. 2. I shall fortify, he will send, we shall say. 3. I shall drive, you will lead, they will hear. 4. You will send, you will fortify, (sing. and plur.), he will say. 5. I shall come, we shall find, they will send.

6. Who[3] will believe the story? I[4] shall believe the story. 7. Whose friends do you favor? We favor our friends. 8. Who will resist our weapons? Sextus will resist your weapons. 9. Who will persuade him? They will persuade him. 10. Why were you injuring my horse? I was not injuring your horse. 11. Whom does a good slave obey? A good slave obeys his master. 12. Our men were eager for another battle.

[Footnote 3: Remember that /quis, who, is singular in number.]

[Footnote 4: Express by /ego, because it is emphatic.]

LESSON XXVI

VERBS IN -IO: OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION : THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

159. There are a few common verbs ending in -io: which do not belong to the fourth conjugation, as you might infer, but to the third. The fact that they belong to the third conjugation is shown by the ending of the infinitive. (Cf. Sec. 126.) Compare

audio:, audi:'re (hear), fourth conjugation capio:, ca'pere (take), third conjugation

160. The present, imperfect, and future active indicative of /capio: are inflected as follows:

capio:, capere, take PRES. STEM cape-

PRESENT IMPERFECT FUTURE SINGULAR 1. ca'pio: capie:'bam ca'piam 2. ca'pis capie:'ba:s ca'pie:s 3. ca'pit capie:'bat ca'piet

PLURAL 1. ca'pimus capie:ba:'mus capie:'mus 2. ca'pitis capie:ba:'tis capie:'tis 3. ca'piunt capie:'bant ca'pient

1. Observe that /capio: and the other -io: verbs follow the fourth conjugation wherever in the fourth conjugation two vowels occur in succession. (Cf. capio:, audio:; capiunt, audiunt; and all the imperfect and future.) All other forms are like the third conjugation. (Cf. capis, regis; capit, regit; etc.)

2. Like /capio, inflect

facio, facere, make, do fugio, fugere, flee iacio, iacere, hurl rapio, rapere, seize

161. The Imperative Mood. The imperative mood expresses a command; as, come! send! The present tense of the imperative is used only in the second person, singular and plural. The singular in the active voice is regularly the same in form as the present stem. The plural is formed by adding -te to the singular.

CONJUGATION SINGULAR PLURAL I. ama:, love thou ama:'te, love ye II. mone:, advise thou mone:'te, advise ye III. (a) rege, rule thou re'gite, rule ye (b) cape, take thou ca'pite, take ye IV. audi:, hear thou audi:'te, hear ye sum (irregular) es, be thou este, be ye

1. In the third conjugation the final -e- of the stem becomes -i- in the plural.

2. The verbs /di:co:, say; /du:co:, lead; and /facio:, make, have the irregular forms /di:c, /du:c, and /fac in the singular.

3. Give the present active imperative, singular and plural, of /venio, /duco, /voco, /doceo, /laudo, /dico, /sedeo, /ago, /facio, /munio, /mitto, /rapio.

162. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fugient, faciunt, iaciebat. 2. Dele, nuntiate, fugiunt. 3. Venite, dic, facietis. 4. Ducite, iaciam, fugiebant. 5. Fac, iaciebamus, fugimus, rapite. 6. Sedete, reperi, docete. 7. Fugiemus, iacient, rapies. 8. Reperient, rapiebatis, nocent. 9. Favete, resiste, parebitis.

10. Vola ad multas terras et da auxilium. 11. Ego tela mea capiam et multas feras delebo. 12. Quis fabulae tuae credet? 13. Este boni, pueri, et audite verba grata magistri.

II. 1. The goddess will seize her arms and will hurl her weapons. 2. With her weapons she will destroy many beasts. 3. She will give aid to the weak.[1] 4. She will fly to many lands and the beasts will flee. 5. Romans, tell[2] the famous story to your children.

[Footnote 1: Plural. An adjective used as a noun. (Cf. Sec. 99.II.3.)]

[Footnote 2: Imperative. The imperative generally stands first, as in English.]

* * * * *

Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, Secs. 510-512

* * * * *

LESSON XXVII

THE PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF AMO: AND MONEO:

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS /a:la, -ae, f., wing /deus, -i:, m., god (deity)[A] /monstrum, -i:, n., omen, prodigy; monster o:ra:culum, -i:, n., oracle

VERB /va:sto:, -a:re, lay waste, devastate

ADJECTIVES /commo:tus, -a, -um, moved, excited /maximus, -a, -um, greatest (maximum) /saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage

ADVERBS /ita, thus, in this way, as follows /tum, then, at that time

[Footnote A: For the declension of /deus, see Sec. 468]

163. The Voices. Thus far the verb forms have been in the active voice; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an action; as,

The lion —-> killed —-> the hunter

A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its subject as receiving an action; as,

The lion <—- was killed <—- by the hunter

Note the direction of the arrows.

164. Passive Personal Endings. In the passive voice we use a different set of personal endings. They are as follows:

SINGULAR PLURAL 1. -r, I 1. -mur, we 2. -ris, -re, you 2. -mini:, you 3. -tur, he, she, it 3. -ntur, they

a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one of the endings. This is sometimes called the passive sign.

165. PARADIGMS

amo, ama:re mone:o, mone:re PRES. STEM ama:- PRES. STEM mone:-

PRESENT INDICATIVE PERSONAL ENDINGS SINGULAR a'mor, I am loved mo'neor, I am advised -or[1] ama:'ris or ama:'re, mone:'ris or mone:'re. -ris you are loved you are advised or -re ama:'tur, he is loved mone:'tur, he is advised -tur

PLURAL ama:'mur, we are loved mone:'mur, we are advised -mur ama:'mini:, you are loved mone:'mini:, you are advised -mini aman'tur, they are loved monen'tur, they are advised -ntur

[Footnote 1: In the present the personal ending of the first person singular is -or.]

IMPERFECT INDICATIVE (TENSE SIGN -ba:-)

SINGULAR ama:'bar, mone:'bar, -r I was being loved I was being advised ama:ba:'ris or ama:ba:'re, mone:ba:'ris or mone:ba:'re -ris you were being loved you were being advised or -re ama:ba:'tur, mone:ba:'tur, -tur he was being loved he was being advised

PLURAL ama:ba:'mur, mone:ba:'mur, -mur we were being loved we were being advised ama:ba:'mini:, mone:ba:'mini:, -mini: you were being loved you were being advised ama:ban'tur, mone:ban'tur, -ntur they were being loved they were being advised

FUTURE (TENSE SIGN -bi-)

SINGULAR ama:'bor, mone:'bor, -r I shall be loved I shall be advised ama:'beris, or ama:'bere mone:'beris or mone:'bere, -ris you will be loved you will be advised or -re ama:'bitur, mone:'bitur, -tur he will be loved he will be advised

PLURAL ama:'bimur, mone:'bimur, -mur we shall be loved we shall be advised ama:bi'mini:, mone:bi'mini:, -mini: you will be loved you will be advised ama:bun'tur, mone:bun'tur, -ntur they will be loved they will be advised

1. The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active.

2. In the future the tense sign -bi- appears as -bo- in the first person, -be- in the second, singular number, and as -bu- in the third person plural.

3. Inflect /laudo, /neco, /porto, /moveo, /deleo, /iubeo, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

166. Intransitive verbs, such as /maturo, I hasten; /habito, I dwell, do not have a passive voice with a personal subject.

167. EXERCISES

I. 1. Laudaris or laudare, laudas, datur, dat. 2. Dabitur, dabit, videmini, videtis. 3. Vocabat, vocabatur, delebitis, delebimini. 4. Parabatur, parabat, curas, curaris or curare. 5. Portabantur, portabant, videbimur, videbimus. 6. Iuberis or iubere, iubes, laudabaris or laudabare, laudabas. 7. Moveberis or movebere, movebis, dabantur, dabant. 8. Delentur, delent, parabamur, parabamus.

II. 1. We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, you were carrying, you were being carried. 2. I see, I am seen, it was being announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will be ordered. 3. You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are moved, we are praising, we are being praised. 4. I am called, I call, you will have, you are cared for. 5. They are seen, they see, we were teaching, we were being taught, they will move, they will be moved.



168. PER'SEUS AND ANDROM'EDA

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Perseus filius erat Iovis,[2] maximi[3] deorum. De eo multas fabulas narrant poetae. Ei favent dei, ei magica arma et alas dant. Eis telis armatus et alis fretus ad multas terras volabat et monstra saeva delebat et miseris infirmisque auxilium dabat.

Aethiopia est terra Africae. Eam terram Cepheus[4] regebat. Ei[5] Neptunus, maximus aquarum deus, erat iratus et mittit[6] monstrum saevum ad Aethiopiam. Ibi monstrum non solum latis pulchrisque Aethiopiae agris nocebat sed etiam domicilia agricolarum delebat, et multos viros, feminas, liberosque necabat. Populus ex agris fugiebat et oppida muris validis muniebat. Tum Cepheus magna tristitia commotus ad Iovis oraculum properat et ita dicit: "Amici mei necantur; agri mei vastantur. Audi verba mea, Iuppiter. Da miseris auxilium. Age monstrum saevum ex patria."

[Footnote 2: /Iovis, the genitive of /Iuppiter.]

[Footnote 3: Used substantively, the greatest. So below, l. 4, /miseris and /infirmis are used substantively.]

[Footnote 4: Pronounce in two syllables, Ce'pheus.]

[Footnote 5: /Ei, at him, dative with /iratus.]

[Footnote 6: The present is often used, as in English, in speaking of a past action, in order to make the story more vivid and exciting.]

LESSON XXVIII

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF REGO: AND AUDIO:

[Special Vocabulary]

VERBS /respondeo:, -e:re, respond, reply /servo:, -a:re, save, preserve

ADJECTIVE /ca:rus, -a, -um, dear (cherish)

CONJUNCTION /autem, but, moreover, now. Usually stands second, never first

NOUN /vi:ta, -ae, f., life (vital)

169. Review the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of /rego and /audio, and learn the passive of the same tenses (Secs. 490, 491).

a. Observe that the tense signs of the imperfect and future are the same as in the active voice, and that the passive personal endings (Sec. 164) are added instead of the active ones.

b. Note the slight irregularity in the second person singular present of the third conjugation. There the final -e- of the stem is not changed to -i-, as it is in the active. We therefore have /re'geris or /re'gere, not /re'giris, /re'gire.

c. Inflect /ago, /dico, /duco, /munio, /reperio, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

170. EXERCISES

I. 1. Agebat, agebatur, mittebat, mittebatur, ducebat. 2. Agunt, aguntur, mittuntur, mittunt, muniunt. 3. Mittor, mittar, mittam, ducere, ducere. 4. Dicemur, dicimus, dicemus, dicimur, muniebamini. 5. Ducitur, ducimini, reperimur, reperiar, agitur. 6. Agebamus, agebamur, reperiris, reperiemini. 7. Munimini, veniebam, ducebar, dicetur. 8. Mittimini, mittitis, mitteris, mitteris, agebamini. 9. Dicitur, dicit, muniuntur, reperient, audientur.

II. 1. I was being driven, I was driving, we were leading, we were being led, he says, it is said. 2. I shall send, I shall be sent, you will find, you will be found, they lead, they are led. 3. I am found, we are led, they are driven, you were being led (sing. and plur.). 4. We shall drive, we shall be driven, he leads, he is being led, they will come, they will be fortified. 5. They were ruling, they were being ruled, you will send, you will be sent, you are sent, (sing. and plur.). 6. He was being led, he will come, you are said (sing. and plur.).

171. PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (Continued)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Tum oraculum ita respondet: "Mala est fortuna tua. Neptunus, magnus aquarum deus, terrae Aethiopiae inimicus, eas poenas mittit. Sed para irato deo sacrum idoneum et monstrum saevum ex patria tua agetur. Andromeda filia tua est monstro grata. Da eam monstro. Serva caram patriam et vitam populi tui." Andromeda autem erat puella pulchra. Eam amabat Cepheus maxime.

LESSON XXIX

PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF -IO: VERBS PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE

[Special Vocabulary]

VERB /supero:, -a:re, conquer, overcome (insuperable)

NOUNS /cu:ra, -ae, f., care, trouble /locus, -i:, m., place, spot (location). /Locus is neuter in the plural and is declined /loca, -o:rum, etc. /peri:culum, -i:, n., danger, peril

ADVERBS /semper, always /tamen, yet, nevertheless

PREPOSITIONS /de:, with abl., down from; concerning /per, with acc., through

CONJUNCTION /si, if

172. Review the active voice of /capio, present, imperfect, and future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (Sec. 492).

a. The present forms /capior and /capiuntur are like /audior, audiuntur, and the rest of the tense is like /regor.

b. In like manner inflect the passive of /iacio and /rapio.

173. The Infinitive. The infinitive mood gives the general meaning of the verb without person or number; as, /ama:re, to love. Infinitive means unlimited. The forms of the other moods, being limited by person and number, are called the finite, or limited, verb forms.

174. The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are as follows:

CONJ. PRES. PRES. INFINITIVE PRES. INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE PASSIVE

I. ama:- ama:'re, ama:'ri:, to love to be loved II. mone:- mone:'re, mone:'ri:, to advise to be advised III. rege- re'gere, re'gi:, to rule to be ruled cape- ca'pere ca'pi:, to take to be taken IV. audi:- audi:'re, audi:ri:, to hear to be heard

1. Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add -re to the present stem.

a. The present infinitive of /sum is /esse. There is no passive.

2. Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the active by changing final -e to -i:, except in the third conjugation, which changes final -ere to -i:.

3. Give the active and passive present infinitives of /doceo, /sedeo, /volo, /curo, /mitto, /duco, /munio, /reperio, /iacio, /rapio.

175. The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are as follows:

ACTIVE[1] PASSIVE CONJ. SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL I. a'ma: ama:'te ama:'re, ama:'mini:, be thou loved be ye loved II. mo'ne: mone:'te mone:'re, mone:'mini:, be thou advised be ye advised III. re'ge re'gite re'gere, regi'mini:, be thou ruled be ye ruled ca'pe ca'pite ca'pere, capi'mini:, be thou taken be ye taken IV. au'di: audi:'te audi:'re, audi:'mini:, be thou heard be ye heard

1. Observe that the second person singular of the present passive imperative is like the present active infinitive, and that both singular and plural are like the second person singular[2] and plural, respectively, of the present passive indicative.

2. Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs in Sec. 174.3.

[Footnote 1: For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from Sec. 161.]

[Footnote 2: That is, using the personal ending -re. A form like /ama:re may be either indicative, infinitive, or imperative.]

176. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Tum Perseus alis ad terras multas volabit. 2. Monstrum saevum per aquas properat et mox agros nostros vastabit. 3. Si autem Cepheus ad oraculum properabit, oraculum ita respondebit. 4. Quis telis Persei superabitur? Multa monstra telis eius superabuntur. 5. Cum curis magnis et lacrimis multis agricolae ex domiciliis caris aguntur. 6. Multa loca vastabantur et multa oppida delebantur. 7. Monstrum est validum, tamen superabitur. 8. Credesne semper verbis oraculi? Ego iis non semper credam. 9. Parebitne Cepheus oraculo? Verba oraculi ei persuadebunt. 10. Si non fugiemus, oppidum capietur et oppidani necabuntur. 11. Vocate pueros et narrate fabulam claram de monstro saevo.

II. 1. Fly thou, to be cared for, be ye sent, lead thou. 2. To lead, to be led, be ye seized, fortify thou. 3. To be hurled, to fly, send thou, to be found. 4. To be sent, be ye led, to hurl, to be taken. 5. Find thou, hear ye, be ye ruled, to be fortified.

LESSON XXX

SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS : THE ABLATIVE DENOTING FROM

[Special Vocabulary]

VERBS /absum, abesse, irreg., be away, be absent, be distant, with separative abl. /adpropinquo:, -a:re, draw near, approach (propinquity), with dative[A] /contineo:, -e:re, hold together, hem in, keep (contain) /disce:do:, -ere, depart, go away, leave, with separative abl. /egeo:, -e:re, lack, need, be without, with separative abl. /interficio:, -ere, kill /prohibeo:, -e:re, restrain, keep from (prohibit) /vulnero:, -a:re, wound (vulnerable)

NOUNS /pro:vincia, -ae, f., province /vi:num, -i:, n., wine

ADJECTIVE /de:fessus, -a, -um, weary, worn out

ADVERB /longe:, far, by far, far away

[Footnote A: This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger than that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would be used with /ad and the accusative.]

177. You should learn to give rapidly synopses of the verbs you have had, as follows:[1]

CONJUGATION I CONJUGATION II INDICATIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Pres. a'mo: a'mor mo'neo: mo'neor Imperf. ama:'bam ama:'bar mone:'bam mone:'bar Fut. ama:'bo ama:'bor mone:'bo mone:'bor

[Footnote 1: Synopses should be given not only in the first person, but in other persons as well, particularly in the third singular and plural.]

CONJUGATION I CONJUGATION II IMPERATIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Pres. a'ma: ama:'re mo'ne: mone:'re

INFINITIVE Pres. ama:'re ama:'ri: mone:'re mone:'ri:

CONJUGATION III CONJUGATION III (-io: verbs) INDICATIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Pres. re'go: re'gor ca'pio: ca'pior Imperf. rege:'bam rege:'bar capie:'bam capie:'bar Fut. re'gam re'gar ca'piam ca'piar

IMPERATIVE Pres. re'ge re'gere ca'pe ca'pere

INFINITIVE Pres. re'gere re'gi: ca'pere ca'pi:

CONJUGATION IV INDICATIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Pres. au'dio: au'dior Imperf. audie:'bam audie:'bar Fut. au'diam au'diar

IMPERATIVE Pres. au'di: audi:'re

INFINITIVE Pres. audi:'re audi:'ri:

1. Give the synopsis of /rapio, /munio, /reperio, /doceo, /video, /dico, /ago, /laudo, /porto, and vary the person and number.

178. We learned in Sec. 50 that one of the three relations covered by the ablative case is expressed in English by the preposition from. This is sometimes called the separative ablative, and it has a number of special uses. You have already grown familiar with the first mentioned below.

179. RULE. Ablative of the Place From. The place from which is expressed by the ablative with the prepositions /a: or /ab, /de:, /e: or /ex.

Agricolae ex agris veniunt, the farmers come from the fields

a. /a: or /ab denotes from near a place; /e: or /ex, out from it; and /de, down from it. This may be represented graphically as follows:

__ /a: or /ab /e: or /ex /___ ____ Place / __ /de V

180. RULE. Ablative of Separation. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning.

a. If the separation is actual and literal of one material thing from another, the preposition /a: or /ab, /e: or /ex, or /de is generally used. If no actual motion takes place of one thing from another, no preposition is necessary.

(a) Perseus terram a monstris liberat Perseus frees the land from monsters (literal separation—actual motion is expressed) (b) Perseus terram tristitia liberat Perseus frees the land from sorrow (figurative separation—no actual motion is expressed)

181. RULE. Ablative of the Personal Agent. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition /a: or /ab.

a. In this construction the English translation of /a:, /ab is by rather than from. This ablative is regularly used with passive verbs to indicate the person by whom the act was performed.

Monstrum a Perseo necatur, the monster is being slain by (lit. from) Perseus

b. Note that the active form of the above sentence would be /Perseus monstrum necat, Perseus is slaying the monster. In the passive the object of the active verb becomes the subject, and the subject of the active verb becomes the ablative of the personal agent, with /a: or /ab.

c. Distinguish carefully between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent. Both are often translated into English by the preposition by. (Cf. Sec. 100. b.) Means is a /thing; the agent or actor is a /person. The ablative of means has no preposition. The ablative of the personal agent has /a: or /ab. Compare

Fera sagitta necatur, the wild beast is killed by an arrow Fera a Diana necatur, the wild beast is killed by Diana

/Sagitta, in the first sentence, is the ablative of means; /a Diana, in the second, is the ablative of the personal agent.

182. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Viri inopia cibi defessi ab eo loco discedent. 2. Gerinani castris Romanis adpropinquabant, tamen legatus copias a proelio continebat. 3. Multa Gallorum oppida ab Romanis capientur. 4. Tum Romani totum populum eorum oppidorum gladiis pilisque interficient. 5. Oppidani Romanis resistent, sed defessi longo proelio fugient. 6. Multi ex Gallia fugiebant et in Germanorum vicis habitabant. 7. Miseri nautae vulnerantur ab inimicis[2] saevis et cibo egent. 8. Discedite et date viris frumentum et copiam vini. 9. Copiae nostrae a proelio continebantur ab Sexto legato. 10. Id oppidum ab provincia Romana longe aberat.

II. 1. The weary sailors were approaching a place dear to the goddess Diana. 2. They were without food and without wine. 3. Then Galba and seven other men are sent to the ancient island by Sextus. 4. Already they are not far away from the land, and they see armed men on a high place. 5. They are kept from the land by the men with spears and arrows. 6. The men kept hurling their weapons down from the high place with great eagerness.

[Footnote 2: /inimicis, here used as a noun. See vocabulary.]

LESSON XXXI

PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF SUM

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS aurum, -i:, n., gold (oriole) /mora, -ae, f., delay /na:vigium, na:vi'gi:, n., boat, ship /ventus, -i:, m., wind (ventilate)

VERB /na:vigo:, -a:re, sail (navigate)

ADJECTIVES attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful /dubius, -a, -um, doubtful (dubious) perfidus, -a, -um, faithless, treacherous (perfidy)

ADVERB /antea:, before, previously

PREPOSITION /sine, with abl., without

183. Principal Parts. There are certain parts of the verb that are of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the principal parts.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the present, the past, and the past participle; as go, went, gone; see, saw, seen, etc.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the first person singular of the present indicative, the present infinitive, the first person singular of the perfect indicative, and the perfect passive participle.

184. Conjugation Stems. From the principal parts we get three conjugation stems, from which are formed the entire conjugation. We have already learned about the /present stem, which is found from the present infinitive (cf. Sec. 126.a). The other two stems are the /perfect stem and the /participial stem.

185. The Perfect Stem. The perfect stem of the verb is formed in various ways, but may always be found by dropping -i: from the first person singular of the perfect, the third of the principal parts. From the perfect stem are formed the following tenses:

THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE THE PLUPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE (ENGLISH PAST PERFECT) THE FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE

All these tenses express completed action in present, past, or future time respectively.

186. The Endings of the Perfect. The perfect active indicative is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. These endings are different from those found in any other tense, and are as follows:

SINGULAR PLURAL 1. -i:, I 1. -imus, we 2. -isti:, you 2. -istis, you 3. -it, he, she, it 3. -e:runt or -e:re, they

187. Inflection of /sum in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative:

PRES. INDIC. PRES. INFIN. PERF. INDIC. PRIN. PARTS sum esse fui:

PERFECT STEM fu-

PERFECT SINGULAR PLURAL fu'i:, I have been, I was fu'imus, we have been, we were fuis'ti:, fuis'tis, you have been, you were you have been, you were fu'it, he has been, he was fue:'runt or fue:'re, they have been, they were

PLUPERFECT (TENSE SIGN -era:-) fu'eram, I had been fuera:'mus, we had been fu'era:s, you had been fuera:'tis, you had been fu'erat, he had been fu'erant, they had been

FUTURE PERFECT (TENSE SIGN -eri-) fu'ero:, I shall have been fue'rimus, we shall have been fu'eris, you will have been fue'ritis, you will have been fu'erit, he will have been fu'erint, they will have been

1. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect.

2. Observe that the pluperfect may be formed by adding /eram, the imperfect of /sum, to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -era:-.

3. Observe that the future perfect may be formed by adding /ero, the future of /sum, to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends in -erint, not in -erunt. The tense sign is -eri-.

4. All active perfects, pluperfects, and future perfects are formed on the perfect stem and inflected in the same way.

188. DIALOGUE

THE BOYS TITUS, MARCUS, AND QUINTUS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

M. Ubi fuistis, Tite et Quinte? T. Ego in meo ludo fui et Quintus in suo ludo fuit. Boni pueri fuimus. Fuitne Sextus in vico hodie? M. Fuit. Nuper per agros proximos fluvio properabat. Ibi is et Cornelius habent navigium. T. Navigium dicis? Alii[1] narra eam fabulam! M. Vero (Yes, truly), pulchrum et novum navigium! Q. Cuius pecunia[2] Sextus et Cornelius id navigium parant? Quis iis pecuniam dat? M. Amici Corneli multum habent aurum et puer pecunia non eget. T. Quo pueri navigabunt? Navigabuntne longe a terra? M. Dubia sunt consilia eorum. Sed hodie, credo, si ventus erit idoneus, ad maximam insulam navigabunt. Iam antea ibi fuerunt. Tum autem ventus erat perfidus et pueri magno in periculo erant. Q. Aqua vento commota est inimica nautis semper, et saepe perfidus ventus navigia rapit, agit, deletque. Ii pueri, si non fuerint maxime attenti, irata aqua et valido vento superabuntur et ita interficientur.

[Footnote 1: Dative case. (Cf. Sec. 109.)]

[Footnote 2: Ablative of means.]

189. EXERCISE

1. Where had the boys been before? They had been in school. 2. Where had Sextus been? He had been in a field next to the river. 3. Who has been with Sextus to-day? Cornelius has been with him. 4. Who says so? Marcus. 5. If the wind has been suitable, the boys have been in the boat. 6. Soon we shall sail with the boys. 7. There[3] will be no danger, if we are (shall have been) careful.[4]

[Footnote 3: The expletive there is not expressed, but the verb will precede the subject, as in English.]

[Footnote 4: This predicate adjective must be nominative plural to agree with we.]

LESSON XXXII

THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS

[Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS /animus, -i:, m., mind, heart; spirit, feeling (animate) /bracchium, bracchi:, n., forearm, arm /porta, -ae, f., gate (portal)

ADJECTIVES /adversus, -a, -um, opposite; adverse, contrary /ple:nus, -a, -um, full (plenty)

PREPOSITION /pro:, with abl., before; in behalf of; instead of

ADVERB /diu:, for a long time, long

190. Meanings of the Perfect. The perfect tense has two distinct meanings. The first of these is equivalent to the English present perfect, or perfect with have, and denotes that the action of the verb is complete at the time of speaking; as, I have finished my work. As this denotes completed action at a definite time, it is called the /perfect definite.

The perfect is also used to denote an action that happened sometime in the past; as, I finished my work. As no definite time is specified, this is called the /perfect indefinite. It corresponds to the ordinary use of the English past tense.

a. Note carefully the difference between the following tenses:

I {was finishing } my work (imperfect, Sec. 134) {used to finish} I finished my work (perfect indefinite) I have finished my work (perfect definite)

When telling a story the Latin uses the perfect indefinite to mark the different forward steps of the narrative, and the imperfect to describe situations and circumstances that attend these steps. If the following sentences were Latin, what tenses would be used?

"Last week I went to Boston. I was trying to find an old friend of mine, but he was out of the city. Yesterday I returned home."

191. Inflection of the Perfect. We learned in Sec. 186 that any perfect is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. The inflection in the four regular conjugations is then as follows:

CONJ. I ama:vi: I have loved, I loved or did love CONJ. II monui: I have advised, I advised or did advise CONJ. III re:xi: I have ruled, I ruled or did rule ce:pi: I have taken, I took or did take CONJ. IV audi:vi: I have heard, I heard or did hear

PERFECT STEMS ama:v- monu- re:x- ce:p- audi:v-

SINGULAR 1. ama:'vi: mo'nui: re:'xi: ce:'pi: audi:'vi: 2. ama:vis'ti: monuis'ti: re:xis'ti: ce:pis'ti: audi:vis'ti: 3. ama:'vit mo'nuit re:'xit ce:'pit audi:'vit

PLURAL 1. ama:'vimus monu'imus re:'ximus ce:'pimus audi:'vimus 2. ama:vis'tis monuis'tis re:xis'tis ce:pis'tis audi:vis'tis 3. ama:ve:'runt monue:'runt re:xe:'runt ce:pe:'runt audi:ve:'runt or or or or or ama:ve:'re monue:'re re:xe:'re ce:pe:'re audi:ve:'re

1. The first person of the perfect is always given as the third of the principal parts. From this we get the perfect stem. This shows the absolute necessity of learning the principal parts thoroughly.

2. Nearly all perfects of the first conjugation are formed by adding -vi: to the present stem. Like /amavi inflect /paravi, /vocavi, /curavi, /laudavi.

3. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. Drill on it.

192. Learn the principal parts and inflect the perfects:

PRES. INDIC. PRES. INFIN. PERF. INDIC. do: dare dedi: give de:leo: de:le:re de:le:vi: destroy habeo: habe:re habui: have moveo: move:re mo:vi: move pa:reo: pa:re:re pa:rui: obey prohibeo: prohibe:re prohi:bui: restrain, keep from video: vide:re vi:di: see di:co: di:cere di:xi: say disce:do: disce:dere discessi: depart du:co: du:cere du:xi: lead facio: facere fe:ci: make, do mitto: mittere mi:si: send mu:nio: mu:ni:re mu:ni:vi: fortify venio: veni:re ve:ni: come

193. PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (Continued)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

Cepheus, adversa fortuna maxime commotus, discessit et multis cum lacrimis populo Aethiopiae verba oraculi narravit. Fata Andromedae, puellae pulchrae, a toto populo deplorabantur, tamen nullum erat auxilium. Deinde Cepheus cum pleno tristitiae animo caram suam filiam ex oppidi porta ad aquam duxit et bracchia eius ad saxa dura revinxit. Tum amici puellae miserae longe discesserunt et diu monstrum saevum exspectaverunt.

Tum forte Perseus, alis fretus, super Aethiopiam volabat. Vidit populum, Andromedam, lacrimas, et, magnopere attonitus, ad terram descendit. Tum Cepheus ei totas curas narravit et ita dixit: "Parebo verbis oraculi, et pro patria filiam meam dabo; sed si id monstrum interficies et Andromedam servabis, tibi (to you) eam dabo."

LESSON XXXIII

PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE

194. CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV amo: moneo: rego: capio: audio: PERFECT STEMS ama:v- monu- re:x- ce:p- audi:v-

PLUPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE TENSE SIGN -era:-

SINGULAR I had loved I had advised I had ruled I had taken I had heard

1. ama:'veram monu'eram re:'xeram ce:'peram audi:'veram 2. ama:'vera:s monu'era:s re:'xera:s ce:'pera:s audi:'vera:s 3. ama:'verat monu'erat re:'xerat ce:'perat audi:'verat

PLURAL 1. ama:vera:'mus monuera:'mus re:xera:'mus ce:pera:'mus —era:'mus 2. ama:vera:'tis monuera:'tis re:xera:'tis ce:pera:'tis —era:'tis 3. ama'verant monu'erant re:'xerant ce:'perant audi:'verant

FUTURE PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE TENSE SIGN -eri-

SINGULAR I shall have I shall have I shall have I shall have I shall have loved advised ruled taken heard

1. ama:'vero: monu'ero: re:'xero: ce:'pero: audi:'vero: 2. ama:'veris monu'eris re:'xeris ce:'peris audi:'veris 3. ama:'verit monu'erit re:'xerit ce:'perit audi:'verit

PLURAL 1. ama:ve'rimus monue'rimus re:xe'rimus ce:pe'rimus audi:ve'rimus 2. ama:ve'ritis monue'ritis re:xe'ritis ce:pe'ritis audi:ve'ritis 3. ama:'verint monu'erint re:'xerint ce:'perint audi:'verint

1. Observe that these are all inflected alike and the rules for formation given in Sec. 187.2-4 hold good here.

2. In like manner inflect the pluperfect and future perfect indicative active of /do, /porto, /deleo, /moveo, /habeo, /dico, /discedo, /facio, /venio, /munio.

195. The Perfect Active Infinitive. The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding -isse to the perfect stem.

CONJ PERFECT STEM PERFECT INFINITIVE I. ama:v- ama:vis'se, to have loved II. monu- monuis'se, to have advised III. (a) re:x- re:xis'se, to have ruled (b) ce:p- ce:pis'se, to have taken IV. audi:v audi:vis'se, to have heard sum fu- fuis'se, to have been

1. In like manner give the perfect infinitive active of /do, /porto, /deleo, /moveo, /habeo, /dico, /discedo, /facio, /venio, /munio.

196. EXERCISES

I. 1. Habuisti, moverunt, miserant. 2. Vidit, dixeris, duxisse. 3. Misistis, paruerunt, discesseramus. 4. Munivit, dederam, misero. 5. Habuerimus, delevi, paruit, fuisse. 6. Dederas, muniveritis, veneratis, misisse. 7. Veneras, fecisse, dederatis, portaveris.

8. Quem verba oraculi moverant? Populum verba oraculi moverant. 9. Cui Cepheus verba oraculi narraverit? Perseo Cepheus verba oraculi narraverit. 10. Amici ab Andromeda discesserint. 11. Monstrum saevum domicilia multa deleverat. 12. Ubi monstrum vidistis? Id in aqua vidimus. 13. Quid monstrum faciet? Monstrum Andromedam interficiet.

II. 1. They have obeyed, we have destroyed, I shall have had. 2. We shall have sent, I had come, they have fortified. 3. I had departed, he has obeyed, you have sent (sing. and plur.). 4. To have destroyed, to have seen, he will have given, they have carried. 5. He had destroyed, he has moved, you have had (sing. and plur.). 6. I have given, you had moved (sing. and plur.), we had said. 7. You will have made (sing. and plur.), they will have led, to have given.

8. Who had seen the monster? Andromeda had seen it. 9. Why had the men departed from[1] the towns? They had departed because the monster had come. 10. Did Cepheus obey[2] the oracle[3]? He did.

[Footnote 1: /ex. What would /ab mean?]

[Footnote 2: Did ... obey, perfect tense.]

[Footnote 3: What case?]

LESSON XXXIV

REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE

[Special Vocabulary]

ADVERBS /celeriter, quickly (celerity) /de:nique, finally /graviter, heavily, severely (gravity) /subito:, suddenly

VERB /reporto:, -a:re, -a:vi:, bring back, restore; win, gain (report)

197. A review of the tenses of the indicative active shows the following formation:

{ PRESENT = First of the principal parts TENSES { IMPERFECT = Present stem + -ba-m OF THE { FUTURE = Present stem + -bo, Conj. I and II INDICATIVE { -a-m, Conj. III and IV { PERFECT = Third of the principal parts { PLUPERFECT = Perfect stem + -era-m { FUTURE PERFECT = Perfect stem + -ero

198. The synopsis of the active voice of /amo, as far as we have learned the conjugation, is as follows:

PRINCIPAL PARTS amo:, ama:re, ama:vi:

PRES. STEM ama:-

{ Pres. amo: INDIC. { Imperf. ama:bam { Fut. ama:bo: PRES. IMV. ama: PRES. INFIN. ama:re

PERF. STEM ama:v-

{ Perf. ama:vi: INDIC. { Pluperf. ama:veram { Fut. perf. ama:vero: PERF. INFIN. ama:visse

1. Learn to write in the same form and to give rapidly the principal parts and synopsis of /paro, /do, /laudo, /deleo, /habeo, /moveo, /pareo, /video, /dico, /discedo, /duco, /mitto, /capio, /munio, /venio.[1]

[Footnote 1: Learn to give synopses rapidly, and not only in the first person singular but in any person of either number.]

199. Learn the following principal parts:[2]

PRES. INDIC. PRES. INFIN. PERF. INDIC.

IRREGULAR VERBS sum esse fui: be ab'sum abes'se a:'fui: be away do: dare dedi: give

CONJUGATION II contineo: contine:re continui: hold in, keep doceo: doce:re docui: teach egeo: ege:re egui: need faveo: fave:re fa:vi: favor iubeo: iube:re iussi: order noceo: noce:re nocui: injure persua:deo: persua:de:re persua:si: persuade respondeo: responde:re respondi: reply sedeo: sede:re se:di: sit studeo: stude:re studui: be eager

CONJUGATION III ago: agere e:gi: drive cre:do: cre:dere cre:didi: believe fugio: fugere fu:gi: flee iacio: iacere ie:ci: hurl interficio: interficere interfe:ci: kill rapio: rapere rapui: seize resis'to: resis'tere re'stiti: resist

CONJUGATION IV repe'rio: reperi:'re rep'peri: find

[Footnote 2: These are all verbs that you have had before, and the perfect is the only new form to be learned.]

200. PERSEUS AND ANDROMEDA (Concluded)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. Read the whole story.

Perseus semper proelio studebat[3] et respondit,[3] "Verba tua sunt maxime grata," et laetus arma sua magica paravit.[3] Subito monstrum videtur; celeriter per aquam properat et Andromedae adpropinquat. Eius amici longe absunt et misera puella est sola. Perseus autem sine mora super aquam volavit.[3] Subito descendit[3] et duro gladio saevum monstrum graviter vulneravit.[3] Diu pugnatur,[4] diu proelium est dubium. Denique autem Perseus monstrum interfecit[3] et victoriam reportavit.[3] Tum ad saxum venit[3] et Andromedam liberavit[3] et eam ad Cepheum duxit.[3] Is, nuper miser, nunc laetus, ita dixit[3]: "Tuo auxilio, mi amice, cara filia mea est libera; tua est Andromeda." Diu Perseus cum Andromeda ibi habitabat[3] et magnopere a toto populo amabatur.[3]

[Footnote 3: See if you can explain the use of the perfects and imperfects in this passage.]

[Footnote 4: The verb pugnatur means, literally, it is fought; translate freely, the battle is fought, or the contest rages. The verb pugno in Latin is intransitive, and so does not have a personal subject in the passive. A verb with an indeterminate subject, designated in English by it, is called impersonal.]

LESSON XXXV

THE PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE THE PERFECT PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE

201. The fourth and last of the principal parts (Sec. 183) is the /perfect passive participle. From it we get the participial stem on which are formed the future active infinitive and all the passive perfects.

1. Learn the following principal parts, which are for the first time given in full:

CONJ. PRES. INDIC. PRES. INFIN. PERF. INDIC. PERF. PASS. PART. I. amo: ama:'-re ama:'v-i: ama:'t-us This is the model for all regular verbs of the first conjugation. II. mo'neo: mone:'-re mo'nu-i: mo'nit-us III. rego: re'ge-re re:x-i: re:ct-us ca'pio: ca'pe-re ce:p-i: capt-us IV. au'dio: audi:'-re audi:'v-i: audi:'t-us

2. The base of the participial stem is found by dropping -us from the perfect passive participle.

202. In English the perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses of the indicative passive are made up of forms of the auxiliary verb to be and the past participle; as, I have been loved, I had been loved, I shall have been loved.

Very similarly, in Latin, the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive tenses use respectively the present, imperfect, and future of /sum as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle, as

Perfect passive, /ama'tus sum, I have been or was loved Pluperfect passive, /ama'tus eram, I had been loved Future perfect passive, /ama'tus ero, I shall have been loved

1. In the same way give the synopsis of the corresponding tenses of /moneo, /rego, /capio, and /audio, and give the English meanings.

203. Nature of the Participle. A participle is partly verb and partly adjective. As a verb it possesses tense and voice. As an adjective it is declined and agrees with the word it modifies in gender, number, and case.

204. The perfect passive participle is declined like /bonus, bona, bonum, and in the compound tenses (Sec. 202) it agrees as a predicate adjective with the subject of the verb.

EXAMPLES IN SINGULAR Vir laudatus est, the man was praised, or has been praised Puella laudata est, the girl was praised, or has been praised Consilium laudatum est, the plan was praised, or has been praised

EXAMPLES IN PLURAL Viri laudati sunt, the men were praised, or have been praised Puellae laudatae sunt, the girls were praised, or have been praised Consilia laudata sunt, the plans were praised, or have been praised

1. Inflect the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative passive of /amo, /moneo, /rego, /capio, and /audio (Secs. 488-492).

205. The perfect passive infinitive is formed by adding /esse, the present infinitive of /sum, to the perfect passive participle; as, ama't-us (-a, -um) /esse, to have been loved; mo'nit-us (-a, -um) /esse, to have been advised.

1. Form the perfect passive infinitive of /rego, /capio, /audio, and give the English meanings.

206. The future active infinitive is formed by adding /esse, the present infinitive of /sum, to the future active participle. This participle is made by adding /-urus, -a, -um to the base of the participial stem. Thus the future active infinitive of /amo is amat-u'rus (-a, -um) /esse, to be about to love.

a. Note that in forming the three tenses of the active infinitive we use all three conjugation stems:

Present, amare (present stem), to love Perfect, amavisse (perfect stem), to have loved Future, amaturus esse (participial stem), to be about to love

1. Give the three tenses of the active infinitive of /laudo, /moneo, /rego, /capio, /audio, with the English meanings.

207. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fabula Andromedae narrata est. 2. Multae fabulae a magistro narratae sunt. 3. Ager ab agricola valido aratus erat. 4. Agri ab agricolis validis arati erant. 5. Aurum a servo perfido ad domicilium suum portatum erit. 6. Nostra arma a legato laudata sunt. Quis vestra arma laudavit? 7. Ab ancilla tua ad cenam vocatae sumus. 8. Andromeda monstro non data est, quia monstrum a Perseo necatum erat.

II. 1. The provinces were laid waste, the field had been laid waste, the towns will have been laid waste. 2. The oracles were heard, the oracle was heard, the oracles had been heard. 3. The oracle will have been heard, the province had been captured, the boats have been captured. 4. The fields were laid waste, the man was advised, the girls will have been advised. 5. The towns had been ruled, we shall have been captured, you will have been heard.

LESSON XXXVI

REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS : PREPOSITIONS YES-OR-NO QUESTIONS

[Special Vocabulary]

/dexter, dextra, dextrum, right (dextrous) /sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left /fru:stra:, adv., in vain (frustrate)

/gero:, gerere, gessi:, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; /bellum gerere, to wage war /occupo:, occupa:re, occupa:vi:, occupa:tus, seize, take possession of (occupy) /postulo:, postula:re, postula:vi:, postula:tus, demand (ex-postulate) /recu:so:, recu:sa:re, recu:sa:vi:, recu:sa:tus, refuse /sto:, sta:re, steti:, status, stand /tempto:, tempta:re, tempta:vi:, tempta:tus, try, tempt, test; attempt /teneo:, tene:re, tenui:, ——, keep, hold (tenacious)

The word /ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where in asking a question, has two other uses equally important:

1. /ubi = when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as, /Ubi monstrum audiverunt, fugerunt, when they heard the monster, they fled

2. /ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as, /Video oppidum ubi Galba habitat, I see the town where Galba lives

/ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a relative pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the time /at which; and in the second, where is equivalent to the place /in which.

208. The following list shows the principal parts of all the verbs you have had excepting those used in the paradigms. The parts you have had before are given for review, and the perfect participle is the only new form for you to learn. Sometimes one or more of the principal parts are lacking, which means that the verb has no forms based on that stem. A few verbs lack the perfect passive participle but have the future active participle in -u:rus, which appears in the principal parts instead.

IRREGULAR VERBS

sum esse fui: futu:rus be absum abesse a:fui: a:futu:rus be away do:[1] dare dedi: datus give

[Footnote 1: /do: is best classed with the irregular verbs because of the short /a in the present and participial stems.]

CONJUGATION I

porto: porta:re porta:vi: porta:tus carry

So for all verbs of this conjugation thus far used.

CONJUGATION II

contineo: contine:re continui: contentus hold in, keep de:leo: de:le:re de:le:vi: de:le:tus destroy doceo: doce:re docui: doctus teach egeo: ege:re egui: —— lack faveo: fave:re fa:vi: fautu:rus favor iubeo: iube:re iussi: iussus order moveo: move:re mo:vi: mo:tus move noceo: noce:re nocui: nocitu:rus injure pa:reo: pa:re:re pa:rui: —— obey persua:deo: persua:de:re persua:si: persua:sus persuade (from) prohibeo: prohibe:re prohibui: prohibitus restrain, keep respondeo: responde:re respondi: respo:nsus reply sedeo: sede:re se:di: -sessus sit studeo: stude:re studui: —— be eager video: vide:re vi:di: vi:sus see

CONJUGATION III

ago: agere e:gi: a:ctus drive cre:do: cre:dere cre:didi: cre:ditus believe di:co: di:cere di:xi: dictus say disce:do: disce:dere discessi: discessus depart du:co: du:cere du:xi: ductus lead facio:[2] facere fe:ci: factus make fugio: fugere fu:gi: fugitu:rus flee iacio: iacere ie:ci: iactus hurl interficio: interficere interfe:ci: interfectus kill mitto: mittere mi:si: missus send rapio: rapere rapui: raptus seize resisto: resistere restiti: —— resist

CONJUGATION IV

mu:nio: mu:ni:re mu:ni:vi: mu:ni:tus fortify reperio: reperi:re rep'peri: repertus find venio: veni:re ve:ni: ventus come

[Footnote 2: /facio has an irregular passive which will be presented later.]

209. Prepositions. 1. We learned in Secs. 52, 53 that only the accusative and the ablative are used with prepositions, and that prepositions expressing ablative relations govern the ablative case. Those we have had are here summarized. The table following should be learned.

a: or ab, from, by cum, with de:, down from, concerning e: or ex, out from, out of pro:, before, in front of; for, in behalf of sine, without

2. Prepositions not expressing ablative relations must govern the accusative (Sec. 52). Of these we have had the following:

ad, to; apud, among; per, through

There are many others which you will meet as we proceed.

3. The preposition /in when meaning in or on governs the ablative; when meaning to, into, against (relations foreign to the ablative) /in governs the accusative.

210. Yes-or-No Questions. Questions not introduced by some interrogative word like who, why, when, etc., but expecting the answer yes or no, may take one of three forms:

1. Is he coming? (Asking for information. Implying nothing as to the answer expected.) 2. Is he not coming? (Expecting the answer yes.) 3. He isn't coming, is he? (Expecting the answer no.)

These three forms are rendered in Latin as follows:

1. Venitne? is he coming? 2. Nonne venit? is he not coming? 3. Num venit? he isn't coming, is he?

a. -ne, the question sign, is usually added to the verb, which then stands first.

b. We learned in Sec. 56.b that yes-or-no questions are usually answered by repeating the verb, with or without a negative. Instead of this, /ita, /vero, /certe, etc. (so, truly, certainly, etc.) may be used for yes, and /non, /minime, etc. for no if the denial is emphatic, as, by no means, not at all.

211. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

I. 1. Nonne habebat Cornelia ornamenta auri? Habebat. 2. Num Sextus legatus scutum in dextro bracchio gerebat? Non in dextro, sed sinistro in bracchio Sextus scutum gerebat. 3. Frustra bella multa ab Gallis gesta erant. 4. Ubi oppidum a perfido Sexto occupatum est, oppidani miseri gladio interfecti sunt. 5. Id oppidum erat plenum frumenti. 6. Nonne Sextus ab oppidanis frumentum postulavit? Vero, sed ii recusaverunt frumentum dare. 7. Cur oppidum ab Sexto deletum est? Quia frumentum recusatum est. 8. Ea victoria non dubia erat. 9. Oppidani erant defessi et armis egebant. 10. Num fugam temptaverunt? Minime.

II. 1. Where was Julia standing? She was standing where you had ordered. 2. Was Julia wearing any ornaments? She had many ornaments of gold. 3. Did she not attempt flight when she saw the danger? She did. 4. Who captured her? Galba captured her without delay and held her by the left arm. 5. She didn't have the lady's gold, did she? No, the gold had been taken by a faithless maid and has been brought back.

* * * * *

Fourth Review, Lessons XXVII-XXXVI, Secs. 513-516

* * * * *

LESSON XXXVII

CONJUGATION OF POSSUM : THE INFINITIVE USED AS IN ENGLISH

[Special Vocabulary]

/neque or /nec, conj., neither, nor, and ... not; /neque ... neque, neither ... nor /castellum, -i:, n., redoubt, fort (castle) /coti:die:, adv., daily cesso:, cessa:re, cessa:vi:, cessa:tus, cease, with the infin.

/incipio:, incipere, ince:pi:, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the infin. /oppugno:, oppugna:re, oppugna:vi:, oppugna:tus, storm, assail /peto:, petere, petivi or /petii:, peti:tus, aim at, assail, storm, attack; seek, ask (petition) /po:no:, po:nere, posui:, positus, place, put (position); /castra po:nere, to pitch camp /possum, posse, potui:, ——, be able, can (potent), with the infin. /veto:, veta:re, vetui:, vetitus, forbid (veto), vith the infin.; opposite of /iubeo:, command /vinco:, vincere, vi:ci:, victus, conquer (in-vincible) /vi:vo:, vi:vere, vi:xi:, ——, live, be alive (re-vive)

212. Learn the principal parts of /possum, I am able, I can, and its inflection in the indicative and infinitive. (Cf. Sec. 495.)

a. /Possum, I can, is a compound of /potis, able, and /sum, I am.

213. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative. The infinitive (cf. Sec. 173) is a verbal noun. Used as a noun, it has the constructions of a noun. As a verb it can govern a case and be modified by an adverb. The uses of the infinitive are much the same in Latin as in English.

1. In English certain verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like are used with an object clause consisting of a substantive in the objective case and an infinitive, as, he commanded the men to flee. Such object clauses are called infinitive clauses, and the substantive is said to be the subject of the infinitive.

Similarly in Latin, some verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like are used with an object clause consisting of an infinitive with a subject in the accusative case, as, /Is viros fugere iussit, he commanded the men to flee.

214. RULE. Subject of the Infinitive. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative.

215. The Complementary Infinitive. In English a verb is often followed by an infinitive to complete its meaning, as, the Romans are able to conquer the Gauls. This is called the complementary infinitive, as the predicate is not complete without the added infinitive.

Similarly in Latin, verbs of incomplete predication are completed by the infinitive. Among such verbs are /possum, I am able, I can; /propero, /maturo, I hasten; /tempto, I attempt; as

Romani Gallos superare possunt, the Romans are able to (or can) conquer the Gauls Bellum gerere maturant, they hasten to wage war

a. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb.

Mali pueri esse boni non possunt, bad boys are not able to (or cannot) be good.

Observe that /boni agrees with /pueri.

216. The Infinitive used as a Noun. In English the infinitive is often used as a pure noun, as the subject of a sentence, or as a predicate nominative. For example, To conquer (= conquering) is pleasing; To see (= seeing) is to believe (= believing). The same use of the infinitive is found in Latin, especially with /est, as

Superare est gratum, to conquer is pleasing Videre est credere, to see is to believe

a. In the construction above, the infinitive often has a subject, which must then be in the accusative case, as

Galbam superare inimicos est gratum multis, for Galba to conquer his enemies is pleasing to many

b. An infinitive used as a noun is neuter singular. Thus, in the sentence /superare est gratum, the predicate adjective /gratum is in the neuter nominative singular to agree with /superare the subject.

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