Kalevala, Volume I (of 2) - The Land of the Heroes
Author: Anonymous
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Little troubled Lemminkainen, O'er the horse his whip he brandished, With the beaded whip he smote him, Drove the rattling sledge straight onward, On the midmost of the pathways To the midmost of the houses, And he asked upon the threshold, And beneath the eaves he shouted: "Is there no one in this household Who will hold the horse-reins for me, 340 And the chest-bands will unloosen, That the foaming steed may rest him?"

From the stove a crone responded From the stove-bench cried a gossip: "There are plenty in this household Who can hold the horse-reins for you, And the chest-bands can unloosen, And can sink the shaft-poles for you. Perhaps ten men may be sufficient. Or a hundred If you need them, 350 Who would raise their sticks against you, Give you, too, a beast of burden, And would drive you homeward, rascal, To your country, wretched creature, To the household of your father, To the dwelling of your mother, To the gateway of your brother, To the threshold of your sister, Ere this very day is ended, Ere the sun has reached its setting." 360

Little heeded Lemminkainen, And he spoke the words which follow: "May they shoot the crone, and club her, On her pointed chin, and kill her." Then again he hurried onward, Thundering on upon his journey, On the highest of the pathways, To the highest of the houses.

Then the lively Lemminkainen Reached the house to which he journeyed, 370 And he spoke the words which follow, And expressed himself in thiswise: "Stop the barker's mouth, O Hiisi, And the dog's jaws close, O Lempo, And his mouth securely muzzle, That his gagged teeth may be harmless, That he may not bark a warning When a man is passing by him."

As he came into the courtyard, On the ground he slashed his whiplash, 380 From the spot a cloud rose upward, In the cloud a dwarf was standing, And he quickly loosed the chest-bands, And the shafts he then let downward. Then the lively Lemminkainen Listened with his ears attentive But no person there observed him, So that no one present knew it. Out of doors he heard a singing, Through the moss he heard them speaking, 390 Through the walls heard music playing, Through the shutters heard a singing.

In the house he cast his glances, Gazed into the room in secret, And the house was full of wizards, And the benches full of singers, By the walls there sat musicians. Seers were sitting in the doorway, On the upper benches sorcerers, By the hearth were soothsayers seated, 400 There a Lapland bard was singing, Hoarsely singing songs of Hiisi.

Then the lively Lemminkainen Thought it wise to change his figure, To another shape transformed him, Left his hiding place, and entered, Thrust himself into the chamber, And he spoke the words which follow; "Fine a song may be when ended, Grandest are the shortest verses, 410 Wisdom better when unspoken, Than in midmost interrupted."

Then came Pohjola's old Mistress, On the floor advancing swiftly, Till she reached the chamber's middle, And she spoke these words in answer: "Once there was a dog among us, And a shaggy iron-haired puppy, Eating flesh, of bones a biter, One who licked the blood when freshest. 420 Who among mankind may you be, Who among the list of heroes, Boldly thus the house to enter, Pushing right into the chamber, Yet the dogs have never heard you, Nor have warned us with their barking?"

Said the lively Lemminkainen, "Surely I have not come hither, Void of art and void of knowledge, Void of strength and void of cunning, 430 Taught not magic by my father. And without my parents' counsel That the dogs should now devour me, And the barkers should attack me.

"But it was my mother washed me, When a boy both small and slender, Three times in the nights of summer. Nine times in the nights of autumn, And she taught me all the pathways, And the knowledge of all countries, 440 And at home sang songs of magic, Likewise too in foreign countries."

Then the lively Lemminkainen, He the handsome Kaukomieli, Soon began his songs of magics All at once began his singing, Fire flashed from his fur-cloak's borders, And his eyes with flame were shining, With the songs of Lemminkainen, As he sang his spells of magic. 450

Sang the very best of singers To the worst of all the singers, And he fed their mouths with pebbles. And he piled up rocks above them. On the best of all the singers, And most skilful of magicians.

Then he sang the men thereafter Both to one side and the other, To the plains, all bare and treeless. To the lands, unploughed for ever, 460 To the ponds, devoid of fishes, Where no perch has ever wandered, To the dreadful falls of Rutja, And amid the roaring whirlpools, Underneath the foaming river, To the rocks beneath the cataract, There to burn as if 'mid fire, And to scatter sparks around them.

Then the lively Lemminkainen Sang his songs against the swordsmen. 470 Sang the heroes with their weapons, Sang the young men, sang the old men, And the men of age between them, And his songs spared one man only, And he was a wicked cowherd. Old, with eyes both closed and sightless.

Markahattu then, the cowherd, Spoke the very words which follow: "O thou lively son of Lempi, Thou hast banned the young and old men, 480 Banned the men of age between them, Wherefore hast not banned me likewise?"

Said the lively Lemminkainen, "Therefore 'tis that I have spared thee, That thou dost appear so wretched, Pitiful without my magic. In the days when thou wast younger, Thou wast worst of all the cowherds, Hast destroyed thy mother's children, And disgraced thy very sister, 490 All the horses hast thou crippled, All the foals hast thou outwearied, In the swamps or stony places, Plashing through the muddy waters."

Markahattu then, the cowherd, Greatly vexed, and greatly angry, Through the open door went quickly, Through the yard to open country, Ran to Tuonela's deep river, To the dreadful river's whirlpool, 500 Waited there for Kaukomieli, Waited there for Lemminkainen, Till on his return from Pohja, He should make his journey homeward.



Lemminkainen asks the old woman of Pohja for her daughter, but she demands that he should first capture the Elk of Hiisi on snowshoes (1-30). Lemminkainen starts off in high spirits to hunt the elk, but it escapes, and he breaks his snowshoes and spear (31-270).

Then the lively Lemminkainen Said to Pohjola's old Mistress, "Give me, old one, now your maiden, Bring me here your lovely daughter, She the best of all among them, She the tallest of the maidens."

Then did Pohjola's old Mistress Answer in the words which follow: "Nay, I will not give my maiden, And you shall not have my daughter, 10 Not the best or worst among them, Not the tallest, not the shortest, For you have a wife already, Long the mistress of your household."

Said the lively Lemminkainen, "Kylli in the town lies fettered, At the steps before the village, By the gate where strangers enter, So a better wife I wish for, Therefore give me now your daughter, 20 She the fairest of your daughters, Lovely with unbraided tresses."

Then said Pohjola's old Mistress, "Never will I give my daughter To a vain and worthless fellow, To a hero good for nothing. Therefore you may woo my daughter, Win the far-famed flower-crowned maiden, If you hunt the elk on snowshoes, In the distant field of Hiisi." 30

Then the lively Lemminkainen Fixed the point upon his javelin. And his bowstring made of sinew, And with bone he tipped his arrows, And he said the words which follow: "Now my javelin I have pointed, All my shafts with bone have pointed, And have strung my bow with sinew, Not the snowshoe left put forward, Nor the right one stamped behind it." 40

Then the lively Lemminkainen Pondered deeply and reflected How he should procure his snowshoes, How they best should be constructed. Then to Kauppi's house he hastened, And to Lyylikki's forge hurried. "O thou wisest Vuojalainen, Thou the handsome Lapland Kauppi, Make me snowshoes that will suit me, Fitted with the finest leather; 50 I must chase the elk of Hiisi, In the distant field of Hiisi."

Lyylikki then spoke as follows, Kauppi gave him ready answer: "Vainly goest thou, Lemminkainen, Forth to hunt the elk of Hiisi; For a piece of rotten timber, Only will reward your labour."

Little troubled Lemminkainen, And he spoke the words which follow: 60 "Make a snowshoe left to run with, And a right one to put forward! I must chase the elk on snowshoes, In the distant field of Hiisi."

Lyylikki, the smith of snowshoes, Kauppi, maker of the snowshoes, In the autumn shaped the left one, In the winter carved the right one, And he fixed the frames on one day, Fixed the rings upon another. 70

Now the left was fit to run with, And the right for wearing ready, And the frames were now completed, And the rings were also fitted. Frames he lined with skins of otter, And the rings with ruddy foxskin.

Then he smeared with grease the snowshoes, Smeared them with the fat of reindeer, And himself reflected deeply, And he spoke the words which follow: 80 "Can you, in this youthful frolic, You, a young and untried hero, Forward glide upon the left shoe, And push forward with the right one?"

Said the lively Lemminkainen, Answered him the ruddy rascal: "Yes, upon this youthful frolic Of a young and untried hero, I can glide upon the left shoe, And push forward with the right one." 90

On his back he bound his quiver. And his new bow on his shoulder, In his hands his pole grasped firmly, On the left shoe glided forward, And pushed onward with the right one, And he spoke the words which follow: "In God's world may there be nothing, Underneath the arch of heaven, In the forest to be hunted, Not a single four-foot runner, 100 Which may not be overtaken, And can easily be captured Thus by Kaleva's son with snowshoes, And with Lemminkainen's snowshoes."

But the boast was heard by Hiisi, And by Juutas comprehended; And an elk was formed by Hiisi, And a reindeer formed by Juutas, With a head of rotten timber, Horns composed of willow-branches, 110 Feet of ropes the swamps which border, Shins of sticks from out the marshes; And his back was formed of fence-stakes, Sinews formed of dryest grass-stalks, Eyes of water-lily flowers, Ears of leaves of water-lily, And his hide was formed of pine-bark, And his flesh of rotten timber.

Hiisi now the elk instructed, Thus he spoke unto the reindeer: 120 "Now rush forth thou elk of Hiisi, On thy legs, O noble creature, To the breeding-place of reindeer, Grassy plains of Lapland's children, Till the snowshoe-men are sweating; Most of all, this Lemminkainen!"

Then rushed forth the elk of Hiisi, Sped away the fleeing reindeer, Rushing past the barns of Pohja, To the plains of Lapland's children, 130 In the house the tubs kicked over, On the fire upset the kettles, Threw the meat among the ashes, Spilt the soup among the cinders.

Then arose a great commotion, On the plains of Lapland's children, For the Lapland dogs were barking, And the Lapland children crying, And the Lapland women laughing, And the other people grumbling. 140

He, the lively Lemminkainen, Chased the elk upon his snowshoes, Glided o'er the land and marshes, O'er the open wastes he glided. Fire was crackling from his snowshoes, From his staff's end smoke ascending, But as yet the elk he saw not; Could not see it; could not hear it.

O'er the hills and dales he glided, Through the lands beyond the ocean, 150 Over all the wastes of Hiisi, Over all the heaths of Kalma, And before the mouth of Surma, And behind the house of Kalma. Surma's mouth was quickly opened, Down was bowed the head of Kalma, That he thus might seize the hero, And might swallow Lemminkainen; But he tried, and failed to reach him, Failed completely in his effort. 160

O'er all lands he had not skated, Nor had reached the desert's borders, In the furthest bounds of Pohja, In the distant realms of Lapland, So he skated further onward, Till he reached the desert's borders.

When he reached this distant region, Then he heard a great commotion, In the furthest bounds of Pohja, On the plains of Lapland's children. 170 And he heard the dogs were barking, And the Lapland children crying, And the Lapland women laughing, And the other Lapps were grumbling.

Then the lively Lemminkainen Skated on in that direction, Where he heard the dogs were barking On the plains of Lapland's children; And he said on his arrival, And he asked them on his coming: 180 "Wherefore are the women laughing, Women laughing, children crying, And the older folks lamenting, And the grey dogs all are barking?"

"Therefore are the women laughing, Women laughing, children crying, And the older folks lamenting, And the grey dogs all are barking. Here has charged the elk of Hiisi, With its hoofs all cleft and polished, 190 In the house the tubs kicked over, On the fire upset the kettles, Shaken out the soup within them, Spilt it all among the ashes."

Thereupon the ruddy rascal, He the lively Lemminkainen, Struck his left shoe in the snowdrift, Like an adder in the meadow, Pushed his staff of pinewood forward, As it were a living serpent, 200 And he said as he was gliding, Grasping firm the pole he carried: "Let the men who live in Lapland, Help me all to bring the elk home; And let all the Lapland women Set to work to wash the kettles; And let all the Lapland children Hasten forth to gather splinters; And let all the Lapland kettles Help to cook the elk when captured." 210

Then he poised himself and balanced, Forward pushed, his strength exerting, And the first time he shot forward, From before their eyes he vanished. Once again he speeded onward, And they could no longer hear him, But the third time he rushed onward, Then he reached the elk of Hiisi. Then he took a pole of maple, And he made a birchen collar; 220 Hiisi's elk he tethered with it, In a pen of oak he placed it. "Stand thou there, O elk of Hiisi, Here remain, O nimble reindeer!"

Then upon the back he stroked it, Patted it upon the belly. "Would that I awhile might tarry, And might sleep awhile and rest me, Here beside a youthful maiden, With a dove of blooming beauty." 230

Then did Hiisi's elk grow furious, And the reindeer kicked out wildly, And it spoke the words which follow: "Lempo's self shall reckon with you, If you sleep beside a maiden, And beside a girl should tarry."

Then it gave a mighty struggle, And it snapped the birchen collar, And it broke the pole of maple, And the pen of oak burst open, 240 And began to hurry forwards, And the elk rushed wildly onwards, Over land and over marshes, Over slopes o'ergrown with bushes, Till the eyes no more could see it, And the ears no longer hear it.

Thereupon the ruddy rascal Grew both sorrowful and angry, Very vexed and very angry, And would chase the elk of Hiisi, 250 But as he was rushing forward, In a hole he broke his left shoe, And his snowshoe fell to pieces, On the ground he broke the right one, Broke the tips from off his snowshoes, And the frames across the joinings. While rushed on the elk of Hiisi, Till its head he saw no longer.

Then the lively Lemminkainen, Bowed his head in deep depression, 260 Gazed upon the broken snowshoes, And he spoke the words which follow: "Nevermore in all his lifetime May another hunter venture Confidently to the forest, Chasing Hiisi's elk on snowshoes! Since I went, O me unhappy, And have spoilt the best of snowshoes, And the splendid frames have shattered, And my spearpoint likewise broken." 270



Lemminkainen invokes the forest deities, and at length succeeds in capturing the elk, and brings it to Pohjola (1-270). Another task is given him, to bridle the fire-breathing steed of Hiisi. He bridles it and brings it to Pohjola (271-372). A third task is assigned him, to shoot a swan on the river of Tuonela, Lemminkainen comes to the river, but the despised cowherd, who is lying in wait for him, kills him, and casts his body into the cataract of Tuoni. The son of Tuoni then cuts his body to pieces (373-460).

Then the lively Lemminkainen Deeply pondered and reflected, On the path that he should follow, Whither he should turn his footsteps, Should he leave the elk of Hiisi, And direct his journey homewards, Should he make another effort. And pursue the chase on snowshoes, With the Forest-Queen's permission, And the favour of the wood-nymphs? 10

Then he spoke the words which follow, And in words like these expressed him: "Ukko, thou of Gods the highest, Gracious Father in the heavens, Make me now two better snowshoes, Leather snowshoes fit for sliding, That I glide upon them swiftly Over land and over marshes, Glide throughout the land of Hiisi, And across the heaths of Pohja, 20 There to chase the elk of Hiisi, And to catch the nimble reindeer.

"In the wood alone I wander, Toil without another hero, Through the pathways of Tapiola, And beside the home of Tapio. Welcome, wooded slopes and mountains, Welcome to the rustling pinewoods, Welcome to the grey head aspens, And to all who greet me, welcome! 30

"Be propitious wood and thicket, Gracious Tapio, do thou aid me, Bring the hero to the islands, To the hills in safety lead him, Where he can attain the quarry, Whence he may bring back the booty.

"Nyyrikki, O son of Tapio, Thou the mighty red-capped hero, Blaze the path across the country, And erect me wooden guide-posts, 40 That I trace this evil pathway, And pursue the rightful roadway, While I seek my destined quarry, And the booty I am seeking.

"Mielikki, the forest's mistress, Thou the mighty, fair-faced mother! Let thy gold now wander onward, And thy silver set in motion, Right before the man who seeks it, On the pathway of the seeker. 50

"Take the keys of gold, suspended By the ring that hangs beside thee, Open thou the stores of Tapio, And his castle in the forest, During this my hunting-season, While I hunt in distant regions.

"If thyself thou wilt not trouble, Strictly charge thy little maidens, Send thy serving maidens to me, Give thy orders to thy servants! 60 If thou canst not be my hostess, Do thou not forbid thy maidens, For thou hast a hundred maidens, And a thousand at thy orders, Those on all thy herds attending, Likewise all thy game protecting.

"Little maiden of the forest, Tapio's girl, with mouth of honey, Play upon thy flute of honey, Whistle through thy pipe of honey, 70 In thy noble mistress' hearing, Gracious queen of all the forest, That she soon may hear the music, And from her repose may rouse her, For she does not hear at present, And she but awakens rarely, Though I supplicate for ever, With my golden tongue imploring!"

Then the lively Lemminkainen Wandered on, but found no booty, 80 Glided through the plains and marshes, Glided through the trackless forests, Where has Jumala his soot-hills, To the charcoal heaths of Hiisi. Thus he skated one day, two days, And at length upon the third day, Came he to a lofty mountain, Where he climbed a rock stupendous, And he turned his eyes to north-west, To the north across the marshes, 90 And he saw the farms of Tapio, With the doors all golden shining, To the north, across the marshes, On the slope among the thickets.

Then the lively Lemminkainen Quickly to the spot approaching, Pushed his way through all obstructions, Under Tapio's very windows. And he looked while stooping forward, In the sixth among the windows. 100 There were resting game-dispensers, Matrons of the woods reposing, All were in their work-day garments, And with filthy rags were covered.

Said the lively Lemminkainen, "Wherefore, Mistress of the Forest, Dost thou wear thy work-day garments, Dirty ragged thresher's garments? You are very black to gaze on, And your whole appearance dreadful, 110 For your breast is most disgusting, And your form is very bloated.

"When before I tracked the forests, I beheld three castles standing. One was wooden, one a bone one, And the third of stone was builded. There were six bright golden windows On the sides of every castle, And if then I gazed within them, 'Neath the wall as I was standing, 120 Saw the lord of Tapio's household, And the mistress of his household; Tellervo, the maid of Tapio, And the rest of Tapio's household, All in rustling golden garments, And parading there in silver, She herself, the Forest-Mistress, Gracious Mistress of the Forest, On her wrists were golden bracelets, Golden rings upon her fingers, 130 On her head a golden head-dress, And her hair adorned with ducats; In her ears were golden earrings, Finest beads her neck encircling.

"Gracious Mistress of the Forest, Of sweet Metsola the matron! Cast away thy hay-shoes from thee, And discard thy shoes of birchbark, Cast thou off thy threshing garments, And thy wretched work-day garments, 140 Don thy garments of good fortune, And thy blouse for game-dispensing, In the days I track the forest, Seeking for a hunter's booty. Long and wearily I wander, Wearily I track my pathway, Yet I wander here for nothing, All the time without a quarry. If you do not grant me booty, Nor reward me for my labour, 150 Long and sad will be the evening, Long the day when game is wanting.

"Aged greybeard of the forest, With thy pine-leaf hat and moss-cloak, Dress thou now the woods in linen, And the wilds a cloth throw over. All the aspens robe in greyness, And the alders robe in beauty, Clothe the pine-trees all in silver, And with gold adorn the fir-trees. 160 Aged pine-trees belt with copper, Belt the fir-trees all with silver, Birch-trees with their golden blossoms, And their trunks with gold adornments. Make it as in former seasons Even when thy days were better, When the fir-shoots shone in moonlight, And the pine-boughs in the sunlight, When the wood was sweet with honey, And the blue wastes flowed with honey, 170 Smelt like malt the heathlands' borders, From the very swamps ran butter.

"Forest-maiden, gracious virgin, Tuulikki, O Tapio's daughter! Drive the game in this direction, Out into the open heathland. If it runs with heavy footsteps, Or is lazy in its running, Take a switch from out the bushes, Or a birch-twig from the valley, 180 Switch the game upon the haunches, And upon the flanks, O whip it, Drive it swiftly on before you, Make it hasten quickly onward, To the man who here awaits it, In the pathway of the hunter.

"If the game comes on the footpath, Drive it forward to the hero, Do thou put thy hands together, And on both sides do thou guide it, 190 That the game may not escape me, Rushing back in wrong direction. If the game should seek to fly me, Rushing in the wrong direction, Seize its ear, and drag it forward By the horns upon the pathway.

"If there's brushwood on the pathway, Drive it to the pathway's edges; If a tree should block the pathway, Then the tree-trunk break asunder. 200

"If a fence obstructs the pathway, Thrust the fence aside before you, Take five withes to hold it backward, And seven posts whereon to bind them.

"If a river runs before thee, Or a brook should cross the pathway, Build thou then a bridge all silken, With a red cloth for a gateway; Drive the game by narrow pathways, And across the quaking marshes, 210 Over Pohjola's wide rivers, O'er the waterfalls all foaming.

"Master of the house of Tapio, Mistress of the house of Tapio; Aged greybeard of the forest, King of all the golden forest; Mimerkki, the forest's mistress, Fair dispenser of its treasures, Blue-robed woman of the bushes, Mistress of the swamps, red-stockinged, 220 Come, with me thy gold to barter, Come, with me to change thy silver. I have gold as old as moonlight, Silver old as is the sunlight, Which I won in battle-tumult, In the contest of the heroes, Useful in my purse I found it, Where it jingled in the darkness; If thy gold thou wilt not barter, Perhaps thou wilt exchange thy silver." 230

Thus the lively Lemminkainen For a week on snowshoes glided, Sang a song throughout the forest, There among the depths of jungle, And appeased the forest's mistress, And the forest's master likewise, And delighted all the maidens, Pleasing thus the girls of Tapio. Then they hunted and drove onward From its lair the elk of Hiisi, 240 Past the wooded hills of Tapio, Past the bounds of Hiisi's mountain, To the man who waited for it, To the sorcerer in his ambush.

Then the lively Lemminkainen Lifted his lasso, and threw it O'er the elk of Hiisi's shoulders, Round the camel's neck he threw it, That it should not kick in fury, When upon its back he stroked it. 250

Then the lively Lemminkainen Spoke aloud the words which follow: "Lord of woods, of earth the master, Fairest creature of the heathlands; Mielikki, the forest's mistress, Loveliest of the game-dispensers! Come to take the gold I promised, Come ye now to choose the silver, On the ground lay down your linen, Spreading out of flax the finest, 260 Underneath the gold that glitters, Underneath the shining silver, That upon the ground it fall not, Nor among the dirt is scattered."

Then to Pohjola he journeyed, And he said on his arrival: "I have chased the elk of Hiisi On the distant plains of Hiisi. Give me now, old dame, your daughter, Give the youthful bride I seek for." 270

Louhi, Pohjola's old Mistress Heard his words, and then made answer: "I will only give my daughter, Give the youthful bride you seek for, If you rein the mighty gelding, He the chestnut steed of Hiisi, He the foaming foal of Hiisi, On the bounds of Hiisi's meadow."

Then the lively Lemminkainen Took at once a golden bridle, 280 Took a halter all of silver, And he went to seek the courser, Went to seek the yellow-maned one, On the bounds of Hiisi's meadow.

Then he hastened on his journey, On his way went swiftly forward, Through the green and open meadows, To the sacred field beyond them, And he sought there for the courser, Seeking for the yellow-maned one. 290 At his belt the bit he carried, And the harness on his shoulder.

Thus he sought one day, a second, And at length upon the third day Came he to a lofty mountain, And upon a rock he clambered. And he turned his eyes to eastward, And he turned his head to sunwards. On the sand he saw the courser, 'Mid the firs the yellow-maned one. 300 From his hair the flame was flashing, From his mane the smoke was rising.

Thereupon prayed Lemminkainen: "Ukko, thou of Gods the highest, Ukko, thou of clouds the leader, Of the scattered clouds conductor, Open now thy clefts in heaven, And in all the sky thy windows, Let the iron hail fall downwards, Send thou down the frozen masses, 310 On the mane of that good courser, On the back of Hiisi's courser."

Ukko then, the great Creator, Jumala 'mid clouds exalted, Heard and rent the air asunder, Clove in twain the vault of heaven, Scattered ice, and scattered iceblocks, Scattered down the iron hailstones, Smaller than a horse's head is, Larger than a head of man is, 320 On the mane of that good courser, On the back of Hiisi's courser.

Then the lively Lemminkainen, Forward stepped to gaze about him, And advanced for observation, And he spoke the words which follow: "Hiitola's most mighty courser, Mountain foal, with mane all foam-flecked, Give me now thy golden muzzle, Stretch thou forth thy head of silver, 330 Push it in the golden bridle, With the bit of shining silver. I will never treat you badly, And I will not drive you harshly, And our way is but a short one, And 'tis but a little journey, Unto Pohjola's bleak homestead, To my cruel foster-mother. With a rope I will not flog you, With a switch I will not drive you, 340 But with silken cords will lead you, With a strip of cloth will drive you."

Then the chestnut horse of Hiisi, Hiisi's horse, with mane all foam-flecked Forward stretched his golden muzzle, Forward reached his head of silver, To receive the golden bridle, With the bit of shining silver.

Thus did lively Lemminkainen Bridle Hiisi's mighty courser, 350 In his mouth the bit adjusted, On his silver head the bridle, On his broad back then he mounted, On the back of that good courser.

O'er the horse his whip he brandished, With a willow switch he struck him, And a little way he journeyed Hasting onward through the mountains, Through the mountains to the northward. Over all the snow-clad mountains, 360 Unto Pohjola's bleak homestead. From the yard the hall he entered, And he said on his arrival, Soon as Pohjola he entered: "I have reined the mighty courser, Brought the foal of Hiisi bridled, From the green and open meadows, And the sacred field beyond them, And I tracked the elk on snowshoes, On the distant plains of Hiisi. 370 Give me now, old dame, your daughter, Give the youthful bride I seek for."

Louhi, Pohjola's old Mistress, Answered in the words which follow: "I will only give my daughter, Give the youthful bride you seek for, If the river-swan you shoot me, Shoot the great bird on the river. There on Tuoni's murky river, In the sacred river's whirlpool, 380 Only at a single trial, Using but a single arrow."

Then the lively Lemminkainen He the handsome Kaukomieli, Went and took his twanging crossbow, Went away to seek the Long-neck, Forth to Tuoni's murky river, Down in Manala's abysses.

On with rapid steps he hastened, And he went with trampling footsteps, 390 Unto Tuonela's broad river, To the sacred river's whirlpool, 'Neath his arm a handsome crossbow, On his back his well-stored quiver.

Markahattu then, the cowherd, Pohjola's old sightless greybeard, There by Tuonela's broad river, By the sacred river's whirlpool, Long had lurked, and long had waited, There for Lemminkainen's coming. 400

And at length one day it happened, Came the lively Lemminkainen Hasting on, and swift approaching Unto Tuonela's deep river, To the cataract most terrific, To the sacred river's whirlpool.

From the waves he sent a serpent, Like a reed from out the billows; Through the hero's heart he hurled it, And through Lemminkainen's liver. 410 Through the arm-pit left it smote him, Through the shoulder right it struck him.

Then the lively Lemminkainen Felt himself severely wounded, And he spoke the words which follow: "I have acted most unwisely, That I asked not information From my mother, she who bore me. Two words only were sufficient, Three at most might perhaps be needed, 420 How to act, and live still longer, After this day's great misfortune. Charm I cannot water-serpents, Nor of reeds I know the magic.

"O my mother who hast borne me, And hast nurtured me in sorrow, Would that thou might'st know, and hasten To thy son, who lies in anguish. Surely thou would'st hasten hither, To my aid thou then would'st hasten, 430 To thy hapless son's assistance, At the point of death now lying, For indeed too young I slumber, And I die while still so cheerful."

Then did Pohjola's blind greybeard, Markahattu, he the cowherd, Fling the lively Lemminkainen, Casting Kaleva's own offspring Into Tuoni's murky river, In the worst of all the whirlpools. 440

Floated lively Lemminkainen, Down the thundering cataract floated, Down the rushing stream he floated, Unto Tuonela's dread dwelling.

Then the bloodstained son of Tuoni Drew his sword, and smote the hero, With his gleaming blade he hewed him, While it shed a stream of flashes, And he hewed him in five fragments, And in pieces eight he hewed him, 450 Then in Tuonela's stream cast them, Where are Manala's abysses. "Thou may'st toss about for ever, With thy crossbow and thy arrows, Shooting swans upon the river, Water-birds upon its borders!"

Thus did Lemminkainen perish, Perished thus the dauntless suitor, Down in Tuoni's murky river, Down in Manala's abysses. 460



One day blood begins to trickle from the hair-brush at Lemminkainen's home, and his mother at once perceives that death has overtaken her son. She hastens to Pohjola and inquires of Louhi what has become of him (1-100). The Mistress of Pohjola at length tells her on what errand she has sent him, and the sun gives her full information of the manner of Lemminkainen's death (101-194). Lemminkainen's mother goes with a long rake in her hand under the cataract of Tuoni, and rakes the water till she has found all the fragments of her son's body, which she joins together, and succeeds in restoring Lemminkainen to life by charms and magic salves (195-554). Lemminkainen then relates how he perished in the river of Tuonela, and returns home with his mother (555-650).

Lemminkainen's tender mother In her home was always thinking, "Where has Lemminkainen wandered, Whereabouts is Kauko roaming, For I do not hear him coming From his world-extended journey?"

Ah, the hapless mother knew not, Nor the hapless one imagined, Where her own flesh now was floating, Where her own blood now was flowing; 10 If he tracked the fir-clad mountains, Or among the heaths was roaming, Or upon a lake was floating, Out upon the foaming billows, Or in some terrific combat, In the most tremendous tumult, With his legs with blood bespattered, To the knees with blood all crimsoned.

Kyllikki, the lovely housewife, Wandered round and gazed about her, 20 Through the home of Lemminkainen, And through Kaukomieli's homestead; On the comb she looked at evening, On the brush she looked at morning, And at length one day it happened, In the early morning hours, Blood from out the comb was oozing, From the brush was gore distilling.

Kyllikki, the lovely housewife, Uttered then the words which follow: 30 "Lo, my husband has departed, And my handsome Kauko wandered In a country void of houses, And throughout some trackless desert. Blood from out the comb is oozing, Gore is from the brush distilling."

Then did Lemminkainen's mother See herself the comb was bleeding, And began to weep with sorrow. "O alas, my day is wretched, 40 And my life is most unhappy, For my son has met misfortune, And my child all unprotected, On an evil day was nurtured. On the poor lad came destruction, Lost is darling Lemminkainen, From the comb the blood is trickling, And the brush with blood is dripping."

In her hands her skirt she gathered, With her arms her dress she lifted, 50 And at once commenced her journey, Hurried on upon her journey. Mountains thundered 'neath her footsteps, Valleys rose and hills were levelled, And the high ground sank before her, And the low ground rose before her.

Thus to Pohjola she journeyed, Asking where her son had wandered, And she asked in words which follow: "Tell me, Pohjola's old Mistress, 60 Whither sent you Lemminkainen, Whither has my son departed?"

Louhi, Pohjola's old Mistress, Then replied in words which follow: "Of your son I know no tidings, Where he went, or where he vanished. In his sledge I yoked a stallion, Chose him out a fiery courser. Perhaps he sank in ice when rotten, O'er the frozen lake when driving, 70 Or among the wolves has fallen, Or some dreadful bear devoured him."

Then said Lemminkainen's mother, "This indeed is shameless lying, For no wolf would touch my offspring. Not a bear touch Lemminkainen! Wolves he'd crush between his fingers, Bears with naked hands would master. If you will not truly tell me, How you treated Lemminkainen, 80 I the malthouse doors will shatter, Break the hinges of the Sampo."

Then said Pohjola's old Mistress, "I have fed the man profusely, And I gave him drink in plenty, Till he was most fully sated. In a boat's prow then I placed him, That he thus should shoot the rapids, But I really cannot tell you What befel the wretched creature; 90 In the wildly foaming torrent, In the tumult of the whirlpool."

Then said Lemminkainen's mother, "This indeed is shameless lying. Tell me now the truth exactly, Make an end of all your lying, Whither sent you Lemminkainen, Where has Kaleva's son perished? Or most certain death awaits you, And you die upon the instant." 100

Then said Pohjola's old Mistress, "Now at length I'll tell you truly. Forth to chase the elks I sent him, And to struggle with the monsters, And the mighty beasts to bridle, And to put the foals in harness. Then I sent him forth swan-hunting, Seeking for the bird so sacred, But I really cannot tell you If misfortune came upon him, 110 Or what hindrance he encountered. Nought I heard of his returning, For the bride that he demanded, When he came to woo my daughter."

Then the mother sought the strayed one, Dreading what mischance had happened, Like a wolf she tracked the marshes, Like a bear the wastes she traversed, Like an otter swam the waters, Badger-like the plains she traversed, 120 Passed the headlands like a hedgehog, Like a hare along the lakeshores, Pushed the rocks from out her pathway, From the slopes bent down the tree-trunks, Thrust the shrubs beside her pathway, From her track she cast the branches.

Long she vainly sought the strayed one, Long she sought, but found him never. Of her son the trees she questioned, For the lost one ever seeking. 130 Said a tree, then sighed a pine-tree, And an oak made answer wisely: "I myself have also sorrows, For your son I cannot trouble, For my lot's indeed a hard one, And an evil day awaits me, For they split me into splinters, And they chop me into faggots, In the kiln that I may perish, Or they fell me in the clearing." 140

Long she vainly sought the strayed one, Long she sought, but found him never, And whene'er she crossed a pathway, Then she bowed herself before it. "O thou path whom God created, Hast thou seen my son pass over; Hast thou seen my golden apple, Hast thou seen my staff of silver?"

But the path made answer wisely, And it spoke and gave her answer: 150 "I myself have also sorrows, For your son I cannot trouble, For my lot's indeed a hard one, And an evil day awaits me. All the dogs go leaping o'er me, And the horsemen gallop o'er me, And the shoes walk heavy on me, And the heels press hardly on me."

Long she vainly sought the strayed one, Long she sought, but found him never. 160 Met the moon upon her pathway, And before the moon she bowed her. "Golden moon, whom God created, Hast thou seen my son pass by you; Hast thou seen my golden apple, Hast thou seen my staff of silver?"

Then the moon whom God created, Made a full and prudent answer: "I myself have many sorrows, For your son I cannot trouble, 170 For my lot's indeed a hard one, And an evil day awaits me, Wandering lonely in the night-time, In the frost for ever shining, In the winter keeping vigil, But in time of summer waning."

Long she vainly sought the strayed one, Long she sought, but found him never, Met the sun upon her pathway, And before the sun she bowed her. 180

"O thou sun, whom God created, Hast thou seen my son pass by you, Hast thou seen my golden apple, Hast thou seen my staff of silver?"

And the sun knew all about it, And the sun made answer plainly: "There has gone your son unhappy, He has fallen and has perished, Down in Tuoni's murky river, Manala's primeval river, 190 There in the tremendous cataract, Where the torrent rushes downward, There on Tuonela's dark frontier, There in Manala's deep valleys."

Then did Lemminkainen's mother, Break out suddenly in weeping. To the craftsman's forge she wended: "O thou smith, O Ilmarinen, Thou hast worked before, and yestreen. On this very day O forge me, 200 Forge a rake with copper handle, Let the teeth of steel be fashioned, Teeth in length a hundred fathoms, And of fathoms five the handle."

Then the smith, e'en Ilmarinen, He the great primeval craftsman, Forged a rake with copper handle, And the teeth of steel he fashioned, Teeth in length a hundred fathoms, And of fathoms five the handle. 210

Then did Lemminkainen's mother Take the mighty rake of iron, And she rushed to Tuoni's river, To the sun her prayer addressing: "O thou sun whom God created, Brilliant work of the Creator! Shine an hour with heat excessive, Shine again with sultry shimmering, And again with utmost vigour. Lull to sleep the race of evil, 220 And in Manala the strong ones, Weary out the power of Tuoni!"

Then the sun whom God created, Shining work of the Creator, Stooped upon a crooked birch-tree, Sank upon a crooked alder, Shone an hour with heat excessive, Shone again with sultry shimmering, And again with utmost vigour, Lulled to sleep the race of evil, 230 And in Manala the strong ones. Slept the young on sword-hilt resting, And the old folks staff-supported, And the spear-men middle-aged. Then again he hastened upward, Sought again the heights of heaven, Sought again his former station, To his first abode soared upward.

Then did Lemminkainen's mother Take the mighty rake of iron, 240 And to seek her son was raking All amid the raging cataract, Through the fiercely rushing torrent, And she raked, yet found she nothing.

Then she went and sought him deeper, Ever deeper in the water, Stocking-deep into the water, Standing waist-deep in the water.

Thus she sought her son by raking All the length of Tuoni's river, 250 And she raked against the current, Once and twice she raked the river, And his shirt at length discovered, Found the shirt of him unhappy, And she raked again a third time, And she found his hat and stockings, Found his stockings, greatly sorrowing, Found his hat, with heart-wrung anguish.

Then she waded ever deeper, Down in Manala's abysses, 260 Raked once more along the river, Raked again across the river, And obliquely through the water, And at length upon the third time, Up she drew a lifeless carcass, With the mighty rake of iron.

Yet it was no lifeless carcass, But the lively Lemminkainen, He the handsome Kaukomieli, Sticking fast upon the rake-prongs, 270 Sticking by his nameless finger, And the toes upon his left foot.

Thus she fished up Lemminkainen, Kaleva's great offspring lifted, On the rake all shod with copper, To the light above the water. Yet were many fragments wanting, Half his head, a hand was wanting, Many other little fragments, And his very life was wanting. 280

As his mother pondered o'er it, Thus she spoke while sorely weeping: "Can a man from this be fashioned, And a hero new created?"

But by chance a raven heard her, And he answered her in thiswise: "No man can from this be fashioned, Not from what you have discovered, For his eyes the powan's eaten, And the pike has cleft his shoulders. 290 Cast the man into the water, Back in Tuonela's deep river, Perhaps a cod may thence be fashioned, Or a whale from thence developed."

Lemminkainen's mother would not Cast her son into the water, But again began her raking, With the mighty rake of copper, All through Tuonela's deep river, First along it, then across it, 300 And his head and hand discovered, And the fragments of his backbone. Then she found his ribs in pieces, Likewise many other fragments, And her son she pieced together, Shaped the lively Lemminkainen.

Then the flesh to flesh she fitted, And the bones together fitted, And the joints together jointed, And the veins she pressed together. 310

Then she bound the veins together, All their ends she knit together, And with care their threads she counted, And she spoke the words which follow: "Fairest goddess of the bloodveins, Suonetar, O fairest woman, Lovely weaver of the veinlets, Working with thy loom so slender, With the spindle all of copper, And the wheel composed of iron, 320 Come thou here, where thou art needed, Hasten hither, where I call thee, With a lapful of thy veinlets, And beneath thy arm a bundle, Thus to bind the veins together, And to knit their ends together, Where the wounds are gaping widely, And where gashes still are open.

"If this is not yet sufficient, In the air there sits a maiden, 330 In a boat adorned with copper, In a boat with stern of scarlet. From the air descend, O maiden, Virgin from the midst of heaven, Row thy boat throughout the veinlets, Through the joints, both forth and backwards, Through the broken bones, O steer thou, And throughout the joints when broken.

"Bind the veins together firmly, Lay them in the right position, 340 End to end the larger bloodveins, And the arteries fit together, Duplicate the smaller bloodveins. Join the ends of smallest veinlets.

"Take thou then thy finest needle, Thread it next with silken fibre, Sew thou with the finest needle, Stitch thou with thy tin-made needle, Sew the ends of veins together, Bind them with thy silken fibre. 350

"If this is not yet sufficient, Help me, Jumala, Eternal, Harness thou thy foal of swiftness, And equip thy mighty courser, In thy little sledge then drive thou Through the bones and joints, O drive thou, Through the flesh that all is mangled, Back and forth, throughout the veinlets, In the flesh the bone then fasten, Ends of veins knit firm together, 360 'Twixt the bones, O fix thou silver, Fix the veins with gold together.

"Where the skin is rent asunder, Let the skin be brought together; Where the veins have snapped asunder, Let the veins be knit together; Where through wounds the blood has issued, Let the blood again be flowing; Where the bones have broke to splinters, Let the bones be fixed together; 370 Where the flesh is torn asunder, Let the flesh be knit together, Fix it in the right position, In its right position fix it, Bone to bone and flesh to flesh fix, Joint to joint unite thou firmly."

Thus did Lemminkainen's mother Form the man, and shape the hero To his former life restore him, To the form he wore aforetime. 380

All the veins had now been counted, And their ends were knit together, But as yet the man was speechless, Nor the child to speak was able.

Then she spoke the words which follow, And expressed herself in thiswise: "Whence shall we obtain an ointment, Whence obtain the drops of honey That I may anoint the patient And that I may cure his weakness, 390 That the man his speech recovers, And again his songs is singing?

"O thou bee, thou bird of honey, King of all the woodland flowerets, Go thou forth to fetch me honey, Go thou forth to seek for honey, Back from Metsola's fair meadows, Tapiola, for ever cheerful, From the cup of many a flower. And the plumes of grasses many, 400 As an ointment for the patient, And to quite restore the sick one."

Then the bee, the bird so active, Flew away upon his journey, Forth to Metsola's fair meadows, Tapiola, for ever cheerful, Probed the flowers upon the meadows, With his tongue he sucked the honey From the tips of six bright flowers, From the plumes of hundred grasses, 410 Then came buzzing loud and louder, Rushing on his homeward journey, With his wings all steeped in honey, And his plumage soaked with nectar.

Then did Lemminkainen's mother, Take from him the magic ointment, That she might anoint the patient, And she thus might cure his weakness, But from this there came no healing, And as yet the man was speechless. 420 Then she spoke the words which follow: "O thou bee, my own dear birdling, Fly thou in a new direction, Over nine lakes fly thou quickly Till thou reach a lovely island, Where the land abounds with honey, Where is Tuuri's new-built dwelling, Palvonen's own roofless dwelling. There is honey in profusion, There is ointment in perfection, 430 Fit to bind the veins together, And to heal the joints completely. From the meadow bring this ointment, And the salve from out the meadow, For upon the wounds I'll spread it, And anoint the bruises with it."

Then the bee, that active hero, Flew again on whirring pinions, And across nine lakes he travelled, Half across the tenth he travelled, 440 On he flew one day, a second, And at length upon the third day, Never on the reeds reposing, Nor upon a leaf reposing, Came he to the lovely island, Where the land abounds with honey, Till he reached a furious torrent, And a holy river's whirlpool.

In this spot was cooked the honey, And the ointment was made ready 450 In the little earthen vessels, In the pretty little kettles, Kettles of a thumb-size only, And a finger-tip would fill them.

Then the bee, that active hero, Gathered honey in the meadow, And a little time passed over, Very little time passed over, When he came on whirring pinions, Coming with his mission finished, 460 In his lap six cups he carried, Seven upon his back he carried, Brimming o'er with precious ointment, With the best of ointment brimming.

Then did Lemminkainen's mother Salve him with this precious ointment, With nine kinds of ointment salved him, And ten kinds of magic ointment; Even yet there came no healing, Still her toil was unavailing. 470

Then she spoke the words which follow, And expressed herself in thiswise: "O thou bee, thou bird aerial, Fly thou forth again the third time, Fly thou up aloft to heaven, And through nine heavens fly thou swiftly. There is honey in abundance, In the wood as much as needed, Which was charmed by the Creator, By pure Jumala was breathed on, 480 When his children he anointed, Wounded by the powers of evil. In the honey dip thy pinions, Soak thy plumage in the nectar, Bring me honey on thy pinions, In thy mantle from the forest, As an ointment for the patient, And anoint the bruises with it."

But the bee, the bird of wisdom. Answered her in words that follow: 490 "How can I perform thy bidding, I a man so small and helpless?"

"Thou canst rise on high with swiftness, Fly aloft with easy effort, O'er the moon, below the daylight And amid the stars of heaven. Flying windlike on the first day Past the borders of Orion, On the second day thou soarest Even to the Great Bear's shoulders, 500 On the third day soaring higher. O'er the Seven Stars thou risest, Thence the journey is a short one, And the distance very trifling, Unto Jumala's bright dwelling, And the regions of the blessed."

From the earth the bee rose swiftly, On his honeyed wings rose whirring, And he soared on rapid pinions, On his little wings flew upward. 510 Swiftly past the moon he hurried, Past the borders of the sunlight, Rose upon the Great Bear's shoulders, O'er the Seven Stars' backs rose upward, Flew to the Creator's cellars, To the halls of the Almighty. There the drugs were well concocted, And the ointment duly tempered In the pots composed of silver, Or within the golden kettles. 520 In the midst they boiled the honey, On the sides was sweetest ointment, To the southward there was nectar, To the northward there was ointment.

Then the bee, that bird aerial, Gathered honey in abundance, Honey to his heart's contentment. And but little time passed over, Ere the bee again came buzzing, Humming loudly on his journey, 530 In his lap of horns a hundred, And a thousand other vessels, Some of honey, some of liquid, And the best of all the ointment.

Then did Lemminkainen's mother Raise it to her mouth and taste it, With her tongue the ointment tasted, With the greatest care she proved it. "'Tis the ointment that I needed, And the salve of the Almighty, 540 Used when Jumala the Highest, The Creator heals all suffering."

Then did she anoint the patient, That she thus might cure his weakness, Salved the bones along the fractures, And between the joints she salved him, Salved his head and lower portions, Rubbed him also in the middle, Then she spoke the words which follow, And expressed herself in thiswise: 550 "Rise, my son, from out thy slumber, From thy dreams do thou awaken, From this place so full of evil, And a resting-place unholy."

From his sleep arose the hero, And from out his dreams awakened, And at once his speech recovered. With his tongue these words he uttered: "Woe's me, long have I been sleeping, Long have I in pain been lying, 560 And in peaceful sleep reposing, In the deepest slumber sunken."

Then said Lemminkainen's mother. And expressed herself in thiswise: "Longer yet hadst thou been sleeping, Longer yet hadst thou been resting, But for thy unhappy mother, But for her in pain who bore thee.

"Tell me now, my son unhappy, Tell me that my ears may hear it, 570 Who to Manala has sent thee, There to drift in Tuoni's river?"

Said the lively Lemminkainen, And he answered thus his mother: "Markahattu, he the cowherd, Untamola's blind old rascal, Down to Manala has sent me, There to drift in Tuoni's river; And he raised a water-serpent, From the waves a serpent lifted, 580 Sent it forth to me unhappy, But I could not guard against it, Knowing nought of water-evil, Nor the evils of the reed-beds."

Then said Lemminkainen's mother, "Mighty man of little foresight. Boasting to enchant the sorcerers, And to ban the sons of Lapland, Knowing nought of water-evil, Nor the evils of the reed-beds! 590

"Water-snakes are born in water, On the waves among the reed-beds, From the duck's brain springs the serpent, In the head of the sea-swallow. Syojatar spat in the water, Cast upon the waves the spittle, And the water stretched it lengthwise. And the sunlight warmed and softened. And the wind arose and tossed it, And the water-breezes rocked it, 600 On the shore the waves they drove it, And amid the breakers urged it."

Thus did Lemminkainen's mother Cause her son with all her efforts, To resume his old appearance, And ensured that in the future He should even be superior, Yet more handsome than aforetime, And she asked her son thereafter Was there anything he needed? 610

Said the lively Lemminkainen, "There is something greatly needed, For my heart is fixed for ever, And my inclination leads me To the charming maids of Pohja, With their lovely locks unbraided, But the dirty-eared old woman Has refused to give her daughter, Till I shoot the duck she asks for, And the swan shall capture for her, 620 Here in Tuonela's dark river, In the holy river's whirlpool."

Then spoke Lemminkainen's mother, And she answered him in thiswise: "Leave the poor swans unmolested, Leave the ducks a peaceful dwelling, Here on Tuoni's murky river, Here amid the raging whirlpool! Best it is to journey homeward With your most unhappy mother, 630 Praise thou now thy happy future, And to Jumala be praises, That he granted his assistance, And has thus to life awaked thee, And from Tuoni's paths hath led thee, And from Mana's realms hath brought thee! I myself had never conquered, And alone had nought accomplished, But for Jumala's compassion, And the help of the Creator." 640

Then the lively Lemminkainen, Went at once his journey homeward, With his mother, she who loved him, Homeward with the aged woman.

Here I part awhile with Kauko, Leave the lively Lemminkainen, Long from out my song I leave him, While I quickly change my subject, Turn my song in new directions, And in other furrows labour. 650



Vainamoinen orders Sampsa Pellervoinen to seek for wood for boat-building. He makes a boat, but finds himself at a loss for want of three magic words (1-118). As he cannot otherwise obtain them, he goes to Tuonela hoping to procure them there (119-362). Vainamoinen finally escapes from Tuonela, and after his return warns others not to venture there, and describes what a terrible place it is and the horrible abodes in which men dwell there (363-412).

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, He the great primeval sorcerer, Set to work a boat to build him, And upon a boat to labour, There upon the cloudy headland, On the shady island's summit. But the workman found no timber, Boards to build the boat he found not.

Who shall seek for timber for him, And shall seek an oak-tree for him, 10 For the boat of Vainamoinen, And a keel to suit the minstrel?

Pellervoinen, earth-begotten, Sampsa, youth of smallest stature, He shall seek for timber for him, And shall seek an oak-tree for him. For the boat of Vainamoinen, And a keel to suit the minstrel.

So upon his path he wandered Through the regions to the north-east, 20 Through one district, then another, Journeyed after through a third one, With his gold axe on his shoulder, With his axe, with copper handle, Till he found an aspen standing, Which in height three fathoms measured.

So he went to fell the aspen, With his axe the tree to sever, And the aspen spoke and asked him, With its tongue it spoke in thiswise: 30 "What, O man, desire you from me? Tell your need, as far as may be."

Youthful Sampsa Pellervoinen, Answered in the words which follow: "This is what I wish for from thee, This I need, and this require I, 'Tis a boat for Vainamoinen; For the minstrel's boat the timber."

And the aspen said astounded, Answered with its hundred branches: 40 "As a boat I should be leaking, And would only sink beneath you, For my branches they are hollow. Thrice already in this summer, Has a grub my heart devoured, In my roots a worm has nestled."

Youthful Sampsa Pellervoinen Wandered further on his journey, And he wandered, deeply pondering, In the region to the northward. 50

There he found a pine-tree standing, And its height was full six fathoms, And he struck it with his hatchet, On the trunk with axe-blade smote it, And he spoke the words which follow: "O thou pine-tree, shall I take thee, For the boat of Vainamoinen, And as boatwood for the minstrel?"

But the pine-tree answered quickly, And it cried in answer loudly, 60 "For a boat you cannot use me, Nor a six-ribbed boat can fashion, Full of knots you'll find the pine-tree. Thrice already in this summer, In my summit croaked a raven, Croaked a crow among my branches."

Youthful Sampsa Pellervoinen Further yet pursued his journey, And he wandered, deeply pondering, In the region to the southward, 70 Till he found an oak-tree standings Fathoms nine its boughs extended.

And he thus addressed and asked it: "O thou oak-tree, shall I take thee, For the keel to make a vessel, The foundation of a warship?"

And the oak-tree answered wisely, Answered thus the acorn-bearer: "Yes, indeed, my wood is suited For the keel to make a vessel, 80 Neither slender 'tis, nor knotted, For within its substance hollow. Thrice already in this summer, In the brightest days of summer, Through my midst the sunbeams wandered. On my crown the moon was shining, In my branches cried the cuckoos. In my boughs the birds were resting."

Youthful Sampsa Pellervoinen Took the axe from off his shoulder, 90 With his axe he smote the tree-trunk, With the blade he smote the oak-tree. Speedily he felled the oak-tree, And the beauteous tree had fallen.

First he hewed it through the summit, All the trunk he cleft in pieces, After this the keel he fashioned, Planks so many none could count them. For the vessel of the minstrel, For the boat of Vainamoinen. 100

Then the aged Vainamoinen, He the great primeval sorcerer, Fashioned then the boat with wisdom, Built with magic songs the vessel, From the fragments of an oak-tree, Fragments of the shattered oak-tree.

With a song the keel he fashioned, With another, sides he fashioned, And he sang again a third time. And the rudder he constructed, 110 Bound the rib-ends firm together, And the joints he fixed together.

When the boat's ribs were constructed, And the sides were fixed together, Still he found three words were wanting, Which the sides should fix securely, Fix the prow in right position, And the stern should likewise finish.

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, He the great primeval minstrel, 120 Uttered then the words which follow: "Woe to me, my life is wretched, For my boat unlaunched remaineth, On the waves the new boat floats not!"

So he pondered and reflected How to find the words he needed, And obtain the spells of magic, From among the brains of swallows, From the heads of flocks of wild swans, From the shoulders of the goose-flocks. 130

Then he went the words to gather, And a flock of swans he slaughtered. And a flock of geese he slaughtered, And beheaded many swallows, But the spells he needed found not. Not a word, not e'en a half one.

So he pondered and reflected, "I shall find such words by hundreds, 'Neath the tongue of summer reindeer, In the mouth of whitest squirrel." 140

So he went the words to gather, That the spells he might discover, And a field he spread with reindeer, Loaded benches high with squirrels. Many words he thus discovered, But they all were useless to him.

So he pondered and reflected, "I should find such words by hundreds In the dark abodes of Tuoni, In the eternal home of Mana." 150

Then to Tuonela he journeyed, Sought the words in Mana's kingdom. And with rapid steps he hastened, Wandered for a week through bushes, Through bird-cherry for a second, And through juniper the third week, Straight to Manala's dread island. And the gleaming hills of Tuoni.

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast. Raised his voice, and shouted loudly 160 There by Tuonela's deep river, There in Manala's abysses: "Bring a boat, O Tuoni's daughter, Row across, O child of Mana, That the stream I may pass over. And that I may cross the river."

Tuoni's short and stunted daughter. She the dwarfish maid of Mana, At the time her clothes was washing, And her clothes she there was beating, 170 At the river dark of Tuoni, And in Manala's deep waters. And she answered him in thiswise, And she spoke the words which follow: "Hence a boat shall come to fetch you, When you shall explain the reason Why to Manala you travel. Though disease has not subdued you. Nor has death thus overcome you, Nor some other fate o'erwhelmed you." 180

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Answered in the words which follow: "It was Tuoni brought me hither, Mana dragged me from my country."

Tuoni's short and stunted daughter, She the dwarfish maid of Mana, Answered in the words which follow: "Ay, indeed, I know the liar! If 'twas Tuoni brought you hither, Mana dragged you from your country, 190 Then would Tuoni's self be with you, Manalainen's self conduct you, Tuoni's hat upon your shoulders. On your hands the gloves of Mana. Speak the truth, O Vainamoinen; What to Manala has brought you?"

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Answered in the words which follow: "Iron to Manala has brought me, Steel to Tuonela has dragged me." 200

Tuoni's short and stunted daughter She the dwarfish maid of Mana, Answered in the words which follow: "Now, indeed, I know the liar! For if iron to Mana brought you, Steel to Tuonela had dragged you. From your clothes the blood would trickle, And the blood would forth be flowing. Speak the truth, O Vainamoinen, For the second time speak truly." 210

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Answered in the words which follow: "Water has to Mana brought me, Waves to Tuonela have brought me."

Tuoni's short and stunted daughter, She the dwarfish maid of Mana, Answered in the words which follow: "Ay, indeed, I know the liar! If to Mana water brought you, Waves to Manala had floated, 220 From your clothes would water trickle, From the borders streaming downward. Tell me true, without evasion, What to Manala has brought you?"

Then the aged Vainamoinen, Gave again a lying answer. "Fire to Tuonela has brought me, Flame to Manala conveyed me."

Tuoni's short and stunted daughter. She the dwarfish maid of Mana, 230 Once again replied in answer: "Well indeed I know the liar! Had the fire to Tuoni brought you, Flame to Manala conveyed you, Would your hair be singed and frizzled, And your beard be scorched severely.

"O thou aged Vainamoinen, If you wish the boat to fetch you, Tell me true, without evasion, Make an end at last of lying, 240 Why to Manala you travel, Though disease has not subdued you, Nor has death thus overcome you, Nor some other fate o'erwhelmed you."

Said the aged Vainamoinen, "True it is I lied a little, And again I spoke a falsehood, But at length I answer truly. By my art a boat I fashioned, By my songs a boat I builded, 250 And I sang one day, a second, And at length upon the third day, Broke my sledge as I was singing, Broke the shaft as I was singing, So I came for Tuoni's gimlet. Sought in Manala a borer, That my sledge I thus might finish. And with this might form my song-sledge. Therefore bring your boat to this side, Ferry me across the water, 260 And across the straight convey me, Let me come across the river."

Tuonetar abused him roundly, Mana's maiden scolded loudly: "O thou fool, of all most foolish, Man devoid of understanding. Tuonela, thou seekest causeless, Com'st to Mana free from sickness! Better surely would you find it Quickly to regain your country, 270 Many truly wander hither, Few return to where they came from!"

Said the aged Vainamoinen, "This might perhaps deter old women, Not a man, how weak soever. Not the laziest of heroes! Bring the boat, O Tuoni's daughter, Row across, O child of Mana!"

Brought the boat then, Tuoni's daughter. And the aged Vainamoinen 280 Quickly o'er the straight she ferried. And across the river rowed him, And she spoke the words which follow: "Woe to thee, O Vainamoinen, For thou com'st to Mana living, Com'st to Tuonela undying!"

Tuonetar the noble matron, Manalatar, aged woman, Fetched some beer within a tankard, And in both her hands she held it, 290 And she spoke the words which follow: "Drink, O aged Vainamoinen!"

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Looked for long within the tankard, And within it frogs were spawning, At the sides the worms were wriggling, And he spoke the words which follow: "Surely I have not come hither, Thus to drink from Mana's goblets, Or to drink from Tuoni's tankards. 300 Those who drink this beer are drunken, Drinking from such cans they perish."

Then said Tuonela's great mistress, "O thou aged Vainamoinen, Why to Manala dost travel, Why to Tuonela hast ventured, Though by Tuoni never summoned, To the land of Mana called not?"

Said the aged Vainamoinen, "At my boat as I was working, 310 While my new boat I was shaping, Then I found three words were wanting, Ere the stern could be completed, And the prow could be constructed, But as I could find them nowhere, In the world where'er I sought them, Then to Tuonela I travelled, Journeyed to the land of Mana, There to find the words I needed, There the magic words to study." 320

Then said Tuonela's great mistress, And she spoke the words which follow: "Ne'er the words will Tuoni give you, Nor his spells will Mana teach you. Never shall you leave these regions, Never while your life remaineth, Shall you ever journey homeward, To your country home returning."

Sank the weary man in slumber, And the traveller lay and slumbered, 330 On the bed prepared by Tuoni, There outstretched himself in slumber, And the hero thus was captured, Lay outstretched, but quickly wakened.

There's in Tuonela a witch-wife, Aged crone with chin projecting, And she spins her thread of iron, And she draws out wire of copper. And she spun of nets a hundred, And she wove herself a thousand, 340 In a single night of summer, On the rock amid the waters.

There's in Tuonela a wizard, And three fingers has the old man, And he weaves his nets of iron, And he makes his nets of copper, And a hundred nets he wove him, And a thousand nets he plaited, In the selfsame night of summer, On the same stone in the water. 350

Tuoni's son with crooked fingers. Crooked fingers hard as iron, Took the hundred nets, and spread them Right across the stream of Tuoni, Both across and also lengthwise, And in an oblique direction So that Vaino should not 'scape him, Nor should flee Uvantolainen, In the course of all his lifetime, While the golden moon is shining, 360 From the dread abode of Tuoni, From the eternal home of Mana.

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Uttered then the words which follow: "May not rain overtake me, And an evil fate await me. Here in Tuonela's dark dwellings, In the foul abode of Mana?"

Quickly then his shape transforming, And another shape assuming, 370 To the gloomy lake he hastened; Like an otter in the reed-beds, Like an iron snake he wriggled, Like a little adder hastened Straight across the stream of Tuoni, Safely through the nets of Tuoni.

Tuoni's son with crooked fingers, Crooked fingers, hard as iron, Wandered early in the morning To survey the nets extended, 380 Found of salmon-trout a hundred, Smaller fry he found by thousands, But he found not Vainamoinen, Not the old Uvantolainen.

Thus the aged Vainamoinen Made his way from Tuoni's kingdom, And he said the words which follow, And in words like these expressed him: "Never, Jumala the mighty, Never let another mortal, 390 Make his way to Mana's country, Penetrate to Tuoni's kingdom! Many there indeed have ventured. Few indeed have wandered homeward; From the dread abode of Tuoni, From the eternal home of Mana."

Afterwards these words he added, And expressed himself in thiswise. To the rising generation, And to the courageous people: 400 "Sons of men, O never venture In the course of all your lifetime, Wrong to work against the guiltless, Guilt to work against the sinless, Lest your just reward is paid you In the dismal realms of Tuoni! There's the dwelling of the guilty, And the resting-place of sinners, Under stones to redness heated, Under slabs of stone all glowing, 410 'Neath a coverlet of vipers, Of the loathsome snakes of Tuoni."



Vainamoinen goes to obtain magic words from Antero Vipunen, and wakes him from his long sleep under the earth (1-98). Vipunen swallows Vainamoinen, and the latter begins to torture him violently in his stomach (99-146). Vipunen tries every means that he can think of to get rid of him by promises, spells, conjurations and exorcisms, but Vainamoinen declares that he will never depart till he has obtained from Vipunen the words which he requires to finish his boat (147-526). Vipunen sings all his wisdom to Vainamoinen, who then leaves his body, returns to his boat-building, and finishes his boat (527-6:28).

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Had not found the words he wanted In the dark abode of Tuoni, In the eternal realms of Mana, And for evermore he pondered. In his head reflected ever. Where the words he might discover, And obtain the charms he needed.

Once a shepherd came to meet him, And he spoke the words which follow: 10 "You can find a hundred phrases, And a thousand words discover, Known to Antero Vipunen only, In his monstrous mouth and body. And there is a path which leads there, And a cross-road must be traversed, Not the best among the pathways, Nor the very worst of any. Firstly you must leap along it O'er the points of women's needles, 20 And another stage must traverse O'er the points of heroes' sword-blades, And a third course must be traversed O'er the blades of heroes' axes."

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Pondered deeply o'er the journey, To the smithy then he hastened, And he spoke the words which follow: "O thou smith, O Ilmarinen, Forge me straightway shoes of iron, 30 Forge me likewise iron gauntlets, Make me, too, a shirt of iron, And a mighty stake of iron, All of steel, which I will pay for, Lined within with steel the strongest, And o'erlaid with softer iron, For I go some words to seek for, And to snatch the words of power, From the giant's mighty body, Mouth of Antero Vipunen wisest." 40

Then the smith, e'en Ilmarinen, Answered in the words which follow: "Vipunen has long since perished, Long has Antero departed From the nets he has constructed, And the snares that he has fashioned. Words from him you cannot hope for; Half a word you could not look for."

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Started on his way, unheeding, 50 And the first day speeded lightly O'er the points of women's needles, And the second day sprang nimbly O'er the points of heroes' sword-blades, And upon the third day speeded O'er the blades of heroes' axes.

Vipunen in songs was famous, Full of craft the aged hero; With his songs he lay extended, Outstretched with his spells of magic. 60 On his shoulders grew a poplar, From his temples sprang a birch-tree, On his chin-tip grew an alder, On his beard a willow-thicket, On his brow were firs with squirrels, From his teeth sprang branching pine-trees. Then at once did Vainamoinen, Draw his sword and free the iron From the scabbard formed of leather, From his belt of lambskin fashioned; 70 Fell the poplar from his shoulders, Fell the birch-trees from his temples, From his chin the spreading alders, From his beard the willow-bushes, From his brow the firs with squirrels, From his teeth the branching pine-trees.

Then he thrust his stake of iron Into Vipunen's mouth he thrust it, In his gnashing gums he thrust it, In his clashing jaws he thrust it, 80 And he spoke the words which follow: "Rouse thyself, O slave of mortals, Where beneath the earth thou restest, In a sleep that long has lasted."

Vipunen, in songs most famous, Suddenly awoke from slumber, Feeling he was roughly treated, And with pain severe tormented. Then he bit the stake of iron, Bit the outer softer iron, 90 But the steel he could not sever, Could not eat the inner iron.

Then the aged Vainamoinen, Just above his mouth was standing, And his right foot slipped beneath him, And his left foot glided onward. Into Vipunen's mouth he stumbled, And within his jaws he glided.

Vipunen, in songs most famous, Opened then his mouth yet wider, 100 And his jaws he wide extended, Gulped the well-beloved hero, With a shout the hero swallowed, Him the aged Vainamoinen.

Vipunen, in songs most famous, Spoke the very words which follow: "I have eaten much already, And on ewes and goats have feasted, And have barren heifers eaten, And have also swine devoured, 110 But I ne'er had such a dinner, Such a morsel never tasted."

But the aged Vainamoinen, Uttered then the words which follow: "Now destruction falls upon me, And an evil day o'ertakes me, Prisoned here in Hiisi's stable, Here in Kalma's narrow dungeon."

So he pondered and reflected How to live and how to struggle. 120 In his belt a knife had Vaino, And the haft was formed of maple, And from this a boat he fashioned, And a boat he thus constructed, And he rowed the boat, and urged it Back and forth throughout the entrails, Rowing through the narrow channels, And exploring every passage.

Vipunen the old musician Was not thus much incommoded; 130 Then the aged Vainamoinen As a smith began to labour. And began to work with iron. With his shirt he made a smithy, With his shirt-sleeves made his bellows, With the fur he made the wind-bag, With his trousers made the air-pipe, And the opening with his stockings And he used his knee for anvil, And his elbow for a hammer. 140

Then he quick began to hammer, Actively he plied his hammer, Through the livelong night, unresting, Through the day without cessation In the stomach of the wise one, In the entrails of the mighty.

Vipunen, in songs most famous, Spoke aloud the words which follow: "Who among mankind can this be, Who among the roll of heroes? 150 I have gulped a hundred heroes, And a thousand men devoured, But his like I never swallowed. In my mouth the coals are rising, On my tongue are firebrands resting, In my throat is slag of iron.

"Go thou forth to wander, strange one, Pest of earth, at once depart thou, Ere I go to seek thy mother, Seek thy very aged mother. 160 If I told it to thy mother, Told the aged one the story, Great would be thy mother's trouble, Great the aged woman's sorrow, That her son should work such evil, And her child should act so basely.

"Still I hardly comprehend it, Do not comprehend the reason, How thou, Hiisi, here hast wandered, Why thou cam'st, thou evil creature, 170 Thus to bite, and thus to torture, Thus to eat, and thus to gnaw me. Art thou some disease-created Death that Jumala ordains me, Or art thou another creature, Fashioned and unloosed by others, Hired beforehand to torment me, Or hast thou been bribed with money?

"If thou art disease-created, Death by Jumala ordained me, 180 Then I trust in my Creator, And to Jumala resign me; For the good the Lord rejects not, Nor does he destroy the righteous.

"If thou art another creature, And an evil wrought by others, Then thy race would I discover, And the place where thou wast nurtured.

"Once before have ills assailed me, Plagues from somewhere have attacked me, 190 From the realms of mighty sorcerers, From the meadows of the soothsayers, And the homes of evil spirits, And the plains where dwell the wizards, From the dreary heaths of Kalma, From beneath the firm earth's surface, From the dwellings of the dead men, From the realms of the departed, From the loose earth heaped in hillocks, From the regions of the landslips, 200 From the loose and gravelly districts, From the shaking sandy regions, From the valleys deeply sunken, From the moss-grown swampy districts, From the marshes all unfrozen, From the billows ever tossing, From the stalls in Hiisi's forest, From five gorges in the mountains, From the slopes of copper mountains, From their summits all of copper, 210 From the ever-rustling pine-trees, And the rustling of the fir-trees, From the crowns of rotten pine-trees, And the tops of rotten fir-trees, From those spots where yelp the foxes, Heaths where elk are chased on snowshoes, From the bear's own rocky caverns, From the caves where bears are lurking, From the furthest bounds of Pohja, From the distant realms of Lapland, 220 From the wastes where grow no bushes, From the lands unploughed for ever, From the battle-fields extended, From the slaughter-place of heroes, From the fields where grass is rustling, From the blood that there is smoking, From the blue sea's watery surface, From the open sea's broad surface, From the black mud of the ocean, From the depth of thousand fathoms, 230 From the fiercely rushing torrents, From the seething of the whirlpool, And from Rutja's mighty cataract, Where the waters rush most wildly, From the further side of heaven, Where the rainless clouds stretch furthest, From the pathway of the spring-wind, From the cradle of the tempests.

"From such regions hast thou journeyed Thence hast thou proceeded, Torment, 240 To my heart of evil guiltless, To my belly likewise sinless, To devour and to torment me, And to bite me and to tear me?

"Pine away, O hound of Hiisi, Dog of Manala the vilest, O thou demon, quit my body, Pest of earth, O quit my liver, Let my heart be undevoured, Leave thou, too, my spleen uninjured, 250 Make no stoppage in my belly, And my lungs forbear to traverse, Do not pierce me through the navel, And my loins forbear to injure, And my backbone do not shatter, Nor upon my sides torment me.

"If my strength as man should fail me, Then will I invoke a greater, Which shall rid me of the evil, And shall drive away the horror. 260

"From the earth I call the Earth-Queen, From the fields, the Lord primeval, From the earth I call all swordsmen, From the sands the hero-horsemen, Call them to my aid and succour, To my help and aid I call them, In the tortures that o'erwhelm me, And amid this dreadful torment.

"If you do not heed their presence, And you will not shrink before them, 270 Come, O forest, with thy people, Junipers, bring all your army. Come, O pinewoods, with your household, And thou pond with all thy children, With their swords a hundred swordsmen, And a thousand mail-clad heroes, That they may assail this Hiisi, And may overwhelm this Juutas!

"If you do not heed their presence, And you will not shrink before them, 280 Rise thou up, O Water-Mother, Raise thy blue cap from the billows, And thy soft robe from the waters, From the ooze thy form of beauty, For a powerless hero's rescue, For a weakly man's protection, Lest I should be eaten guiltless, And without disease be slaughtered.

"If you will not heed their presence, And you will not shrink before them, 290 Ancient Daughter of Creation, Come in all thy golden beauty, Thou the oldest of all women, Thou the first of all the mothers, Come to see the pains that rack me, And the evil days drive from me, That thy strength may overcome them, And perchance may free me from them.

"But if this not yet should move you, And you will not yet draw backwards, 300 Ukko, in the vault of heaven, On the thundercloud's wide border, Come thou here, where thou art needed, Hasten here, where I implore thee, To dispel the works of evil, And destroy this vile enchantment, With thy sword of flame dispel it, With thy flashing sword-blade smite it.

"Go thou horror, forth to wander, Curse of earth depart thou quickly, 310 Here no more shall be thy dwelling, And if thou such dwelling needest, Elsewhere shalt thou seek thy dwellings, Far from here a home shalt find thee, In the household of thy master, In the footsteps of thy mistress.

"When you reach your destination, And your journey you have finished, In the realms of him who made you, In the country of your master, 320 Give a signal of your coming, Let a lightning flash announce it, Let them hear the roll of thunder, Let them see the lightning flashing, And the yard-gate kick to pieces, Pull a shutter from the window, Then the house thou soon canst enter, Rush into the room like whirlwind, Plant thy foot within it firmly, And thy heel where space is narrow, 330 Push the men into the corner, And the women to the doorposts, Scratch the eyes from out the masters, Smash the heads of all the women, Curve thou then to hooks thy fingers, Twist thou then their heads all crooked.

"Or if this is not sufficient, Fly as cock upon the pathway, Or as chicken in the farmyard, With thy breast upon the dunghill, 340 Drive the horses from the stable, From the stalls the horned cattle, Push their horns into the dungheap, On the ground their tails all scatter, Twist thou then their eyes all crooked, And their necks in haste then break thou.

"Art thou Sickness, tempest-carried, Tempest-carried, wind-conducted, And a gift from wind of springtime, By the frosty air led hither, 350 On the path of air conducted, On the sledgeway of the spring-wind, Then upon the trees repose not, Rest thou not upon the alders, Hasten to the copper mountain, Hasten to its copper summit, Let the wind convey thee thither, Guarded by the wind of springtide.

"But if thou from heaven descended, From the rainless clouds' broad margins, 360 Then again ascend to heaven, Once again in air arise thou, To the clouds where rain is falling, To the stars that ever twinkle, That thou there mayst burn like fire, And that thou mayst shine and sparkle On the sun's own path of splendour, And around the moon's bright circle.

"If thou art some pest of water, Hither drifted by the sea-waves, 370 Let the pest return to water, Journey back amid the sea-waves, To the walls of muddy castles, To the crests of waves like mountains, There amid the waves to welter, Rocking on the darkling billows.

"Cam'st thou from the heaths of Kalma, From the realms of the departed, To thy home return thou quickly, To the dark abodes of Kalma, 380 To the land upheaved in hillocks, To the land that quakes for ever, Where the people fall in battle, And a mighty host has perished.

"If thou foolishly hast wandered From the depths of Hiisi's forest, From the nest amid the pine-trees, From thy home among the fir-trees, Then I drive thee forth and ban thee, To the depths of Hiisi's forest, 390 To thy home among the fir-trees, To thy nest among the pine-trees. There thou mayst remain for ever, Till the flooring-planks have rotted, And the wooden walls are mildewed, And the roof shall fall upon you.

"I will drive thee forth and ban thee, Drive thee forth, O evil creature, Forth unto the old bear's dwelling, To the lair of aged she-bear, 400 To the deep and swampy valleys, To the ever-frozen marshes, To the swamps for ever quaking, Quaking underneath the footsteps, To the ponds where sport no fishes, Where no perch are ever noticed.

"But if there thou find'st no refuge, Further yet will I then ban thee, To the furthest bounds of Pohja, To the distant plains of Lapland, 410 To the barren treeless tundras, To the country where they plough not, Where is neither moon nor sunlight, Where the sun is never shining. There a charming life awaits thee, There to roam about at pleasure. In the woods the elks are lurking. In the woods men hunt the reindeer, That a man may still his hunger, And may satisfy his craving. 420

"Even further yet I ban thee, Banish thee, and drive thee onward, To the mighty falls of Rutja, To the fiercely raging whirlpool, Thither where the trees have fallen, And the fallen pines are rolling, Tossing trunks of mighty fir-trees, Wide-extended crowns of pine-trees. Swim thou there, thou wicked heathen, In the cataract's foaming torrent, 430 Round to drive 'mid boundless waters, Resting in the narrow waters.

"But if there you find no refuge, Further yet will I then ban you, To the river black of Tuoni, To the eternal stream of Mana, Never in thy life escaping, Never while thy life endureth, Should I not consent to free thee, Nor to ransom thee be able, 440 Come with nine sheep thee to ransom, Which a single ewe has farrowed, And with bullocks, nine in number, From a single cow proceeding, And with stallions, nine in number, From a single mare proceeding.

"Need you horses for your journey, Or there's aught you need for driving, Horses I will give in plenty, Plenty I can give for riding. 450 Hiisi has a horse of beauty, With a red mane, on the mountain. Fire is flashing from his muzzle, And his nostrils brightly shining, And his hoofs are all of iron, And of steel are they constructed. He can climb upon a mountain, Climb the sloping sides of valleys, If his rider mounts him boldly, Urges him to show his mettle. 460

"But if this is not sufficient, Then may Hiisi make thee snowshoes. Take the alder-shoes of Lempo, Where the thick smoke is the foulest, Skate thou to the land of Hiisi, Rushing through the woods of Lempo, Dashing through the land of Hiisi, Gliding through the evil country. If a stone impedes thy pathway, Crash and scatter it asunder; 470 Lies a branch across thy pathway, Break the branch in twain when passing; If a hero bar thy passage, Drive him boldly from thy pathway. Go thy way, thou lazy creature, Go thou forth, thou man of evil, Now, before the day is dawning, Or the morning twilight glimmer, Or as yet the sun has risen, Or thou yet hast heard the cockcrow! 480 Thou delay'st too long to leave me, Take thy flight, O evil creature, Fare thee forth Into the moonlight, Wander forth amid its brightness.

"If thou wilt not leave me quickly, O thou dog without a mother, I will take the eagles' talons And the claws of the blood-suckers, And of birds of prey the talons, And of hawks the talons likewise, 490 That I thus may seize the demons, Utterly o'ercome these wretches, That my head may ache no longer, Nor my breathing more oppress me.

"Once did Lempo's self flee from me, When he wandered from his mother, When was aid from Jumala granted, Gave his aid, the Great Creator. Wander forth without thy mother, O thou uncreated creature, 500 Wretched dog without a master, Forth, O whelp without a mother, Even while the time is passing, Even while the moon is waning."

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Answered in the words which follow: "Here I find a pleasant dwelling, Here I dwell in much contentment, And for bread the liver serves me, And the fat with drink supplies me, 510 And the lungs are good for cooking, And the fat is best for eating.

"Therefore will I sink my smithy In thy heart for ever deeper, And will strike my hammer harder, Pounding on the tenderest places, That in all thy life thou never Freedom from the ill may'st hope for, If thy spells thou dost not teach me, All thy magic spells shalt teach me, 520 Till thy spells I learn in fulness, And a thousand spells have gathered; Till no spells are hidden from me, Nor the spells of magic hidden, That in caves their power is lost not, Even though the wizards perish."

Vipunen, in songs so famous, He the sage so old in wisdom, In whose mouth was mighty magic, Power unbounded in his bosom, 530 Opened then his mouth of wisdom, Of his spells the casket opened, Sang his mighty spells of magic, Chanted forth of all the greatest, Magic songs of the Creation, From the very earliest ages, Songs that all the children sing not, Even heroes understand not, In these dreary days of evil, In the days that now are passing. 540

Words of origin he chanted, All his spells he sang in order, At the will of the Creator, At behest of the Almighty, How himself the air he fashioned, And from air the water parted, And the earth was formed from water, And from earth all herbage sprouted.

Then he sang the moon's creation, Likewise how the sun was fashioned, 550 How the air was raised on pillars, How the stars were placed in heaven.

Vipunen, in songs the wisest, Sang in part, and sang in fulness. Never yet was heard or witnessed, Never while the world existed, One who was a better singer, One who was a wiser wizard. From his mouth the words were flowing, And his tongue sent forth his sayings, 560 Quick as legs of foals are moving, Or the feet of rapid courser.

Through the days he sang unceasing, Through the nights without cessation. To his songs the sun gave hearing, And the golden moon stayed listening, Waves stood still on ocean's surface, Billows sank upon its margin, Rivers halted in their courses, Rutja's furious cataract halted, 570 Vuoksi's cataract ceased its flowing, Likewise, too, the river Jordan.

When the aged Vainamoinen Unto all the spells had listened, And had learned the charms in fulness, All the magic spells creative, He prepared himself to travel From the widespread jaws of Vipunen; From the belly of the wise one, From within his monstrous body. 580

Said the aged Vainamoinen, "O thou Antero Vipunen hugest, Open thou thy mouth gigantic, And thy jaws extend more widely. I would quit for earth thy body, And would take my journey homeward."

Vipunen then, in songs the wisest, Answered in the words which follow: "Much I've drunk, and much have eaten, And consumed a thousand dainties, 590 But before I never swallowed Aught like aged Vainamoinen. Good indeed has been thy coming, Better 'tis when thou departest."

Then did Antero Vipunen open Wide expanding gums grimacing, Open wide his mouth gigantic, And his jaws extended widely, While the aged Vainamoinen To his mouth made lengthened journey, 600 From the belly of the wise one, From within his monstrous body. From his mouth he glided swiftly, O'er the heath he bounded swiftly, Very like a golden squirrel, Or a golden-breasted marten.

Further on his path he journeyed, Till at length he reached the smithy. Said the smith, e'en Ilmarinen, "Have you found the words you wanted, 610 Have you learned the spells creative, That the boat-sides you can fashion, Spells to fix the stern together, And the bows to deftly fashion?"

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Answered in the words which follow: "Spells a hundred have I gathered, And a thousand spells of magic, Secret spells were opened to me, Hidden charms were all laid open." 620

To his boat he hastened quickly, And he set to work most wisely, Set to work the boat to finish, And he fixed the sides together, And the stern he fixed together, And the bows he deftly fashioned, But the boat he built unhammered, Nor a chip he severed from it.



Vainamoinen sets sail in his new boat to woo the Maiden of Pohja (1-40). Ilmarinen's sister sees him, calls to him from the shore, learns the object of his journey, and hastens to warn her brother that a rival has set forth to Pohjola to claim the bride (41-266). Ilmarinen makes ready, and rides on horseback to Pohjola along the shore (267-470). The Mistress of Pohjola sees the suitors approaching, and advises her daughter to choose Vainamoinen (471-634). But the daughter herself prefers Ilmarinen, the forger of the Sampo, and tells Vainamoinen, who is first to arrive, that she will not marry him (635-706).

Vainamoinen, old and steadfast, Pondered deeply and reflected How he best should woo the maiden, Hasten to the long-haired maiden, In the gloomy land of Pohja, Sariola, for ever misty, She the far-famed Maid of Pohja, She the peerless Bride of Pohja.

There the pale-grey boat was lying, And the boat with red he painted, 10 And adorned the prow with gilding, And with silver overlaid it; Then upon the morning after, Very early in the morning, Pushed his boat into the water, In the waves the hundred-boarded, Pushed it from the barkless rollers, From the rounded logs of pine-tree.

Then he raised a mast upon it, On the masts the sails he hoisted, 20 Raised a red sail on the vessel, And another blue in colour, Then the boat himself he boarded, And he walked upon the planking, And upon the sea he steered it, O'er the blue and plashing billows.

Then he spoke the words which follow, And in words like these expressed him: "Enter, Jumala, my vessel, Enter here, O thorn most gracious, 30 Strengthen thou the hero's weakness, And the weakling do thou cherish, On these far-extending waters, On the wide expanse of billows.

"Breathe, O wind, upon the vessel, Drive, O wave, the boat before thee, That I need not row with fingers, Nor may thus disturb the waters, On the wide expanse of ocean, Out upon the open ocean." 40

Annikki, the ever-famous, Night's fair daughter, maid of twilight, Long before the day had risen, Early in the morn had wakened, And had washed her clothes and spread them, And had rinsed and wrung the clothing, Where the red steps reach the furthest, Where the planking is the broadest, Out upon the misty headland, On the shady island's ending. 50

Then she turned and gazed around her, In the cloudless air surrounding, And she gazed aloft to heaven, And from shore across the water, And above the sun was shining, And below the waves were gleaming.

O'er the waves her eyes were glancing, To the south her head was turning, To the mouth of Suomi's river, Where the stream of Vainola opens. 60 On the sea a blotch she sighted, Something blue among the billows.

Then she spoke the words which follow, And in terms like these expressed her: "What's this speck upon the ocean, What this blue upon the billows? If it be a flock of wild geese, Or of other beauteous birdies, Let them on their rushing pinions Soar aloft amid the heavens. 70

"If it be a shoal of salmon, Or a shoal of other fishes, Let them leap as they are swimming, Plunging then beneath the water.

"If it be a rocky island, Or a stump amid the water, Let the billows rise above it, Or the waters drive it forward."

Now the boat came gliding onward, And the new boat sailed on swiftly 80 Forward to the misty headland, And the shady island's ending.

Annikki, the ever-famous, Saw the vessel fast approaching, Saw the hundred-boarded passing, And she spoke the words which follow: "If thou art my brother's vessels Or the vessel of my father, Then direct thy journey homeward, To the shore the prow directing, 90 Where the landing-stage is stationed, While the stern is pointing from it. If thou art a stranger vessel, May'st thou swim at greater distance, Towards another stage then hasten, With the stern to this directed."

'Twas no vessel of her household, Nor a boat from foreign regions, But the boat of Vainamoinen, Built by him, the bard primeval, 100 And the boat approached quite closely, Onward sailed in hailing distance, Till a word, and then a second, And a third were heard distinctly.

Annikki, the ever-famous, Night's fair daughter, maid of twilight, Hailed the boat as it approached her: "Whither goest thou, Vainamoinen, Whither, hero of the waters, Wherefore, pride of all the country?" 110

Then the aged Vainamoinen From the boat made ready answer: "I am going salmon-fishing, Where the salmon-trout are spawning, In the gloomy stream of Tuoni, In the deep reed-bordered river."

Annikki, the ever-famous, Answered in the words which follow: "Tell me not such idle falsehoods! Well I know the spawning season, 120 For aforetime oft my father And my grandsire; too, before him, Often went a salmon-fishing, And the salmon-trout to capture. In the boats the nets were lying, And the boats were full of tackle, Here lay nets, here lines were resting, And the beating-poles beside them; And beneath the seats were tridents, In the stern, long staves were lying. 130 Whither goest thou, Vainamoinen, Wherefore, O Uvantolainen?"

Said the aged Vainamoinen, "Forth in search of geese I wander, Where the bright-winged birds are sporting, And the slimy fish are catching, In the deep sound of the Saxons, Where the sea is wide and open."

Annikki, the ever-famous, Answered in the words which follow: 140 "Well I know who speaks me truly, And can soon detect the liar, For aforetime oft my father, And my grandsire, too, before him, Went abroad the geese to capture, And to chase the red-beaked quarry, And his bow was great, and tight-strung, And the bow he drew was splendid, And a black dog leashed securely, In the stern was tightly tethered, 150 On the strand the hounds were running, And the whelps across the shingle; Speak the truth, O Vainamoinen, Whither do you take your journey?"

Said the aged Vainamoinen, "Wherefore take I not my journey, Where a mighty fight is raging, There to fight among my equals, Where the greaves with blood are spattered, Even to the knees all crimsoned?" 160

Annikki again insisted, Loudly cried the tin-adorned one: "Well I know the ways of battle, For aforetime went my father Where a mighty fight was raging, There to fight among his equals, And a hundred men were rowing, And a thousand men were standing. In the prow their bows were lying, And beneath the seats their sword-blades. 170 Speak the truth, and tell me truly, Cease to lie, and speak sincerely. Whither goest thou, Vainamoinen, Wherefore, O Suvantolainen?"

Then the aged Vainamoinen Answered in the words which follow: "Come thou in my boat, O maiden, In my boat, O maiden seat thee, And the truth I then will tell thee, Cease to lie, and speak sincerely." 180

Annikki, the tin-adorned one, Cried aloud in indignation: "May the wind assail thy vessel, And the east wind fall upon it, May thy boat capsize beneath thee, And the prow sink down beneath thee, If you will not tell me truly Where you mean to take your journey, If the truth you will not tell me, And at last will end your lying." 190

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