Up to the ravine and indeed throughout, nothing new occurred in the vegetation. The hill up which we ascended to again descend, was bare, covered with the usual coarse grasses, Campanula linearis and C. cana, foliis undulatis, Desmodium vestilum, Santalacea.
In the ravine Gordonia, Photinia, Pothos flammea and another species, Maesa, Polygonum rheoides, Ficus of Bhamree, and in the khets Hieraceoid, Gnaphalium aureum, Ajuga, and Veronica occurred.
Up the first ascent and at about 5,500 feet, there was a field of peas, in very luxuriant condition. Our road lay through open dry woods of oaks, either Q. robur or Q. tomentosa, principally the latter, Rhododendron minus, and Pinus longifolia preponderated in some places, but few trees of Abies pendula occurred.
The march was so far interesting as establishing nearly the limits of Q. robur, Q. tomentosa and Q. ilecifolia, which last only commenced, and then in a small state, at 7,300 feet, I should say that Q. tomentosa was to it the next indication, as well as Q. glauca. But it must be understood that only full grown trees are now considered. Mosses were common in the woods on reaching 6 to 7,000 feet, principally Dicrana, Hypna, Orthotricha, Pendulous lichens frequent; about 7,000 feet, Primula Stuartii in its old situations between 6 to 7,000 feet, Hypericum of Moflong, 7,000 feet.
We crossed several small water-courses, along these, the dry woods ceased, and the usual humid jungle made its appearance; mosses very numerous.
[Gradient Longloon to Tumashoo: g254.jpg]
The above plants continued throughout, after reaching an altitude of 6,000 feet, the woods consisting of oaks and Rhododendrons.
The route for the most part wound along the course of the Kooree, but considerably above, we left this track about 3 P.M. on the river turning to the southward. Linge was in sight nearly the whole day; we have been six days (including a halt) performing what might with ease be done in one, for there probably is a road in a direct line between this part and the opposite bank of Kooree. The small-crested finch, and red-beaked and red-legged fare occurred, the former is a noisy bird, inhabiting chiefly woods of Q. robur, the flock were loth to leave one particular spot, so that we obtained five specimens: the finch occurred at 7,800 feet.
Various temples and walls were passed en route, and a few villages, with one exception of average small size, were visible in various directions.
February 25th.—Our route hence continued for some time at about the same level, when we descended rather rapidly, until we reached a considerable stream, the Oongar, which is crossed by the ordinary wooden bridge; about 200 yards further, it is again crossed by means of a rude bridge, and the remainder of the march is a steep, long, and unmitigated ascent. I reached the tent about 5 P.M.; we passed one village situated near the larger bridge, with this exception the country seemed uninhabited: very little cultivation was visible in any direction.
The vegetation was the same, for the most part, the drier faces of the hills being covered, i.e. at about the level of Oongar, with oaks and Rhododendrons, the wet ravines being more densely, and more variously wooded. On sward about Oongar, I noticed a Pedicularis, Artemisia major, Stellaria angustifolia, Berberis pinnata in woods at the same elevation, Plantago, Crawfurdia speciosa, Rubus deltoideus, Alnus of Beesa, Otochilus, Gordonia, Lilium giganteum, Bucklandia.
In one spot near this place mosses were very abundant. On one rock I gathered, Weissioides, Orthodon, Pohlia, Brachymenium bryoides, Weissia, Bartramioides, Didymodon, Daphne papyrifera, and Eurya acuminata, this being about the lowest elevation at which I have seen this plant. In cultivated spots Crucifera, Ervum, and at a temple about a mile from Oongar, Cupressus pendula, and a juniper, Arbor parva, of aspect scraggy, trunco laevi, Cannabis, Cerastium canum in cultivated places. The most common oak was Q. robur. The Jay, larger Brachypodium, which always goes in large flocks, orange-breasted Trochilus and blackbird, were likewise seen, as well as the brown finch, which was seen feeding on Rhododendron minus. On rocky ground I procured a really fine Acanthus, leaves all flesh-coloured, subscandens, spic. maximis lanato-ciliatis, tetrastich. on this the black cattle appear to be fed, as large bundles were brought in at Oongar. In the woody ravines Panax curcasifolia was common, in these I noticed Cerastium scandens, Elaeagnus, Clematis, Tetrantheroidea habitu, Sedgewickiae! Orthotrichum pumulum! Phlomoides, and in wet spots are Epilobium. The descent shewed nothing remarkable: towards the nullah I noticed Engelhaardtia, tree fern, and Gaultheria deflexa. Obtained a beautiful woodpecker at 5,000 feet, with the chesnut-pated lesser tomtit, Yunx, and speckled Brachypodium in woods here; this last has the habit and manners of the crooked bill of Dgin.
The wood between the two bridges was very pretty and open; the trees covered with mosses. The ascent shewed nothing remarkable until 2,000 feet had been surmounted, the plants forming the vegetation below this were Q. robur, Rhododendron minus in abundance, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Gaultheria arborea, Saurauja hispida uncommon, Viburnum caerulescens, Conyza nivea, Oxyspora towards the base with paper plant, and Bambusa microphylla. About 5,000 feet, a Daltonia, D. hypnoides, was found in abundance both on rocks and trees.
The change takes place about the situation of a spacious open sward; here the jungle is thick, the trees consisting principally of Q. glauca, which is a noble tree, with immense lamellated acorns, Pendulous lichens are here common, Hymenopogon parasiticus, Lomaria of Khegumpa! Berberis asiatica! Hemiphragma, Gaultheria nummulareoides, Panax Rhododendrifol.
At 7,500 feet, Rhododendron majus appears, the wood preserving the umbrageous humid aspect, Eurya acuminata, Hydrangea, and about this snow commenced sparingly, but soon became thick. At 8,000 feet, Rhododendron undulata, Tetrantheroides baccis nigris. At 9,000 feet, Rhododendron ferrugineum. The evening now became so misty that it was impossible to discern any thing; in addition, it was snowing: these circumstances added to fatigue made me press on for the halting place, before coming to which I passed through heavy snow.
Pemee, where we put up, is a miserable hut, is upwards of 9,000 feet above the sea, situated on an open sward, now densely covered with snow, the accommodations being of course very miserable. Icicles of large size were seen here; and we had nothing but snow for water.
February 26th.—Leaving this, we commenced a long and at last very steep ascent, the snow increasing in thickness as we increased our elevation, the march commenced with undulations, but soon passed off into an excessively steep ascent, in some parts indeed precipitous. We crossed at twelve and a half P.M. the Pass of Rodoola, on which are some slabs, with mystic characters, but even here the ascent did not terminate, but continued, although very gradually for perhaps two miles more. Before coming to the summit, a small hut is passed. The descent was at first very rapid, then we proceeded along the side of the mountain for a long way, at nearly the same level through woods of Abies densa. On recommencing the descent, swardy patches commenced, surrounded by fir woods, these increased in frequency. At length we reached extensive fir woods, from whence a valley was visible, percolated by a large stream to which we descended over open country with beautiful patches of firs, and at length over extensive swards. I reached the village at 5 P.M., after a march of nearly nine hours, the direction was west, the distance eighteen miles. The road was very bad; in one place our ponies escaped with difficulty, the road having apparently fallen in, and the only footing being afforded by the thickness of the snow: one pony was saved by placing branches under him. The highest portion of the Pass near the peak was good enough. Snow was heavy on the road, until we descended into the open fir-wooded country, it became scanty at 9,500 feet. The day was gloomy and misty, for a moment, the sun appeared while I stood on the summit, disclosing deep ravines, one formed by the valley in which we now are, surrounded in every direction by equally high land, as that on which I stood, and certainly not under 12,000 feet. Nothing visible but dense forests of firs. The highest point crossed was 12,035 feet, estimating the summit to be 300 feet above the Pass itself, which is so narrow as scarcely to admit of the passage of a loaded mule.
In the open spot around the hut, Tofieldioid, which continues as high as 10,500 feet, Cerastium inflatum, Labiata species, Conecis, which, as on Dhonglaila, continues up to 12,000 feet, Dipsacus, Prunella, Gaultheria nummularioides, Pteris aquilina, stunted, Juncus niveus, Gnaphalium. No firs were visible, but the trees were so covered with snow, that I was not able to distinguish them.
At 9,800 feet, along an open ridge, Spiraea belloides, Buddlaea, B. purpurasae, Khasyanae affinis, Andropogones, Mespilus microphyllus, Hydrangea, Taxus, Swertia, Gnaphalium, Thibaudia orbicularis commences, continuing up to 10,500 feet, Brachymenium bryoides, Bambusa very common, forming frequently the chief bulk of the forest, even up to 10,500 feet, Acer arbuscula foliis palmatum lobatis!! Pyrus arbor magna fol. obovat. serratis subtus albus, fructibus cerasi magnitudinum.
At 10,000 feet, Composita penduliflora! Hemiphragma, Lobelioides, Brachymenium bryoides, Rhododendron minus ferrugineum, arboreum vel arbuscula, Rhododendron obovatum, foliis subtus albus, Rhododendron hispidum, Rosa microphylla, Bambusa, Spiraea of former ascent.
At 10,200 feet, Polygonum, Rheum, Hydrangea! Spiraea belloides, Hydrangea, Betuloides.
At 10,500 feet, Abies densa, but sparingly, Rhododendron ellipticum, foliis basi cordatis, Hypericum, Rhododendron microphyllum.
At 11,000 feet, no firs: nothing almost but Rhododendrons, R. ellipticum, and R. ellipticum foliis basi cordatis.
At 11,500 feet, Vaccinium, foliis ovatis spinuloso-dentatis, atratus fructex pygmaeus repens.
Towards the Pass, the face of the mountain became more and more rugged, the vegetation more scanty, consisting of nothing but Rhododendrons.
At 12,000 feet, Eriogonum minus, Polygonum, Rheum, Rhodod. microphyllum and ellipticum foliis basi cordatis.
About the Pass, Trichostomum, Xyris, Abies densa, one small plant, Rosa, Eriogonum minus, Rhododendron microphyllum and ellipticum foliis basi cordatis.
On the more level ridge between this Pass and the summit, Rhododendrons still were most frequent, Triticoides umbellifera of Royle, Eriogonum majus, woods of Abies densa occurred a little below the path, Gentiana maxima, 4-pedalis folliculis bipollicaribus, Lilium uniflorum, Potentilla common between this and 9,000 feet, Rosa microphyllum, Juniperus, Epilobium minus of Dhonglaila, Rheum. Large black crow, Pedicularis, Saxifraga, Umbellifera alia, Compositae, Spiraea.
At the summit, no woody vegetation was visible, except Rhododendrons; the firs being confined below.
The descent at first through Rhododendron, then for a long time entirely through vast woods of Abies densa, most of the larger trees of this are apparently blasted, it has a tabular form, and very sombre appearance, and can be recognized even at great distances by its black columnar palm- like appearance.
At 11,000 feet, Acer sterculiacea, Rosa microphylla, Ribes, which ceases below 10,000 feet, it is confined to the A. densa woods.
At 10,500 feet, Saxifraga, two species on moist banks, A. densa woods, small Umbellifera.
The sward commences at about 10,000 feet, and is common at 9,500 feet. It is clothed principally with the small bamboo noticed in similar places above Sanah. Berberis spathulata commences. It is with this sward that a new fir, with a larch-like look, which I call temporarily Abies spinulosa, commences, and continues down to the nullah, becoming more abundant as A. densa becomes less abundant, and finally usurping its place entirely. Rhododendron microphyllum continues to 9,600 feet, at which point Baptisoidea commences.
The vegetation hence to Bhoomlungtung consists entirely of Abies spinulosa, intermixed with a species very like Abies pendula, this appears at about 9,500 feet. The sward consists of small grasses, Juncus niveus, Gnaphalium, Hypericum of Mollong, suffrutex incertus. Juncus effusus at 9,000 feet, with Prinsepia utilis.
The marked indicators of great elevation are A. densa, Polygonum, Rheum! Eriogona! Rhododendron microphyllum, ellipticum, and ellipticum foliis basi cordatis, Epilobium, Triticoides, Holcoides, Umbellifera of Royle, Saxifragae, Ribes, Juniperus.
The most marked peculiarity is the comparative absence of A. densa on the east side of the mountain, and its excessive abundance on the west. This valley may be justly called the valley of pines, for in no direction is any forest to be seen but those composed of pines. The change indeed is extraordinary, in other respects as indicated by the presence of a new Rosa and Prinsepia utilis. Another peculiarity is the appearance for the first time of A. spinulosa. The range of which is between 8 to 10,000 feet; this is a beautiful tree, and disposed in beautiful groups. The valley altogether is a beautiful one, and actually repays one for the trouble endured in getting access to it.
The temperature in crossing the ridge was below that on Dhonglaila, and below the freezing point at times. No inconvenience was felt by us from the elevation, but many of our servants suffered probably as much from fright as cold.
February 28th.—This valley is certainly the prettiest place we have yet seen, the left bank is particularly level, but neither are of much breadth, the hills adjacent present rounded grassy patches, interspersed with beautiful groves of pines. The level space, as well as the more favourable sites on the slopes of the hills, are occupied by wheat cultivation, which is carried on in a more workman-like manner, than any of the previous cultivation I have hitherto seen. The fields are occasionally surrounded with stone walls, but generally only protected from the inroads of cattle by branches of thorny shrubs strewed on their edges. They are kept clean, and above all, manure is used: it is however dry and of a poor quality, apparently formed of animal and vegetable moulds. In some of the fields the surface is kept very fine, all stones and clods being carefully removed and piled up in various parts of the field, but whether these masses are again strewed over the ground. The plough is used, and penetrates to about four inches. Hoes and rakes are also used, but the angle of the handle is much too acute. Radishes are grown with the wheat: no rice is cultivated here.
The village Bhoomlungtung, at which we are stationed is on the left bank of a branch of the Bhoomla nullah, a river of some size, but fordable in most places, its bed being subdivided. It is 8,668 feet above the sea. The houses are ordinary, but they are surrounded with stone walls. Our's, which is a portion of the Dhumpas or headman's, has a court-yard, surrounded by a stone wall, and the entrance is defended by a stout and large door. The natives invariably wear dark clothing, the colour being only rivalled by that of their skins, for I never saw dirtier people. The Bhooteas hitherto visited, were quite paragons of cleanliness compared to those we are now among. Half ruined villages are visible here and there, although otherwise the appearance of the valley is prosperous enough. The valley is surrounded on all sides by hills of great altitude, the lowest being 10,500 feet high. Snow is plentiful on the ridges, but it does not remain long below, although falls are frequent. No fish are to be seen in the river, which is otherwise as regards appearance as beautiful a trout stream as one could wish to have. The birds are the common sparrow, field-fare, red-legged crow, magpie, skylark, a finch which flies about in large flocks, with a sub-forked tail, raven, red-tailed stonechat, larger tomtit, syras, long-tailed duck, and quail, which is much larger than that found in Assam. The woods are composed entirely of Abies pendula, a few A. spinulosa occur, intermixed, but the woods of the latter species are scarcely found below 9,500 feet. The ridges are clothed with the columnar Abies densa. In thickets a smaller Rosa, Rhododendron ellipticum, foliis basi cordatis, Rhododendron elliptica, foliis subtus argenteis, Rhodod. gemmis viscosis. Berberis asiatica, Hamamelidea? Bambusa microphyllum, Philadelphus, Thibaudia orbicularis, Mespilus microphyllus, Taxus or Abies Brunonis, Ilex dipyrena, occur. The sward shews small grasses, all past flower, Hemiphragma, Thymus, Dipsacus, Juncus niveus, Gnaphalia 2, 3, Potentilla.
The fields have Crucifera Lamium and Verbascum, a late biennial species, Caule simplici, Hemiphragma.
The marshy spots abound with Juncus effusus, and shew also a Primula out of flower, and a Xyris past flowering.
Along the bed of the river, Hippophae is the most common plant. Lastly, a few trees occur of Q. ilecifolia, which assumes a very handsome character, looking much like a Conifera at some distance, one group occurs near the village, and a solitary tree or two elsewhere. The other woody vegetables are Rosa fructibus hispidis, Cycnium, Pomacea arbuscula, and one or two other deciduous shrubs. The willow tree is also common.
March 1st.—Marched to Byagur, we were told that the march was a short one, and that we should continue throughout along the Bhoomlungtung river, which is called Tung-chiew. We did keep along this for about two miles, when we struck off into the hills passing through a village, we continued rising for perhaps 1,000 feet, when we descended to a small nullah. Leaving this we commenced an ascent, and a very long one too, and continued to ascend until we surmounted the ridge overlooking the river, on which Byagur or Iugur is situated. To the place we descended, the march was fourteen miles, direction westerly. Highest ground traversed about 9,500 feet high. Road throughout winding round and up hills, through woods of Abies pendula: nothing of interest occurred. Magpies, crows, chatterer feeding on pine cones, common in woods at 9,000 feet. Passed two or three villages, all containing ruined houses. Direction we pursued was that of the Tung-chiew river, until we reached the ridge guiding the Byagur river to it: their junction takes place two or three miles below this place, Cycnium occurred on the road in plenty, also Sarcococea.
Horseshoe curlew, the same as we shot at Daimara, common in the Tung-chiew, along which the chief shrubs are Hippophae and Elaeagnus, particularly in the islets which are not uncommon in its bed. The common water wagtail also occurs.
I find that the root of the common Potentilla is used here, as about Nunklow, as a substitute for sooparee, it is unpleasantly astringent. Observed Rhododendron microphylla on the loftier ground; very high land, 18,000 feet visible to the south along the course of Tung-chiew, covered with heavy snow: Abies pendula is occasionally a beautiful tree, 100 feet high, and in appearance something like a cedar, the finest occurs at a monastery under a bluff rock, about one and a half mile from Bhoomlungtung on the Tung-chiew; Daphne papyriferae occurred at 9,000 feet. The heaps of earth piled up in the fields before sowing, consist of burnt rubbish, the ashes are subsequently spread out. The manure consists entirely of vegetables: here I find that the pine leaves are piled up, and formed into manure by fermentation.
March 2nd.—Byagur, the Soobah's house is about 500 feet above us, and is a huge rambling edifice. We are in a village situated in a rather capacious valley, percolated by a large river, twice the size of the Tung- chiew, which is crossed by an ordinary bridge, the river runs close to the hills, which form the left bank, the right is a sort of plain, occupied by wheat cultivation, and which has apparently at a former period, been the bed of the river. In this valley other villages are visible, but they are small, and nothing indicates either fertility or prosperity. The valley is surrounded on all sides by high mountains, those towards Bhoomlungtung being lowest. To the north-east very high land is visible. The ridge which separates us from Tongse is, in the highest parts, certainly 12,000 feet, and covered with snow. The people are dirty to an excess.
Crow, sparrow, Alauda, are the birds here. Saw a fox, an animal of some size, with a beautiful brush. The botany is poor, the hills are clothed with the usual grasses, abundance of Abies pendula. The khets or fields present the old Lamium and Crucifera. The only trees are one of Q. ilecifolia, and one or two of Salix lanata.
March 3rd.—Cycnium is found here, but is put to no use. The crops which are now springing up are very poor, the soil being extremely bad, they are irrigated by means of canals, but terraces are not in use, the ground being too level, the embankments are much smaller than those used in rice cultivation.
The place is bleak in the extreme, and here, as often on the western face of the Himalaya, at this season a fierce diurnal wind rises directly the sun gets power, which always blows up the ravines or against the streams draining these, it dies away towards evening, generally. It is cold in the extreme, and must check vegetation extremely. Syras, common here, as at Bhoomlungtung.
The ridge above this which is crossed coming from Bhoomlungtung, is 9,947 feet high, yet no snow was on the ground. The contrast between it and Pemee in regard to snow and vegetation is remarkable; there the woods were thick, luxuriant, and varied, here nothing is to be seen but Abies pendula. I consider this a proof that A. pendula is a native of places below much snow, and that where snow abounds, it will not be found to extend above 8,000 feet. The dwarf bamboo of Sanah is common here, covering large patches of ground, Lamium of Bulphai in the vicinity of temples, and enclosing pagodas. The people here evince great skill in figures, but none in architecture.
The Soobah's house, a castellated heterogeneous mansion, spread over much ground, the defences on one side reaching nearly to the level of the valley. The Kumpa dogs are fierce and handsome, with the bark of a mastiff, they are not apparently deterred by threats, but rather the contrary. A woman with dropsy, wrapped in filthy clothes, presented herself and evinced great anxiety to have her pulse felt, but the dirt of her clothes was such, that I made excuses.
Manure for the land consists of pine leaves, etc. mixed with cow-dung. The cattle are well littered; and grass is here of rather better description: all cattle are however in wretched condition notwithstanding, and the cows give very little milk. The houses of the poorer orders, are unornamented, but those of the better classes are always ornamented with a belt of red ochre outside. There are no large boulders in the river here, although it runs with violence. This is owing to the softness or tenacity of the rocks.
March 4th.—Our march commenced with a steep ascent up the ridge, forming the west boundary of the valley, surmounting this we proceeded on for some distance at about the same level, and thence descended rapidly to a nullah. We then ascended slightly, and subsequently descended to the valley, in which the village Jaisa is situated. The distance was nine miles; the march was pretty, almost entirely through fir woods, three villages were visible in a valley to the left, which is in fact the termination of the Jaisa one, but beyond the valleys no cultivation whatever was visible.
The first part was up a barren grassy slope, after which we entered fir woods, these at first were almost entirely constituted of Abies pendula.
At 9,000 feet Chimaphila, Berberis spathulata, Abies pendula, Bambusa microphylla of Sanah, Mespilus microphyllus, Rhododendron elliptica, foliis basi cordatis subtus argenteis, Philadelphus Lycopod. of Surureem, Gaultheria nummularifolia, Rhododendron viscosum.
At 9,300 feet, Abies spinulosa becomes more common, Rosa hispida and microphylla! Pinus cedroides commences, Dalibarda, Daphne papyracea, Thymus, Gnaphalia, Mespilus and Berberis, as before, Potentilla.
At 9,500 feet, snow lying on the path in sheltered places, Euphorbia, Gaultheria arboreoides, Hypnum rubescens, scolopendrioids, Pteris aquilina, Melianthus, Rosa, frutex erectus ramis hispidissimis, ramulis subglabratis, fructibus pendulis glabris, tubo-ovato, sepalis lanceolatis. Salix arbuscula, gemmis rubur glabris, foliis lanceolatis subtus glaucis, amentis faeminies pendulis, Bupleurum, Hydrangea, Spiraea densa belloides! Prunella, Pinus cedroides common at Potentilla.
At 9,700, 9,800, to 10,000 feet, Abies densa, a few trees, as usual many blasted, from lightning confined entirely towards the summit, Acer sterculiacea, Aruncus, Thibaudia orbicularis, A. spinulosa very common, A. pendula ceases, or at most only stunted plants occur, Mespilus microphyllus, Berberis spathulata, Baptisia, these were very common on west face, which is level enough and open.
Here also Pedicularis, Bupleurum, stunted Pteris aquilina, Polygonum, Rheum! Avena! Pendulous lichens luxuriant. Along the level tracts, the woods consisted entirely of Abies spinulosa, a minute Gentiana common on the sward.
The descent was steep to the ravine; half-way down A. pendula commenced to flourish, and towards the ravine it was more common than A. spinulosa; Rhododendron microphyllum was seen on this face at 9,500 feet, Verbascum at 9,200 feet, but most of the plants seen on the east face were not found on this. Acer sterculiacea, however occurred at 9,800 feet, otherwise pines were the most prominent feature.
At the nullah, Dipsacus, Elaeagnus, Salix lanata, Artemisia major, Daphne papyracea, Rhododendron viscosum, Mespilus microphyllus, Rosa hispida, spinus acutissimis, Bambusa of Sanah, Plectranthus a large suffruticose annual species, common in all the same altitudes, were observed. The subsequent descent was through woods of A. pendula, with a few of A. spinulosa intermixed.
The limits of A. densa, A. spinulosa and A. pendula, Melianthus, Acer sterculiacea, Thibaudia orbicularis, A. cedroides, Rosa microphylla, Pedicularis, Hydrangea, Baptisia, Berberis spathulata were well determined. They may be expressed as follows: A. densa, 10 to 13,000 feet, A. spinulosa, 9 to 10,500 feet, A. pendula, 6 to 9,000 feet, Melanthus, 9,500 feet, Acer sterculiaceum, 9,800 to 10,000 feet, Thibaudia orbicularis, 10,000 feet, A. cedroides, 9,000 to 9,800 feet, Rosa microphylla, 9,800 to 13,000 feet, Pedicularis, 10 to 12,500 feet, Hydrangea, 4 to 10,000 feet unless two species are confounded, Baptisia, 9 to 9,800 feet, Berberis spathulata, 9 to 10,000 feet.
Jaisa is a good sized village for Bootan, and the houses are rather large. We were lodged in the castle, a large building, with a capacious flagged court-yard, surrounded by galleries: we were housed in the grand floor of the higher portion fronting the gate. A good deal of wheat cultivation occurs around. The village is situated in a small nullah, surrounded on all sides by pine-clad hills. The vegetation is precisely the same as at Juggur, with the exception of a Ligustrum, which is common along the nullah. Larks, red-legged crows and ravens, abound here.
March 5th.—Our march consisted of a progress along levelish ground up the river, occasionally rounding small eminences: we then commenced the ascent of a ridge, the summit of which we reached about half past- twelve. Snow is common above 9,000 feet. The descent was steep and uninterrupted from about 2,000 feet, when we reached a small river. Thence we ascended a little to descend again, we continued over a ravine at nearly the same level, for some time proceeding over undulated ground: on reaching the debouchure of the ravine into a larger one running north and south, we commenced to descend rapidly until we came to an elevation situated above Tongsa, to this place the descent was excessively steep. The march was thirteen miles long, the direction west.
At a temple near Jaisa found the Juniper of Oongar in flower, and arboreous, attaining a height of about 40 feet. The whole march up, nearly to the summit, was through pine woods, A. pendula and spinulosa being intermixed for some time. I noticed Primula globifera, Eucalypta, Thibaudia orbicularis, Aruncus, Rosa ramis hispidis, Dipsacus, Prunella, Potentilla, Gnaphalium, Sphagnum, Daphne papyracea, Tofieldia, Gaultheria nummularoides, as we approached the base of the ridge or rather the spot at which the ascent commenced. At this place Abies cedroides commenced, and Abies pendula became uncommon.
On a bank here, I gathered abundance of mosses, Bartramia, Dicrana, etc. and some Jungermanniae.
The ascent was through precisely similar vegetation, in one place it was exceedingly pretty, consisting of sward with pines. Here snow was lying on the ground in sheltered places to the depth of several inches. The ground hence was levelish, but between this place and the summit a rise of a hundred feet took place. Between these places Abies densa, cedroides and spinulosa, occurred, but this was uncommon, Rosa ramis hispidis, Salix of yesterday, Bambusa of Sanah, stunted Pteris aquilina, Betuloidea, Hydrangea, Hypnum rufescens, scolopendrioid as well as below: Spiraea belloides, Rhododendron obovatum, which varies on the same plant with ferruginous and white leaves, Sphagnum, Thibaudia orbicularis. On sward Gentiana minima.
As the snow increased, Abies cedroides became less, Abies densa more common. At the very summit Parnassia, Polygonum rheum, Composita penduliflora, Rhododendron hispidum, Berberis spathulata, which had occurred previously, Vaccinium pumilium, ciliatum, Gentiana minima, Swertia, Cnicus, Compositae frequent, Labiata spicata of Dhonglaila.
The descent was at first open, through swardy places: here Acer sterculiaceum, Geranium scandens, Avena, Abies densa, Juniperus fruticosa, raro arbuscula.
At 9,800 feet, Rhododendron foliis lanceolato-oblongis subtus ferruginea tomentosis, arborea, became very common, forming large woods, Abies densa interspersed, Juniperus, Betuloidea which has six or seven layers of bark, the boj-putah of Hindoostan according to Blake, Rosa microphylla, Hemiphragma, Daphne papyracea, Dicranum stratum, etc.
At 9,500 feet, Clematis, Berberis asiatica, commences, Betula, common Andropogoneous grasses.
At 9,300 feet, Primula pulcherrima, Abies cedroides very common, Abies densa ceasing, Buddlaea purpurescens, Aruncus, Bupleurum.
At 9,200 feet, Lonicera villosa, Vaccinium cyaneum, Bambusa alia, Abies densa ceasing.
At 9,000 feet, the jungle now became humid, Gaultheria flexuosa, Mespilus microphyllus, Quercus ilecifolia, Tetrantheroides baccis nigris, Gaultherium nummularifolia common, Rubia cordifolia! Hydrangea.
At 8,900 feet, Junipers cease, woods of Q. ilecifolia and Pinus cedroides, Rosa microphylla, shrubby Rhododendrons, that which was arboreous previously now becoming shrubby, Berberis asiatica, Taxus or Abies brunonis! Lomaria of Khegumpa, Rhododendron foliis oblongis subtus punctatis ferrugineis, Rubus, Primula Stuartii! Quercus foliis, Castaneae, Ilex, Betuloid, continues.
At 8,500 feet, Panax rhododendrifolia, Thibaudia obovata, Taxus ophiopogon angustissimus, Rhododendron formosum majus! Smilax ruscoideus vel gaultherifolia! Primula pulcherrima, very common.
At 8,200 feet, Spiraea decomposita, Thibaudia obovata very common. No firs, woods of oaks and Rhododendron majus, Panax rhododendrifolia and another species; Bambusa.
At the nullah, same vegetation, Tetranthera nuda, Primula pulcherrima, Valeriana violifolia, Eurya acuminata, Daphne papyrifolia, Fragaria, Potentilla supina, Rumex of Khegumpa, Poa annua, Stellaria media and angustifolia, Rhodoracea deflexa!
At 8,000 feet, the woods at this elevation have the same characters, Rhododendron argenteum becomes common, Q. ilecifolia and Castaneae facies, both very handsome and large trees, covered with pendulous mosses, Sphaeropteris, Saxifragea viridis, fleshy Urticea, Oxalis major on sward at the same elevation, Vaccinium cyaneum, Mespilus microphyllus, Artemisia major, Gnaphalium, Dipsacus, Elaeagnus in woods, Tetranthera nuda, Taxus, Gaultheria flexuosa nummularifolia, Vaccinium cyaneum, Lomaria, Lonicera villosa, paper plant, Thibaudia orbicularis, Hedera.
At 7,800 feet, towards open barren hills, Indigofera canescens, Q. robur, Spiraea decomposita, Anthistiria minor, Composita penduliflora, Alnus of Beesa, Juncus effusus, Viburnum caerulescens, Xyris, Scripus fuscescens of Tassangsee, Gaultheria arborea and fruticosa, Polygonum rheoides, Smilax auriculata, Saccharum aristata, Lobelia pyramidalis, Stauntonia latifolia, Salix lanata, Deutzia.
At 7,500 feet, Quercus tomentosa commences, between this and Tongsa, Berberis asiatica is very common, Rosa sp., quarta, Cyaneum dycopod. of Surureem, Ilex dipyrena, Tuipus, Kysoor of Churra, Apple, Gleichenia major, Rubus deltoideus. In wheat fields, 7,500 feet, Crucifera, Thlaspa, Lamium, Ervum, are found, Vaccinium cyaneum continues to 7,000 feet, this Mespilus microphylla, Berberis asiatica, Cycnium, Lycopod. of Surureem, Ilex, Daphne papyriferae, are the only elevational plants found between 8 and 9,000 feet, and which continue low down. All the others ceased with the jungles.
March 13th.—Tongsa: this, although the second place in the kingdom, is a poor wretched village, the houses, always excepting the palace, are poorer than ordinary, abounding in rats, fleas, and other detestable vermin. Our reception would seem to be uncordial: we are miserably housed in the heart of the village, which is a beggarly one. On descending the hill some people in the Pillo's house behaved very insolently, roaring out, and making most insolent signs for me to dismount, of which of course I took no notice: sparrow-hawk was seen at 8,000 feet. There is but little cultivation, indeed the adjoining hills are barren in the extreme. The little cultivation there is of barley, which is now in the ear, and decent enough; the crops being much better than any we have yet seen, although in many fields it is difficult to see any crop at all. The village, including the houses on the surrounding adjoining heights does not contain thirty houses. There is one flock of sheep, which are in good condition, some small shawl-goats, and a few cattle, but of a lighter breed than the Mithans, from which they are very distinct, and which we have scarcely seen since crossing Dhonglaila, the first high ridge. There is some rice cultivation along the nullah or torrent, on which the village is situated. Pears, peaches likewise occur, and are now both in flower. The hills around are bare, nothing but shrubby vegetation being visible, the tree-jungle not descending below 7,500 feet, except on one spur to the south-west, on which it reaches nearly to our present level.
The shrubby vegetation consists of Hamamelidae, Salix, Gaultheria fruticosa, Rosa, Rubus, Pomacea, Elaeagnus, Berberis asiatica, among which Artemisia major occurs on sward. Primula Stuartii, Potentilla and P. supina, Oxalis acetoseltoides, Juncus, Bartramia, Polytrichum glaucum, Fragaria vesca. In the fields Lamium, Crucifera, Thlaspi, Gnaphalium aureum, Prenanthoid, Fragaria indica, Viola, Ranunculus, Oxalis acetosella, Poa annua.
Urtica urens, and urentior occur about the houses, Cupressus pendula and a Magnoliaceous tree, with exquisitely fragrant blossoms.
The palace is a huge, long, straggling piece of patch-work, of ordinary construction, and less imposing than that of Byagur, which the Pillo makes his summer residence on the Bhoomlungtung; it is however ornamented with three gilt umbrellas. It is situated on the bank of the nullah, and defended by some outworks, 6 to 700 feet above it; to the east, these might, from their situation, be easily demolished by stones. The palace itself is commanded in every direction, particularly by the hill, along which we came from Jaisa; indeed a person might jump from the summit of this on to the outpost, and thence on to the palace; so precipitous is the descent.
The people, above all those hitherto seen, are dirty in their persons, uniting curiosity with no small share of obstinacy and impertinence in their manners. The birds are the blackbird, a black mina, the house-sparrow, sparrow-hawk, larger crow, domestic pigeons, kites, and hoopoo. The red-legged crows I have heard once, but far above, nor do I think that they ever visit this. The productions being essentially different from those of the elevated valleys we have lately quitted. Can those valleys be the steps to the table-land of Thibet to which they must be near, and which is reached sooner in that direction than any other? The idea of the high valleys in question being steps to table- land is perhaps corroborated by the fact, that the table-land is said to be within two days' journey from Byagur.
Our interview with the Pillo took place on the 15th, it was conducted with some state, and with some impertinence. The latter was indicated by delaying us at the door of the audience room, the former by the attendance of more numerous and better dressed attendants than usual. Two Pillos were present. The incense as usual was burning, and the Pillos, both old and new, were seated before some large Chinese-looking figures. The only novel ceremony was the praying over a mess of something which I imagine was meant for tea; in the prayer all joined, when finished the beverage was handed to the Pillos, who, however, were contented with merely tasting it. Before this some was strewn on the floor in front, and some to the right of the chieftains. The castle was in places crowded with people, no less than 5 to 600, but all were as dirty as usual. None but the immediate attendants appeared armed. The new Pillo is a dark low-looking man, with an incipient goitre, the old one a more decent aristocratic looking person, good-looking and very fair. The presents were of course beggarly, consisting of indifferent oranges, wretched plantains, sugarcane of still worse quality, and ghee of an abominable odour.
March 17th.—We still remain here, and do not expect to leave for two or three days. The weather is unsettled, and the sun increasing in power daily. The new Soobahs left to-day for their appointments, with the exception of the Dewangur one. Pigs are here fed on boiled nettle leaves: old ladies may be seen occasionally busily employed in picking the leaves for this purpose, and which they do by means of bamboo pincers or tweezers. A few plantains may be met with here, but in a wretched state. Rice may be seen 500 feet above this, on the north of the castle, the slope of a hill being appropriated to its cultivation; the terraces above, owing to the inclination, are very narrow, and from the paucity of straw, the crops must, I should infer, be very poor.
March 22nd.—To-day we took our leave of the Pillo, who received us in a room to the south of the castle. He was friendly enough, but begged for presents unconscionably. He was surrounded by a considerable number of more mean-looking persons than ordinary. On the previous meeting he talked openly of being at enmity with the present Deb Rajah, but on this occasion he said little on the subject.
The castle is an ill-built, and worse arranged building, the windows and loopholes being so placed as to afford every facility for shooting into the air. In a court-yard, several tiger skins brought from the plains, are suspended.
It now appears that this Pillo, who said previously that the new Deb was never installed, is himself an usurper, previously handing the old Deb from the throne. This latter personage appears to be by far the more popular of the two. The Pillo must now have great influence, as all the posts in his division, are either held by his own sons, or by his more influential servants. The sons by the bye are, so long as they remain in the presence, treated like ordinary servants. Joongar is held by one of his sons, a lad of about eighteen, of plain but pleasing appearance and of good manners. He visited us yesterday, and his newly acquired rank sat easily on him. The old Pillo no doubt owes his rank to his having been the father of the lad chosen to be Dhurma Rajah, he is himself very evidently low-born and low-bred, and compared with the former one, so poor a specimen, that the greater popularity of the former is not to be wondered at. From all we have heard, they are contemptible rulers, as they appear to do nothing but intrigue for power among themselves. Changes are hence excessively frequent, and were they attended with much bloodshed, the country would be depopulated.
This evening we had ample proof that the Bhootea houses are not water- proof. Heavy showers occurred with thunder and dense clouds from the south-west.
March 23rd.—We left Tongsa, proceeding through the castle, and thence struck down to the river Mateesun. The descent was very steep, and amounted to about 1,200 feet. The river is crossed by an ordinary bridge, it is a large and violent stream and contains fish, some of which, seen by Blake, were of large size. Crossing this, we continued throughout the remainder of the march, gradually rising along the ridges bounding the Tongsa river. We continued rising until we reached our halting place, Taseeling. In one or two places, the road was completely built up; ascending by zig-zags up, in some degree, perpendicular cliffs. The distance was seven miles.
Proceeding to the bridge, observed Rubus deltoideus, Pomacea, Quercus tomentosa, Artemisia major, Cycnium, Gaultheria arborea and fruticosa, Buddlaea, Quercus altera, Indigofera cana, Gaylussacia serratoides, Hedera, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Pomacea sauraugifolia, Viburnum caerulescens, Quercus robur budding, Pterogonium, Fragaria, Duchesnia.
The remaining hills were much similar, generally very bare, clothed with partial woods of Q. tomentosa, Rhododendron minus; the oak changing to Q. robur, as we increased our elevation. Near the bridge noticed Bucklandia, Erythrina, which is likewise found at Tongsa, Maesa salicifolia, Urena lobata, Cnicus, Mimosea! Arbuscula inermis, Senecio scandens in flower, Araliacea subscandens, Didymocarp. contort., a Solenia, Betuloideus, Panax curcifolia, Alnus, Arundo, Anthistiria arundinacea, Cerasus, Tricerta unisexualis, at 6,000 feet.
At about the same elevation Rhododendron minus becomes common, Primula Stuartii, Dipsacus, Verbenacea exostemma, Scleria, Valeriana, Tradescantia on rocks, with Saxifraga ligularia in full flower at 6,500 feet.
About this, 6,500 to 6,800 feet, Spiraea decomposita, Hamamelidea here a tree, occasionally but small, Erythroxyloides, Conyza nivea and communis, Gleichenia major, Parochetus communis on wet dripping rocks, Woodwardia, Clematis ternata.
At 7,000 feet, Berberis asiatica, Q. tomentosa ceased, its place being supplied by Q. robur, Verbascum, Juncus, Gaultheria nummularioid, Mespilus microphyllus, Scirpus fuscus of Tassangsee, Thibaudia gaultherifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Azalea, and Daphne capitulis pendulis, Ranunculus uniflorus, Hydroctyle.
Taseeling is situated about 2,000 feet above the Mateesun, on a nakedish hill; about it there is some cultivation, and one or two villages, one towards Tongsa and above Taseeling of some size. The place itself consists of a large house, with some fine specimens of Cypressus pendula, the east face of the house has the red stripe, indicative of rank. Its elevation is about 7,300 feet, close to the house I observed the Lamium of Bulphai, Bursa pastoris, Oxalis corniculata, Cnicus out of flower, Artemisia major, Fragaria vesca, Daphne pendula and papyracea, Hemiphragma, Composita pendulifolia, Lycopod. of Surureem, Hypericum, Berberis asiatica, Juniperus; Barley cultivation, and a Pomaceous arbuscula, armat. ovar. 5-discretis. The red-legged crow occurs here, and a thrush much resembling our English one. The raven of course occurs. A curious opening occurs in the hills at Taseeling, affording a prospect of the Bag Dooar plains, seven days' journey distant, but the road is bad.
March 24th.—Leaving Taseeling we commenced to ascend until we rounded a ridge, when we turned to the west, we then commenced to descend, but slightly, winding over undulated surfaces of barrenish hills. After some time we reached heavy tree jungle, the road proceeding in the same undulating manner, so that it was impossible to say whether we had risen or descended. About one we came on the river, up the ravine of which we had been advancing ever since turning to the west. This stream is of some size, very violent and rapid, but fordable. Near this is a large pagoda, built after the old Boodhistical style, and the only respectable one we have yet seen, its site is pretty, and it is ornamented above with eyes and a fiery-red nose. Leaving this we ascended along one bank of the river, until we reached Chindupjee, our halting place; this was distant from the pagoda three miles, and from Taseeling twelve. This latter part reminded me of Bhoomlungtung; firs being the prevailing trees, and the valley having more pretensions to the name than usually happens.
We encamped in a beautiful spot, the house being situated on fine sloping sward, surrounded by picturesque trees of Q. ilecifolia, a few tall Cypressus standing up in the centre. The village is a few feet above, and of average size, although it looks from a little distance to be of considerable size. The march throughout was beautiful, especially after entering the wooded tract; this reminded me of the march near Khegumpa, the woods were here and there very picturesque, glades and swards abounding, water was very abundant here, and this no doubt causes the development of so much vegetation.
At 7,800 feet, Thibaudiaceae very common, Rhododendron two species, Gaultheria flexuosoides, Thibaudia obovata, Caudata myrtifolia, Hydrangea, which I find to be a climber, Rhododendron majus, commencing, pine wood; chatterers heard here. Hills naked or covered here and there with stunted wood; marshy places common.
At 7,600 feet, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Tetranthera nuda, Sphaeropteris, pear and apple, Q. tomentosa, Magnolia grandiflora begins, Polygonum rheoides, Daphne pendula, which is used, as well as the other, both here and in Nepal in the manufacture of paper: brick-red black-pate.
At this same elevation farther on, Rosa hispida! Gillenia, Juncus, Rhododendron deflexa, Smilax gaultherifolia, Spiraea bella, Dipsacus, Spiraea decomposita, Ilex, Vaccinium cyaneum, Magnolia grandiflora very common. The country now becomes more wooded, the woods being confined to moist ravines, and in other situations where water is very plentiful, the woods throughout become continuous, and forming the large forests before mentioned: having the open spaces between the woods covered with sward, on which Gentiana pygmaea, and Fragaria are very common.
As we approached the wood or forest, Pinus cedroides commenced, and towards the valley of Chindupjee this species became very common, Rumex occurred throughout in wet places, also at Taseeling. Geranium is common also in wet places, Stauntonia latifolia, Potentilla, Duchesnoides, Tussilago of Churra, on the confines of wood and on it. Here the orange breasted trochilus occurred. The mass of the wood is formed of a fine Quercus, resembling Q. glauca, it is a beautiful and a shady tree. Next to it in abundance is Rhododendron majus, now in full flower, and forming a beautiful object, Rhododendron minus ceases with the barrener tracts. Magnolia is very conspicuous; Pinus cedroides common towards the pagoda; Eurya not rare, Gaultheria nummulifolia continues throughout, Valeriana violifolia, Oxalis acetoselloides, Bryum, Butia purpurea, Sambucus, Saxifraga of Bulphai, and another species, Bambusa microphylla, Swertia, Luzula, Thibaudia orbicularis, Primula Stuartii, occurred between the commencement of the ascent and the pagoda; at between 7,300 to 7,600 feet, Magnolia odoratis.
At the pagoda and village, Pinus cedroides, P. pendula, Bambusa of Sanah, Mespilus microphyllus, Magnolia grandiflora, Berberis asiatica, Q. anthoxylia, Coriaria, Rosa altera of Bhoomlungtung, Elaeagnus, Salix and Allium of Bulphai, occur.
Chindupjee is situated on a rivulet close to the confluence, with a larger stream. Around it, or at least between the village and the larger stream, picturesque patches of sward bordered with a very picturesque oak. Q. ilecifolia occur; this tree predominates all about the village, it is certainly the prettiest place we have yet seen.
Some cultivation occurs around, chiefly of barley, with a little portion of radishes. The valley is surrounded by comparatively low mountains, most of which are rather bare, many are transversely furrowed on the surface, this may arise from their having been at some former period under cultivation.—The prevailing trees on the surrounding heights are firs, Pinus pendula and cedroides. No fish are to be seen in the river. The birds are the raven, white-necked starling, bullfinch, crimson and yellow shrikelets, blue tomtits, lesser ditto with two stripes on the head, white-rumped waterchat, red-tailed chesnuty sparrow.
The plants are Q. ilecifolia, Magnolia grandiflora, Laurinea, Hamamelidioides, Castanea aromatica, Pinus cedroides and pendula, Bambusa microphylla, and B. of Sanah which may be a variety depending on its marshy sites, Rhododendron minus, Salix, Mespilus microphyllus, Gaultheria nummularoides, Elaeagnus, Marchantia, Swertia, Rumex, Daphne papyracea, Dipsacus, Artemisia major, Berberis asiatica, Rosa hispida, Rubus caesius, Stauntonia latifolia, Tofieldioid of Sanah and Pemee, Taxus, Mespilus microphyllus, Ilex dipyrena, Oxalis acetoselloid, Thymus, Lycopodium of Surureem, Juniperus.
Bamboos split and inverted, and then placed in the ground, are used to scare away beasts from the cornfields.
March 26th.—Left at seven and a half and proceeded along the river which runs by Chindupjee, the path running over the spurs of the hills, forming its right bank. After proceeding about four miles, we crossed the nullah, changing our direction, and proceeding up a tributary, until we reached a prettily situated, and rather large village, thence we commenced to ascend over naked slopes with intervening woods, until we reached the base of the chief ascent, which is not very steep, although of good length, chiefly over naked hills. On reaching the summit, which is about 10,000 feet high, we commenced to descend, and the descent continued uninterruptedly and steeply until we reached Rydang, where we halted.
We passed only one village, which is about five miles from Chindupjee, and of similar size; but we passed in the more elevated places two temporary ones, apparently intended for the residence of the herdsmen of yaks or chowry-tailed cows, as a herd of these animals was seen feeding near each place.
The march throughout was beautiful, in the more elevated and drier portions, winding over swardy slopes or through woods of fir trees: on the descent from 9,000 feet downwards, passing through beautiful forests, chiefly of oak, and diversified in every possible way. The long-tailed pie was met with in the first portion, about 7,800 feet, the speckled chatterers at 8,500 feet, red shrikelet at 7,800 feet, and a new hawk at 8,300 feet. I observed the water-ouzel again as high as 8,000 feet. The new plants were a Carex, 6,500 feet, a sileneous plant past flowering, from the same limestone formation.
At 7,800 feet, and not far from Chindupjee, Pinus spinulosa again re-appears, it becomes common towards the village alluded to, and continues throughout the ascent, up to 9,300 feet, P. cedroides was uncommon during the first part of the march, its place being occupied by P. spinulosa, afterwards it re-appeared, and continued abundant up to 9,300 feet, it re-appeared on the descent about the same elevation, and continued to about 8,000 feet. Abies densa commences at the base of the chief ascent: at 10,000 feet, it is the only fir to be seen, it descends but a short way on the Rydang side. In the higher portions it occurred mixed with a Juniper, which in proper places becomes a small but elegant tree.
At the village on 7,000 feet, observed Rosa hispida, Ligustram of Jaisa, Philadelphus, Pinus spinulosa common, as also Pinus cedroides, Bambusa of Sanah very common. Near this, larks were heard soaring high above us.
At 8,500 feet, Pendulous lichens becoming plentiful, Lonicera villosa.
At 9,000 feet, Abies densa appears, Acer sterculium, Betula, Bogh Pata, Rhododendron fruticosa, foliis ellipticis basi cordatis.
At 9,300 feet, Abies densa common, P. cedroides rare, spinulosa 0, pendula 0, Rosa hispida, Gaultheria nummularioid, which as usual continued throughout, Hypnum scolopendroid, Sphagnum, Bogh Pata very common, Rhododendron foliis ellipticis basi cordatis subtus argenteis, which I found on the descent as low as 8,000 feet.
At 9,500 feet, Bogh Pata very common, trees covered with Pendulous lichens, Bambusa of Sanah, Abies densa everywhere.
At 10,000 feet, Abies densa, Juniperus, Rhododendron obovata, foliis subtus argenteis; I am not sure whether this is a variety or not, but it indicates greater elevation than the ferruginous one, Rhododendron gemmis, viscosis, foliis lanceolatis, supra venosis subtus subargenteis very common, Gnaphalium, Mespilus microphyllus, Rosa hispida, Swertia, Berberis spathulata, Orthotuck, Cerastum inflatum, Hemiphragma, Bogh Pata, Primula globifera, Pedicularis, Dicranum nigrescens, etc. Limonia, Laureah.
Daphne papyraceae occurs at the same elevation, chiefly on the side of the descent. From this place an opening is visible to the north west, occupied by low hills. Juniperus very fine occurs, Compositae abundant. Snow lies in the hollows and sheltered woods.
At 9,600 feet, Lonicera villosa, Rosa microphylla, Buddlaea purpurescens! Berberis spathulata, Spiraea belloides, Hydrangea! Rhododendron foliis lanceolatis, etc. as above, forming thick woods, Abies densa, Bogh Pata, Bambusa, Limonia lanceolata.
At 9,400 feet, Prunella, Cerastium inflatum, Labiata spicata, Baptisia! High ground 14 to 15,000 feet, is seen forming a lofty heavily snowed ridge to the north.
At 9,000 feet, Pinus cedroides re-appears, Bogh Pata, Rhododendron as before, Daphne papyraceae, Thibaudia orbicularis, Limonia lanceolata, Dalibarda, Polygonum rheum!
At 8,800 feet, Rhododendron hispida, Abies densa ceased, Limonia lanceolata common, Lonicera villosa, Rebus triphyllus, Acer! Taxus! Primula Stuartii! Rubia cordifolia!!
At 8,500 feet, Chimaphila, Rhododendron obovata-ferrugina! Pinus cedroides, here and there, of immense size, diameter of one-six feet, Lycopodium of Surureem, Bogh Pata, Gaultheria flexuosa, Q. ilecifolia, also a very large and tall tree.
At 8,400 feet, Taxus very common, Smilax gaultherifolia, Olea, Sarcococea very common, Thibaudia orbicularis, Laurinea, Hamameloides. Beautiful glades here occurred, trees covered with mosses: another fine oak, Q. castaneoides commences, Daphne papyraceae very common, Composita penduliflora, Hemiphragma, Rhododendron elliptica, foliis basi, cordatis subtus punctatis, Ilex! Berberis intermedia, Laurinea uniflora, large Umbellifera of Rodoole descent.
At 8,000 feet, Acer, Primula Stuartii, Rhododendron majus! R. argentea commences.
At 7,500 feet, Cedar ceased, Rhododendron majus very common, Taxus diminishing, Sphaeropteris, Ericinia soloraefolia, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Thibaudia orbicularis ceases.
At 7,300 feet, Berberis pinnata, Spiraea bella, Cycnium, apple tree. Here we emerged on open space in front of a hill, on which several detached houses stood, around which Pinus pendula was very common. Barley cultivation. Several small villages visible around, and to the north, in front of the snowy ridge, a curious truncated mountain was seen, its apex covered with snow.
Magnolia! Conaria! Cycnium, Viburnum canescens! Gaultheria arborea, Berberis intermedia very common, Fragaria.
At 7,200 feet, Q. tomentosa! the others have ceased, Gaultheria fruticosa, Rhododendron arborea, minus and argentea, in fine flower, Eurya aecuminata, Smilax, Gaultherifolia, Thibaudia caudata, Q. robur, Gleichenia major, Salix as before, Artemisia major, Rumex, Valeriana violifolia, Rosa, Berberis asiatica, Ervicia crucifera, Thlaspi, Callitriche, Calamus.
The curious features are, the absence of Thibaudia obovata on the descent, and of Mespilus microphyllus, the substitution of Thibaudia orbicularis, and its low descent, the abundance of Taxus, size of the cedar and Q. ilecifolia, the re-appearance at same elevation of Magnolia grandiflora, occurrence of Rubia cordifolia, at such an elevation, etc.
Rydang is prettily situated towards the bottom of a rather narrow valley. There is a good deal of barley cultivation about it. I also noticed Cycnium, Celopecurus, Acorus Calamus, Corydalis! Fragaria, Cardamina, Rosa, Berberis, Ilex, Plantago, Rumex, Viola, Artemisia major, Daphne papyraceae, Gentiana pygmaea of Khegumpa, Houttuynia! Pomacea, Callitriche, Dipsacus, Berberis pinnata, Elaeagnus, Q. robur, ilecifolia. Of birds the long-tailed pie! is common. Berberis asiatica, Viburnum, Caneun, apple, Quercus microcarpus, Orthodon, Pteris aquilina, Ophiopogon, Angustis, Valeriana violifolia, Urtica urentium, Stellaria media, Eurya acuminata, Betula.
March 27th.—Our march commenced with a steep descent to the Gnee, a river of average size. We then continued descending along it for some time, crossing it once on our way: we then diverged up a small nullah, and then commenced a very steep ascent, of about 2,000 feet. After attaining this, we proceeded through woods, or over sward at about the same elevation, still continuing along the Gnee. We subsequently commenced to descend at first through fine oak woods, then over barren naked hills. We reached Santagoung, about three and a half miles distance in a direct line, but fourteen miles by the road, highest point traversed 8,000 feet; lowest reached 6,000.
During first part of descent, noticed one or two straggling cedars and Taxus, Primula Stuartii, the woods were formed by Quercus robur, tomentosa, Gaultheria arborea, Rhododendron minus, Scabiosa reappears, Clematis nova species, Sambucus, Rubus cresius, Composita pendulifolia, etc. as at Rydang.
Along the Gnee, the beech became plentiful, as also two Viburnums, both trees, together with the Cupulifera of Tongsa was here common and in fine foliage. Juglans, Incerta of Boodoo, Gaultheria, Mimosa arborea, Cupressus pendula, Conaria, Berberis racemosa and pinnata, Quercus microcarpus, Woodwardia, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Marlea! Cucurbitaceae menispermoides, Alnus of Beesa, Polygonium rheoides, Mespilus microphyllus! Gentiana pygmaea, Salix, Pyrus. The birds were the usual water birds, viz. ouzel, slaty-white rump, slaty-red tail, white-pated chat.
On the smaller nullah Bucklandia, Viburnum microphyllum, Bucklandia!
The ascent was at first through dry woods of Rhododendron minus, Q. tomentosa, Gaultheria arborea, a Taxus or two occurred at 7,000 feet, Indigofera cana, Rosa, Gaultheria fruticosa of Sanah aristatum.
At 7,000 feet, the same vegetation continued, Rhododendron minus very common, Pendulous lichens commencing.
At this elevation, in more moist spots, woods thick, differently constituted, Quercus glauescense, Castaneoides ilecifolia, here and there Rhododendron majus, Magnolia grandiflora.
Gaultheria flexuosa, Pinus cedroides rare, Vaccinium cyaneum, Rosa hispida! Saxifraga! Thibaudia orbicularis and caudata, Mespilus microphyllus, Azalea, Ilex, Symplocos, Tussalago of Churra, Acer, Thibaudia obovata, Pendulous mosses abundant.
The remainder of the vegetation afforded little of interest; consisted of stunted oaks, Q. tomentosa, Gaultheria arborea, Rhododendron minus: Serissoides reappears near Santagoung, Pinus longifolia, plantains.
The valley to the left towards Santagoung is on the left side well populated and cultivated.
March 28th.—Santagoung, a small village 6,300 feet above the sea, situated on bare hills, between two loftier ridges. Country around well inhabited and well cultivated in the terrace style: villages numerous. Pinus longifolia, Rosa, Azalea, etc. occur here as before. A lake or jheel was observed 500 feet below the village, of some extent, formed in a natural hollow, abounding with Scirpus trigueter of Churra, and Hydropeltis. Water-fowl, snipe, and red pie-like peewit or plover.
The march commenced with a steep descent, which continued until we reached the river.
Crossing this we ascended 1,000 feet, and then proceeded in an undulating manner over naked hills until we reached Thain, distance six miles; the greatest descent was about 1,800 feet, ascent 1,000 feet; the country naked; no forest. The hills for some extent towards Thain appeared from some cause very red.
But little interesting vegetation occurred: noticed a huge Cypressus pendula, half-way to the Gnee. Vegetation otherwise much the same as towards Tassgong, Valeriana violifolia, Azalea, Campanula linearis, Rubus deltoides, Aspidium macroser., Artemisia major, Pinus longifolia straggling, only plentiful near Thain, Anthistiria minor! Primula Stuartii, Mimulus, Gentiana pumila, Alnus, Flemingia secunda, Morus rubeseoides, Salix, Quercus, Viburnum microphyllum.
At the river Caesalpinia! Ficus obliqua! Desmodium, Salix, Indigofera cana, Arundo, Luculia.
On the ascent Holcus, Elaeagnus, Santalacea, Clematis cana, Senecionoides, Conyza vulgaris, Emblica, Schaenanthus, Phyllanthus ruber, Q. tomentosa, Desmodium vestilum, Briedleia obovata! Nerium canum, Euphorbia antiquorum, Jasminum of Benka, Ligustrum conaria, Mesp. microphyllus (are these two species confounded by me, as the larger-leaved one never descends so low?), Lerissoides, Osbeckia linearis, Euphorbia, Gordonia, Gymnobotrys. Red-legged crow; in descent altitude 5,800 feet, the most common plant is a species of Berberis very nearly allied to B. asiatica. Rain in the afternoon.
March 29th.—Mimulus, Acorus Calamus, Quercus robur, Rhododendron minus, P. longifolia, Gymnobotrys, Campanula linearifolia, Rosa tetrapetala, Gordonia, Salix, Verbena officinalis, majus, rugus, Lemna, Gentiana, Hypericum japonica, Indigofera cana, Schaenanthus, Senecio, Buddlea of Nulka, Pyrus, wheat, Ervum, Vicia, Potentilla, Q. tomentosa, Cypressus, Ficus, Berberis, Phyllanthus ruber.
Blackbird, sparrow-hawk, and Hoopoe about houses; it has a curious hoop, varied with a grating chirp.
The blackbird frequents houses here; its voice is very discordant and singular, sparrow-hawks were seen to pursue wounded pigeons. Houses few, built of unbaked and large bricks or rather cakes of mud. The village of Wandipore is visible to the south-west, about one and a half mile. Snow on ridges to west, all which are lofty. The country around Wandipore is tolerably populous, though not so much so as about Santagoung.
We were compelled to halt at Phain or Thain, until the 1st instant, owing to the admirable management of the Bhooteas. It appeared at first as if the Zoompoor or Governor of Wandipore was determined that we should not be gainers in time by not going through his castle, but subsequently it turned out that the Deb had, with infinite consideration, wished us to remain in order to rest ourselves after our long journey. This may have been merely said to shelter the Wandipore man, who had the impudence to send one evening to us saying, that the Deb and Durmah were coming to Wandipore next morning, and that we were to meet them there, and return the same evening to Punukha. This turned out untrue. Pemberton was at last compelled to write to the Deb, and the consequence was the arrangement for our advance next morning.
April 1st.—The march to Punukha extended over a most barren dried-up country, the features presented were the same as those about Phain. We proceeded at first in the direction of Wandipore, then diverged, proceeding downwards in the direction of the villages. The remainder of our journey extended either just above the base of the hills, or along the valley: the distance was nine miles. The march was an uninteresting one; the only pretty part being the river that drains the valley, and it is one of considerable size, fordable in but few places; the rapids are frequent, but the intermediate parts flow gently. We were all dreadfully disappointed in the capital, the castle even is by no means so imposing as that of Tongsa or Byagur; the city miserable, consisting of a few mean houses, and about as many ruined ones.
The surrounding cultivation is chiefly poor wheat; the hills the most barren conceivable. On arriving near the palace we made a detour, to avoid exposure to the usual regal insolence: our plan was effectual. From some distance I had espied our quarters, and although our mission is one sent by the most powerful eastern government, yet we had allotted to us a residence fit only for hogs.
It consisted of a court-yard, surrounded by walls, and what had evidently been stabling; the apartments were numerous, but excessively small, the roof of single mats. The place swarmed with vermin. In this we determined not to stay, and so proceeded to the city, (for sure there cannot be a capital without a city,) and there, after some delay, procured two houses, in one of which the present Tongso Pillo had lodged before his present exaltation. But imagine not that it was a palace. The two houses together furnished three habitable rooms.
I imagine not that the houses were procured for us by the local government. We only obtained them by Pemberton's liberality was well known. The Sepoys' lines were transported hither not by Bhooteas but by our own people. In addition the people are in many cases insolent, and it was only after a peremptory message to the Deb, stating what the consequences would be of such a system of annoyance, that we got any assistance.
April 3rd.—We have heard nothing of the Mutaguat. It appears that the country is unsettled now. The old Deb having possession of Tassisudon, and the people here declaring they will stop all supplies if the Deb does not, according to custom, repair at the usual period to Tassisudon. A Deewan here, who has held office under four Rajahs, says, that the present truce is owing to the hot weather; Bhooteas only admire fighting in the cold season, in conformation of which, he says that in the cold season the contest will be renewed. There will then be an additional bone of contention for the present. Nor should I much wonder if the Paro Pillo then comes forward and takes the Debship and all away. The Deewan's account of the past fighting, places the Bhooteas in a most contemptible light: it appears that when they fire a gun, they take no aim, their only aim being to place their bodies as far as possible from the weapon; the deadly discharge is followed up by the deadlier discharge of a stone. At plunder they are more adroit.
The following plants may be found about this place; Ligustrum, Salex pendula, Valeriana orolifolia, Campanula linearis, senecionideae, Viola, Jasminum, Rosea, Conaria, mangoe one tree in the gardens, Citrus two or three species in ditto, Jubrung, Diospyros, Acorus, Veronica, Ranunculus, Sclerossophalos, Alopecercus, Agrostides, Bombax, stunted weeping cypress, Pinus longifolia, Punica, Dipsacus, Potentilla, Potamogeton 2, Hypericum japonica, Lysimachia, Chenopod, Ajuga, Anisomales.
Birds—great kingfisher, diver snappet, white-pated rumped chats, no ouzels. Part of the gardens extend from the palace up the river to the village; the breadth is fifty to seventy yards, the length 200. They are surrounded by a dilapidated stone fence. Although an Assam malee or gardener resides in them, they are kept in miserable order: the soil seems good, the trees flourishing, mangoe, Diospyros, Jubrung, oranges, citrons, pomegranates, are the principal trees. The south side has a streamlet running along it outside the fence, for the supply of water. This streamlet abounds with Acorus Calamus.
April 9th.—Our interview with the Deb took place. We dismounted at the boards over the streamlets above mentioned, and then proceeded over the wooden bridge across the Patcheen, which is here a wide and deep stream: the bridge was partially lined with guards, in different dresses, few in uniform; it was besides armed with shoulder wall-pieces, capital things for demolishing friends. We then crossed a sort of court-yard and then ascended a steep and extraordinarily bad flight of steps to the door of the palace. Here we found the household troops all dressed in scarlet with two door-keepers, one seated on either side of the door: this led us into a quadrangle. The citadel being in front, the side walls were rather low, although viewed externally they appear of good height, but the ground of the interior is much raised. We crossed this diagonally, passed into the opposite quadrangle on the west side, and thence ascended into a gallery, hung with arms, and filled with followers, from this we passed after a little delay into the Rajah's room.
This was handsomely decorated with scarfs, the pillars were variously ornamented. The Rajah was seated on an elevated place in the corner, and appeared a good-looking well-bred man. He received the Governor General's letter from P. with much respect, getting up from his chair: the visit was a short one, and entirely of ceremony. The presents were deposited on a raised bench in his front. Communications were kept up by the Deewan and the Zimpay, formerly Joongar Zoompoor or Governor. On retiring we were presented with fruits, oranges, walnuts, horrid plantains, ghee, eggs and rice.
The whole business went off very well, no attempt at insolence. The concourse of people was greater than I expected. Swarms of Gylongs, the more curious of whom received whacks from leathern straps, wielded by some magisterial brother.
April 10th.—Yesterday we saw the Dhurma, to whom we had to ascend by several flight of steps, which are most break-neck things, the steps overlapping in front, and being often lined with iron on the part most subject to be worn. We found him in the south room of the upper story of the citadel. We waived our right to sitting in his presence as the question was put to us with respect and delicacy. The Rajah is a good looking boy, of eight or ten years old: he was seated in the centre, but in an obscure part of the room, and was not surrounded by many immediate attendants. The balcony was filled with scribes with handsome black, gilt, lettered books before them. Two other scribes were likewise engaged on our right, noting down what passed, but they seemed to be very bad writers. The visit went off well. The room was tastily, but not so profusely ornamented with scarfs as was the Deb's.
On returning we found the household guard drawn up in front to prevent our passing out without paying a fee. This matter was soon settled forcibly, and the durwan, or door-keeper, lost by his impudence the present he would otherwise have had from P., besides being in a great fright lest the affair should be reported to the Rajah.
April 11th.—The rains appear to have set in: the sky is constantly overcast, and showers are by no means unfrequent. One of our dawks arrived opened: this no doubt took place in the palace, although the Deb strenuously denies it. Messengers are to be sent to Tassgoung, where the accident is said to have happened. The cause of its having been opened, is no doubt the report that there was a letter in it from the old Deb.
April 14th.—A violent squall unaccompanied by rain, came on yesterday from the west: roofs were flying about in every direction, and many accidents occurred from the falling of the stones by which they were secured. Part of the palace was unroofed. The storm has stopped all our amusements, particularly as the Gylongs attribute it to our firing. The Kacharies, our servants, were likewise requested not to play any more on the esplanade. This is just as it has been in every other place in Bootan, nothing is said against amusement until the presents have been received, and then we are requested to do nothing, and the authorities become disobliging!
The potters fashion their earthenware entirely with their hands, the upper half is finished on a flat board; the lower being added afterwards; the finishing is done chiefly by a wet rag, the operator revolving around the pot. The vessels chiefly used for carrying water are oval, these are covered with black glaze.
Some Didymocarpi very fragrant, one near Chindupjee most grateful, resembling quince and sandal wood; the odour is permanent, and appears to reside in the young leaves before their expansion: Iris, Hypericum, Viola, Ligust., Ranunculus, Verbasena, Gymnostomum, Serratula arenaria, Veronica.
Return of the Mission from Bootan.
May 9th, 1838.—We left Punukha at twelve, having been delayed throughout the morning, on account of coolies. We crossed the palace precints, and the two bridges unmolested. Our road lay in the direction of our entering Punukha for some time, but on the opposite bank of the river. We gradually descended throughout this portion. Then at about eight miles turning round a ridge, we followed a ravine to the west, some distance above its base, gradually descending to the watercourse draining it. Thence we ascended in a very circuitous route to Talagoung, the castle of which is in a ruinous state: it is visible from the place whence one turns to the westward.
Up to this point, which was certainly 1,200 feet above Punukha, no change occurred in the vegetation. The country remained barren, the ravines in favourable places being clothed with underwood, and as we increased our elevation, with trees. Noticed a Bupleurum, Viburnum sp., Ficus obliqua.
At 3,500 feet, Sambucus, Bupleurum sp., Potentilla as before, Gentiana pinnata, Serissoides, Campanula.
At 3,800 to 4,000 feet, Pinus longifolia more common though still a stunted tree; Emblica, Paederia cyaneum, Q. tomentosa, Primula Stuartii, Parochetus, Pogonantherum, this is a most common grass about here, it becomes more stunted as we proceed lower, and its extreme elevation does not exceed 6,000 feet, Acorus very common, Adhatoda!
At 4,000 feet, Simool, Dipsacus as before, Aspidium, Macrodon, Rhododendron minus re-appears.
On rounding the ridge, although we did not increase our elevation, the country became more wooded. In some places Q. robur, Gordonia, Pyrus were common, others and the greater portion were composed of Pinus longifolia, Bucklandia re-appears at 4,500 feet, Azalea, Saccharum aristatum, Hedera, Didymocarpus contortus, on rocks.
Towards the nullah we passed a village with some wheat and buckwheat cultivation; Plantago, Ranunculus, Thymus, were interspersed. Along the watercourse Symplocos styracifolius, which becomes a middling-sized tree, was seen, and Stellaria cana, petalis albis profunda partitus, as well as S. media.
Our section was as follows:
[Section Page 285: m285.jpg]
Telagoung is a middling-sized, dilapidated castle, in which it is settled the first blood is to be shed in the forthcoming contest, it is occupied by the old Deb's men. Up to its walls, thickets abound, and the fragrant rose was very conspicuous.
Its elevation is about 5,600 feet, yet a Ficus may be seen planted by the side of Cupressus pendula, and Punica thrives. The change in temperature was very great. Birds abounded throughout; a new sombre-coloured dove was shot by P.: the most common birds were the orange-billed shrike of towards Tumashoo.
May 10th.—We left Telagoung at 7 A.M. and descended instantly to a small nullah, from which we re-ascended. The ascent continued without intermission, occasionally gradually, but generally rather steep for three or four hours. The descent occupied about as long, and about three- fifths the distance, following nearly throughout a small nullah. Woollakkoo, our halting place, is a good-sized village, and fourteen and a half miles from Telagoung.
To the nullah I observed Stellaria cana, Berberis asiatica, which has re- appeared, Erythrina, Rubus deltoid, which is very common all over these parts and whose fruit is palatable, Uvularia, Swertia plantaginifolia, Caesalpinia, Mimulus, and Urtica foliis apice erosis.
The ascent commenced through woods of Q. robur, the shrubs consisting of Gaultheria fragrans and arborea, a Myrsinea, Thibaudia serrata, whose inferior limit is here, Rhododendron minus, but not very common. A good deal of wheat cultivation and of better quality occurred at 6,500 feet, assuming Telagoung as 5,600 feet, Pteris aquilina common throughout and up to 10,000 feet.
At 8,000 feet, Taxus re-appears, with Baptisia in flower, Thibaudia orbicularis, Luzula of Chindupjee, Smilax gaultherifolia, Thibaudia obovata, Fragaria vesca, which continues throughout, and has a range of between 3 to 10,000 feet, Bambusa microphylla, and Acer sterculiacea appear, woods of Q. ilecifolia, up to 7,200 feet, chiefly of Q. robur, Gaultheriae two common ones, occur commonly.
At 8,500 feet, the woods composed chiefly of Q. castaneoides and glaucum, Q. ilecifolia less common. No Q. robur, path-like glades and rather open, Pythonium ecaudata, up to 9,000 feet, Primula pulcherrima very common.
At 8,500 feet, Saxifraga of Khegumpa and of Chindupjee, Mitella,! Luzula, Carex, Viola reniformis, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Hedera, Ilex, Mercurialis, grey lichens.
Taxus, Quercus, Rhododendron, another species foliis subtus ferrugineo- argenteis floribus rosaceis.
Smilacina, Ophiopogon, Urtica carnosa decumbens, Limonia laureola, Pythonium ecaudatum.
At the same elevation and indeed below us, but on other ridges, cedars were seen in abundance: Hydrangea and Hydrangeacea calyptrata, Epilobium sp. withered.
At 7,800 feet, Aristolochia novum genus, Tritium glaucum, Thlaspi, Arabis cordata, Loranthus, Symplocos sessiliflora.
At 7,900 feet, Lardizabalea.
At 8,000 feet, Hamiltonia?
At 9,000 feet, Crucifera floribus amplis albis, on mossy banks, with Mitella, Spiraea densa.
Acer sterculiacea in forests, Cerasi sp. common.
Betula, Ribes, Arenaria, Lilium giganteum, Laurinea, Chimaphila, Acer.
At 9,300 feet, Rhododendron hispida and rosaceum, Taxus, Pythonium filiformia, Trillium album, Salvia of Royle, Rhododendron ferrugineo and obovata, Smilacinia densiflora, Sarcococea, Daphne cannabinum, here in flower, Anemone, Prunella, Hemiphragma, Cedar, but rare.
At 9,700 feet, Primula Stuartii in flower lower down, but here quite past, Corydalis linetta, Viola, Juniperus, Viburnum floribus magnis albis, Rhododendron deflexa, in flower. Acer: 1, vel. 2, Cerasi sp. altera, Paris polyphylla, and from 7,000 feet, Iris foliis angustis, Cerasus apetalus gathered below here a shrub, very common, Osmundia alia, Berberis ilecifolia and integrifolia, Rosa microphylla, Spinis latis, Baptisia, Corydalis altior floribus luteis, Aconiti sp., Papaveracea succo aqueo, ferrugineo hispida, capsula siliquosa, 3-valvis, replis totidem, stigmata radiata, 5-lobo. Prunella, Betula, Ranunculus minimus, Carex, Mimulus! Sambucus of below, Salvia of Royle, Polytrichum rubescens.
From the ridge the view to the south is pretty, the country undulated, either naked and swardy, or clothed with firs.
Abies spinulosa commences: and is soon succeeded by Pinus pendula, which, as we proceeded lower, soon became the chief tree; Rhododendron obovata finely in flower, Lilium giganteum common. Trillium stratum, Ribes lacineat.
Q. ilecifolia re-appears 500 or 600 feet below the ridge, Pinus spinulosa common, with a Salix, grey pendulous lichens.
At 6,000 feet, P. pendula, Mespilus microphyllus, Larix, Rumex, which has occurred throughout, Salvia alia viscosa foliis subhastatis trilobis, Cycnia, Astragaloides! bracteis subvaginant magnis, Rosa latispina becomes very common.
At 8,800 feet, Hedera, Hamiltonia re-appears, Galium sp., Juncus, Oxlip, Clematis, Salix, very common.
At 8,500 feet, a village is seen to the right; Q. ilecifolia is the chief tree, with P. pendula, Azalea, Baptisia, Pomacea of Rydang, Rhododendron arbor. minus. Red-legged crow, pine chatterers.
At 8,000 feet, Baptisia continues; all alpine vegetation ceased; Rhododendron minus continues, Q. ilecifolia, but no Corydalis, Anemone, Iris, etc. although Oxlip does; Salix continues.
The descent to the halting place is marked by return to the old vegetation indicated by re-appearance of Elaeagnus fragrans and Rosa tetrapetala, Valeriana violifolia.
Baptisia rotundifolia and oblonga, this last a tree very common, Pinus pendula chief tree, Pomacea celastufolia, Elaeagnus fragrans, Rosa tetrapetala, very common along the nullah, Baptisia continues low down, as Oxlip, Stauntonia alba, Viburnum, Asteroides, Jasminum luteum, Tussilago, Spiraea bella, found about the level of this.
All the monocotyledons have a defined elevation; Smilacina cordifolia is the lowest, except Uvularia, Lilacineae and Trillium, are the highest, not being found much under 10,000 feet. There is an Osmundia likewise on the ridge, the fronds below are not contracted, it is ferrugineo-tomentosa. Hemiphragma has a wide range, between 6 and 10,000 feet: Salvia nubigena of Royle, confined to 10,000 feet, Aconitum, Corydalis lutea, lenella and caerulea, Prunus penduliflora, Papaveracea, Juniperus, Rhododendron obovata, Silacinea, Cerasus apetala, Ribes 2, are sure signs of elevation.
If the Mimulus be the same as that from Punukha, it has a very wide range, as also Lilium giganteum, Pythonium filiformeis, limited, as well as ecaudata, Crucifera, Anemone, Laurinea, Polytrichium, were all definite. Mitella ranges between 9 and 9,500 feet, it is strange that the chief variety in vegetation occurred on the Telagoung side, on which springs are rare. No Thibaudias occurred on the other side, Euphorbia was confined to the Woollakkoo side, as also Primula, etc. etc. The chief cultivation about Woollakkoo is of wheat, but from the mode of cultivation the plant is evidently adapted for irrigation; rice is also cultivated. This is perhaps its maximum height. The hills around are covered here and there with snow, and must therefore be above 10,000 feet high. The highest were to the north-west.
The river is of moderate size, fordable in most places, but still well supplied with wooden bridges. Fish, in shoals too, were seen here and there.
May 11th.—Our march continued down this river throughout: we left its banks once or twice owing to ascending some hundred feet above its bed, occasionally it spread out, but generally was confined between the rocks. Its banks in some places were planted with weeping willows. The vegetation throughout was much the same. The most common plants were Rosa, this literally abounds, Pinus pendula, Viburnum grandiflora, a Symphoria! Crataegus 2 species, Mespilus microphyllus, Lantonea, Jasminum luteum, Berberis asiatica and obovata, Plectranthus canus, Elaeagnus fragrans, Stellaria cana, Colquhounia, Indigofera sp. altera, Baptisia did not re-appear, Euphorbia continues, as does the Celastrus noticed yesterday, which commences at 8,500 feet.
Cycnia re-appears, it is in fruit, the cotyledons are not conduplicate. In the fields Stachys, Potentilla (common), Brumus, Lamium of Khegumpa, Cynoglossum, Thlaspi, Datura in waste places, Conaria, rare, Imperata! Scabiosa of Bulphai.
A low shrub abounded on the road sides and walls, having all the characters of Plumbago, a Lantonea likewise abounded, Fragaria, Swertia, Taraxacum, Cardamina lilacina, Herminu sp., Marchantia, Astragalus, Ranunculus; Carex, Potentilla supina, Potamogeton, Clematis grata, Poplars were seen; of these, Taraxacum very common. Quercus robur re- appears towards Lamnoo, as well as Juglans and Populus.
Weeping cypresses about villages, Hordeum hexastichum is commonly cultivated, A. Buddlaea floribus lilacinis noticed yesterday was found, its range is 8,500 to 7,500 feet, Zanthoxyla here.
A cuckoo was shot; this bird would seem to be as in Europe attended by the Yunx, at least a cry very similar to that of that bird was heard. Lysimachia of Punukha, Campanula re-appears.
The most common bird is Lanuis. The sombre-coloured dove too is rather common. The wheat cultivated here is poor, a good deal of the Bromus occurs with it. Astragalus is common on the borders of the fields, and in some of them Ervum, Lamium and Vicia.
The whole upper surface of the column of Aristolochia of Telagoung, is viscid and stigmatic, and likewise the margins of the depressions in which the anthers are lodged, it is certainly akin to Rafflesiaceae.
May 12th.—Proceeded to Chupcha, our march to, and indeed beyond Panga, seven miles from Lamnoo, was through exactly similar country. The hills naked or clothed with firs, the path lay along the river Teemboo chiefly, but occasionally we met with one or two stiff ascents. On reaching Panga it was determined to push on to Chupcha, which was said to be but a short way off; we started, and descended after some time to the river, above which Panga is elevated about 1,000 feet. We continued along the river until we commenced to ascend towards Chupcha, this ascent was very long and rather steep, the road tolerably good. We found Chupcha to be ten miles from Panga, and 8,000 feet high, the greatest height we crossed being 8,600 feet, and this day we were told, that all our climbings had ceased. The road was generally bad, and well furnished with rocks: in one place we passed from 100 yards along the perpendicular face of a cliff, the Teemboo roaring underneath, the road was built up with slippery slabs of stone. The country was generally very pretty, the scenery along the river being very picturesque. We passed a waterfall of considerable size, which is Turner's Minzapeeza. After leaving Panga we came on an uninhabited country, nor did we see more than one village, until we reached the ridge immediately above Chupcha, 1,000 feet above this, there is a very large village inhabited by Gylongs, the bare summit of the hill rising an equal height above it; snow visible to the south. The greatest distance we descended was 6,500 feet, the greatest height 8,500 feet. The distance seventeen miles, the longest march we have yet had.
The vegetation was nearly the same up to the time we turned off towards Chupcha, it was characterized by a profusion of Rosa, among which the Crataega, Symphorema, (which is less common than towards Woollakkoo,) Rhamnus, Viburnum grandiflorum, Pinus pendula, Thymus, Cycnium.
In grassy banks of fields between Panga and Lamnoo, Astragalus, Ervum, Vicia, Aster major, Rumex, Agrostia, in fields Hieraciae sp., Caricia sp., Lactuca, Bromus.
Salix pendula about villages. After leaving Panga we came on to a place called Minzapeeza, here Adiantum, Aspidium? Hamamelidea, Cedrela? Rhus, Galium, Tussilago, Saxifraga ligularis, Valeriana violifolia, Smilax flexuosa, Aruncus, Sarcococea, Azalea.
Rhododendron minus recommenced after leaving the river towards Panga, a straggling cedar or two occurred, Populus rotundifol. very common, Gaultheria arborea.
About Panga, Lithospermum, Oxalis corniculata, Umbellifera, from the flowers of which moud is made, Rubus, Arabis, Taxacum, Dipsacus.
Beyond the waterfall the Quercus robur became common, forming beautiful woods, it continued throughout until we re-descended to the river, range 7 to 7,500 feet. In these woods formed likewise by Pinus pendula, Convallaria cirrhosa appeared, Rubia cordifolia, hispida, Paris polyphylla, Aralia cissifolia, Mitella, Ribes! Spiraea, Asparagus, Epipactis, Avularia, Houttuynia! Arum viviparum on rocks, Duchesmium, Populus oblonga occurred also, Coriaria! Hedera common, Benthamia common.
On rocks along the river, Peperomia, 4-phylla, Populus oblonga, Acer sterculiacea! Symphoria alia! Indigofera, Salix, Cedrela, Sassafras, arbor facie, Gordonia, Vitis, Syringa, Serissa, Buddlaea, Sedum on rocks, Eriophon ditto, Campanula cana, Pinus pendula, Rosa, Convallarium cirrhosa, Polygonum robustum, foliis cordatis.
The ascent up to 7,500 feet, was marked by similar vegetation: up to this point the prevailing shrubs gradually disappeared, they were never so common as about Panga. Quercus robur having ceased, was succeeded by Quercus ferruginea, which is much like Quercus ilecifolia, and has very coriaceous leaves, this again at 7,500 feet, was succeeded by Quercus ilecifolia, Dipsacus up to this, Pteris aquilina, Gaultheria arborea.
At 7,600 feet, Rhododendron oblonga, a most beautiful species, Calyce discoideo commenced, as also Rhodora deflexa and Rhodoracea ochrolenea, which is, I think, that I before noticed as R. elliptica, foliis basi cordatis subtus argenteis et punctatis, Euphorbia occurs also here, as also the Rosa, Berberis asiatica.
At 8,000 feet, the trees were covered with grey lichens, and assumed the usual highly picturesque appearance: noticed Primula Stuartii in flower (Symphoria! ceased), Euphorbia, Gaultheria nummularifolia commences, Artemisia major, Crataegus odoratus continues, Saxifraga ligularis common up to this, Ribes commences, Gaultheria of Bulphai, Galum, Hyperici sp., Lilium giganteum, Clematis grata, Populus species, do not ascend above this.