Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and The - Neighbouring Countries
by William Griffith
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There is very little cultivation on the hills around, so that this people are, at least about here, evidently dependent on the plains for their supplies. The cattle are a good breed, and totally different from those of the plains. Ponies and mules are by no means uncommon; there are likewise pigs and fowls, both of which are abundant, and of fine description.

January 16th.—Every thing leads me to conclude that the Booteas are the dirtiest race in existence, and if accounts be true, they are equally deficient in delicacy. Although much beyond other mountain tribes inhabiting either side of the Assam valley, in the structure of their houses, in their clothing, in their language, and probably in their religion, they are inferior to them in other points. Thus their looms are perhaps really primitive, and of the most simple construction; neither in their weapons of defence are they at all superior.

On the 14th I ascended a peak to the eastward, and certainly 1,000 feet above the village: on the summit of this, where there were the remains of an old clearing, I observed Pyrus, Acer, Rhus, Tetrantherae, three or four species, Bigonia species picta, Carex, Composita arborea, Pteris aquilina, Kydia zyziphifolia, Saurauja, Eurya, Maesa Panax, Artemisia, Hedyotis scandens, Callicarpa arborea, Camellia, Caelogyne, Oberonia, Otochilus fuscescens, Ficus, Cinnamomum, AEschynanthus, Pholidota, Cyrtandra, Piper, Citrus, Corysanthera, Hypoxis, Tupistra, Bambusa.

Sanicula appeared at 2,500 feet with Bartramea spectabilis, and a small Ophiorhiza, Acer at 2,800 feet, as likewise Rhopala; at 2,000 feet, Costus and Abroma, Thunbergia grandiflora.

January 19th.—I find that large quantities of Mungista or madder are sent to the plains from this, where the plant is very common; it is exchanged for ill preserved salt-fish, one bundle of madder for one fish. This fish is of an abominable odour, and probably tends to increase the natural savour of the Booteas, which, considering their total unacquaintance with soap, is sufficiently strong.

P. tells me that the Kampo country is situated north of this, and that it may be reached by a Kampo, in twenty-six days.

The language of the people we are now among, is distinct from that of Assam, as will be observed from the names given to the common grains cultivated in both countries, their principal grain is barley, which is of a fine description; very little cultivation being carried on here, the people drawing all their supplies from the plains. The following is a list of grains cultivated: those marked * are Cerealea:—

Assam. Bootea.

1* Lalkonee dhan, Yungra, )Panici sp. 2* Legaid ditto, Ditto, )

3 Boot, Tel, Hnam, A Sesamum.

4 Cultivation in Upper Assam, Braime, (Polygonum Fago- (pyrum, grains (very large.

5* Bhobosa, Khongpo, Eleusine sp. 6* Goomdam, Peihnam, Zea Mays. 7 Gellei-ma, Linjee, Phaseoli sp.

[Gradient Bootan: g204.jpg]

The palm from the cliffs on the road hither is evidently a species of Phaenix, pinnulis inferioribus spiniformibus reticula copiosa, pinnulis liniaribus acuminatissimus, apicem versus canaliculatis reticulo copioso, the height must be about that of a moderate Areca. No specimens of the trunk, none of flowers and seeds have been brought to me.

The temples here have a good deal of the Burmese shape, but the dome is more like that of a Mussulman mosque.

January 22nd.—Yesterday evening Mr. Blake's Khidmutgar died rather suddenly, he had been ailing for some days, but apparently not serious; his indisposition was owing to over-loading the stomach with radishes, etc. in which all partook too freely during the protracted halt, thus causing a good deal of sickness.

This place is so straggling that it is difficult to make a guess at the number of the houses, the greater number of the people are temporary residents and mostly are natives of Kampo,{205a} they are more dirty than the Booteas, and seem to have an especial predilection for begging. When wishing to be very gracious they bow and gesticulate awkwardly, shewing their tongue at the same time. Their principal dress is coarse woollen clothes, and in lieu of turbans they wear caps or hats. Their beasts of burden are principally asses, which are perhaps, from bad treatment, undersized: they likewise use goats, and largish animals between goats and sheep in appearance; of these we saw one male only, it had once spiral horns. Even a little black kid was not exempt from carrying its share, this was ornamented by woollen tassels of a red colour, fastened through a hole in the ear.

Pemberton tells me, that most of these people come hither with the view of going to Hazoo, a place of pilgrimage in Assam; some remain here as a security for the return of their brethren in three months, the period during which leave is granted by our friend the Rajah of this place. Their language is totally different from that of the Booteas. The day before yesterday an edict against catching fish, being taken off as I supposed it would be on shewing the Rajah some flies, Blake and I went down, and repeated our visit yesterday; the bed of the river at the debouchment of the path leading towards Tongsa, is elevated 1,431 feet, (70.209.8), {205b} it is of no great size, and is generally fordable; the fish are almost exclusively Bookhar. {205c} I saw one or two Sentooreahs, {205d} and caught a long thin Bola, {206a} beautifully banded with purplish-blue. The Bookhars as usual take a fly well, especially red hackles; the largest was caught by Blake, and must have weighed nearly three pounds.

Very little worth noticing occurred in the vegetation. Sedgwickia is common and of very large size, 2,400 feet above the river, as well as tree ferns.

Equisetum occurs in the bed of the river; in some places at the same level a species of Ranunculus, Aroidea, Succulent Urticeae were common; along the edges or in the small churs, that have established themselves here and there, and which are covered with the usual Sacchara, but of smaller size; Erythrina, Leptospartion, Sambucus, Boehmeria tomentosa, Kydia calycina, Grislea, Tupistra, Leea occurred, Ficus elastica is not uncommon, one specimen presented itself, which had sprung up on another tree, fifty feet from the ground; this it had destroyed, and the appearance was singular enough.

The juice is used for water-proofing bamboo vessels. The general rocks are slate, and this was the only one we saw in situ; the vegetation is rather barren.

Near the bed of this river, which is called the Deo Panee, I found a curious Menispermous genus, Columnea, Clypeae perianthia uncialata, ore integeriuscula, a Myrtacea, Uncaria, Abroma augusta, etc.

On ascending, Murraya exotica, Magnoliaceae, Paederia faetida, and Bignonia, occurred at low elevations, Lobelia baccata, Wulfenia obliqua, Costus, Chloranthus, Justicea orchidiflora below 600 feet, Eurya occurred scarcely below 1,800 feet with Millingtonia simplicifolia.

The cattle here are really noble, particularly the bulls; they are much like the Mishmee Methuns, but are distinct, {206b} they are very quiet.

January 23rd.—Left at twelve, and arrived late at Rydang on a nullah, distant eight miles. Passed no villages, but passed a bridge erecting over the Deo Nuddee, at which place a Lam Gooroo or high Priest was employed: vegetation continued the same, and only two new plants occurred, a Stemodia with large yellow flowers, and a Begonia, with branched stems. Rydang is 2,404 feet above the sea (55.208.5.) {212}

January 24th.—Started early in the morning, (at 8 A.M.) the coolies mostly leaving at daylight. Yet although the distance was only eleven miles, we did not reach till 5 P.M. and many of the coolies did not arrive till late at night. The fact is the ascent was nearly uninterrupted during the day, the highest point traversed being about 6,000 feet. We then descended slightly to Khegumpe, our halting place, the altitude of which is 5,395 feet (46.202,) at the highest point Fahr. thermometer stood at 42 degrees at 1 P.M.

The first part of the road lay over grassy sparingly-forested hills, until we reached 4,000 feet. Here or a little below this the change in the vegetation commenced, the first elevational plants being Serissoid; Gaultheria, and Rhododendron commenced at about 3,600 feet on dry rocky eminences, which it always prefers.

On the 1st eminence, 600 feet above Rydang or 3,000 feet above the sea, Quercus, Castanea, Sedgwickia, Polypodium Wallichii, Lobelia, Pyramidalis, Composita arborea, Gordonia, Pteris aquilina, Anthistiria, Gramen airoides, Callicarpa arborea, Artemisia, Tephrosia, Flemingia, Govania, and these continued up to 4,000 feet. We here met with Kampo Tartars with their laden sheep, the children being generally placed cradle-fashion on the top of the loads, each in its own basket. Itea macrophylla occurred at 3,200 feet, with Clematis, Hastingsia, Bignonia, Euphorbiacea, Briedleia.

At 3,300 feet Kydia zyziphifolia, Rhopala, Composita arborea, Hypericum,* Triumfetta, Smilax, Indigofera.*

At 3,600 feet, the same with Panax, Wendlandia, Myrtacea arborea, l. Melica latifolia.

At 3,800 feet, Hedychium, Gaultheria, Habenaria, Serissoides, Gnaphalium, Gordonia, here very abundant, covered with Lichens and epiphytical Orchidea, Phyllanthus, Emblica.

At 4,000 feet, Rhododendron arborea, Eugenia, l. Gaultheria arborea, Echinanthus, Bambusa, microphylla.* The same trees continue.

At 4,200 feet, Hedychium, Briedleia, Pyrus, Ficus,* and Rhododendron in flower, Gordonia, Itea macrophylla, Pteris aquilina, Osbeckia nepalensis, Artemisia major, Airoides, Flemingia.

At 4,500 feet, Myrica, Callicarpa arborea, Verbenaceae, Buddlaeoid,* Ardisia, Maesa, Panax, Piper, Styrax, Camellia,* Polygonum rhaeoides, Cyrthandra common, Mimosa arborea, Betula,* Ficus, foliis cordatis hispidis, Kydia calycina, Inga, Rubus moluccanus. Anisadenia, Begonia, Otochilus latifolius, Tussilaginoides, Neckerae, Urtica, Gaylussacia, Lobelia, Panax, AEschynanthus venosus of Churra,* Lycopodium of Surureem,* Smilax ruscoideus,* Liparis, Rhododendron arboreum verum, Bucklandia of vast size. Hoya fusca, Ophiopogno, Viola, Hymenophyllum, Croton heterophyllum, Convallaria oppositifolia, Plectranthus Roylii, Begonia picta, Isachne, Cerastium, Spiraea, Hedera, Hypericum, Peliosanthes, Carex gracilis rupium, which commenced at 5,500 feet, Bambusa microphylla.

The forests here were damp and tropical so far as herbaceous underwoods were concerned, the trees were loaded with mosses chiefly pendulous Neckerae and Hypnea, as well as the rocks, Epiphytes were common.

We then continued along ridges about the same elevation, Ranunculus, Hemiphragma, Thibaudia buxifolia, Polygonum rheoides, Pyrus indica. Gnaphalium common, Pteris aquilina, Airoides, Artemisia on sunny spots, Gaultheria, Galium of Churra, Arundo. The trees were about this all scraggy, but of picturesque appearance. Choripetalum, Panax, Laurineae,* Piper, Cissus, Photinia and Gleichenia major, Thibaudia myrtifolia,* Potentilla, Calophyllum,* Hydrangea arbuscula,* Thalictrum majus,* Crawfurdia speciosa,* Macrocapnos,* Daphne papyrifera.*

Our march now wound round a huge hill with rocky head, lowering several hundred feet above us, the road being narrow, rocky, overhanging vast precipices. All the trees were scraggy, stunted with tufted grasses. Here about Dipsacus of Churra occurred, Buddleia, Phlomoides, Lonicera, Rosa, Jubrung, Cheilanthes dealbata of Brahmakund, Asparagus, Urticea arborea floribus faem. capitulatis aurantiaces, Spiraea bella, Hymenopogon, Saxifraga ligularis,* on the rocks Primula,* in the crevices, with Hydrocotyla, Thalictrum renatum, Umbelliferae,* Scirpus, Stemodia, Compositae, Hypericum, Didymocarpus contortus of Oklong, Erianthus, Gymnostomum, all these on the bare rocks. Along the path, Codonopsis, Cnicus, Valeriana, Hardwickia, Lobelia.

Hence we passed along nearly at the same elevation through romantic paths, the vegetation being European, and comparatively open: the trees covered with moss, with grassy swards here and there: the scenery was beautiful, the descent hence to Khegumpa was gradual and easy, along similar paths.

Noticed the following trees, etc. in the following order: Tetranthera, Gaultheria arborea, Tradescantia cordifolia,* Acer, Polygala, Deutzia, Tradescantia, Jasminum triphyllum, Plectranthus azureus, Macrocapnos, Rubia cordifolia,* Cucurbitacae Cissampeloid, then forests of Rhododendron, on the paths Swertia, Potentilla, Fragaria, Alnus Acer folius palmatum lobatis oppositis, Porana.

This day I gathered about 130 species, the march was really delightful. The plants marked thus * indicate elevation.

Madder is furnished by both Rubia munjista and R. cordifolia, these species are quite distinct, the latter affecting greater elevations than the former, scarcely descending below 4,000 feet.

Scarcely any water occurred on the route; from just above Khegumpa, a beautiful valley is seen to the left, with a good deal of cultivation. No large villages were seen.

[Gradient Rydang to Khegumpa: g210.jpg]

January 25th.—Khegumpa. This is a pretty place; but the whole country has a wintry appearance from the trees having mostly deciduous leaves; it is a small village, not containing twelve houses. Pagodas with the inscription-bearing walls occur as usual; on a small hill rising from just below the village, a large house with out-houses belonging to a Lam Gooroo, is the prettiest bit of architecture I have yet seen. We put up in a small house, of the usual poor construction, capable of containing four or six people, the roofs are of wood, the planks being kept down by stones. The evening was very cold, but the thermometer did not fall below 44 degrees. Here a solitary specimen of Pinus was seen.

A beautiful tree, with pendulous leaves and cones, which resemble those of Abies, occurred. Rhododendron is common here. Around the hut I observed Lobelia, Rumex, Quercus, Ranunculus, Plantago, Leucas ciliata, Gnaphalia, Rubus, Urtica urentior, Rubi 2, Pteris aquilina, Geranium, Galium, Artemisia major, Fragariae, Betula? ramis pendulis, foliis lineari lanceolatis, Jubrung, Phlomoides, in flower, Spiraea bella, Tetranthera, Daucus, Gleichenia major, Oxalis corniculata, Dipsacus. The trees were covered with Lichens; the only cultivated plants I saw, and of these only straggling individuals, were tobacco and Bhobosa.

In a wood at the base of the hill on which the Lam Gooroo's house is situated, Saurauja hispida, and S. arborea,* Woodwardia,* Rubia cordifolia, Oaks, Spiraea bella, decomposita, Stemodia, Cerasus, Curculigo, Pogonatherum,* Carduus, Polygonum rheoides, Panax, Bucklandia, Berberis asiatica and Porana, occurred.

Our march, after passing this hill, commenced by a descent through a damp wood of Oaks, Eurya. Here Swertiae 2 occurred on banks. Clematis verbesina, Gordonia, Erythrina, Myrica. Thence we passed along a ridge, the forests being stunted and wintry, abounding with Rhododendron and oaks. Myrica, and pendulous lichens occurred in abundance, but grasses predominate, chiefly Airoid and Andropogons.

From this to the right was seen a beautiful valley with a moderate-sized village and picturesque houses, with considerable and very clever cultivation.

Thence we crossed to the other side of the ridge, descending a little and then continuing through forests of oak, consisting of a species found on the Khasyah hills, and approaching Q. Robur: as all the leaves had fallen, the whole appearance was that of winter. Here I shot the Jay figured in Royle's work: continuing to descend very gradually, I observed Epilobium,* Neckera, Fissidens, Brachymenium, Nerioideum in fruit and half buried in the fallen leaves; a pretty Gentiana, Ruta albiflora, Potentilla. After passing along this for some way we commenced a sharp descent. At about 4,800 ft. Vitex simplex, occurred. Indigofera re-appeared, with Saccharum rubro nitens of Churra, the other grasses being Andropogons, 2-3, and Orthopogon, Hedychium, Gordonia soon re-appeared: to the east, cultivation was visible, and to the north, Pines were visible in every direction stretching away far below us to a considerable torrent. About one-third of the way down this steep ravine, at the bottom of which a torrent was heard roaring, Wendlandia, Spiraea bella, Hedychium, Gaultheria arborea, Aspera Rhododendron, Pteris aquilina, Artemisia, Saurauja hispida, Indigofera, Eurya, Mimosa arborea, Maesa angustifolia of yesterday; Osbeckia nepalensis, Viburnum, Tetranthera, Ficus, Gleichenia minor, Crawfurdia speciosa, Polygonum rheoides, were found. Hitherto the woods had been dry, or rather so, but on turning to the east, we came into damp woods presenting many tropical features, along which we continued descending gradually for some time: at the commencement in this, Callicarpa arborea, a weeping Beech, Dipsacus verbesina, and the Alnus, of Thumathaya occurred, Arbutoideus, Hydrangea, Urtica heterophylla, Neuropeltoid aromatica. Then below we came on Piper, Deeringia, Cerasus, Sanicula, Cyrtandracea, Cheilosandra gracilis, and fleshy Urticeae. Underwood, herbaceous forms of Acanthaceae, Ferns, as Davallia, Asplenium, all more or less succulent. Darea, Glycine, Buchanania, Saurauja ferruginea, Thalictrum majus, Pothos, etc. Hypericum, Begonia, Panax terebinthaceus, Magnoliacae, Garciniae, Valeriana cordifolia.* Passing on at the same elevation, we suddenly rounded a ridge, and in one moment came on dry, sunny, rocky, grassy ground, the trees being exclusively Rhododendron, oaks and a few Gordonias with Airoid, Andropogons, Pteris aquilina: we then came on the brink of the ridge up to which Pinus longifolia ascends; the elevation of this was 4,132 feet (60.204.5.) {212} From this all around Pinus is visible in profusion; we then dipped to the south, this face being occupied by thick forest, having Rhododendrons on the skirts. From the above spot Saleeka was visible, with a fine grove of Pines, it is 1,500 feet, at least above this.

The descent was steep, we soon came on Callicarpa arborea, Celtis megala, Pogostemon, Stemodia grandiflora; this was about 4,300 feet, where a clearing had been commenced: close to this I observed Martynia, Pteris, Composita arborea, Desmodium vestilum, Flemingia, and gathered at 4,000 feet a Verbenaceous shrub, looking like a Plumbago, and a Boehmeria; continuing, without descending much, I came on Pinus, Rhododendron, Gaultheria.

Loranthus was here a common parasite on Pinus, oaks occurred but the species was changed; this had small leaves, white underneath; and descending we continued through pine woods, Artemisia minor, together with the usual grasses and Aspideium macrosomum.

Here we travelled along a hill just above a ravine. Either side of this was covered with grasses and pines, the ravine being crowded with oaks, etc. Panax, and Composita arborea occurred.

A little below this, Hastingsia, common, Desmodium hispidisum, Artemisia minor, Briedelia, Mimosa, and several Compositae: we continued descending very steeply, and observed Holcus elegans, Melica latifolia, Erianthus Apludoid Circium.

At 2,600 feet, came on Scutellaria; Pines had ceased, but on the opposite side of the nullah, they descended lower. Knoxia scandens, Kydia calycina, Hastingsia, Hedyotis linearis, Ficus pedunculis radiciformibus pendulis, Leguminous trees as Dalbergia, Triumfetta; Boehmeria, Asparagus, Buchanania again, Solanum, 10-dentat., Urtica urens,—l. (66.208.5.) {212}

The altitude of the bed of the Cameon nullah is here, 1,937 feet, its banks are formed by hills cut away and hence precipitous, those to the east are covered with Pines, Oaks descend to this. Here Arundo Karka, Leptospartion, Erythrina, Artemisia major, Solanum farinaceum, black pheasants of which I shot a male. Ficus Dumooriya, Grislea, Rhamnoid scandens, Pandanus, Boehmeria torrentum, Urtica pendula, Barleria Prionites of Dgin, Sida cuneifolia, Dalbergioid.

Thence we ascended 100 feet or thereabouts, and descended to another and larger torrent. Anonaceae, Phlogacanthus thyrsifloris here occurred.

The bed of this stream is 70 to 80 yards wide, but the volume of water is inconsiderable. The hills forming the opposite bank are lofty, not under 4 to 5,000 feet; their bases and the nullah above alluded to have the vegetation of Dgin, otherwise they are clothed with the usual grasses and noble Pines. The brown bird with crooked bill was heard here.

At 500 feet above the torrent Menispermum, Bidens albiflora, Megala, Leptospartion, Verbenacea, Plumbaginea, Mucuna, Desmodium hispidum and Ficus were seen as before: Phyllanthus, Emblica, and Grislea occurred at 800 feet: Grewia at 1,000 feet: and Osbeckia linearis occurred at 1,200 feet in rocky places; with Poa, Cynosuroides of Churra, and Bassia at 1,300 feet, with Emblica, Labiata sudyensis, Osbeckia nepalensis, Ficus.

On rounding the ridge to the east, which is 200 feet above this place Sassee, we came on a forest of oak, Rhododendron, Viburnum, Pothos pinnatus.

January 26th.—Sassee. Our coolies left us here, they are not very good ones, not equal to Khasyah, they are however merry, and whistle or sing when tired, their feet are generally naked, but occasionally they wear leathern sandals. Thermometer 60 degrees: water boiled at 204.5 degrees: altitude 4,109 feet.

About this place I first met with Thlaspi bursa pastoris, Malva rotundifolia also occurs, Ligustrum, Adhatoda! Euphorbia ramis 4-gonis, foliis? in spinis abeuntibus! Bambusa, Urtica urentior, Geranium, Rumex of Khegumpa, Pancratium or Crinum! Peristropha triflora, Holcus elegans, Pteris aquilina both Artemisias, Panicum cynosuroides! Stemodium ruderalis! Callicarpa arborea! Cerasus, Pyrus indica and malus, Barleria prionitis! Ervum, Hedychium coronarioides! in wet places, Buchanania, Peperomia, Moschosma! Dendrobium! Thibaudia myrtifolia, Gordonia, Dioscorcae! Tetrantheroid arbor magna, Pinus longifolia, Quercus, 2-sp. Rhus, Citrus also is found. Thus the mixture of forms is nearly excessive, those marked ! thus indicate usually low elevations. Rubia cordifolum.

The whole four leaves of this plant are petiolate, but one pair is perhaps always unequal, one occasionally abortive, I look upon this as a proof that the so-called stipulae of Stellatae are real leaves. There is this difference then between Rubiaceae and Stellatae, the one has covered buds, the other not. The development of the lamine before the petiole is particularly conspicuous in this plant.

Buck-wheat with trisulcate seeds, and Cannabis sativa are found here; barley is cultivated.

January 27th.—Sassee: temperature 58 degrees, big metal thermometer. Tomato found here; Leptospartion ascends woody ravines as far as this; of birds, the larger dove is abundant; Verbena officinalis.

January 28th.—On walls about this a Lobelia, and Stemodia ruderalis occurred. Sassee is a ruined village, said once to have been large, now containing not more than five or six houses, an equal number being in ruins.

January 29th.—Commenced to descend almost immediately, until we reached the Giri Nuddee, we then ascended again 5,600 feet, and continued over excessively precipitous rocky ground, until we reached the nullah again.

The same vegetation continued until we had descended some hundred feet. Pinus, Quercus, Rhododendron, Viburnum, Indigofera, Osbeckia nepalensis, Desmodium, Gaultheria arborea, Rubus, deltoidifolius, Conyza, Saurauja ferruginea, Crawfurdia speciosa, Labiata sudyensis, Dipsacus occurs but is rare, Gordonia, Rubus idaeus, Gleichenia minor, Pendulous lichens, Galium asparagus, Engeldhaardtia, Smilax.

The descent was steep. Thibaudia myrtifolia, Peperomia, Stemodia grandis, Airoid, Otochilus linearis.

At 300 feet Composita arborea, and penduliflora, Polygonum rheoides, Flemingia, and a cleared spot with Zea Mays. 400 feet Pteris aquilina, Rubus moluccanus, Aspidium Polypodioides, Lygodium, Aspidium macrosorum, Moschosma, Mimosa arborea, Millet, Cerasus, Hedyotis, Plectranthus, Roylia, Knoxia Scandens, Ruta albiflora, Rottlera, commenced at 500 feet. Stemodia, Hovenia, Cerastium, 4-Ovulatum, Carex.

[Gradient Khegumpa to Sassee: g216.jpg]

Carex, Kydia, Jujubifolia, Randia, Hovenia, occurred at 600 feet, with Rhopala, Panax, Ficus obliqua.

Then shady jungle commenced, underwood of Ferns, Acanthaceae, Urticeae, Andropogons, Stemodia secunda occurred at 700 feet. {217a} Hastingsia, Pogostemon, Kydia calycina, Glypea, Curculigo, 750 feet, with Clematis Cana, Cerasus, Quercus Robur, this came down a ridge. Rhus acidissima.

Scleria, Lycopodia, Maesa, Sterculia Balanghas, and Kydia Jujubifolia, at 900 feet. {217a} Phlomoides, Acanthacea specicosa, Pothos pinnatus, Choulmoogrum, Malpighiacea, at 1,000 feet. {217a} Buchanania, Magnolia, Achyranthes, Murraya exotica, Sedgwickia, Urtica Gigas, Chloranthus inconspicuus, Peliosanthes, Phaenix pygmaea, Hedysarum acenaciferum, at 1,200 feet. {217a}

The altitude of the bed here is 3,112 feet (64.206.2: of Woollaston, 6.4.3) {217b} and along its banks Cissus, Woodwardia, Megala, Polygonum Rheoides, Mimosa arborea, Curculigo, Woodwardia, Andropogon fuscum, Conaria, Potentilla, Rumex, Rubia cordifolia, Drymaria, and Begonia occurred.

The ascent was steep, leading over several land slips, the same vegetation continuing. Oaks, Pines, Rhododendrons occupying the more exposed faces, and the usual humid jungle characterising aspects not so much exposed. Pinus longifolia strays down to within 100 feet of the nullah. We passed a pretty cascade discharging a considerable body of water: here at 200 feet {217a} above the nullah, I observed Crotalaria juncea, the Betula of Thumathaya, Quercus lanatus, Leea crispa, Panax terebinthaceus, Indigofera, Scutellaria, Clematis, Cana, Panax altera, Mimosa, Porana, Arundo karka, Flemingia, Conyza, Aspidium macrosomum.

At 400 feet, {217a} Itea macrophylla, Ficus, Composita arborea. The woods are dry, but little occurring underneath the trees, except the usual grasses, Andropogons and Airoides. At 500 feet, {217a} Thibaudia myrtifolia, Triumfetta mollis, Composita penduliflora, Lysimachia, Pinus, Rhododendron. The ground now became excessively rocky, the road winding along at the same elevation, not more than a foot wide.

At 600 feet, {217a} Desmodium vestilum, Artemisia, Acanthacea lurida, Gentiana, as before. Gordonia, Bambusa, Microphylla, Arum viviparum, Tussilaginoid, Wendlandia, Thibaudia, variegatoides, and a myrtifolia; Sedum, rocks strewn in every direction covered with Sedum and epiphylical orchideae.

On rounding a ridge with a north-east aspect we came without altering our elevation, on a humid jungle. Pothos pinnatus and red, Ferns, Acanthaceae, Choripetalum, Calamus, Acrostichea, Blakea, Grammitis decurrens, Moschosma. We descended through similar jungle with Pandanus also occurring until we again changed our aspect, when the oak woods, etc. reverted with Rhododendron and Thibaudia myrtifolia; again changing, we returned to an intermediate jungle, gradually assuming all the humid characters of those places passed before. Here I observed Tupistra, Asplenium nidus, at 200 feet above the bed of a nullah. Rottleria, Mimosa arborea, Crawfurdia, Speciosa, Zanthoxzlon triphyllum.

Along the bed of this nullah, Crawfurdia speciosa, Potentilla, Choripetalum, Eurya, Ranunculus, Cardamina, Juncus! Oxyspora, Saurauja hispida, occurred; some in a sort of marsh, with Thibaudia variegatoides. The places along which torrents formerly flowed were occupied by Typha elephantina, Kujara, Megala, Arunda, the Alnus of Bhailseeree, Artemisia major, Rubus deltoidifolia, (Corysanthera hispida with Juncus;) here Anthistiria arundinacea, Artemisia minor, Bucco grandis (Bird), Polygonum rheoides, Baehmeria torrentum, Gaultheria deflexa, Indigofera, Oaks, Gordonia, Holcus elegans, Conaria nepalensis in flower, and Erythrina occurred along the bed, up which we proceeded about a mile.

We then ascended among Pines and Oaks, Callicarpa arborea, and others, ascending up the humid ravines, which in the rains give exit to torrents—at 300 feet noticed a different Pinus, which is observed in abundance on a mountain on the opposite side, up which it ascends 2 or 3,000 feet.

Callicarpa azurea, Buddleia Neemda, Eugenia, Serissoides, and the Saccharum of Churra, occurred here.

The ascent was continual but gradual, rounding the almost precipitous face of the hill, the path was stony, often loose and frequently not above a foot wide, with a precipice lowering above and yawning beneath. The vegetation had, with the exception of the Pines, Oaks, and Rhododendrons, all been burnt, so that the ascent was uninteresting. As we neared the summit it became bitterly cold, a strong biting wind nearly cutting us in two: we reached Bailfa, which is on the summit but sheltered, at 6 P.M.

Conaria occurs at the top! being more advanced in flower than below; in one instance with young capsules. I noticed Pogonatherum, Didymocarpus contortus, Serissoides, Gaultheria fruticosa, Polytrichum fuscum, gathered at 7,000 feet, previously: at 1,200-1,500 feet above the nullah, Indigofera reaches the top. In a sheltered place here I found a beautiful Gaultheria; a small Campanula occurs on the rocks at from 1,000 feet upwards.

BAILFA or Bulphai.—This place is 6,808 feet above the level of the sea, yet on the east and south are mountains towering far above it. Snow is said to fall in February, but sparingly—the hills around are bleak, thinly vegetated, except those on the south of the Geerea, which are more wooded. There are only a few houses. Turnips and barley are cultivated here, and in these fields may be found a Cruciferous annual, and probably a small species of Lamium. The chief cultivation is visible in the valleys below. Buckwheat is among the number.

January 29th.—To-day I sallied out a few hundred yards to the west, on turning over the ridge, the south side of which is so bleak, thinly covered with Q. lanata and Rhododendrons, I found myself in a thick shady jungle, the chief tree being a species of oak, widely different from Q. lanata. The trees and shrubs are loaded with mosses, especially pendulous Neckerae, Daltoniae, Hypne; Hookeria, Fissidens, etc. occurred on the ground. I imagine, I gathered twenty-five species of mosses here. Ferns were likewise abundant; I noticed Daphne papyracea, Berberis asiatica, Conyza nivea, Smilax ruscoides, OEschynanthus venosus, Hedera, Ophiopogon linearis, O. latifolius, Cymbidium viridiflorium, Ardisia crenata, Carex, Piper! Clematis, Gordonia, Spiraea decomposita, Composita volkamerifolia, Cissus, Smilax, Bambusa microphylla, Viburna, as before. Gaylussacia serrata and microphylla, the former in fruit. Thibaudia lanceolata, buxifolia, Gaultheria of yesterday.

On the exposed face Santalacea, Gentiana, Hypericum decussatum of Moflong, Leucas ciliata, Ischaemum pygmaeum, on Rhododendron, Loranthus obovatus. The mosses of this side were Brachymenium, Tortula, Famaria, Trichostomum, Neckerae, Polytrichum fuscum, Zygodon? Dendrobium and Otochilus, occur here. A stray and small Abies occurs on the ridge itself.

About the village of Bailfa, occur Urtica urens, Artemisia major, Saccharum aristatum, Rubus triphyllus, Senecio scandens, Rumex, Chickweed, Stemodia ruderailis, Lactucoidea murorum, Carduus, Phlomoides, Rubus deltoidifolies, Achyranthoid, densa.

January 30th.—Thermometer at 7 A.M. 40 degrees. The houses here are roofed with split bamboos, and they are tied on by rattans, a precaution rendered necessary by the boisterous winds which prevail. The place is very cold; the thermometer varying from 40 degrees to 52 degrees; mean temperature of the day 46 degrees.

In the barley fields I noticed Fumariae sp., Potentilla and Cynoglossum. Erythrina ascends to this! Pyrus Malus and Spiraea bella occur.

January 31st.—Our march this day commenced with an ascent of a ridge lying to the north-east of our halting place, this occupied us some time, and at last we reached a pagoda, visible from Bailfa, and which is nearly 1,000 feet above that place. Thence we descended about a hundred feet, through a well-wooded situation. Emerging thence at about the same elevation, we crossed barren bleak downs; the ravines being alone wooded, and hence the woods had that rounded, defined appearance, so remarkable in some parts of the Khasya hills.

Thence the descent was continued to Roongdong, the march is an easy one, about seven miles.

The first new plant that occurred was an Allium on rocks, but it had been dried up by the fires which had bared the surface of the hill of every thing, except the trees and stouter shrubs, capable of resisting its action.

Toward the pagoda, on the summit of the ridge, Pendulous lichens were abundant, Epiphytes were common, consisting chiefly of Orchideae, with the 2 Gay Lussacias, Rhododendron punctata, Hymenopogon parasiticus, Orthodon, Tussilaginoid, Alnus occurred at 7,300 feet. The other vegetation continued.

At 7,400 feet, a new Quercus appeared, this, which has in its young state, leaves much like those of the Holly, and may therefore be called Q. elicifolia! Andropogon, Viburnum caerulium, Neckera, Bambusa microphylla, Fragaria, Potentilla, Conyza nivea, Scabiosa Spiraea decomposita, Gillenioides, Smilax ruscoideus, Hyperica of Moflong, Campanula, Swertia, Dipsacus.

At 7,500 feet, Epilobium, Rosa, Vaccinium cyaneum! Rhododendron coccineum, Tetranthera.

At 7,800 feet, Abies pendulifolia, Hemiphragma.

At the pagoda, and about it, Grimmia was found on rocks, with the usual pendulous Neckerae, Q. ilecifolia, Vibura, Hypericum.

Abies Brunoniana, a large solitary tree, with pendulous branches, Tetranthera, Laurineae, Smilax gaultherifolia, Ilex, on the wooded side of the ridge. Ferns and mosses were abundant, Ilex! Daphne papyracea.

Eurya, Panax rhododendrifolia, Rhododendron arborea, minus et majus. The tree of Thumathaya foliis ad apicem ramorum aggregatis, petiolis colorat., Celastrinea Euryifolia, Tetranthera another species without leaves. In the more moist places a small Urticeae, Lonicera as before, on the exposed side stunted Q. ilecifolia, Dipsacus, Gnaphalia, Vaccinium cyaneum, and Gramineae, Hemiphragma, Potentilla, Campanula, Tussilaginoides. Long tailed grey monkeys.

The ridge we crossed, runs up into a bleak ridge on which are houses, and which cannot be under 9,500 feet high, about the descent through the wood, which did not extend many hundred yards. I noticed Galium, Valeriana, Crawfurdia fasciculata, Sphaeropteris Betula corylifolia, Hypericum, Spiraea gillenioides, Rubus cordifolius, Senecio scandens, Juncus effusoideus, in wet places, Rhododendron majus, coming into flower, (flower white) Cerastium bacciferum, arborea, canescens, Cissus, Rubus moluccanus, Elaeagnus, Rubus potentillifolia, Plantago, Ligustrum, Berberis pinnata and asiatica, which last is generally covered with lichens.

Xanthoxylum, Lilium giganteum! Polytrichium fuscescens, Trichostomum anielangioides, Pohlia, on walls and rocks, Adoxa! in wet places under banks, with a fleshy Urticea: about this was observed the brick-red and black bird. {221}

Along the naked ridge and on the downs, which had a most wintry appearance, and where it was bitterly cold, the Lycopodium of Surureem was found, also Vaccinium cyaneum, Gnaphalium, Pteris aquelina stunted, Hypericum of Moflong, Swertia stunted, Hemiphragma.

The defined woods are formed of oaks and stray Abies pendulifolia, Panax rhododendrifolia, Berberis asiatica, and B. pinnata.

Mespilus microphyllus, Rhododendron minus, and R. arborea, (Euphorbia, and Juncus on the swards.) Eurya, Gaultheria arborea, Stauntonia. From this ridge a village near Benka is visible, as well as a large stream, the Goomrea, and several villages. The one we now inhabit, being the best looking and occupying a deep valley, is surrounded with much terrace cultivation.

Descending still farther we left the downs, first coming into the scraggy woods of Oaks, Rhododendron, Quercus, chiefly Q. robur. About here we met abundance of people going to Hazoo from Kampo; they were accompanied with asses chiefly carrying burdens of one maund weight; few goats; one yak was seen of a black colour; a low compact animal, much resembling, except in the absence of a hump, the bison: it was not a handsome specimen. We also passed a village to the left, containing about twenty houses, here a Nai gooroo, or person of rank, resides, and here I also got fruit-bearing specimens of Abies pendula.

Noticed, as I descended, Pyrus, Cerasus, Magnoliacea, Gaultheria arborea and frutex, Pteris aquelina, Quercus sclerophylla of Bulphai, Viburnum caerulescens and angustifola! Rhododendron minus, Ilex! Aspid. nidus, Gordonia, Q. lanata, Woodwardia, Rubia albiflora, Gleichenia major, Pyrus indica. Then we came to a pretty temple built like a house, with a fine specimen of Cypress pendula, altitude of the place 7,000 feet. From this a fine view of Roondong is obtained.

Still descending a short distance came to another temple, with a dome of the ordinary form, and a large square terraced basement, and inscribed slabs in the recesses. Hence the ascent was very steep. Erythrinum, Buddleia! Indigofera! Spiraea bella, Artemisia major! Polygonum rheoides! Rubus deltoidens! Curculigo, Conaria nepalensis, Thalictrum majus! Asparagus, Jubrung! Oxalis corniculata, Clematis cana, Eurya ferruginea! Santalacea australas, Pyrus malus! Elaeocarpus! Maesa salicifolia. We then crossed a small torrent, and ascended about 100 feet to Roongdong; noticed Stemodia grandiflora! Spiraea bella, Conaria, Erythrium, Elaeagnus spinosus, Salix? buds with velvet or woolly hairs, Martynia! Hedera! Citrus! Woodwardia.

The transitions of the flora were this day well shewn. The plants which indicated the greatest elevation are, Vaccinium, Abies Brunoniana, Saxifraga, or Adoxa, Q. ilecifolia, Rhododendron formosum, R. arboreum majus, Sphaeropteris, Ilex, Eurya acuminata? Panax rhododendrofol., Berb. pinnata and B. asiatica, Mespilus, Microphylla, Juncus.

The occurrence of the Urticea at such elevation is curious, the proofs of the wonderful effects of humidity, and non-exposure were particularly shewn, between the exposed south face of the Bulphai mountain, and the north-east face which was wooded.

From scarcity of grass, horses were here seen to feed on boughs so high as to be obliged to stand on stones, to get at their food. They are likewise fed on maize and tares; the poultry is of a large brood. The cocks are atrociously noisy, two in particular had such lengthened, cracked or quavering voices, that they were quite a nuisance. We put up in the house of the Dumpa or head man. It is situated on the top of a stony, and a bitter cold place, exposed to the four winds of heaven. House very large, and our host a little man with great airs, and a red coat or wrapper of coarse English cloth, drinks intensely.

During our stay at this place he invited Pemberton and Blake to shoot pigeons; the poor man thought that they would not be able to hit them, on finding out his mistake, he put an end to the sport.

Atriplex is cultivated here, Mooreesa of Assam, Hempstee of the Booteas, though seeds are used as well as the leaves.

The loads of salt brought down by the Tibetans on asses are packed up neatly in coarse cloths, and weigh upwards of forty seers each.

[Gradient Bulphai to Roongdong: g224.jpg]

February 1st.—Our march commenced by descending gradually at first, then very rapidly to the Dimree nuddee: crossing this at the junction of two streams, we ascended a little and then kept along the side of the ridge forming the right bank of the nuddee, until we came over the Monass: thence proceeding about one and a half mile, we reached Tassgong or Benka which is situated on this river, and about 1,000 feet above it. This we crossed by a suspension bridge.

But little interesting botany occurred to-day: Chenopodium sp. occurs in fields at Roongdong. The terrace cultivation here had just yielded a crop of rice, and was now planted with wheat. Agriculture would appear to be at a low ebb, and if the country is populous, the people must be half-starved.

Water was abundant throughout the route: the Monass is a large stream, but not generally very deep, although from its rapidity it must discharge even at this season a great body of water. Composita penduliflora descends to the Dimree, the altitude of which is about 3,000 feet, so in fact did most of the plants found about Roongdong. Pyrus continues half- way, Rhododendron to the bottom. Hovenia at an altitude of 5,000 feet, Randia—as also Tetranthera oleosa, and a new Flemingia.

At 4,900 feet, Jubrung occurs.—Clematis Cana, Luculiae sp., Conyzoidea nivea, Kydia calycina, Mimosa arborea, began at 4,800 feet: Gaultheria, arborea, Gordonia, descend to the bottom: Crawfurdia speciosa, Oxyspora, Aspidium, Macrostomium, and Polypodioides, Saurauja hispida, Hypericum, Spiraea bella, Gillenioinis, Quercus, Rubus, and Viburnum caerulescens. A tree yielding lac, which had lately been cut, and Meliaceae, Rhus triphyllum. Hence some snow was visible on a lofty ridge above our heads, at least 9,500 feet, the snow descending a considerable way down ravines. Of birds, Bulbuls and Bucco, were here observed.

At —- feet, Leguminosa arborea, Loranthus Scurrula, Kydia Wendlandia, Celtis, Osbeckia nepalensis, a Vitex, Grislea, Pteris aquilina, Indigofera! Acanthacea caerulea.

At —- feet, Triumfetta mollis, Composita arborea, Pterospermum, fructibus 10-valvibus, valvis lobatibus, Sem. alatis. Santalacea australasica, here a large shrub.

At the nullah, Fici sp., Saccharum Megala, Verbenacia? foliis apice craso lobatis. On the opposite side, Pinus longifolia, to within 200 feet of the nullah, Phlebochiton extensus! Solanum farinaceum! Achyranthes densa! a Plumbaginacea which is a Paederioid Rubiacea, and another Ficus, Hastingsia, Bassia, Labiata Sudyensis, Grislea, very common, Emblica, Ficus obliquus were found along the road, after crossing the nullah. The ridge of the mountain was rocky, barren, covered chiefly with grasses, the Butea of Nurtung, Artemisia minor, Umbelliferae, Desmodium vestilum, Kalanchoe, also occurred. At the few houses below our path, we saw plantains! and bamboos as well as mangoes! The terraces here are fronted with stones: Lemna occurred in water; Linaria on rocks; Conaria and a fleshy Euphorbia, this last, about villages.

The occurrence of plantains and mangoes here is curious, and a sure sign of mild climate, as Kalanchoe is of dryness; nothing could well exceed the barrenness of the road, from crossing Dumria to Benka.

Benka is a straggling place, built on a ridge overhanging the Monass, and on exceedingly rugged ground, the north face of the ridge being nearly equally steep; the southern face, contains about fifty houses, all of which are small and a few in ruins. The only large house is the Rajah's, which is said to be of Chinese construction.

This day the Rajah paid us a visit; a tent was pitched for his reception on the open ground before our house, consisting of a small silken pall, with two high silken parti-coloured kunnauts. He arrived about eleven, preceded and succeeded by followers amounting to less than a hundred. On reaching the ground, he was carried or shuffled off his horse and deposited in the tent amid most terrific screechings. He took an immense time to arrange for our admission. We found him seated on a shabby throne, with a head priest, a coarse looking man, on his right, on a less elevated seat. Brass cups, etc. were arranged before him. Our chairs occupied the left; a present of fruits, onions, etc., the floor. The meeting was friendly, and he promised us coolies in two days. He is a youngish man with a square face, and was well dressed.

After we had taken leave, he feasted his attendants and the spectators with salt-fish and rice. He departed about 2 P.M. The procession was as follows, both going and returning—

A large, black, shaggy dog led by a chain.

A drum and drummer; a gong with a melodious sound; a clarionet played by an old and accomplished musician, rivalling in its strains that beautiful instrument the bagpipe; a man bearing a wooden painted slab on a pole, on this was an inscription; a banner looking like a composition of rags; a white flaglet; fifteen matchlockmen; fifteen bowmen; the Dompa of Roongdong; five horses and one mule led.

The household; Natchees; guitar; sundries. Personal attendants, looking like yeomen of the guard in red cloth dresses, variegated with yellow; the Rajah wearing a Chinese copper hat.

Lastly, the priests, of whom there were about six.

These were the best clothed and best mounted, and evinced satisfactory tokens of being corporeally well off. Their dress consisted of a sombre jacket with no sleeves, with either a yellow or red silk back, over this is a sombre scarf. They are great beggars, and the headman was well pleased with a present of four rupees. In return, he gave P. two, B. and myself each one paper of salt, similar to those given to the lookers-on.

The ponies were all poor, excepting two or three of the Rajah's own, which were handsomely equipped; these had their tails raised on end, exactly like hobby-horses. In addition to this, each was supplied with supernumerary yak tails, one on either side.

The whole people collected did not amount to more than 300. The arms, at least were wretched, consisted of culverins, which went off with an enormous report, and matchlocks with short rests, like the end of a pitchfork. The bows were long and good. The helmets were worn on the head when going and coming, but were allowed to sling on the back while resting here; they are rude iron things, like bowls, but covered for some way up the sides with cloth in a most unbecoming way. Dirt and noise were predominant; the dancing women, evidently not what they should be, had clean faces, but horridly dirty feet, and were very plain. The dancing was poor, consisting chiefly of ungraceful motions of the hands and forearms; the singing pleasing, harmonious but monotonous.

A peculiar kind of spirit called Chonghoons is in great requisition: this liquor is pleasant, perfectly clear like whiskey and water, with a small matter of malt in it.

Fumaria is found here much more advanced than that at Bulphai, Drymaria ovata. They cultivate one sort of Legume, perhaps more; mangoes, jacks and pomegranates; all these trees bear fruit towards the end of the hot weather. A young mango tree was observed with opposite leaves, uppermost pair one abortive nearly: thus the Mariam of Burma, may probably present the normal form of foliation. Adoee fish {227} found in the Monass.

Bheirs, papia, tobacco, banyan, of these last, poor specimens may be seen here. The place is miserably poor, and as it is reckoned one of some importance, its condition shows the barrenness of the country. The Rajah's house is a large one, apparently consisting of a quadrangle with an elevated story. News arrived yesterday to the effect that tumults still prevailed: the Deb it was said had been deposed by treachery: that a new one had been permanently appointed: but that the usurper did not wish us to come on. Tongsa, however, said that after we have come so far, we should advance, and that we may settle our plans at his place.

February 5th.—Left: descended immediately from the town to the bridge over the Monass. The descent is steep but winding, the face of the hill being nearly precipitous. Close to the river we passed a small field of Cajanus, used for feeding the lac insect. The bridge is a suspension one, the chains, one on either side, being of iron in square links; the curve is considerable, in the form of the letter V, the sides being of mat. Hence it is difficult to cross, and this is increased by the bridge swinging about considerably: it is seventy yards in span, and about thirty above the Monass.

The Monass is 1,300 feet below Benka, it is a large river, the banks being about eighty yards apart, but this space is not generally filled with water. Its violence is extreme.

We continued along this river some time, gradually rising from its bed until we ascended nearly 1,000 feet. We continued at this elevation until we reached Nulka, to which place we descended a little. The whole march was through a barren, rocky, burnt-up country. The Monass was in sight nearly the whole distance. Passed two villages, both small, one on the right and one on the left bank of the river. No change in vegetation occurred except that we came upon pines, P. longifolia about a mile and a half from Nulka, coming into flower. I am almost inclined to think this is different from the Khasya species, Kurrimia, Indigofera pulchra, Desmodium, Buddleia sp., were the only plants of a novel nature that occurred. The hills are chiefly clothed with Andropogoneous grasses, very little cultivation was observed, but there seemed to be more on high hills to the east.

[Gradient Benka to Nulka: g229.jpg]


Continuation of the journey in Bootan.

The following table affords the result of observations made with the view to determine the relation between temperature and altitude, in these parts.

Difference of Difference of Value in height of Temperature Elevation 1 degrees of Temperature

Benka and Monass, 13 degrees Fahr. 1,222 feet 94 feet

Benka and Nulka, 4 = 406 = 01-5/10

Benka and Khumna, 13 = 1,110 = 85-5

Khumna and Nulka, 16 = 1,516 = 89-3

Monass and Nulka, 9 = 816 = 90-6

Monass and Khumna, 26 = 2,332 = 89-9 ————— 6)550-8 ————— Mean value of 1 degrees of Fahr. as indicated on the barometer 91-8

Second series of observation

Benka and Monass, 13 degrees Fahr.1,193-4 feet 91-8 feet

Benka and Nulka, 4 = 367-2 = 91-8

Benka and Khumna, 13 = 1,178-1 = 90-6

Khumna and Nulka, 17 = 1,557-0 = 91-10

Monass and Nulka, 9 = 826-2 = 91-8

Monass and Khumna, 26 = 2,386-8 = 91-8 ————— 6)549-8 ————— 91-6

The Monass is called Goongree by the Booteas; its bed is very much inclined, and tranquil pools are of rare occurrence: it is not fordable in any place, although many of the rapids are not very deep. The singular bridge is said to be of Chinese construction, and that it serves the purpose of a chief thoroughfare, is a proof of the extremely small population of the country.

Onions grow at Nulka, plantains, sugarcane, tobacco.

Bheirs are common. Weeping cypress occurs, but stunted.

The entrance to this village on the north-side, is through a square building, the ceiling of which is painted, and the walls decorated with figures of deities, white and red.

[Koollong Bridge: p230.jpg]

February 6th.—We descended immediately to the Monass, keeping along its banks throughout the greater part of the march; rising however, over one or two spurs that dip into it.

This river varies a good deal in width, its bed, however, is generally confined, and the stream fierce; occasionally, however it spreads out and becomes here and there more placid. We continued along its banks, crossing one or two small streams until 12 o'clock, when we reached a large torrent, the Koollong, up which we proceeded three or four hundred yards, but at some height above its bed. We crossed this by a wooden bridge of similar construction with that over the Deo Panee, and the idea of which is ingenious. It is nearly fifty yards wide, and about twenty above the torrent. It is in a bad state, and unprovided with railings throughout the central level part. The houses into which the inclined supporting beams are fixed are strong, and built on rock. The fastenings are altogether of cane, and the whole presenting the appearance given in the annexed drawing.

Hence we ascended a black, rocky, burnt-up mountain until we reached Khumna, the ascent amounted to nearly 2,000 feet, and occupied more than an hour.

But little of interest occurred, in fact I never saw a more barren country. We passed a small village of two or three houses, and two good patches of rice cultivation, one just below Nulka, one at Ghoomkhume, the small village just alluded to.

Pinus longifolia descends nearly to the bed of the Monass, which below Nulka is about 2,200 feet above the level of the sea. Along this I noticed Hiraea, Eugenia, Vitis, Jasminum, Paederia foetida, Ficus, Loranthus, Scurrula, Desmodium, Aerides, Vanda, Flacourtia, Kalanchoe, Leguminosa, Vanillidora of Solani mookh, Ceanothus, Bergera, Dischidia bengalensis, Leguminous trees, Euphorbia, Bassia, Cheilanthes of Brahmakoond common, Coccoloba cyanea. In rice khets at Ghoomkurrah, I found Lemna, Cardamine, Rumex of Khejumpa, Cirsium decurrens, Gnaphalia, Datura, Simool in flowers; Spathoidea, Oxalis coriculata, Cannabis, Verbesina.

I observed water-ouzels, bucco, water-wagtails, bulbuls, ordinary and yellow-rumped.

[Gradient Nulka to Khumna: g232.jpg]

Passed cotton cultivation in two places, one close to the Monass, and one to the Koollong, both equally bad, and observed Begonia edule, which they call Sheemptsee, and which they eat.

The road to-day was generally good, overhanging in one place the Monass at a height of forty yards above, and below scarped precipices. The road here was constructed or supported artificially. Distance six miles.

February 7th.—To Phoollong. Left at 9.5 A.M., and immediately commenced ascending. The ascent was at first steep, then gradually wound round the Khumna mountain, which was most barren throughout. The ascent continued but very gradually until we came near Phoollong, to which we descended, and then ascended about 1,000 feet. About half-way, and when we had ascended perhaps 1,000 feet, we came on new vegetation, oaks, Rhododendra, etc. as before, and this continued improving in denseness until we reached the village. The distance is five miles, ascent about 1,500 feet, but so gradual, that one would not imagine it more than 800 feet. At Khumna, I noticed Pinus longifolia, Pyrus malus, Achyranthes dense, Cirrus, Urtica urens, tobacco, Musa, Datura, Artemisia major. Hogs are fed here in large circular platters made of stone scooped out.

Commencing the ascent, I observed Ficus cordata of Bhamru, Rhus pendula, Indigofera elatior, Conaria, Pteris aquilina, Cerasus commenced at 5,000 feet. Then Desmodium vestilum, Artemisia minor, Conyza laculia, Rubus deltifolius, Labiata Sudyensis, Acanth. caerulescens.

Quercus robur commenced at about 5,200 feet, but stunted Flemingia secunda, then Gaultheria arborea, Gnaphalium nivea.

Here there was a high ridge to the right, crowned with a wood of Q. robur, all the leaves of which had fallen. Myrica, Rhododendron, Jubrung, Didymocarpus contortus on rocks, Cnicus, Clematis cana, Polygonum rheoides. At a village here, which contained ten houses, observed Cupressus pendula, Citrus, wheat, Bambusa, then Juncus. Primula of the Khasya hills. Q. robur abundant, Composita penduliflora, Saurauja hispida, Equisetum, Rubus caesius, Alnus of Thumathaya, Elaeagnus spinosus, E. macrophyllus 5,300 feet: Plantago, Coriaria, Erythrina, Rhus acidum, Cerastium coenum, Dipsacus, Viburnum microphyllum, Rubia cordifolia, Barleria, Tetranthera oleosa, Hedera, Gentiana, Myrsine, Blasia, Fleshy urticea, Q. robur, Gordonia, Adamia, Neckera jungermannoides and laeta, Primula in abundance, Acorus, Calamus, Scirpus kysoor of Churra, Gram. latifolia, Andropogonoides of Suniassa.

Coming on a well-wooded ravine close to Phoollong, the first I have seen since leaving Balphai, found Quercus 2, Castanea, Gordonia, Spiraea decomposita, and S. Bella, Hydrangea, Rhododendron, Thalictrum, Quercus, Curculigo, Viburnum caerulescens, Indigofera elatior, Gnaphalium niveum, Sempervivum on rocks, Panicum eleusinoides, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Swertia major, Alnus as before, Rubus moluccanus, Salix lanata, Primula Simsii, Phlomoides, Orthodon.

Throughout the march we observed many detached houses on the mountains forming the right bank of the Koollong, and much cultivation, all of the terrace sort. Passed one village beneath us about 700 feet, containing twelve houses, and the one mentioned above; as usual, ruined houses occur.

Cattle furnished with litters of leaves; a curious low was heard, like that of an elephant.

Booteas work their own cotton, much of which is cultivated along the rivers at low elevations.

Higher land, certainly 11 to 12,000 feet high, was visible to the north side: on this a good deal of snow was visible.

[Gradient Khumna to Phoollong: g235.jpg}

February 8th.—Towards the morning it commenced to rain; snow has fallen on both sides the Koollong: it has fallen on the road we came by yesterday, and on the hills above to within 200 feet of us, or in some places to the level of this. Exemption in favour of this place is to be attributed to local causes. The trees in the neighbourhood are completely covered with it, and it is said to have fallen here twice during the night,

The Bootea houses are ill calculated for rain, they leak all around as indeed might be expected, from the nature of the roofs, which consist of boards, kept in situ by stones. It would be curious to ascertain the temperature under which snow does not fall, and if possible the temperature here and among the snow. In the morning, sleet with a few flakes of snow fell also, but only occasionally.

Snow continued to fall throughout the day, and steadily too: it commenced slightly: as the cold increased it ceased to melt on reaching the ground, and at length all around was a sheet of white. The variations of the thermometer were considerable and frequent, the wind blowing pretty steadily from the south-east.

At 10 A.M. 37 degrees Snow commencing. At 10.5 A.M. 36 degrees South-east wind. At 10.75 A.M.40 degrees Wind from the north, snow rather heavy. At 11.75 A.M.37 degrees South-east. At 12 Noon 35 degrees ditto. At 12.5 P.M. 36 degrees ditto. At 2.5 P.M. 37 degrees ditto. At 4 P.M. 39 degrees ditto. At 6 P.M. 37 degrees ditto. At 9 P.M. 38 degrees ditto.

Fine moonlight night. View to the north beautiful; every thing silvered with snow; the deep and black ravine of the Koollong is particularly conspicuous, and on some cultivated spots the pendulous cypress with its sombre head and branches covered with snow, was also remarkable, altogether a beautiful scene. Larch-like firs were visible 500 feet over the road leading to this from Khumna.

February 9th.—Fine sunny morning: thermometer at 7 A.M. 35 degrees: at 8 A.M. 42 degrees. Hills around covered with snow. High ridge to south plainly visible, a good deal of snow visible. Went out at noon over to the south-east, in which direction a pine wood was visible; this I ascertained to consist of Pinus or Abies pendula, which has much the habit of a Larch. The altitude of this above Phoollong is certainly 1,000 feet; snow covered the ground in all sheltered spots. The woods here are formed chiefly of Q. robur, Q. ilecifolia also occurs here and there, Gordonia, Cerasus, Rhododendron minus.

Mosses and Jungermanniae abound, and were in high perfection owing to being saturated with moisture. Polytrichum, Neckera, Brachymenium, Dicranum, Weissiae, Fissidens, Hypnum, Didymodon, Diastoma, Orthodon, were found in perfection. The only new plants were a Campanula and a Chimaphila, which last was found at 7,000 feet. Berberis asiatica scarcely occurs below 6,000 feet, Hedera. The birds seen were the jay, barbet, red-and-black-headed, variegated short-wing, large ditto of Khegumpa, orange-breasted Trochilus, brown Fringilla, green woodpecker, black pheasant, and small squirrel of Assam was also found.

From the fir wood, Tassyassee was distinctly visible, bearing nearly due south, distance 10 or 12 miles. Koollong was also seen: all the high ground between that and Bulphai was covered with snow. The high range to the south is, I think, the same as that which runs up behind from the pagoda above Bulphai.

A few plants of the Assam Indigo, Ruellia indigofera, are kept here, and preserved with care, but stunted and obviously unsuited to the climate. Montario, our taxidermist, says that it is the fourth plant he knows from which indigo is procured. First, Indigofera—Second, the custard apple, shereefa—Third, a climbing plant used in Java, etc. probably Marsdenia tinctoria—Fourth,—?

February 10th.—Fine weather: thermometer at 7 A.M. 40 degrees. Started at 9 A.M., and reached Tassyassee at 3 P.M.; the distance being nine miles. We continued throughout nearly at the same elevation, rounding the hill on which Koollong is placed. About three miles from this we descended about 500 feet to a nullah, which we crossed over by means of planks, thence we ascended about the same height, and continued at nearly our former level until we descended to the Koollong, which we crossed by the usual form of wooden bridge. Thence we ascended 400 feet to the village, which is chiefly constituted by the Rajah's house, a very large edifice. The Koollong is still a considerable stream, but appears to be fordable, at least in the present season.

The vegetation continued the same almost throughout. In ascending from the nullah above mentioned, we came on plenty of Pinus longifolia, and on getting still nearer Tassyassee the Abies pendula became more and more common, until it forms on the opposite bank of the Koollong opposite this, a large wood; Pinus longifolia disappearing. The hills continue openly wooded, the woods consisting of oaks, chiefly Q. robur and Rhododendrons. In the ravines which are thickly wooded, oaks, chesnuts, Cerasus, Rhododendron arborea, mosses; Panax two or three species, among which is a new one, P. aesculifolia, arbor parva armati, foliis 7 digitatis, paniculis nutantibus. Hydrangea, Viburnum caerulescens, and Microphyllum, Galium, Ferns abundant, Bucklandia likewise occurred here and there! Tetranthera, Valeriana, Scabiosa, Conaria, Holcus elegans.

In the broken ground before reaching this, Gaultheria nummularifolia, Primula minor, in crevices of rocks. In some places Erythrina was very common, Gentiana, Dipsacus, Sedum and Didymocarpus contortus on rocks, Saccharum aristatum, Salix lanata, Woodwardia, Primula minor, which grows in shade on the Khasya hills, is found here in sunny wet places. The scenery in some places is very romantic, and occasionally grand; the valley of the Koollong being closed far to the north by a high ridge and beautiful peaks, all heavily snowed. The Rajah's house is visible from a considerable distance. As we approached, some parts were rugged and bold. Water abundant throughout.

[Gradient Phoollong to Tassangsee: g239.jpg]

February 11th.—Went out at 1 P.M.; descending to, and crossed the Koollong, then ascending along its banks for about a mile.

The bridge over this is about thirty yards wide, abutting from two houses of ordinary structure, built on solid rocks: the river is underneath the bridge apparently of great depth; above it is a succession of rapids, it is even at this, the driest season, a considerable river. The path leads in a winding direction either over rice cultivation or on precipitous banks. I noticed Berberis asiatica, pinnata, a Pomacea spinosa, foliis spathulatis, Stauntonia latifolia, Hedera, Gaultheria two or three, Thebaudiaceae, Artemisia major, Erythrina, Primula Stuartii in abundance, Juncus, Alnus, Myrsina, Prunella in grassy spots, Rumex of Khegumpa, Daphne papyracae, Peperomia quadrifolium, Spiraea bella, Viola, Ophiopogon linearifol., Hypericum, Smilax, Elaeagnus, Conaria, Lonicera villosa, Epilobium sericeum, a common plant in all watery places, Cardamina Swertia, Viburnum microphyllum. Rhododendrum arborea and minor, Leucas ciliata, Thistles, Pteris aquilina, Neckerae, Osbeckia capitata of Churra, Oaks, Catharinea, Xyris, Gordonia, Fragaria, Potentilla two, Festucoidea, Cupressus pendula.

The greatest acquisitions were a beautiful pink farinaceous ascapous Primula, and a new genus of Hamamelideae. This plant I have long known, and called Betula corylifolia, as I had only seen it in fruit, and not examined it; it is found on the Khasya hills at elevations of between 4,000 and 6,000 feet. It will be worth dedicating it to some distinguished geologist, thereby associating his name with that of Bucklandia and Sedgwickii.

No fly-fishing is to be had in this stream, nor indeed in any at such elevations. The Adoee is found, but always keeps at the bottom, the structure of its mouth pointing out its grovelling habits. The Bookhar does not, I think, ascend more than 2,500 feet. Water-ouzels, white-fronted Sylvia occur. Observed for the first time the religious vertical revolving cylinders, these revolve by the action of water, which runs on the cogs of the wheel by means of hollowed out trunks of trees. Flour mills are common here, the grindstone revolves on another by means of vertical spokes, which are set in motion by a horizontal wheel, and moved by a stream let on it in the same way.

Funaria heygrometrina abounds in the larch wood here.

This is a very cold place, although 550 feet below Phoollong: it is much colder than that place: thermometer at 7 A.M. 34 degrees.

Snow still remains on the height around; heavy snow on the lofty ridge to the north; strong south-east winds prevail here.

[Tassgong from the Koollong: p241.jpg]

February 12th.—Tassyassy, which is also called Tassangsee, is a small place apparently consisting of one large house, belonging to the Soobah, and some religious edifices, the other houses belonging to it are scattered about among the adjoining cultivation. The Soobah we have just learnt is absent at Tongsa, so we have no opportunity of comparing his rank with that of the Tassgong man. His house is however, much larger; it is situated on a promontory formed by the debouching of a considerable sized torrent into the Koollong. The bridge is at the foot of this hill, which is about 400 feet high: the house is accessible to the north and west only. Half-way up a high hill to the north-west is a fort! and between the foot of this hill and the Rajah's house there is a wall with a tower at the north-west end, and a house at the south-east. In the afternoon the weather threatened snow, but it ended in very slight rain.

February 13th.—Thermometer at 7 A.M. 33 degrees: at 9 P.M. 31 degrees: cloudy. Observed Conyza nivea, Composita penduliflora, Agrimonia, Stemodia grandiflora, a species of Alopecurus in inundated rice fields, Fragaria, in the wood, Arenaria, Gymnostomum on the terraces. An Arabis in cornfields with a Viola, probably V. patrinia, Gaultheria deflexa and Gerardia of Churra. The fir woods are comparatively bare of mosses and lichens. Shot an Alauda, a Fringilla, and a curious climber with the tail of a woodpecker, at least so far as regards the pointing of the feathers, plumage of Yunx, and beak of Certhia.

Fine cypresses were seen opposite Tassangsee.

February 14th.—Left Tassangsee, diverging from the Koollong at that place, and following the nullah, which falls into that river below the Soobah's house. The march was a generally, continued, gradual ascent; we crossed two considerable streams by means of rude wooden bridges, and the whole march was a wet splashy one, owing to the abundance of water. Snow became plentiful towards the latter end. The direction was west, the distance about seven miles. We passed two or three deserted villages.

We commenced ascending through woods of stunted oaks, Rhododendrons, Gaultheria arborea. The chief under-shrubs being Daphne papyracae, Gaultheria fruticosa, Primula Stuartii, Lycopodium of Surureem, Thibaudia myrtifolia continue, the Alnus of Beesa occurred plentifully along the bed of the nullah. Spiraea decomposita, Valeriana simplicifolia, Conaria, Scabiosa, Fragaria, Potentilla, Geranium, Artemisia major, Spiraea bella, Hedera, Viburnum caerulescens, Q. robur, Crawfurdia speciosa also occurred.

Ascending, the oaks and Rhododendrons became more developed the latter being the smaller species, Bambusa microphylla, Gordonia, Sphoeropteris, Antrophyum trichomanes, Oxalis major! commenced. Larches on the opposite side, Saccharum aristatum, Gillenioides, Gleichenia major, Hemiphragma, Abies Brunonis commence.

At 6,500 feet Smilax ruscoides, Senecio scandens, Lilium giganteum. The Rhododendrons here are large, forming with oaks, open woods, mosses and lichens, very abundant. Here we came on snow, with it commenced Eurya acuminata, Rhododendron formosa, majus, Rhododendron fruticosa on ruins, Pyrus malus, Dipsacus.

At 6,800 feet, Q. ilecifolia, Q. glauca, Dalibarda, Bambusa very common, Sphagnum abundant, Rhododendron formosa, majus, Quercus ilecifolia larger and more common at 7,000 feet, Gaultheria nummulariodes very abundant, Daltonia, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Gaultheria flexuosa, Thibaudia acida, Tetranthera nuda, Lycopodium of Surureem, Primula Stuartii, Hyperici sp., also H. moflongensis, are found up to 7,400 feet, with Hemiphragma, Elaeagnus spinosus, microphyllum, Juncus, Alnus of Beesa, Saccharum aristatum.

The village is a ruined one apparently, and never contained more than four or five houses, situated on an open spot, surrounded by woods. This spot is covered with sward, a fine Q. ilecifolia occurs about the centre of the village. Its altitude is 7,983 feet.

The vegetation is the same, Abies pendula, Oaks, Rhododendron formosa, majus, the other has disappeared, Bambusa microphylla, Thibaudia acida, Primula Stuartii, Juncus.

[Gradient Tassangsee to Sanah: g243.jpg]

February 15th.—We started very early; the coolies were all off by 6.5 A.M. Our march was first over undulating ground, either sward or through green lanes. We then commenced ascending a steep hill visible from Sanah, the face of which was covered with sward; at the top of this, snow lay rather thick, especially in the woods. The ascent continued, soon becoming very steep, snow laying heavily on the path, until we reached the summit of the second ridge; thence we descended a little, soon ascending again very steeply until we surmounted the highest ridge. The descent from this was at first most steep, the path running in zig- zags, and being in many places very difficult. About 1,000 feet below, we came on sward, with wood on the right, along which we descended, diverging subsequently through a thick wood, until we reached sward again. Here the coolies who had come up had halted, refusing to go on, as it was already dusk. Learning that Pemberton and B. had gone on, I hurried on likewise, expecting that the coolies would follow, and continued along the swardy ridge, the path running occasionally between patches of wood, the descent being gradual; the path then struck off into wood, and the descent became rapid. I continued onward, until it was quite dark, and finding it impossible to proceed, and meeting with no signs of B. and P., I determined on returning. I reached the coolies about eight, covered with mud, the path in the wood being very difficult and excessively slippery. I had nothing but broken crusts to eat; I procured some sherry however, and my bedding being up, I was glad to take shelter for the night under the trees. Next morning on overtaking P. and B., I found that they had remained all night in the wood without any thing to eat, and without bedding, and that no habitation was near. We reached the village about 9.5 on the 16th, fatigued and dispirited. Nothing was at hand, and we had no meal until 5 P.M. except some tea, and an egg or two.

Many of the coolies came up late on the 16th, and some have not yet arrived (17th.) The distance was fifteen miles, to the halting place about twelve. The amount of ascent about 4,500 feet, and descent 6,100 feet, the road being difficult and very slippery: snow was heavy throughout, and the elevations between 9 and 12,400 feet; icicles were frequent. The trees were all covered with frost, and the aspect was wintry in the extreme; luckily there was no wind, and no snow fell. The summit of the ridge was 12,477 feet high. No views were obtained throughout the 15th and 16th; the weather being cloudy and very disagreeable. No bad effects were experienced from the rarefaction of the air; we all suffered of course from colds owing to exposure at night, at an elevation of nearly 9,500 feet; the servants bore it tolerably well.

At Sanah, the altitude of which is 7,983 feet, (Pemb.) I observed Quercus ilecifolia, on it Neckerae, Anhymenium, Senecio scandens, Rhododendron arboreum, majus, Juncus effusus, Swertia, Pendulous lichens, Dipsacus, Artemisia major, Primula Stuartii, Berberis asiatica, Bambusa microphylla, Lycopodium of Surureem, Orthotrichum!

At 8,000 feet, Smilax ruscoideus, Senecio scandens, woods of oak and Rhododendrons, the ground and the trees covered with mosses. Gnaphalium, Daphne papyrif., Mespilus microphyllus! Gaultheria nummularioides, Spiraea gillenioides, and S. bella, Hypericum, Gnaphalium lanceolatum, trivenum, Sambucus! but withered, Tetranthera nuda of Bulphai, Abies Brunonis which is probably a Podocarpus.

At 8,300 feet, Tussilaginoides of Churra, Primula Stuartii common on swards with Swertiae, etc. as before, Funaria and Weissia Templetonia common, Sphaeropterus! Quercus ilecifolia, Abies pendula, Rhododendron arboreum, majus! Dalibarda, Rubus, Ilex dipyrena! Rhododendron undulatum!

At 8,400 feet, the road running along, and above a ravine, rocky ground to the right, Eurya acuminata! Composita penduliflora. Thibaudia rotundifolia, and in a swampy sward a small dwarfed very narrow-leaved bamboo, Primula Stuartii, Gnaphalium densiflorum, Swertia monocotyledonea, Prunella in the woods, Salix lanata, and Panax rhododendrifolia.

Just above this, 8,500 feet, the first Abies cedroides appeared, soon becoming very common, and extending up to 9,500 feet, its habit is like that of a cedar, and it is a tall handsome tree, Rubia* cordifolia! Geranium scandens, Baptisioides.

Crossing a nullah, we commenced a steep ascent, Thibaudacae rotundifolia, Abies cedroides, Lomaria of Khegumpa, Crawfurdia speciosa, Andropogon, Gaultheria nummulacifol. Ilex, Epibolium Vaccinium cyaneum! Here a sward commenced with vegetation as before, the summit of this ascent was 9,050 feet. Here Ilex, Daphne papyracae, Rhododendron, Scleria, Lomaria of Khegumpa! Primula pulcherrima! Spiraea bella, Gnaphalium trivenium, Rubus moluccanus, Thibaudia, Ericinea orbiculens, Spiraea decomposita, Gaultheria, nummulariod., Scutellaria prunella, Gaultheria flexuosa, Scandent composita, Cerastium bacciferum. The trees covered with mosses, Neckerae, Dicranum, Daltoniae, Abies pendula ceased, its limits visible below. Hence the ascent was gradual at first: snow became heavy at 9,100 feet. Hemiphragma, Rhododendron abundant.

At 9,500 feet, much the same vegetation, Abies densa commenced, cedroides ceased. Woods entirely of A. densa, with a small baccate-like deciduous leaved tree. Hydrangea! Spiraeacea! Urticeae?! Pedicularis elatior.

At 10,000 feet, some trees all covered with frost; snow very heavy, quite crisp, Juncus niveus, Cerastium inflatum! bamboos, other plants of 9,500 feet, continue. Old Cretins!

At 11,270 feet, thermometer 39 degrees, the same trees, scarcely any thing but Abies, Arenoid, Dicranum macrocarpus, Orthotrichum, Lichen pendulum atratum.

Thence we descended a little, soon to re-ascend.

At the same elevation Parnassia, Epilobium monus, Gnaphalium densiflor., Vaccinium pumilum, Gentiana, Polygonum(?)

At 11,000 feet, icicles were common, and snow, very heavy. Woods of some Abies, a species of rose very abundant, a shrub of four feet high; other plants continue as before.

From this to the summit the ascent was very steep; Abies continues. Rhododendron(?) very common, with rose, Parnassia, Saxifraga, Composita arenoid, Gentiana, Polygonum(?), Pedicularis dwarfed, Triticoides, Aroides. Many pines dead as if blasted. Summit nearly bare of trees, which appear confined to slopes, Rhododendron very common, Umbellifera crassa, figured in Royle, Lilium unifloria.

At 12,000 feet, after descent, commenced Hymenophyllum, Xyris on rocks, Pyrus at 11,500 feet, Rhododendron ellipticum common, summit strewed with rocks, Rhododendron pumilum.

At 10,000 feet, the Spilus microphyllus, Polygonum, as well as on ascent Gaultheria nummularioid., swards abounding with Gramen nardoides(?), Dipsacus minor, Epilobium parnassia, Swertia, Umbelliferae, Primula scapigerc. floribus in globum densum, pedalis, Habenariae herminioid.

At the halting place 9,700 feet, Berberis ilecifolia, Daphne papyracae, Thibaudia myrtifolia, Baptisia, Dipsacus, major, Swertim pedicularis, Andropogones, Ilex dipyrena, Rumex of Khegumpa, Betula, Euonymus cornets, Abies cedroides, and Brunonis, Geranium scandens, Pyrus, Hypericum moflongensis, Hemiphragma, Mespilus microphyllus, Panax rhododendrifol., Rhododendron obovatum.

At 9,500 feet, Rhododendron arborea, majus, Abies cupressoides, Gaultheria nummularioides flexuosa, Thibaudiacea rotundifolia, Primula Stuartii, stunted juncus.

At 9,000 feet, Q. ilecifolia, Rhododendron undulatum, Primula pulcherrima, Tetranthera nuda, Chimaphiliae! Andropogons, Rhododendron arbor, majus, common, which varies much in size of leaves, Dalibarda, Smilax ruscoideus.

At 8,500 feet, Berberis pinnata, asiatica, Buddlaea purpurea; Eurya acuminata.

At 8,000 feet, Gnaphalium trivenium, Baptisia, Spiraea, (Gillenioid) bella, Artemisia major. 7,500 feet, Rhododend. minus arborea, Leucas ciliata, and woods of Q. robur, as usual deciduous.

[Gradient Sanah to Linge: g248.jpg]

All the plants above 10,500 feet, had perished, not a single one being found in flower. The descent was so hurried, that it was impossible to note down more plants; and the same applies to the descent to this from the halting place. Starvation being to be added to discomfort.

Of Rhododendrons, the species observed, may be characterized as follows:—

Floribus in racemis umbelliformibus.

1. R. arboreum, arboreum, foliis oblongo obovatis, subtus argenteis.

2. R. ferrugineum, arboreum, foliis obovatis, supra rugosis, subtus ferrugineis.—No. 654.

3. R. ——- fruticosum, foliis oblongis, subtus ferruginea lepidotis.—No. 652.

4. R. ellipticum, fruticosum, foliis ellipticis.—No. 653.

5. R. ——- fruticosum, foliis ellipticis basi cordatis subtus glaucus reticulatis.—No. 659.

6. R. ——- fruticosum, foliis lanceolato oblongis, sub-obovatis, subtus punctatis.—No. 655.

7. R. undulatum, fruticosum, foliis elongati lanceolatis, undulatis subtus reticulatis.—No. 656.

Floribus solitariis.

8. R. microphyllum, fruticosum, lotum ferrugineo lepidotum, foliis lanceolatis parvis.

February 17th.—Snow has fallen during the night all around, but not within 1,000 feet of us: this will make the snow line here about 7,300 feet, the village being 6,335 supra marem. Mildness of climate would appear to be indicated by the abundance of rice cultivation round this place, chiefly, however, about 1,000 feet below. In every direction ranges of 9 to 12,000 feet are visible: villages are very common, especially so in a hollow on the western side of the ravine of the Kooree, in which I counted sixteen or eighteen; one containing between thirty and forty houses. The space alluded to is one sheet of cultivation, chiefly rice and wheat. Linge itself is an ordinarily sized village, containing about twelve houses. The wooded tracts cease for the most part, about 1,000 feet above this. The face of the country, where uncultivated, being clothed with harsh Andropogoneous grasses, Salix pendula, Thuja pendula, Pyrus malus, Erythrina, Quercus, Juncus effusus, Porana of Churra, Plantago, Barleria, Polygonium rheoides, Stellaria media, Rubus deltifoliis, Cnicus, Rhodod. arboreum minus, but rare, Smithea occurs also.

February 18th.—Our march commenced by a steep descent on the south face of the hill, the coolies proceeding by a more direct one to the north, but which was said to be difficult. We continued descending in a westerly direction, until we came in sight of the Kooree river which flows along the ravine, and which is a large stream, one-third less than the Monass. We then turned to the north following the river, the path running up, about 800 feet above it. We then came to another ravine, and descended to the torrent, which we crossed by a rude wooden bridge: then followed again the Kooree, to the bed of which we descended, and along which we continued for some time. We then ascended where the banks were of such a nature as not to allow a path, descending again here and there. Then we came on the Khoomun, a large torrent, which we crossed by a wooden bridge about 100 yards above its bed; re-descended to the Kooree, reached its bridge; and thence descending rather steeply, and for about one and a half mile to Ling-Ling, or Lengloon, which is plainly visible from the bridge over the Kooree.

After turning to the north along the Kooree, and indeed after passing the cultivation below Linge, which chiefly occupies a sort of plateau, we passed through a most miserable country, the hills being rocky, nearly destitute of trees, and chiefly clothed with the usual coarse Andropogoneous grasses, especially lemon-grass, occurred between Linge and Lengloon.

At 5,000 feet, observed Desmodium, Santalacea australasia, Gaultheria arborea, Indigofera, as before, Clematis cana, Acanthacea caerulescens, Pteris aquilina, Viburnum caerulescens, Oxyspora, Panicum eleusinoides, Anthistiria, Conyza, Ficus cordifoliis of Bhamree, Labiata Suddiensis, Corearia, Rhus pendula, Airoides major, Flemingia secunda and major.

At 4,800 feet, Desmodium vestilum, stunted, Q. robur, Dipsacus, Epilobium, Elaeagnus microphyllus, spinosus.

At 4,600 feet, Sedum, Campanula, Osbeckia capitata, Citrus in villages, Emblica, Artemisia minor.

At 4,000 feet, Paederia cyanea, lemon-grass, Panax, Terebinthaceus, Pinus longifolia, here and there, Ficus obliqua, Grislea, Cirsium.

At the bed of the torrent 4,000 feet, Bassia.

Over the Kooree, Euphorbia antiqorum, a sure sign of aridity. Didymocarpea contorta, D. canescens, which differs from the other in being hirsute, Menispermum, Holcus elegans.

Along its bed, Sedum of Phoollong, Eugenia, Achyranthis, Ingoides arborea, Aspidium polypodioides, Briedleia obovata; Desmodium of Nulka! Arundo, Buddlaea neemdoides, Jasminum of Benka, Composita, involucri squamis ciliatis. Rice fields, in these Gnaphalium aureum, Phleoides of Tassangsee, but in full flower, Lysimachia majus, rugosus, Oxalis comiculata, Hieracioid, Composita, Lactucoid purpureseus, Ammannia, Bidens alba, Drymaria.

Then along the wooded banks, Wendlandia, Pomacea? Mimosa arborea, Camunium, Butea suffruticosa, Pterospermum of Bhamree, Luculia, Ulmus, as before, Pinus longifolia, Rottlera, Melica latifolia, young plants of Q. robur on rocks, along with it Goodyera articulata, Urticoid rhombifolia, carnosa; on rocks up Khoomun, Orthotrichum corcalypta. At the bridge over this, a Myrtaceous tree and the Simool occur. The plants occur during the ascent, as in the descent. Water-wagtails, blackbirds, tomtits, were observed, as also white-pated and white-rumped water-chats.

February 19th.—Ling-Ling or Lengloon.

February 20th.—To-day we visited the Soobah, who is a young man, certainly not more than twenty years old, with a good humoured countenance. The meeting was cordial but unattended with any state, and judging from appearances only, this Soobah is inferior to the others we have seen, and especially to him of Tassgong. No armed men were present, and the whole bystanders scarcely amounted to 100. It was agreed that we remain here until the baggage, now in the rear, arrives. Tonsa is, we hear, only four or five days journey from this.

The meeting took place in an open plot of ground below the Soobah's house and on the skirts of the village, the ground was matted and a space enclosed with mats: we sat in the open air; the Soobah under a silken canopy. Altogether he seemed a person of no pretensions, crowds, speaking comparatively, of priests attended as usual, they were the slickest looking of the whole, and the greatest beggars. A hideous party of nachnees were in attendance, and ready to perform any more pleasing duties they might be required; they were however so ugly, that not much self-denial was required in declining their offers. They were dressed in red, with abundance of cumbrous silver ornaments, and dirty leggings; one was additionally ornamented with incipient goitre.

Sugarcane (but stunted), almonds, or peach, oranges, castor-oil, datura, pear, simool, may be found here. Oranges are poor enough, the pear no better. Pinus longifolia, Cupressus pendula, are almost the only trees: the hills being barren, covered with coarse grasses.

February 23rd.—Marched to Tumashoo: our march commenced with a steep ascent, but which may be avoided by going through the village, it commenced and continued throughout in the direction of Linge, opposite to which place we found ourselves on our arrival, but on the right bank of the river. The highest part reached, before we descended to this village, was 6,350 feet, or about the height of Linge. The march was nearly six miles, it was easy, the road being throughout excellent and apparently more frequented than any we had hitherto seen. Generally we moved along through open Rhododendron woods, frequently very much stunted, at 6,000 feet. These were intermixed with Quercus tomentosa. The only spot well wooded, occurred in the ravines, giving exit to small streams.

The first ascent from Leng-Leng, gave the same vegetation, scarcely any trees being visible. Tradescantia clavijera of Churra on rocks, Galium of Churra, Santalacea, Desmodium vestilum, Indigofera canescens, Artemisia major and minor, Oxyspora, Luculia, Conaria, Sambucus in wet places, Lobelia pyramidalis, Spiraea bella and decomposita, Thalictrum majus, Gaultheria fruticosa, Woodwardia, Saurauja hispida, Rhododendron minus, and lemon-grass, occurred in the order of ascent.

Turning hence along the ridge at the same elevation, Gaultheria arborea, Quercus tomentosa, Rhododendron minus, Hedychium, Holcus elegans, Leucas ciliata. In wet wooded spots Gaultheria duplexa, Bucklandia, Viburnum caerulescens, Polyg. rheoides, Erythrina, Gordonia, Porana, Neuropeltis aromatica, Catharinea, Thibaudia myrtifolia, in open massy woods of Rhododendron minus and Quercus tomentosa, Rosa, Cnicus, Pyrus, Gleichenia major, Agrimonia occurred at the same elevations.

From one spot seven villages were visible, on opposite bank of Kooree and between Linge and the Khoomun. A few stunted P. longifolia: one or two of Abies pendula, occurred 100 feet above the highest point of the former: at 6,350 feet, woods of the deciduous Q. robur, were observable.

On the descent at 6,000 feet, Mimosa spinosa, Primula Stuartii, Rhus, Juncus, and others, as before.

We passed several villages, some containing twenty or thirty houses, and on halting found ourselves towards the edge of the cultivated tract alluded to, as seen from Linge.

Cattle are here kept in farm yards which are well littered with straw; as in other places they are noosed round the horns: they are fed, while tied up, on straw of a coarse and unnutritious description, which they do not seem to fancy much. Pigeons abound, but they are of no use as they cannot be caught; they may help to feed the sparrow-hawks, which are generally found about the villages, and which are very bold.

February 24th.—Left at 8 A.M. after the usual trouble about coolies and ponies. We ascended at first about 1,000 feet, passing over sward with woods of P. longifolia on either side, crossing the ridge through a hollow, we then commenced a steep descent to the west, until we reached a water-course, the elevation of which is about 200 feet below that of Tumashoo. We then struck off, again to ascend, and continued to do so until we attained 7,800 feet, from which point we descended gradually at first, then abruptly to our mokan. The direction was nearly west, the distance 11 miles, the march pretty easy, as the road was good, and the ascent gradual.

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