Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and The - Neighbouring Countries
by William Griffith
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Woollaboom is rather a large village on the Nempyokha, which is here scarcely 40 yards broad; it is of no depth, and has not much stream. The villagers are Meereps, but seem to bear a small proportion to their Assamese slaves. It is not stockaded, but was so formerly. The Souba, like a Hero and a General, has erected a small stockade for himself near his house, out of which he might be with ease forced by a long spear, or a spear-head fastened to a bamboo. He is an enemy of the Duphas, indeed almost all appear to be so. Whatever events the return of this Gam to Assam may cause, it appears obvious to me, that the feuds in Hookhoom will not cease but with his death. So much is he hated, that B. informs me that his destruction is meditated directly the Meewoon retires to Mogam.

Water boiled at 210 degrees Fahr. Elevat. 1064 feet.

List of Plants observed in Hookhoom, which occur likewise in Assam.

Eclipta floribus albis, Dactylon. Pogonatherum crinitum, Cardamine. Verbena chamaedrys? Sisymbrium. Phlebochiton extensum, Gaertnera. Ehretia arenarum, Phrynium capitatum. Erythrinae, sp. ——- dichotomum. Trematodon sabulosum, Hiraea. Marchantia asamica, Naravalia. Euphorbiacea nerifolia, Liriodendrum. Adelia nereifolia, Roxb. Paederia foetida, and another. Spilanthus, Azolla. Convolvulus flore albo, Lemna. Mimosa sudiyensis-stipulis am- Conyza graveolens, plis foliaceis, on clearings. Vandellia pedunculata, Asplenium nidus. Bonnayae sp. fol. spathulatis Ficus elastica. floribus saturate caeruleis, Kydia calycina. Cordia of Suddiya, Pothos scandens. Ricinus communis, (See Journal, Croton malvaefolium. p.174.) Hedychium. Buddleia Neemda, Hedychim, bracteis obtusis, apice reflexis, concavis. Urtica gigas, Plantago media, Dicksonia. Cotula, 2 species, Phlogacanthus, major. Coladium nympheaefolium, Vitis. Millingtonia pinnata, Butomus pygmaeus. Uricariae sp. Cissampelos. Saccharum spontaneum, Stauntonia. Eleusine indica, Apludae sp. Cynoglossum canescens, Clerodendrum infortunatum. AEsculus asamicus, Vandellia pedunculata. Cynodon, Mangifera indica. Ardisia fol. obovatis, umbellis Briedelia. nutanti-pendulis, on the hills. Marlea. Cheilosandra. Pteris dimidiata. Loxotis major. Centotheca. Bauhinia variegata. Castanea edulis. Cacalia rosea. Sporobolus.


Continues the Journey from Hookhoom Valley; Lat. 26 degrees 20' N., Long. 96 degrees 40' E., towards Ava.

March 28th.—Started at 5.5 A.M., and arrived at a halting place at 3.5 P.M. General direction nearly south. Distance 22 miles. Throughout the first part we followed the Kampyet, on the left bank of which Wulloboom is situated. We thence diverged into jungle. The remainder of the time was occupied in crossing low hills, with here and there a small plain. We halted on a nullah, which discharges itself into the Mogam river.

In the Kampyet I saw abundance of Bookhar fish: these indeed actually swarm. The country throughout was uninteresting, although in the tree jungle clothing the small hills we crossed there are noble timber trees. I saw one of the finest Fici, I ever saw. The Botany of these hills was very interesting; for instance, a Conifera taxoidea occurred, a new Cyrtandracea, ditto Acanthaceae 2, Begoniae 2, Tankervillia speciosa, a species of Bletea, etc. etc.

I also observed Lindsaea, and Pteris in abundance. Hymenophyllum, Davallia atrata, Diplazium, Begonia Malabarica? Bambusa spiculis hispidis, Hypni sp. spinivenio prop. Dicranum glaucum, etc. etc. A fine Alpinia occurred near Wulloboom.

We observed no other signs of population than an old burial ground, near where you strike off into the hills.

March 29th.—Marched in a southerly direction from 5.5 to 1.5 P.M., inclusive of a halt of two hours nearly: distance fifteen miles. Country, etc. continue the same. Crossed same nullahs en route, before we reached the Mogam river at 11 A.M. Our course continued down it for 300 yards; we then crossed into the jungle, and traversed a low rising ground: subsequently we descended on the bed of the river. The jungle was for the most part dry.

Fish abound in the Mogam river; in one place I never saw such swarms of Bookhar, thousands must have been congregated. The river is of no great size, the extreme banks being at our halting place about 30 yards distant. No rapids occur here, and the stream is in general gentle.

Noticed the Shorea, which is the Foung bein of the Burmese. Some occurred of gigantic size. It is strange, but a considerable change has occurred in the Flora since we left Hookhoom. Thus, Jonesia and Peronema, Jack? or at least one of the involucrate Vitices occurred, as well as a large Byttneria? fructibus echinatissimis. A climbing species of Strychnos, a Diospyros, a Sapindacea, were the principal new plants. Dicksonia and Polypodium Wallichianum continue.

Slackia of Cuttackboom has white infundibuliform bilabiate flowers, tubo brevi, deorsum leniter curvato, lobo medio labii inferioris reliquis minore, lab. super. intus biplicato, plicis sursum convergentibus, stam. quinto valde rudimentario, antheris apice cohaerentibus. The new Cyrthandracea of yesterday is suigeneris, Ramondiae affinis. Of this there are three species, two of which I have not seen in flower. Calycis laciniae lineari-subulatae. Cor. rotata, subregularis Stam. 4, subsessilia connectivis amplis, quinto minimo dentiformi. Stylus declinatus, Stigma subsimplex, Capsula (per junior) siliquosa. Herbae vel suffrutices, hispidae, habitu peculiari. Folia alterna! vel summa sparsa vel ob approximationem sub-opposita: intervenia areolata, areolis piliferis, pilis basi bulbosis. Inflorescentia axillaris, cymosa, dichotoma.

The Tankervellia (or Pharus?) has sepala pet. conformia extus alba, intus fusco-brunnea, labellum cucullatum, breve, calcaratum; intus inconspicue bilamellatum; extus albidum margines versus exceptis qua uti intus fusco- sanguineum, fauce saturatiore. Columnae albae clavale sursum subulata. Anthera fere immersa, Rostellum integrum ut in omnibus glandula orbotis Pollinia 8. 5 A.M.—Temperature 62. 210.

March 30th.—Marched for about thirteen miles along the bed of the river, and a more uninteresting march I never had. We breakfasted about four miles from our halting place at the granary of the Meewoon. The bed of the river continues wider, and more sandy: the water being in general shallow. The only acquisitions met with to-day are Grislea, an arborescent Capparidea, and a pretty Grewia. Of birds, I noticed the Avocet, or curved-billed Plover, the grey Kingfisher, the green Pigeon, and the snake-bird, Plutus Levalliantia. The plants occupying the banks and the bed of the river are the same, viz. Ehretia, Saccharum spontaneum, spirale; Kagara, Erythrina, Ficus, Gnaphalia, Podomolee, Bombax. Of fish, Cyprinus falcata, and Nepoora mas, occur in this river.

Temperature at 5.25 A.M. 6l. Water boils at 210.

March 31st.—Continued our march down the Mogaung river, passing through a most uninteresting, inhospitable-looking tract. General direction S.E., distance fourteen miles. The river is not much enlarged: it is still shallow, and much spread out, and impeded by fallen trees and stumps; it is navigable for small boats up to the Meewoon's granary. Noticed AEsculus in flower. Of birds, saw the grey and black-bellied Tern.

The Botanical novelties are an arborescent Salix, a ditto Cordia floribus suave odoratis, Phyllanthus Embelica.

Saw some cultivation on low hills to the S.E. and E. inhabited by Kukheens. 1st April. Temperature 63. Water 210.25 altitude.

April 1st.—Started at 5.25. Leaving almost directly the Mogaung river we traversed extensive open plains, halting for breakfast on the Wampama Kioung. This we crossed, continuing through open plains until we came to patches of jungle consisting of trees, and quite dry. We subsequently traversed more open plains until we reached the Mogaung river, on the opposite (right) bank of which Camein is situated. These plains were in many places quite free from trees; they are, except towards the south, quite surrounded with low hills, the highest of which are to the E., and among these, Shewe Down Gyee, from which the Nam Tenai rises, is pre-eminent, looking as if it were 3000 feet high, and upwards. The hills although generally wooded are in many places quite naked; and as the natives say, this is not owing to previous cultivations, I suppose that they are spots naturally occupied entirely by Gramineae. The plains slope towards the hills on either side. They are covered with Gramineae; among which Imperata, occasionally Podomolee and Saccharum, Anthistiria arundinacea, a tall Rottboelia, and Andropogon occur; and in the more open spaces a curious Rottboellioidea, glumis ciliatis, is common. In addition a Polygala, a Crucifera with bracteae and white flowers, an Acanthacea, Prenanthes? Centranthera tetrastachys are met with. The trees are quite different from those of Hookhoom; the principal one is a Nauclea; Bombax, Wendlandiae sp., a Rhamnea, Phyllanthus, and Bignonia cordifolia occur; the Nauclea giving a character to the scenery. The Botany of the patches of jungle is varied. Strychnos Nux-vomica is common; Congea tomentosa, Engelhardtia, etc. Bauhinia arborea, and Costus also occur.

Teak occurred to-day for the first time, but not in abundance, neither were the specimens fine: it was past flowering, it occurred only between the patches of jungle among grass. I should have mentioned, that throughout the first portion of the plains traversed, a dioceous dwarf Phoenix was not rare, as well as an Herpestes. A beautiful Rose occurs on the banks of nullahs, and at Camein, on the Mogaung river: it has large white flowers, involucrate; smell sweet like that of a Jonquil.

The general direction of the march was S.S.E. Distance fourteen miles.

Camein consists of two stockaded villages: the smaller one being situated on a small hill on the Endaw Kioung, which comes from near the serpentine mines, and falls into the Mogaung river here; this has about twelve houses: the one below about twenty, the inhabitants are Shans chiefly, and appear numerous and healthy. Assamese slaves are not uncommon.

Observed the large blue Kingfisher of the Tenasserim coast, Alcedo sinensis.

The day's Botany was very interesting, more so than that of any other days, excepting two on the higher ranges of the Naga hills. The Crucifera is highly interesting. In the woods Alstonia and Elephantopus; Salvinia is common in marshes.

April 2nd.—Left at 10 A.M., proceeding over the low hill to the W. of lower Camein; our course continued traversing low ranges and small intermediate plains, which we skirted. At noon we reached the Tsee Een nullah, where we found a large party of Shan Chinese, returning from the mines; they had but few Ponies, and still fewer Mules. Their dress, appearance, habits, etc. are those of the lower orders of Chinese. After leaving this our course continued over similar country, until we reached the Endaw Kioung at 3 P.M., which we crossed, halting on its left bank; it is a stream of much strength and a broad bed, but shallow. We saw some cultivation on low hills to the W.N.W., and could distinguish two or three houses; it is a small village inhabited by Meereps.

The vegetation of the valleys or plains continues the same, but in addition to the Rottboelleoidea minor, is a curious Andropogon, and on the skirts of the hills a large Anthistiria; some of the finest specimens of teak also occurred. Bamboo in abundance; otherwise the trees are, with a few exceptions, completely changed. A fine arborescent Wendlandia, Bignonia indica? fructibus siliquo-formibus spiraliter tortis, arborea, Kydia, Eurya arborea, and many other fine trees occurred, but these I leave until my return. On one plain I noticed a Cycas, caudice simplici vel dichotomo, and the Phoenix of yesterday. In the Endaw Kioung two species of Potamogeton, Azolla, and Pistia, Villarsia and Ceratophyllum occur.

April 3rd.—5.25 A.M. Therm. 55. Water boiled at 210. Elevation 1064 feet.

Continued our journey over similar country, marching from half-past 5 to 1 P.M., including an hour's halt. Distance fifteen miles: general direction S.S.W. Passed many streamlets, and continued for some time close to the Endaw, which is still a largish river, apparently deep, with a sluggish stream. The plains continue, but of much narrower diameter. Met many Shan Chinese and two parties of Mogaung people returning from the mines.

The most interesting plants of to-day are a Santalacea, a climbing species, racemis subpendulis, of Citrus—Citrus scandens, Cardiopteris of which I found old fruit alone, a new Roydsia, R. parviflora mihi.

The vegetation of the plains continues unchanged, a Dillenia with small yellow flowers is common on their skirts, Bignonia cordata occurs as a large tree; no one has seen teak. There is something peculiar in the appearance of the trees of the plains, especially of the Nauclea; they look scraggy. I picked up the flowers of an arborescent Hibiscus, and the fruit of Lagertraemia grandiflora.

Halted on an old rice khet, near a pool of tolerably clear water.

Bignonia cordata has sweet smelling flowers, lab. medio labii inferioris bicristato. Is it not rather a Viticea, owing to the absence of the 5th stamen? Phlebochiton, Sambucus, Butomus pygmaeus. Many portions of the hills are covered with plantains in immense numbers, (not Musa glauca). On hills bounding to the south, one or two spots of cultivation belonging to a village in the interior occur. The Shans wear curious sandals made of a sort of hemp, at least those who do not wear the usual Chinese shoes. 4th.—5.25 A.M. Temperature 55.5. Water boiled at 210. Elevation as before.

April 4th.—Continued our course through exactly the same kind of country, the plains becoming much narrower. Reached the path leading to Keouk Seik after five hours' marching, and up to this our course was nearly the same with that of yesterday, between W.S.W. and S.W. We did not see the village; several (seven or eight) houses are visible on the hill, which here extends north and south, and along which runs a nullah, the Kam Theem.

From this place our course continued almost entirely over low hills not exceeding 800 feet above us, until we halted on the margin of a plain bounded to the W. by the Boom, which runs N. and S., the direction being W.N.W. Distance seventeen miles. On our march we met several parties of Shans, Burmese, and Singphos. The path from the village to this is much better, and much more frequented than any of the other parts. Most of the parties were loaded with Serpentine. Noticed en route, both on the plains and on the hills, Teak; in the latter situations many of the specimens were very fine. Another noble Dipterocarpea arborea was observed. I observed Drymaria, Vallaris solanacea, and a Spathodia, which is common on the plains. Teak is remarkable for the smoothness and peculiar appearance of its bark, so that it seems to have had it stripped off.

Gathered on the hills Ulmus and Hyalostemma, the petals of which are united into a tri-partite corolla, a Cyrtandracea in fruit, and an Olacinea, floribus tri-sepalis, appendicibus 6 apice fimbriatis, stam. 3, sepalis oppositis, racemis erectis.

April 5th.—Reached the mines after a march of about four hours; our course was winding, continuing through jungle and small patches of plain, until we reached the base of that part of the Kuwa Boom which we were to cross, and which bore N.W. from the place at which we slept. The ascent was steep in some places, it bore in a N.N.W. direction, principally through a bamboo jungle. From a clear space half way up, we had a fine and pretty view of the hills and plains, especially to the S. and S.E. In the former direction, and distant about fifteen miles, we saw on our return, the Endaw Gyee, but we could not estimate its size or figure; it is evidently however a large sheet of water; the natives say, several miles across. From the summit, we likewise had a fine view of the country to the E.; very few plains were visible in this direction. Nearly due east, and about thirty miles off, was visible Shewe Down Gyee, and this will make Camein nearly due east also, or E. by S. The descent passed through similar jungle, that at the foot being damp. The course continued in a direction varying from S. to W., or rather between these points, through damp jungle. We then ascended another steep hill, but not exceeding 5 or 600 feet in height; descending from this, and passing through low tree and then bamboo jungle, we reached the mines.

The road was, up to the base of Kuwa Boom on the W. side, very good, thence it was in general bad; wet, slippery, much impeded by blocks of serpentine, and foliated limestone (Bayfield) crossing several streams, mountain torrents, the principal one being Sapya Khioung. This takes its name from a spring of water of alkaline properties, which bubbles up sparingly from under its rocky bed, and which must be covered during the rains. The water is clear, of a pure alkaline taste, and is used by the natives as soap.

The mines occupy a valley of a somewhat semi-circular form, bounded on all sides by hills clothed with trees, none being of very great height. The valley passes off to the N. into a ravine, down which the small stream that percolates the valley escapes, and in this at about a coss distant other pits occur. The surface of the valley apparently at one time consisted of low rounded hillocks; it is now much broken, and choked up with the earth and stones that have been thrown up by excavating. The stone is found in the form of more or less rounded boulders imbedded with others, such as quartz, etc. in brickish-yellow or nearly orange clay. The boulders vary much in size. There is no regularity in the pits, which are dug indiscriminately; some have the form of ditches, none exceed 20 feet in depth. They are dug all over the valley, as well as on the base of the hill bounding it to the W. and N.W. We could not obtain any good specimens, nor is there any thing in the spot that repays the visit. No machinery is used, the larger blocks are broken by fire. But that they are of importance in the light of increasing the revenue, is evident, from the fact that B. counted, since we left Camein, 1,100 people on their return, of whom about 700 were Shan Chinese. The loads carried away are in some cases very heavy; the larger pieces are carried on bamboo frames by from two to five men, the lesser on a stout piece of bamboo lashed to and supported on two cross or forked bamboos, the stouter joint resting on the bearer's neck, the handles of the forks being carried in his hands. The most obvious advantage of this is the ease with which the load may be taken off, when the bearer is fatigued. The revenue yielded last year, B. tells me, was 320 viss of silver, or about 40,000 rupees. The length of the valley from E. to W. is about three quarters of a mile; its breadth varies from 460 to 800 yards.

On our return we boiled water at the Soap spring, which is about 50 feet above the mines, Temp. of the air 80.5. 2.5 P.M. of boiling water 209. Elevation 1600 feet. And on the top of Kuwa Boom, which is crossed at a comparatively low place, at 4.5 P.M. Temp. of the air 76, of boiling water 207. Elevation 2678 feet.

I can say nothing as to the peculiar features of the vegetation, in the woods towards Kuwa Boom. I gathered three Aurantiaceae; the Olacinea of yesterday is common, a large arborescent Artocarpus fructibus oblongis sub-informibus, sub-acidulis, .75 uncialibus; Teak rarely; Tonabea, noble specimens occur; on the Kuwa Boom, a large Gordonia arborea, two arborescent Myrtacea, large Mangoes, Bamboo, a Morinda; Magnoliaecea occurs on its western face, as well as the Conifera toxoidea before gathered. Dicksonia and Pladera justicioidea both occur. Dianella nemorosa, etc. The Serpentine is carried from Keoukseik in boats down the Endaw Kioung, thence to Camein, and from whence it goes to Mogam, which is probably the principal mart. Calamus spioris petiolorum uncialibus verticillatis occurs in abundance in all the damp jungle.

We returned in the afternoon to our halting place of yesterday, from which the mines are distant ten miles, four of which occur from the side of Kuwa Boom to the West. The Endaw Gyee is situated on a plain, but it is enclosed by hills on every side except the S.E. Those to the south are very high.

April 6th.—Returned, diverging from the path to the village Keoukseik. Noticed Liriodendron, AEsculus, Achyranthis aspera, Vallaris solanacea, etc.

The village is situated to the S. of the road to the mines; it is close to the Nam Teen, and on a small elevation; it is stockaded. The number of houses is about sixteen; of inhabitants, including children, 120: all the houses, except two, being small. The merchants, etc. employed about the mines, halt on the Nam Theen, which is up to this point navigable for small boats.

Thermometer 66. 6.5 A.M. Temp. of boiling water 210.

April 8th.—Reached Camein at noon: halted on the 7th at our former hut on the Endaw Kioung. The additional plants noticed are Duchesnia indica, common in wet places; a Bamboo, paniculis (culmis) nutantibus aphyllis, amplus. Pandanus; Curculigo pumila, floribus sub-solitarius ante folia, 6 vel. 4 partitis; a Careya, Dillenia, arborea floribus numerosis parvis luteis.

AEschynomena, Anthistiria arundinacea, Composita arborea, 40-50 pedalis. Another species of Anthistiria, common on the margins of hills during the march. Fir trees are reported to exist on Lioe Peik, which bears South from Kioukseik. Volcanic hills reported to exist near the Endaw Gyee, but no salt rock occurs. This mineral is said to be found three days' march from Kioukseik on the Nam Theen. The revenue said to accrue from the Serpentine mines, is probably highly exaggerated; and the supply of the stone is said to be diminishing yearly. Casually found on the Nam Toroon, a Sterculia arborea, florib-masculis clavato, infundibul. coccineis, pubescentibus: a Sophora, floribus albidis pallidissima ceruleo tinctis, of which the flowers alone were seen; Prenanthis flosentis citrinis, a Polygala and Hypericum were likewise found.

April 9th.—Left Camein at 6, and reached Mogoung at 6 P.M. after a march of at least twenty-five miles. The course at first was nearly due east, until we reached the Nam Pong, but subsequently it became more southerly. Camein bears from this about S.S.E. The country traversed was the same, generally comparatively open, that is to say, grassy plains with Rhamnea, Nauclea, Bombax, etc. For some distance the path extended through shady woods. No villages, nor any signs of such were observed en route. We passed many streamlets particularly during the latter half of the march. Our original intention was to have come to Mogoung by water, and with this view Bayfield told the man sent by the Myoowook to procure two or three canoes. At 6 A.M. the Havildar came up to our hut, and said that the headman of the village was disputing violently about our taking the boats. Bayfield proceeded down to the river side, where the Yua Thugee was very insolent, and he and his followers drew their dhaos (swords) on Bayfield, who slightly pushed the Thugee. It ended in our going by land. We had previously heard of the rebellion at Ava: the Thugee's behaviour evidently arose partly from this. I did not observe the dispute, as I remained near the stockade.

Noticed a Lonicera in low places, and the Viola of Suddiya on the plains, a Cardiopteris, Kempferia, Curcuma, a Bambusa vaginis collo barbatis, a scandent Strychnos, an Aerides, Ardisiae 2, some Acanthaceae, Loxotis major, Urticeae 2 or 3, Santalacea as before, Tetrantherae, Davallia atrata, Asplenium fronde simplici, etc. etc.

April 10th.—We halt, and hear a report of the death of Mr. Kincaid, and that a Burmese army is en route here. The whole country is most unsettled, all the Singphos and Khukeens being in open rebellion. It appears that Thurrawaddi is meeting with success in his summons for men. No resistance shewn to his authority hitherto except by one Myoowoon. Our Myoowoon has absented himself, and the Myoowook determined on surrender. Bayfield under all circumstances, and failing authentic intelligence of Mr. Kincaid, resolves on remaining here.

Mogam is a rather pretty town, situated on the right bank of the Mogoung river, at the confluence of a river 100 yards broad, the water of which spreads out, in some places, to a considerable breadth and depth. The country is however low, flooded in the rains, and surrounded by hills, except in the direction of Shewe Down Gyee. In many places it is only covered with grass. The town is large, and was formerly stockaded, the remains of the timber stockade being still visible. It contains about 300 houses, about 2,500 inhabitants, mostly Shans. The houses are generally raised, in many cases like those of the Kampties, the chopper coming low down, shaped like a turtle's back. There is a very distinct opening or chasm in the hills between S. D. Gyee and a low range to the North, but no river makes its exit there. Sunday, 16th.

April 18th.—Halted up to this date, waiting for information especially regarding the army at Tsenbo.

In this place two fragrant Dipterocarpeae are found; as also Bixa, Tamarindus, and Carthamus, which last is cultivated and used both for food and dyeing. About the Poongie houses some remarkable Fici occur, the trunk being divided so low down as to give the idea of a group of several trees. The roots in addition are made to spread over the conical mounds, thrown up at their bases.

A race of wild-looking short men, called Lupai Khakoos, inhabit this vicinity, wearing a jacket, and dark-blue cloth with an ornamented border, worn with the ends overlapping in front. They wear garters of the Suwa. Their hair is worn either long or cropped, and a beard is also occasionally worn by the elders.

In this place very few regular Chinese are to be found, and the few that are here seen, are ultra-provincials; none are acquainted with the manufacture of tea. This article is procurable here, but at a high rate; it is sold in flat cakes of some diameter; it is black, coarse, with scarcely any smell, and in taste not much superior to the Assamese article; 20 tickals weight sells for 1.25. All the blue cloths of the Shans are dyed, Bayfield informs me, with Ruellia, or jungle indigo.

It is with these people that the only trade seems to be carried on, and this is limited to amber and serpentine. They are very dirty, and excessively penurious, but industrious. Owing to their habits and extreme penury, there is no outlet for our manufactures in this direction; so that I fully agree with Hannay's statement, that 500 rupees worth of British goods would be unabsorbed for some years. Rosa is common, also a Rumex; a Sisymbroid plant also occurs. Among the trees, all which are stunted, Gmelina arborea occurs. There are some Assamese slaves here among the people, one of them is said to be a relation of Chundra Kant, the Suddiya chief: slaves are held in very small estimation with the Burmese. Thus Bayfield asked his writer, who such a one standing near him was, whether a Shan or Singpho? The man answered, "My lord, it is not a man; it is a Waidalee."

Altogether, Mogoung is an uninteresting place; the surrounding plains are barren-looking, and inhospitable, and clothed with grass. Here and there a ragged Nauclea, Careya, etc. is visible with Gmelina arborea. The undershrubs are chiefly a Rhamnoidea, and a Phyllanthus. Rosa is common; Rumex and Nasturtium are both met with.

News arrived yesterday evening to the effect, that the King is drowned, the heir-apparent in the palace: and that Colonel Burney is with Thurrawadi!!!

My collections up to this place amount to 900 species.

April 19th.—Left at 12, and halted after having gone about four miles. The river continues the same as above; it is a good deal impeded by trees, and much more so by sandbanks.

April 20th.—Reached Tapaw in the afternoon; our progress is, however, very slow the stream being slight, but the river is much improved; being less spread out, owing to its greater proximity to the low hills: often very deep, generally clothed with jungle to the water's edge. On the hills near Tapaw are some Khukeens of the Thampraw tribe, and on these hills bitter tea is reported to be found. This the Khukeens bring down for sale.

April 21st.—Continued our course, performing about twelve miles between 7 and 5, inclusive of one hour's halt. At some distance from Tapaw and thence throughout the day, here and there occur rapids, which are much worse, from the stream being impeded by large rocks. In some places it is divided, in others, compressed between hills, and here it is very deep.

April 23rd.—Arrived at the Irrawaddi. The Mogoung river is very uninteresting; the stream being generally slow, sandbanks very abundant, as well as stumps of sunken trees. At its mouth it is deep, and about seventy yards across. The banks are either overgrown with trees or else grassy; the grasses being Arundo and Saccharum. On the steep banks of the hills where these descend into the river, ferns are common together with an Amaryllidea out of flower. Cadaba is common, as well as a large Mimosea. Rosa continues; as also AEsculus. On the road by which the Chinese branch off from Tapaw to the Irrawaddi, I gathered an arborescent Apocynea foliis suboppositis, and a Homalineous tree, floribus tetrameris; Salix is common all down the river. Teak only occurs occasionally. In one place I gathered Lonicera heterophylla, a fragrant Valeriana? and Jonesia in abundance; this last being here apparently quite wild. Adelia nereifolia, a Ficus, Ehretia arenarum, and the usual sandy plants occur on the banks. Pistia, Salvinia and Azolla are common.

The Irrawaddi opposite the entrance of the Mogoung river, is 600 yards across. It is a noble stream; has risen a good deal, and presents one unbroken sheet of water. The banks are by no means high, and are grassed to the brink. The water is cold and clouded; its temperature is 66.5 degrees, that of air in a boat 88.5. We reached Tsenbo about 1 o'clock, having passed five or six villages, mostly small, and inhabited by Shans. Tsenbo numbers about 30 houses, but these as throughout Burma, as far as we have seen, are small; it is situated on a low hill on the left bank. Both banks are hilly, especially the right. The river has risen enormously during a halt here—many feet. In one hour we found it to rise about 16 inches. At this place I gathered a fine blue Vanda, and a curious tree habitu Thespiae: stigmatibus 4. Between this and the entrance to the narrow defile Kioukdweng, which is about 1.5 miles distant, three villages occur. This entrance is well marked, the river becoming suddenly contracted from 300 to less than 100 yards. We halted about 6.5 P.M. at Lemar. Noticed four or five villages between Lemar and the village at the entrance of the defile. All these villages are inhabited by Poans, a distinct hill tribe. Passed through two fearful places, one in particular where the whole body of water rushes through a gate, formed by huge rocks not 50 yards wide.

April 24th.—Continued our course, and arrived at Bamoo about 5.5 P.M.; the greater part of the journey extended through the Kioukdweng, or defile, in which some terrific places occur, one in particular known by two rocks which are called the Elephant and Cow. Passed several small villages before we made our exit from the K. dweng: all inhabited by Poans. Between this and Bamoo the country along the river is truly magnificent, and is well inhabited. The largest village contains about 70 houses; at least seven or eight occur, between the points above noted.

The Kioukdweng is a remarkable and an awful object. The greatest breadth of the river while confined within this defile does not exceed 250 yards, and in all the bad places it is contracted to within 100, occasionally 50. From the enormous rise of the river, which, last night alone amounted to an increase of ten feet, the passage is one continued scene of anxiety. In the places above referred to the river rushes by with great velocity, while the return waters caused on either side by the surrounding rocks, occasion violent eddies and whirlpools, so as to render the boat unmanageable, and if upset the best swimmer could not live in these places. The rocks are serpentine and grey limestone, presenting angular masses which project into the stream; the former in all places within high-water mark is of a dark-brown colour. Micaceous slate? likewise occurs, although rarely. The depth is of course enormous, in the low state of the river, when Bayfield passed up, in many places no bottom was found, at 25 or even 40 fathoms, and at this season the water had no doubt risen 40 feet higher. Some idea of the rise that has taken place may be formed from the fact, that in places where, when Bayfield passed up, the stream did not exceed 70 yards in width, it was now 200; and of course a rise of 20 feet in the open river, would determine one of at least 40 within the K. dweng. After passing the Elephant and Cow, which have the usual resemblance implied by their fanciful names, the river widens and becomes tranquil. The whole of this Kioukdweng is truly remarkable, and in many places very picturesque.

The vegetation is, I imagine, similar to that of the low hills about Mogoung; but so dangerous was the passage, that I had but few opportunities of going ashore. The hills are thinly wooded, and all bear many impressions of former clearings; but the spots now under cultivation are certainly few. Besides, we must bear in mind, that the spots cultivated generally throughout thinly populated parts of India are deserted after the first crop, so that a very limited population may clear a great extent of ground. Bayfield tells me, and I consider his authority as excellent, that the population is almost entirely limited to the villages seen during the passage. These do not exceed twelve, and they are all small. None of the hills exceed 500 feet in height (apparently,) they do not present any very peculiar features.

Below the maximum high-water mark the vegetation is all stunted, at least that of the rocks; a tufted Graminea is the most common. Adelia nereifolia (Roxb.), a Celastrinea, a curious Rubiacea, which I also have from Moulmain, two Myrtaceae, a Rungia, are the most common. I did not observe Podocarpus. In the occasionally sandy spots Campanula, the usual Compositae, Panica three. Eleusine, Clenopodium, and Atriplex are common, a Stemodia, and Asclepiadea likewise occur. One Clematis carpellis imberbibus, and the Lonicera are met with. No mosses appear to occur. One remarkable tree, Belhoe of Assam, 70 feet high, cortice albido, foliis orbato, panculis (fructus) pendulis, occurs: it has the appearance of an Amentaceous tree.

April 27th.—We have remained at Bamoo; nothing appears to have been settled below, and the river is reported to be unsafe. It has fallen at least three feet since our arrival. Bayfield measured the left channel yesterday; it is nearly 750 yards wide.

Bamoo is situated on the left bank, along which its principal street runs. The town is a very narrow one, the breadth averaging about 200 yards; its extent is considerable, but it scarcely contains 600 houses, and of these 105 are Chinese, and only has one good street, i.e. as to length. Neither are the houses at all good or large, so that the population cannot be established at more than 3000. I allude only to those within the stockade; out of this, and close to Bamoo are two or three small villages. The stockade is of timber, pangaed, or fenced outside for about 30 yards; it has just been completely repaired, as an attack is expected from the Khukeens.

The Chinamen live all together, in a street of low houses built of unbaked bricks; these are not comparable to the houses at Moulmain. There is but little trade now going on. Within the stockade and without, low swampy ravines occur, that cannot be but injurious to the healthiness of the town. The Myoowoon spends all his money in pagodas, none of which are worth seeing: all the roads and bridges he leaves to take care of themselves.

The inferior caked tea, sugarcandy, silk dresses, straw hats, and caps are procurable, but at a high price. Pork is plentiful, and the bazaar is well supplied with fish. It is a much more busy place than Mogoung, as well as considerably larger. The chief export trade with the Chinese is cotton; the revenue however by no means equals that of the Mogoung district.

The country around is nearly flat; on one side of the stockade there is an extensive marsh well adapted for paddy. Otherwise the ground is dry, and tolerably well drained; it appears to have been formerly wooded; at present the environs are occupied by undershrubs. I have observed no peculiar botanical feature. Among the undershrubs are Phyllanthae 2, Apocynea arborescens, Gelonium, Combretum, Strychnos, Vitex, Melastoma. When I say undershrubs, I mean that such is their present appearance. The only new plant is an elegant Capparis, subscandens, floribus albis, odoratis demum filamentisque purpureo-roseis. About old Pagodas, Pladera of Moulmain, a Labiata, Stemodia, and Andropogon occur.

The cultivated plants are those of the coast, Hyperanthera Moringa, Bixa Orellana, Calotropis gigantea, Artocarpus integrifolia, a Phyllanthus, Cordia Myxa, Carica Papaya, Citrus medica, Plantains, a large and coarse Custard Apple, Mango, Zyziphus, Cocos, Taliera, Agati.

The climate is dry and sultry, the diurnal range of the Thermometer being from 28 to 32 degrees. At this season, viz. at 6.5 A.M. from 66 to 68; 4 P.M. from 94 to 96. North winds are common, daily commencing from that quarter, or terminating there. They are not accompanied by much rain, although the weather is unsettled.

May 2nd.—A Khukeen whom Bayfield sent for tea returned, bringing with him many specimens out of flower. The striking difference between this and the tea I have hitherto seen, consists in the smallness and finer texture of the leaves. For although a few of the specimens had leaves measuring six by three inches, yet the generality, and these were mature, measured from four to three, by two to three. As both entire and serrated leaves occur, the finer texture was more remarkable. The bitterness, as well as the peculiar flavour were most evident. Young leaves were abundant.

The Khukeens make no use of the tea. The Chinese here talk of this as the jungle tea, and affirm that it cannot be manufactured into a good article. They talk of the valuable sorts as being very numerous, and all as having small leaves. Neither here nor at Mogoung are there any real Chinamen, nor is there any body who understands the process of manufacturing tea. The caked tea is not made to adhere by the serum of sheep's blood, it adheres owing to being thus packed before it is dry. The plain around Bamoo is intersected by ravines, which afford good paddy cultivation; no large trees occur within 1.5 miles of the town. At this distance a large Dipterocarpea is common. In the underwood around the town, a Dipterocarpus, arbuscula, foliis maximis, oblongo-cordatis, Gordonia, Lagerstraemia parviflora, Elodea, Nauclea; Leguminosae 3, Gelonia, Combretum, Jasminum occur. In the marshes Ammannia rotundifolia, Cyrilla, Azolla, Marsilea, and Salvinia, Serpicula, Ceratophyllum; a Campanula arenosa reaches thus far.

Every day indecent sights occur in the river, owing to the women bathing without clothes, and either with or near the men. They appear to be indifferent to the concealment of their person, breasts, and hoc genus omne, being freely exposed. They swim very well, and in a curious way. They make their escape by squatting down in the water, unfolding their cloth, and springing up behind it. As for the men, they appear to take a pride in exposing every part of their bodies. No gazers-on occur among these people, such not being the fashion.

The Shan Tarooks who trade with this place use oxen in addition to other beasts of burden; the breed appears good, resembling the smaller kind of India.

The Irrawaddi here is between the extreme banks a little less than 1.5 miles broad; the channel on which Bamo is situated is the largest, and is 800 yards across. Two other channels exist, of which the west is the smallest, and carries off least water. The river is a good deal sub-divided by sandbanks, but is, compared with the Burrumpooter a confined river. Since our arrival here it has sunk several (say five or six) feet, and no longer looks the noble river it did on our arrival.

The sandbanks when they do exist are either naked, or clothed with partial and not gigantic grassy vegetation. I have not seen any thing comparable to the churs of the B. pooter in this respect. The temperature of the river is not particularly low, and is much higher now than during the rise. From Bamoo the opening of the Kioukdweng is not conspicuous, nobody unacquainted with the course of the river would imagine that it passes through the range of hills to the N. and NNE. The highest hills visible are to the east. They are within a day's journey, and are clothed to their summits. Some appear 3000 feet high.

Low hills inhabited by wild Khukeens, are visible nearly all around, except perhaps due west. The wild fierce nature of these people is attended with a great extent of mischief, quite unchecked, without eliciting even precautionary measures on the part of the Burmese Government.

There are a few angles in the Bamoo stockade, and these exist because a straight line cannot be preserved; and large torches are placed out on levers for illuminating the enemy, and loop-holes are cut through the timbers; watch-houses are likewise placed at certain points. There are two rows of pangahs or fences outside, but not the Singpho pangahs. Notwithstanding all this the river face is quite defenceless.

The soil is dry and sandy, and cultivation is carried on principally on the churs. Pumpkins and Gourds are abundant; Yams, (Dioscorea,) not very good. Rice is sold at the usual price, a basket full for a rupee. The town is dirty, and not kept in any order.

May 6th.—We left Bamoo, and in three hours reached Kounglaun, a rather large village on the left bank, containing 100 houses, many of which are respectable, better indeed than any in Bamoo. It contains many small ruined pagodas. A gigantic tree grows within the stockade, which is a very poor one. Punica Granatum, and Beloe, were the only plants of interest observed in the neighbourhood.

We passed several (six or seven) villages, none except one with more than thirty houses; the one alluded to had sixty. All the houses continue small. The river is here much subdivided, and in many places shallow; sandbanks are common. Vegetation of banks is almost entirely Gramineae, and coarse strong-smelling Compositae. The grasses are different from those previously met with, except the Arundo. Rosa continues; Salix is common. Between Koungloung and Tsenkan, which is on the same bank, and close to the entrance to the Kioukdweng, three villages are met with; but none of any size. Tsenkan is prettily situated on a high bank, or rather low hill. The houses are about 100 in number, all poor and small. The stockade is a miserable affair. There are some good Poonghie houses, and a very pretty group of pagodas on a small rock. The country is jungly; just above the town a nullah enters the Irrawaddi: it is down this that large quantities of teak is brought, from hills two days' journey to the eastward; some large rafts were seen, but although some of the timbers were stout, none were of any great size. I gathered a pretty Hippocrateaceous plant in the jungles, as well as a Combretum; a Vitex, an Amyridea, etc. Phrynium dichotomum occurs here; Rosa continues; Jatropha is cultivated.

May 7th.—Started at 5 A.M., and entered the Kioukdweng almost immediately. We halted about 7, at Tsenbo. Noticed AEsculus, Sisymbrium, Campanula, Adelia nereifolia, Dillania speciosa, the usual Compositae, and largish Dipterocarpeae. The river is a good deal narrowed, but never less than 130 yards across, and as there are no rocks in any direction to impede the stream, the water flows but slowly and very placidly. Almost all the rocks forming the hills are grey carbonate of lime. These hills are covered to high-water mark, with scanty somewhat stunted trees, the most of which have no foliage. The scenery is by no means so bold as in the upper K. dweng, although just above Tsenbo, there is a noble cliff, 300 feet high, and almost perpendicular; under its ledges we observed great numbers of bees' nests. The rock when exposed is rather greyish black, and in many places reddish. Serpentine occurs, but is not common. A good deal of lime is prepared in this Kioukdweng, and some portions of it in the rugged serrated appearance, remind one of the limestone cliffs on the coast. Above Tsenbo and nearly opposite the cliff, is a small village of eight houses. Tsenbo numbers fifteen; it is on the left bank, and is a miserable place. Here we were left by our escort which accompanied us from Tsenkan, and the Thogee refused positively to give us two or three men to row. Although master of a miserable hole, he had made preparations for defence, and had set on foot a custom house. We saw a good many boats passing up, all evidently containing families moving away from their villages.

In this Kioukdweng a fine Palm exists, which I have never seen before. Caudex 10-15 pedalis, crassa, petiolorum basibus processibus vestitis, frondibus pinnatis, 10 pedalibus, pinnis ensifornibus 2 to 2.5 pedalibus, subtus glaucis, diametro 1.5 uncialibus, basi valde obliquis, bilobis! lobo inferiore maximo, decurrenti, uninervi: floribus in spadicibus nutanti-curvatis, amplis, basi spathaceis spicato-paniculatis. Florib. masculis polyandris.

Petiol. bases cretosae, intus processubus atris, subulatis, longissimis robustis quasi panicillatis.

Habitus quodammodo Wallichiae. Hab. in Umbrosissimis.

An arbuscula Anonacea, floribus dioicis, Mas. corollae petalis apice valvatim cohaerentibus, basi apertis, potius distantibus, Ovariis (faem) pedicellatis, also occurred.

Fructus elliptico-oblongus, subuncialis, hinc a basi ad styli punctum linea tenui exsculptus, unilocularis, unisporus. Endocarp, ac testa viscoso-gelatinosa. Testa ac tegumen intera membr. chartacea. Albumen copiosum hinc et suturae fructus oppositae, profundius exarat. sectione transversa-reniformi. Carnoso albumeni germen secus sulcum affixium. Embryo in axi albuminis, radicul super. Cotyledones foliaceae, albae, amplae, curvat seminis sequentes: suturae placental, oppositae. Ejusdem generis cum Menispermea: in sylvis Singfoensibus cum Wallichia: vide Icones.

Arrived at Kioukgyee at 5 P.M. Waited on and dined with the Meewoon, who is a gentlemanly, spare, lively man with grey hair. Dinner was good, and clean. Preserved dried jujubes from China, as well as some preserved by himself were very good. Kioukgyee is on the right bank of the river, which is here undivided by islands, and about 1200 yards broad. Just above the town there are some rocks. The number of houses is about eighty-five, most of them arranged in a broad street running along the river, and the best that I have seen for some time.

The village is surrounded by a new and wretched stockade, the outskirts being fenced or pangaed; the people are on the qui vive, and the whole village seems to be in a constant state of alarm. All the jungle immediately adjoining the town is cut down; many of the houses are unroofed, and all the gates are guarded. Visited this morning the lines occupied by the attacking force; these were not 300 yards from the village, and occupied the skirts of the jungle: trees had been felled and earth thrown up, but not in such a manner as to obstruct in any way tolerably brave men. We saw none of the slain, we may therefore doubt if there were any, but it was evident from platters, etc. strewed about, that the flight of the robbers had been very precipitate. We passed some little distance above this, a holy island, the numberless small pagodas on which, had a very pretty effect. Close to these there was a small village, Sheweygyoo, which had been just burnt down by the Kioukgyee people, for giving assistance to the robbers; this as well as two other contiguous villages before occupied a good extent of the left bank, and numbered probably 150 houses. Most of the inhabitants have retreated up the river.

May 8th.—Reached Katha at 6 P.M. Throughout the day saw little of interest. What we did see, gave evident tokens of disturbances,: villages deserted; dogs starved, howling piteously; canoes without owners. At one village a few miles below Kioukgit, our arrival caused much excitement, and a gun was fired off as a signal of alarm on our approach.

May 9th.—Katha is on the right bank of the Irrawaddi; it is situated on an eminence, and commands a fine view of a fine reach of the river; the situation indeed is excellent. It contains nearly 200 houses, but these are not of the better description. To the west is a fine chain of hills, the lowest ranges of which are distant about one mile and a half; the highest peaks are perhaps 1500 feet. No signs of alarm or disturbances are here visible, although part of the force that invested Kioukgit came from this village. We here learn the agreeable news that the country below is quiet, and that no robbers now infested the road. The Thogee is a fine looking young man; very polite. This village boasts of some pretty pagodas, well grouped, and a very fine Kiown, the workmanship of which astonished me, particularly the carving; it is built of teak, the posts being very stout, and very numerous. Several merchant boats left before us, apparently anxious for our escort.

Behind the town is a large plain used for the cultivation of paddy. Otherwise the jungle comes close to the houses, although the larger trees have been felled for firewood, etc.: the woods are dry, and tolerably open. In the morning I went out towards the hills; the chief timber trees are a fine Dipterocarpus, and a Hopea; Pentapetes likewise occurs; Terminalia Chebula. Gathered a fine Arum, somewhat like A. campanulatum. An arboreous Gardenia, as at Mergui; Myrtacea, Vitex, Bauhinia of yesterday; Randia, Andropogon aciculare; some stunted bamboos were likewise observed. Altogether Katha is the prettiest place I have yet seen. The river opposite it is confined to one bed, about 500 yards broad.

May 9th.—Left at 7 A.M., and reached the mouth of the Shwe Lee at 1 P.M.; the distance according to B. being sixteen miles. Passed a few villages, but none of any size; the houses of all continue of the same description. The river presents the same features. Salix continues. Sandbanks occupied by annual Compositae occur, two Polygona, Campanula, a Ranunculus, much like that of Suddiya, a Labiata, Paronychia, two Spermacoces; Bombax occurs just below Katha; Salix and Rosa continue. Shwe Lee is a considerable river, at the mouth between 4 and 500 yards broad; but one-third of this is unoccupied by water, and the stream is not deep, although of the ordinary strength. Above, it narrows considerably.

7.5 P.M. Temperature of the air 76 degrees. Of Irrawaddi 74 degrees.

May 9th.—Tsa-gaiya. This is a mean village on the left bank, about eighteen miles from Katha; it is close to a low range of hills, and occupies part of a plain, which is adapted for paddy cultivation. Near the village to the North, is a small jeel, covered to a great extent with a large Scirpus, Jussiaea, Azolla, Salvinia, etc. Water-fruits are abundant; round this paddy is cultivated, and they appear to cut it at this time. Low ground near the jeel is covered with a low, handsome Stravadium or Barringtonia, as well as a Xanthophyllum, resembling exceedingly in appearance a Leguminosa: the wood is hard. Calamus is also common. A handsome Nauclea occurs, and on the grassy margins of the plain a small Euphrasia is common.

During our stage I observed large quantities of Bombax, and a tree apparently the Beloe of Assam; the banks were either grassy or wooded, especially on the right bank, which is skirted entirely by hills of the same barren looking description. The grasses are all small compared with those of Assam.

May 10th.—Reached Tagoung late in the evening at 7.5: distance thirty-two miles. The river continues the same; the hills on the left bank are much broken into ravines: all continue clothed with the same stunted vegetation.

May 11th.—Tagoung is a miserable village on the left bank; it occupies a rocky eminence, and contains less than 100 houses. It is the most inferior village I have yet seen, the streets being dreadfully dirty and the houses very mean. We visited an old pagoda, about a mile from the town, which is surrounded by an antique wall, much obscured by jungle, and more resembling a bund. On our route hither we landed at Thigan, a village containing about forty houses, and prettily situated at the foot of a hill of micaceous sandstone, on the right bank. At this place are the remains of a fort built by the Chinese, of slabs of the rock forming the hill. Similar remains exist at Myadoung, on the opposite bank, as I learn from Mr. Bayfield. I gathered a Sida, Capparis, Prionitis, Gnaphalium, and a Xanthoxylia petiolis alatis armata; an Adiantum grows between the slabs composing the wall. At Tsenkan I observed an Agave, a different Cactus, a fleshy Euphorbia; and an Ananassa is common all about.

About Tagoung the botany is varied, and interesting. I gathered about fifteen plants that had not occurred before, two Poae, two Andropogons, a Zanthoxylum, and an Olax. The most interesting is an Apocynea, floribus infundibulifor. lamina reflexa, fauce squamis dentatis 10, serie duplici dispositis, interioribus petalis oppositis et majoribus, antheris, in conum stigma omnino coadunatis. Cotton cultivated here; plants taller than usual. The villages around are all forsaken owing to one of them having been attacked by Khukeens, and two men carried off. Hence the population at Tagoung, although usually scanty, is now much increased from adjoining places. A small river falls into the Irrawaddi immediately above Tagoung.

May 12th.—Reached Male about 6 P.M. Passed en route a few villages, none of any size or importance. The river varies in width, i.e. the channel, from 400 to 600 yards. The banks are either alluvial or rocky; and there are hills on the right bank skirting the river; those on the left, are more distant and higher. Borassus commences to be common; it is a taller, and more slender tree than that of Coromandel, and the trunk is not covered with the persistent bases of the petioles.

The village of Tsebainago is opposite to Male, and appears nearly of the same size. Both are situated close to the mouth of the third Kioukdweng. Male contains 150 houses, all small; it is a place of no trade. To the north is a hill forming the river bank, and covered with pagodas; it is the prettiest place we observed after Katha. The soil has now put on the dry sterile appearance of the Coromandel coast, all the trees of which, except the figs, are common; and often render the banks very pretty. Tectona of Hamilton is very common; it is a tree not exceeding in height 40 feet, much resembling in habit the more valuable species; the flowers are blueish, particularly the villi; the leaves have the same excessive rough feel. Two other Verbenaceae, a curious Capparidea, caule laxo, foliis lineari-oblongis, basi hastato-cordatis, and a Ximenia are common. On the banks Stravadium, and an arboreous Butea, a Combretum, are common. Low stunted bamboos likewise prevail; and all the bushes are prickly. Nyctanthes is cultivated. The rocks as well as those forming the Kioukdweng, are of coarse sandstone, here and there affording nourishment to abortive Compositae, stunted grasses, Mollugo, etc.

Left Male, and entered immediately the last Kioukdweng on descending, or the first defile on ascending against the stream. This is a pretty passage, and moreover has no dangerous places; the hills are low, lower than those of the two former passes, consisting of sandstone partially clothed with the same scanty vegetation, presenting the same barren appearance. Olax, Fici, Leguminosa, stunted bamboos, Hippocrateacea, Mimosa, and Stravadium, occur. Celsia on sandy spots, together with Campanula, but this last is becoming rare. Adelia nereifolia continues. An arundo occurs on the naked rocks; Cassia fistula, Tectona Hamiltoniana are also present.

We are much impeded by south-west winds; and owing to this and the slowness of the stream, we were compelled to remain some time at Thee-ha- dau. We there had excellent opportunities of seeing the fish, which are so very tame as to come up to the sides of the boat, and even to allow themselves to be handled. The faqueers of the place call them together; but I think they are not much disposed to come from mere calling, for they seem to require more substantial proofs of being wanted, in the shape of food: they are found in still water in a small bay, which is closed up still more from the influence of the stream by a round island, constructed superficially on a rocky base, and on which pagodas are built. They resemble a good deal the Gooroa Mas of Assam, but have no large teeth as this has. They are very greedy, of a blueish grey colour, occasionally inclining to red; the feelers are in some forked: they have no scales.

We continued our course when the wind lulled; halted to dine on a sandbank, and proceeded on afterwards, until we reached Kabuct about 8.5 P.M. On the sandbank where we dined I gathered a Crotalaria, Campanula, Cleome, a Graminea, Polygonum, Cyperaceae, and a Dentelloidea. The villages seen were all small.

May 13th.—Left Kabuct before 6. Halted to breakfast on a steep bank, finding it impossible to proceed against the south-west winds, which have now become prevalent.

At this place, which is hilly, I gathered Gmelina villosa, an Anonacea, calyce 6 sepalis, cor. tripetala, pet. patentissimis, margine revolutis, luteis. A Carissa, Grewia, Malpighiacea samaris, 3-alatis, alis dorsalibus abbreviatis, a curious Graminea, a green Orchidea, terrestris, bulbosa, flore ante folia evoluta, a Diospyros, Polygala, Plectranthus, Rungia, Pladera, etc.

Halted at Movo, owing to the wind. This is a very pretty village; of no great size, and of no importance. A delightful tope formed by Mango, Fig, and Garcinia, or Xanthochymus, the dense shade of which is most agreeable; Averrhoa, AEgle Marmelos is cultivated here; Borassus is common, trunks of which are often of very irregular diameter. Low grassy places occur running along the back of the village, with abundance of a Combretum fruticosum; and a nullah at either end of the village presents many trees on its banks, particularly a very large and handsome Myrtacea, Hemarthria compressa. Stravadium racemis longe pendulis.

We were compelled to put into Mala on the right bank, about a mile above Tsengoo, by a severe storm from the north-west. This village consists of about forty houses, many pagodas, and has a good many potteries, and some fine trees. It is at the entrance of the Kioukdweng. Observed Jatropha Curcas, and Vitex negrendo. In the evening we proceeded to Tsenbou.

May 14th.—Left Tsenbou, and breakfasted at Nbat Kiown-wa. Just above this are several villages, two of which number nearly seventy houses each. This is the most populous part I have seen. To the east of this are the Ruby mines in the Shan hills; and to the south-east low hills from which the marble is procured, from which they make the idols. The river features continue the same; namely, low hills close to the right bank, and more distant as well as higher ones on the left. On the Shan hills to the east, teak forests occur; on those to the west, tea also grows. In Polong tea districts also occur; but the tea is very coarse, and said not to be drinkable. Hemarthria, and Hoya viridiflora were found.

Here I found Solanum, Tribulus, a Mimosa, lime trees, Carissa, Mimusops, Stemodia ruderalis now appear. The most interesting is a small diffuse Caryoplylleous-looking plant, with white Campanulate flowers; it is probably a Frankeniacea. On the pagodas an Aristella grows. Certain features prevail in the vegetation similar to those of the Coromandel coast. Fig trees often surrounded at base with brick-work; this never lasts long, the roots tearing up the masonry in every direction.

The exit from this 3rd Kioukdweng is very pretty. Tsengru with its numerous white pagodas; the noble river expanded into a broad bay; the Eastern hills are very beautiful, and the Marble hills which form a background to Tsenbou are no less so. The banks towards the exit from the defile are sloping, often covered with grass. The Palmyra trees and Fig trees have a very pleasing effect. At Kiougyoung there is a large brick fort, built by Alompras. The village contains about 150 houses: no large village is passed between this and Kubuct.

Halted above Sheemnaga to look at Gaudama's foot, a piece of workmanship contained in a pagoda; it is a very large foot, with a central circular impression. This is about a mile below Endawka. Sheemnaga never contained more than 400 houses, I counted upwards of 180, and although extensive traces of fire, and of new houses existed, I should reckon it to have contained only about 300. At the Pagoda I gathered a curious Rutaceous-looking decandrous thorny tree, with foliis bijugis.

Reached Mengoon about 7 P.M. Landed at the commencement of the sandstone hills, which in some places assume the form of cliffs: texture very loose. They are full of holes, and abound with blue rock Pigeons. Gathered a Murraya. Trichodesma indicus and Compositae, Asclepiadea, Calotropis gigantea, and a curious Arenariod-looking plant.

May 15th.—Mengoon boasts of a huge unfinished Pagoda, consisting as it now stands of an immense square brick mass, surrounded by four fine broad raised terraces; it would have been, had it been finished, upwards of 700 feet high. The dome was to have been with angular sides. Height 170 feet; the basement, as may be supposed, is immense. The plan or model of it was first built in a small adjoining grove to the south, by the grandfather of the present king. The whole kingdom must have been occupied in its erection. The entrance to it is guarded by two huge Griffins. Several large bells lie close to it. The country around is hilly; the hills low, raviny, and clothed with stunted vegetation. Beautiful topes exist along the river bank, between this and the cliffs before alluded to; consisting chiefly of fine mango trees, noble Fici likewise occur. About Mengoon, Jatropha Curcas is common. Gymnemea, Calatropis gigantea, and Argemone abound. We found a Pergularia, Lippia, Zyzyphus, and one or two small Euphorbiaceae. The soil is dry, sandy, and barren.

We reached Ava about 1 o'clock.

May 21st.—Went to Tsegai on an excursion: the hills in this vicinity are low, none exceeding 300 or 400 feet, dry and barren, chiefly composed of grey carbonate of lime, and in some places Kancha occurs. Pagodas are very numerous, but none are very large, or bearing the stamp of great age. A fine view of country is however afforded: large plains are seen to the east of the city, and between the hills and the river two large jheels are visible from the hills.

The vegetation almost entirely consists of low stunted, very ramous shrubs, and these are generally thorny. Not a tree visible except Bombax and Tamarindus, but this last is planted. A large subarboreous Cactus, spinosus, ramis 4 angulis, is common. Noticed four species of Capparis, and the following plants, Barleria, Prionitis, Tamarindus, AEgle, Zizyphus, Cocos; Borassus, Bixa, Cordia, Punica, Ricinus, Melia Azederak; Citrus Cassia, near houses and on the hills; Euphorbia 2, Ximenia, Cleome, Boerhaavia, Adhatode, Cassia sennoidea, Sidae, Andropogon, a lax Linaria common on old pagodas; Calanchoe, Sedum, Pommereulla, Vinca rosea, Tectona Hamiltoniana, but not of such size as at Male. Bambusa stunted and rare, Blepharacanthus, Polygala, Labiatae 2, AEruae, sp. Fici one or two, an Alstonia, Celosia mollugo, Solani sp. Stemodia, Combretum, Heliotropium indicum, and the Euphorbiacea of Mengwong. It will at once be seen that the vegetation has some similarity with that of the Carnatic, for in addition I found Asplenium radiatum, and Limonea Monophylla, a Carissa, Ximenia, Flacourtia, etc. etc.

Ava is a fine town, surrounded with an excellent brick wall: the streets are wide, and kept clean; the houses are regular, and as trees are interspersed, a pleasing effect is produced. The appearance is much improved by a lattice before each house. The houses also are of a superior description, a few only are of brick. The fort is surrounded by an additional wall, and a broad but shallow ditch. The palace is a handsome, irregular, gilt edifice; but its precincts are not kept so clean as they might be. The Shwottoo is a handsome hall. The town altogether conveys an idea of importance. The river is about 800 yards broad opposite the Residency; but above, it is encroached on by a sandbank. Boats are numerous, and opposite Tsegain there is a busy ferry, especially now the king is at Tsegain. This is a much preferable place, and rendered much more pleasing by its superb Tamarind trees, with their most elegant foliage and sculptured trunks. The plants cultivated about Ava are Palmyra, Cocoa (rare). Tamarinds abound; Carica Papaya, Punica Granatum; Mangoes, which are of good description; Cordia, Plantains, AEgle Marmelos.

The country is flat, and destitute of trees to the south and southwest. The whole of this is cultivated during the rains, chiefly for Gram, Tobacco, Capsicum, and a Melilotus. At present the plains are barren, the low places being almost exclusively occupied by a Combretum; the rest give a new Polygonum, Lippia, 2 or 3 Compositae, and a curious dwarf grass. On the walls Linaria is common. Noticed near one of the gates, Cryptostegia grandiflora; the waste places and banks are occupied by Argemone, Mollugineae three, Xanthium, Dentella, and low annual Compositae.

May 26th.—Visited Tsegain in the evening, and returned to Ava on the following morning.

May 27th.—Noticed Phoenix sylvestris. The Euphorbia is common; it is not a Cactus, but a species of this genus, ramis complanatis, is found though not common; as well as an Agave or Aloe, but this is a doubtful native. Poinciana pulcherrima, both red and yellow, Rhus? sp. arbuscula, Vallaris solanacea. A small Lycopodium, Gmelina asiatica? The additional Madras plants are, Cissus quadrangularis. There is likewise another fleshy species fol. 3 phyllis, Sarcostemma viminale, Indigofera, Kalanchoe laciniata is common; so is the white Cyperacea on barren spots! I met with Sarcostemma ciliatum; Wall.? petalis extus viridescent, intus ciliisque purpuro sanguinies, but it is rare. Cardiospermum pubescens is certainly distinct, the flowers are twice as large as those of C. Halicacabum, fructibus inflatis vix alatis, ovalibus, dehiscentia septicida, septis axi adnatis, persistentibus. Semin. solitarii centro loculi affixis, pisiparvi magnitudine, atris.

NOTE.—Where any discrepancy occurs with regard to the native names in the preceding Journal, it is requested that such may be corrected from the Report to Govt. Chapter VII. p.115.

[The view from Beesa: p109.jpg]


Botanical notes connected with the foregoing Journal.

(February 19th.—The finest view of the hills from Upper Assam is obtained on a reach or turn of the river just above Palankar, the river bending to the NNE. Snow is plentifully seen on one back range from the Sugar-loaf peak. Another reach shortly after presents a fine view of the Burrampooter chasm, terminated by the rugged peak so distinctly seen from Suddiyah, due east. This view might be chosen, as a general characteristic of the Scenery of Upper Assam.

It embraces the Mishmee mountains to the left, the higher peaks of which are covered with perpetual snow. These lie to the NNE. of Beesa. To the east, is the continuation of the Himalaya, to the South-east and South, the Patkaye, and Naga ranges; the whole forming a panorama, rarely if any where surpassed in beauty. Temperature. of the river at 6 A.M. 67 degrees

Musa. Many flowers from the axil of a bract; no bractioles interspersed, hence we may expect racemose or spicate partial inflorescences. The perianth is unilateral, 5 cleft, the two smaller segments, which are intermediate, being internal, or belonging to a different series. Within this petaloid perianth is a membranous one, together with a boat-shaped bracteolate body, entire. The stamens are five, evidently opposite to the segments of the petaloid perianth, staminibus adnatis, the sixth is not developed, but is rudimentary, and exceedly minute, opposite to the bracteoid body. The carpella three, alternate as they ought to be with the last series of stamina, and hence they are opposed to the larger and outer segments of the petaloid perianth, but this last point deserves further examination.

The base of the bracteoid sepal is filled with a gelatinous, sweet, transparent, unicoloured .5 fluid.

I am unaware whether this explanation has occurred to any body else.

It is curious as compared with Scitamineae, in which the posticous stamen is alone fully developed. Pl. 1. Fig. 3. a. bracteoid body, b. sterile stamen, c.c.c. outer series, d.d. inner ditto.

The fact of the outer smaller laciniae belonging to a second series is not very apparent, but is corroborated by the evidently internal situation of the bracteoid scale, and by the evidently elevated lines visible in the inner.

(April 3rd, 1837.—On march towards the Serpentine mines) the face of the perianth, corresponds to these smaller laciniae.

April 7th.—Thunbergia grandiflora has the pedicels of its flowers twisted, or not twisted, according to the situation of the flowers. Thus if the flower be so situated that the raceme has the direction of the axis, or in other words is erect, the pedicel is straight, but if the raceme, as generally happens, be pendulous, the twisting of the pedicel is resorted to, to secure the flower that situation which it would have, were the raceme erect.

The above is obvious in flowers which from elongation of the axis of inflorescence, have fasciculate or aggregate flowers. An obvious inference is, that the twisting of the pedicel is not of generic, nor of specific importance; and that it is capable of being produced artificially.

This resupination is not uncommon in the order; it is most evident in Thunbergia coccinea, in which the racemes are always pendulous. There is nothing, at least in this species, in the situation of the genitalia to account for the resupination.

Pedicelli demum apicem infra articulati, the inflorescence of this order is always centrifugal, the partial axis being invariably as well indeed as the general, disposed to dichotomy. Hence the very common presence of three bracteae to each flower, the central one presenting the leaf from whose axil the partial branch springs.

Stipulae—if the analogy of these be difficult to ascertain, the structure and functions would appear to be as of leaves, in addition to the function of protection. In most cases they are certainly not double organs; in Naucleaceae they are apparently so. Can this be explained by supposing them to form a bud with four scales, the scales instead of being imbricate, being on one plane. Stipellae of Leguminosae are certainly single; these being all probably stipulate plants, are to be considered as having terminal buds, the buds being either totally, or partially protected by the stipulae. The difficult nature of ochreae of Polygoneae is certainly to be acknowledged, but they are similar to those of Costus, and hence not stipulae, but an extension of the margin of the vaginate petiole, from which veins are prolonged into it; the functions of these are not stomatose, since they are membranous, the veins being the only green parts.

I see no reason why the stipulae of Rosae are not to be considered as belonging to, or dilatations of the petiole. They have no distinct vascular fascicles to indicate a distinct origin. And further, in Lowea no stipulae exist.

Jonesia: pedicellis apice articulatis, basi bracteolatis, ideoque infloresc. magis composita esse debet; laciniis anticis? corollae? perianth compositum, binatum praebentibus, emarginatio et situs stam 5ti rudiment. Staminis laciniis alternatis? basi in annulum, seriem 2 indicantem coalit. {111} The situation of the stamens is somewhat obscure, the two lowermost however alternate with the segments, the two intermediate being sometimes sub-opposite.

Of course if they be opposed, the perianth will be referrible to a calyx if not to a corolla.

Lepidostachys or Scepa. Fruit dicarpillary, stigmata four, hence they are placentary not costoid. bilocular, loculis dispermis, ovula 2 pend; 1 abortiv. semiunceum, testa vix arillus obsacuit clause lutescens carnosa et ab nuclei inter adhaeren. Rad. sup. embryo junior viridis.

Stipulae cad. Gemmam oblegent.

Homalineae, Calycis; laciniae 4, petal 4, Glandulae 4 totidem sepalis oppositae. Connat; stamin 4, petal opposita; styli 4. Ovar non ext.

Arbor magna. foliis alternis stipulatis, paniculae racemoso-axillares, Flores minut. viridescent. Pet. et sep. fimbriat. aestiv. imbricat.

Clematis has semina pendula.

The stipulae of Ficus obviously belong not to the leaves, their insertion taking place .5 a line above that of the petiole. Hence they belong as obviously to the elongation of the axis above the leaf; their coloration is curious, especially as they are green when young. Their vernation is conduplicate and plicate.

Combretum presents several points in common with Rhamneae; valvate calyx, and tendency to want of petals; to Elaeagneae in calyx and furfuraceous scales; a decandrous Rhamneae would differ but little in flowers from Combretum.

My idea of the origin of stigmata is proved to be correct by a Phyllanthus, the carpella of which are ovuliferous below, the upper part being fleshy, the stigmata are two to each, obviously corresponding to the placentary inflexions, while the sinus terminating the dorsal suture is totally naked; it is this which should bear the stigma if Lindley's view were correct.

The true place of Moringa seems to be near Xanthophyllum with which genus it has some remarkable points of resemblance, witness the papilionaceous corolla; unilocular stamina, their situation, ovary, placentation, and lastly glandulation.

To this Lindley has made an approximation by placing the order near Violarieae. Its chief difference from Polygaleae, is habit, foliation, and the perigynous insertion of corolla and stamina, and consequent union of the sepals. As in Xanthophyllum there is no albumen.

(An additional Xanthop. which until to-day I have always taken for a Leguminosa.)

Tamarindus cal 4 partitus, sepals 2, superiorib. connatis. Pet. 3, vexillo, sepalo postico composit; opposit; stamen tria; sepalis 3, inferior opposita. Stylus aestivation deflexus.

Pedicelli apice articulat. Folii petiol. basi articulat. Stipulae minimae stipellae.

In Jonesia, there are no petals. Humboldtia comes near Tamarindus, through H. Brunonis, which agrees in calyx and petals.

Thorns of Prionites, what are they? They are axillary, and yet buds are produced between them and the axis. They have no connection with the leaves. Were it not for the buds above alluded to, I should say that they were abortive branches (bearing one pair of leaves) reduced to spines.

Olacineae. Certainly in habit, corolla, etc. Olacineae are allied to Aurantiaceae, but they are nearer akin to Santalaceae. The processes are indubitably modified stamina, with a great tendency to irregularity; in one species from Tagoung only three fertile, and five sterile stamina were observed: the three fertile generally, but not invariably, alternate with the petals.

To Santalaceae they approach in processes, valvate corolla, and placentation, also to Loranthaceae.

Eight stamina thus accounted for; when two opposed to petals, belong to outer series—also single one.

In Punica, the structure of the ovaria is highly curious. We find the bottom of the tube is occupied by two cells, partially filled with ovula, which are attached both to the axis and to the base, as well as to the lower part of the outer paries of each cell; so far, it does not depart from the order, for in Aplexus the placentation is tolerably similar.

Above these two, are 4-5 cells, filled with ovula, which are attached entirely to the outer wall of each cell, but the placentae however would seem to have an obvious connexion with the axis, although this is very doubtful.

The formation of the stigma decidedly indicates a binary formation of carpella.

If these 4 upper cells are 4 constantly, and the base of the ovary is as constantly two celled, then the explanation is sufficiently obvious, though different from that given by Lindley. {113}

First, we have in the bottom from which the mere structure of an ovary is deduced, the normal dicarpellary structure, and there is in addition a tendency in excess toward a parietal placentation.

The anomalous formation arises first from parietal placentae being produced to the axis, and from spurious growth from the sides of the ovary also meeting in the axis, by which the ovula are divided into four bundles.

Lindley's view seems to be questionable, because as in all cases the styles and stigmata are more permanent than ovaries, there should be as many styles, etc. as ovaries. 2nd, because according to this view the placental suture of the carpella would be turned from the axis, (look at Pomaceae,) although his view of Pomaceae being right would indicate an additional affinity with Mespilus, etc. which it does in habit and abbreviated lateral branches.

Are all Myrtaceae dicarpellar?

The true nature of the case is pointed out in the instance cited by Lindley of a permanent variety of apple, which has 14 cells and 14 styles! With regard to Nicotiana and Nolana; have these one or two rows of carpella?


Arbores, trunco crasso, cito ramoso, cortice albido, laevi, tenui.

Folia siliceo-aspera, inflorescent dichotoma.

Calyx aestiv. valvat. cor infundibul, subregularis laciniis, 5 rotundatis, demum reflexis aestivat. laciniis super 2, omnino exterior, facies barbato-villosa.

Antherae longit dehiscent, stylus stigma simplex.

Pubescentia stellata.

Modo Asclepiadeae, corolla rotata.


Lab. super. aestivat. omnino exterior fl. axi fere paralleli, pedicell apice bibracteolat.

Cal. minim. 5 dentat.

Cor. infundibul campanul. bilab; 4 partit. stigma bilabiat-lab infer longiore.


Radix maxime napiformis, undique radiculas exserens, et superne e centro spadicem. Spadix pedunculum 3-uncial terminans, basi squamis magnis membranaceis, lineari-oblongis stipatus sursum in corpus fungoiden, capitatum, maximum, purpureo-sanguineum, superficie rugose dilatata.

Ovar bilocul, diovulat.

Medio antheras bipoross confertissimas, sessiles, numerosas, basi ovaria distantiora gerens.

Ovaria fusco-purp, stylus elongatus clavatus, stigma clavato, capitat.

Odor-floris praeserti marcescentis pessimus.

Katha in sylvis aridis.

The fruit of Lagerstramia grandiflora can, I think, be explained by assuming it to consist of several carpella, which by not becoming united near the axis, leave an irregular shaped space in the centre; the placentae are fleshy, the ovule inserted all around. This view does not take into consideration the situation of the stigmata. The deeper sulci visible externally correspond to the inflexions of the carpellary leaves; in addition to this, the centre of the dorsum of each of these is marked with a line. {114})


Report to the Government of India, 12th July, 1837.

In the following report, I have divided the marches into series, corresponding with the countries through which they were made, reserving a table of the whole for a subsequent part. These series will be as follows—

1. From Sadiya to Beesa Lacoom.

2. From Beesa Lacoom to Namtusseek.

3. From Namtuseek to Wullabhoom.

4. From Wullabhoom to Mogoung.

5. From Mogoung to Ava.



1. From Sadiya to the Noa Dihing river mouth or Mookh. Direction east. Distance 6 miles performed in boat, the course lying up the Burrumpootur.

2. From Noa Dihing Mookh to Rangagurrah on the Noa Dihing. Direction SSE. Distance 12 miles, course lying along the dry bed of the Noa Dihing.

3. From Rangagurrah to Moodoa Mookh, on the same river. Direction south- east, the distance being 12 miles. {115a}

4. From Moodoa Mookh to Kidding. Direction south, the distance 9 miles, course south-east, along the bed of the Noa Dihing as far as Wakhet, thence diverging to SSW. through heavy jungle.

5. From Kidding to Namroop Puthar. Direction, nearly south, the distance being 12 miles, course lying through very heavy jungle, crosses the Karam Panee, {115b} which here is not fordable, and another considerable feeder of the Booree Dihing, and lastly up the Namroop.

6. From Namroop Puthar to Beesa Lacoom. Direction southwest, the distance 12 miles, the course extending at first over low hills and difficult ground, thence through heavy jungle intersected by narrow plains, lastly chiefly along the banks of the Darap Panee.

Nature of the country.—It will be seen that with the exception of the three first marches, and part of the fourth, the country is occupied by the heavy jungle so prevalent in these parts. The chief difficulties our party experienced arose from the limited manner in which the jungle had been cut for their passage.

Rivers.—The only one not fordable in the above route, is the Karam Panee, but this does not hold good either above or below the place I crossed. They all discharge much water during the rains, and even in the dry season are navigable for small canoes.

Villages.—These are as follows:—

1. Digalo Gohain Goung.—On the right bank of the Noa Dihing it is inhabited by Kamptees lately settled in our territory, and is a respectable village. The Noa Dihing here ceases to be navigable even for small canoes.

2. Wakhet.—This is a new but wretched village, inhabited by Singphos. Wakhet Gam was an adherent of the Duphas, and is by all account one of the worst-disposed Singpho chiefs. He is said even at this period still to traffic occasionally in slaves.

3. Kidding.—A temporary village, containing about 10 houses, inhabited by Nagas, now naturalised to the plains.

4. Namroop Puthar.—So called from a plain on the left bank of the Namroop. The village, which is a mean and despicable one, is on the opposite bank.

5. Beesa Lacoom.—Is situated on the right bank of the Darap Panee, which is fordable at the heads of the rapids. It contains 12 small houses. The Gam is, I believe, an uncle of the Beesa Gam, and exercises exclusive control over the tribe of Beesa Nagas. This influence he appeared to exercise to our disadvantage. He is a discontented man, and his behaviour to our party was very unsatisfactory.

Population. {116} —This is scanty enough, particularly when we consider that the houses in the above villages are much smaller than in the better sort of Singpho villages. With the exception of the Kamptee village the average number of people to each house cannot exceed five. Another small Singpho village exists on the Namroop, about 3 miles from Namroop Puthar, and not far from the site of the coal mine.

Capabilities of the Country.—These are of the usual description. The soil is productive enough, but the labour of clearing the drier spots is excessive. Excellent rice grounds exist in abundance between Beesa Lacoom and Namroop Puthar, but the cultivation of this, as well as of all the other necessaries, is limited to the quantity absolutely required. Scarcities of grain are of frequent, indeed almost of annual, occurrence; and this is chiefly owing to the pernicious influence of opium or Kanee, to which all our Singphos are immoderately attached. Of the Mineral Productions, coal and petroleum were the only ones we met with.

The coal occupies the greater portion of a precipitous part of the sandstone composing the left bank of the river Namroop. Three large veins have been completely exposed by the cutting away of the bank. The coal is I believe of good quality. The river immediately under the veins is very deep, and were it not for the rapids which intervene between the site of the mineral and the Booree Dihing, it would be difficult to conceive a spot affording similar facilities for the transmission of the mineral. I must however, observe, that even in the dry season the river is navigable for small canoes as far as the site alluded to. During the rains no difficulty whatever would be experienced in the carriage, as rafts might be made on the spot. No use is made of the coal by the natives, nor did they seem to be aware of its nature.

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