Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and The - Neighbouring Countries
by William Griffith
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It may be worthy of remark, as tending to prove the soundness of Mr. Brown's views with regard to the affinity of Rafflesia with Aristolochia, that a certain large and fleshy flowered species of the latter genus has the same putrescent smelling flowers.

In Rhizantheae, as proposed by Endlicher, we have an assemblage of discordant characters; we have plants associated, differing in the number of their parts; we have some of comparatively simple roots associated with others of decidedly complex organization; we have Rafflesia in which highly complex female parts exist, associated with Sarcocoidalis, in which these are very simple. But besides the objection of combining discrepancies on the strength of one agreement, the establishment of divisions upon such pretexts is objectionable in another point of view; viz., that of making a transition of structure on one point, instead of in several.

We might as well form into one division all the ternarily formed Dicotyledons, and into another all those Monocotyledonous plants with evident distinction between the calyx and corolla.

But in addition to reasons founded on structure, I have this theoretical one, that it is as requisite that Endogens should establish a similar relation with Acrogens; otherwise a gradation exists between the first and third classes, and none between the second and third, between which, gradations ought to be the more frequent.

As Rafflesia approaches Aristolochia, so does Sarcocodon, Taccaceae.

23rd.—Rawil Pendi. The country continues much the same to within five or six miles of this place, viz. high raviny ground, well covered with Mimosa, Bheir, etc.

Thence to Pendi, the country is open, bare, and much cultivated. From high ground near Pendi a considerable tract is visible, consisting of low ridges running nearly due south, interrupted here and there, and apparently quite bare.

24th.—To Manikyala, distance nineteen miles, over an elevated country, with not much cultivation; broken ground occurs here and there, especially near the river Hoomook, now a small stream, the road winding through Mimosa jungle. Moacurra, Bheir, Euonymus.

At a place about three miles from Manikyala, are the remains of a Serai now in ruins. From this to Metope, the road extends over an open country capable of cultivation, but neglected. Water in wells is thirty feet perhaps below the surface: the country about Tope very bare of trees.

A curious low chain of sandstone rocks here occurs, and occasionally protrudes in places from below the soil, seldom rising above five feet and occasionally dilated into undulated tracts.

Drill husbandry, (i.e. seeds sown after the plough,) seems much in practice here. The late noise about improving pasture grasses has been made with little reference to the nature of an Indian climate, or the genius of the Indian people. Pasture grasses only excel in countries where there is no division of climate into hot, rainy, and cold seasons; but not in those in which rain is equally, or nearly so distributed throughout the year. So far as I know, no place in India is calculated for pasture grass cultivation, because as none of excellent kinds can succeed without irrigation, this element of Indian agriculture is applied to more profitable cultures, such as artificial grasses. In the cold season and the rains, nature supplies dhoob grass bountifully, leaving the natives to apply their agricultural labour to other objects, and in such seasons the condition of cattle is decidedly good.

Manikyala Tope, seen from near Rawil Pendi, is an insignificant building, and presents the same architecture as other topes, and as the Cabul tower, although it is not of the same materials. The lower part of the base is of pure sandstone, the upper of a stalactital conglomerate of small pebbles, often perforated. The terraces at the base are now almost hid by rubbish, so that the whole looks like an overgrown dome or a low mound. There are three stone ledges below, with flat pilasters between the middle and lower ledge on the sides. The dome is much damaged. The stones of which the building was erected, were not hewn inside, but I do not know whether they have not been cemented together. Access is easy to the top partly by means of broken steps, otherwise the stones gave good footing. The top of the ruin is now open and discloses a square funnel, penetrating half the height of building; thence modern handiwork has caused a broken irregular perforation. The building is not remarkable for great size, nor are any of the stones large, still as a piece of architecture it is far superior to any thing in modern Affghanistan. The country around is very bare and sufficiently open. It is curious that there are many Indian plants found on or about the building, all indicating a decided approach to Hindoostan. A Sida, Euonymus, Bheir, Lantana, and a Menispermum, are common shrubs on the building, also Solanum quercifolium, spinis albis floribus coeruleo purpureis.

25th.—To Puttiana, seventeen to eighteen miles; the country much the same, little wood but bushes of the old trees: it is tolerably open until Pukkee Serai is approached, when it becomes very much broken and intersected by ravines in every direction, showing most forcibly the action of water, many of the cliffs thus formed are picturesque. At Pukkee a small river is forded, thence to near Puttiana the country then becomes almost as raviny as before.

AErua, Bheir, Mudar, a Kochia, much like one of the Cutch ones, and the before-mentioned plants continue.

26th.—To Bukriala, twenty-two miles. From Puttiana the road is good, extended over a high open country, except where it crosses two ravines; the first of these containing a stream of water, about ten miles from Puttiana. From Tammuch the road descends steeply into the Bukriala Kakhudd ravine, which takes you to Bukriala.

This ravine runs through a system of sandstone hills, of a blueish muddy aspect, and red clayey earth, often conglomerate. In colours not unlike the Bamean district. Water is plentiful in pools throughout the lower half of the road, which is all descent. Bukriala stands on the right bank of the Khudd river towards its mouth, the vegetation about this place resembles that of the open country, and is unchanged in the Khudd river, consisting of Kochia, Phulahi, and Mimosa albispina, Euonymus, Bheir, Adhatoda, Barleria, Kureel, and Capparis of Gundamuck; also Pommereullioid, Andropogon, Schoenanthus, Holcus, and Stipa of Kuta Sung, Carallunia, Grewia and Menispermum of Manikyala.

Also two plants not before seen, and neither common, one is a Butea, leguminous velutino pubescent arbor, it is the Chuchra of the natives, and is used for paper. The other is a curious, leafless, scandent, monocotyledon. Asparaginea, and an Apocynea.

Alhaji Maurorum is not found between this and Hussun Abdul, which is a curious thing.

27th.—To Rotas. The country to Mittian is very much broken and consequently difficult, consisting entirely of ups and downs: the road is only practicable for cattle; the bad part of it commences with an abrupt ascent. About Puttiana, four miles from Bukriala, it becomes better, but it continues partially raviny until within four miles of Rotas, when the country becomes open, and the road good.

Vegetation continues precisely the same, being still in the region of Phulahi: observed the Asparaginea again, Euonymus continues, also Astragalus, a Kochia, and an Affghan Chenopodium.

A beautiful bhowli or spring is passed on the way two miles from Rotas, it is covered with masonry, and the descent is by means of steps; the water passes under large arches, a work worthy of the Mogul emperors. Sissoo, Peroplocea of Bolan, common. Rotas is an immense irregular fortress, with the usual faults: it is much too large, and situated on a rocky plain partially commanded. It must have once contained a large number of inhabitants. Nelumbium, Potamogeton: half a mile from Rotas towards Peshawur, a square Serai, enclosing a garden, is passed.

The country immediately about it on the west is open: and well cultivated: there is but little water in the river. The town or village is of no size.

Butea not uncommon.

28th.—Proceeded to Jhilun. The road is at first steep, as it passes down along the Rotas river, about three miles from thence it is good, extending over a plain to the Jhilun. Fine cultivation observed on all sides, and of various sorts, chiefly Bajra and Kureel. Dhah abundant, but not arborescent, Euonymus, Peganum, Bheir, and Phulahi, the latter very dwarfish. Mimosa albispina and Adhatoda very common. The commonest tree in these countries is Bheir, and a very handsome tree it is; Nihi-joari cultivated.

Sun and Tel occur, the last is very common. Yesterday a new cultivation presented of a Composite plant, called Kalizeen, used as spice or musala for horses. The birds observed were Haematornis, Crateropod, Sylvia, Alauda cristata, Alauda alia in flocks.

The town of Jhilun stands immediately on the right bank of the river of that name, it is a large and flourishing place. The river is about 200 yards broad, not rapid, but here and there deep, and the bed at this place forms one undivided channel. The right bank on which the town stands has a stony sloping shore, the left is sandy.

It is a mistake to suppose that the hilly country ceases here, on the contrary, it crosses the Jhilun. At the ferry this river runs through a large valley, bounded to the west by hills like those to which we have been accustomed; to the east it is bounded by a low chain, which runs parallel with the general course of the river. The valley is open only to the north and south.

Otters, tortoises, and Mahaseer were seen in the river.

29th.—To Sera, twenty-four miles, half the distance extended over the uncultivated base of the hills, and then over the low range itself, from which at two points, fine views are obtained of the vast plain of the Punjab. Throughout this vast surface the vegetation is exactly the same—Euonymus continuing, Peganum and Phulahi forming chief vegetation; numbers of white partridge occur.

In the plains Dhah is found in profusion, especially where the cultivation is not extensive. A new Acacia appears, the Kikkur, forming groves about most of the villages. Noticed the Physaloides of Lundykhanah. Encamped under a fine Mimosa and Bheir near an old Serai which forms part of the village, with a splendid view of the Himalayas stretching away from east to west. It appears from this direction as if there was only one low range between the plains and the culminating range of the Himalayas. Nothing like these mountains has been seen in Khorassan. The chief cultivation about here is Nihi-joari, then Bajra—why is the former always bent?

Prickly pear common from where we crossed the Jhilun river.

A curious metamorphosis of Sesamum is of common occurrence: the calyx being unchanged, while the corolla preserves somewhat its shape, but is foliaceous, the other organs are much transformed, the ovary less so than the stamina, but generally much enlarged; ovules in leaves inside. This is worthy of examination, as it shows very plainly the origin of the stigmata from the placentae.

30th.—Halted owing to having been robbed of two horses.

31st.—Wuzerabad, twenty-four miles. Ten miles from Wuzerabad the road extended through a highly cultivated country, and crossed the Chenab, on the left bank of which river Wuzerabad is situated. The Chenab is a fine river, the stream 150 yards wide, but on either side extensive beds of sand show that the river during some seasons is of great width.

Wuzerabad is a nice well built town, having a fine straight bazaar, with paved street. The chief gateways and residences built by General Avitabile.

Chilodia occurs in abundance, Eleusine sp., E. coracana; Bajra and Joari Nihi being the prevailing cultivation.

It is curious that in Phulahi major of Sera and the Kikkur, the young branches only are armed with thorns, so that the spines must be deciduous in certain species of Mimosa.

Cactus is an instance of a calyx composed of a congeries of adherent leaves, which leaves produce from their axilla, tufts of white hair and thorns; or is it not an instance of an axis hollowed out towards the apex, to the sides of which the ovary finally adheres, in this case the outermost series of the perianth will be calyx; one reason for adopting this supposition, besides the axillary bodies, is that there is no gradation between the small concave leaves of the calyx, and the outer series of the perianth.

November 1st.—Halted for fishing: Cyorinus Mrigala, is the Mhoori of these parts; it grows to a large size, is a handsome fish, and is indeed considered the king of fishes by the Punjabees. The intestines are in longitudinal folds of extremely small comparative diameter, and enormous length; in a large specimen it is twenty-three times the length of the body. The intestines of the Mahaseer are on the other hand only two and a quarter times the length of the body!

Of the fish obtained, two are Perilamps, here called Rohi,

5 or 6 Cyprinides, 4 or 5 Siluri, 2 Ophiocephali, 1 Esox. Indeed I obtained a list of twenty-four species.

2nd.—To Goograuwala, twenty-four and a half miles, over a fine populous generally cultivated country. Goograuwala is a large town, having the streets paved with brick like those of Wuzerabad. Cactus very common; Kikkur (Mimosa) is the chief tree here about the Fukeer's abodes. The Banyan also occurs.

Peganum and Kochia of Jallalabad continue. There is a fort of some size close to this town, built of mud; the ditch is unfinished, and not deep, it has a fau-se-braie, with bastions like those at Peshawur and Jumrood. The surface of the ground is much broken close up to it, the earth being taken away for bricks.

3rd.—Proceeded to Koori, an inconspicuous village, belonging to M. Court; it is surrounded by extensive plains, on which a tall grass occurs to a great extent. Distance twenty-eight and a half miles, the time taken for to-day's journey was six and a quarter hours.

The country is precisely similar to that previously noticed, the only new feature being the grassy plains, in which at some little distance from Koori, deer, partridge, hares, etc. are said to abound.

A sissoo-like tree is not uncommon.

4th.—To Shah Durrah, twenty-three and a half miles at Nunzul, eight miles from Shah Durrah, a fort with ditch out of repair was passed, at Koori ten miles from Shah Durrah, passed a deep Nullah called Baghbuchah, with high banks, thence entered on a tract of country covered with Saccharum, (Moong), from which ropes are made; (this is the same as the Chuch species,) we next entered on cultivation close to Shah Durrah, which place is well wooded.

Mangoe trees, Ams, Eugenia Jambolana, Jams, Bheirs, Phoenix, Kikkur, and Ficus, are the principal trees.

The grassy tracts of the Punjab represent probably the original vegetation, existing now only here and there owing to the extension of cultivation.

From Shah Durrah Lahore is visible, particularly the buildings of the Mogul emperor's, consisting of a conspicuous dome in ruins, and some minarets, a large Serai likewise going to ruin, standing in the immediate vicinity of the Royal Gardens, Lahore is decidedly a handsome looking city viewed from Shah Durrah.

So great is the tendency in palms to throw out roots towards the base, that these roots exist in the common Khujoor, although they have to get rid of the indurated bases of the petioles before they can make their exit. They are so extremely short and indurate that it is difficult to imagine the function they perform; at first they are capable probably of absorbing from the air.

5th.—Proceeded to General Court's house at Lahore, distance six miles, the road after crossing the Ravee river near a royal summer house of no extraordinary merits, passes on to the town, and then winds round under the Simon Boorge, a very striking part, at least exteriorly of the city, for the buildings, works, etc. are in good repair. Besides this the ground outside is swardy and prettily wooded.


From Lahore to Simla.

Lahore is surrounded by a ditch and wall, the work of former emperors' of Delhi; the environs of the city, particularly towards M. Court's residence, are studded with mosques, etc. mostly half ruined, and the ground is literally strewn with old bricks, so that the city must at one time have been an enormous one.

Seikh troops in large numbers are cantoned round to the east and south- east skirts of the town, in low pucka barracks.

Several low mounds apparently unconnected with ruins, occur in this direction.

I arrived to hear of the death of Kurruck Sing, who was burned the same day with five women; after the ceremony a scaffolding fell down, wounding Nehal Sing dangerously in the head, and killing the son of Goolab Sing. Late in the evening the Maharajah was senseless.

It is a curious thing, that the prince who this day ascended the guddee, and Goolab Sing, had been active intriguers against Kurruck Sing, who is said to have had his death hastened through chagrin at witnessing Nehal Sing's usurpation of power.

6th.—Not much cultivation was observed on the road to-day, which extended over a naked marshy saline plain, or through a Kureel, and small Jundy and Phulahi district.

To Kanah, seventeen miles—Jundy, Kureel and Bheir occur extensively. Jundy is a low prickly shrub, Mimosa. There is something curious both in the surface of the cavity enclosing the seed, and in that of the seed itself of Acacia serissa. The former presents the distinct appearance of a straight line, originating in the same spot as the funicle, and terminating in a very well marked, circular depression; it is formed by the funicle as far as the cells of the legume. If a section be made through the seed longitudinally and its cell parallel with the plane of the legume, this mark will be found on both sides of the cell, but more distinct on one than the other.

The mark on the seed by no means relates to this, at least it does not correspond with it, for it consists of a somewhat reniform elevated ridge, the ends of which do not meet, but one of which originates from an elevation to which the depression would seem to respond. The straight line does not correspond with the funicle, which is not straight, but is pushed up in a curved form against the upper edge of the cell.

It corresponds, however, with a straight subclavated line running from the hilum to the elevation whence the curved line originates, although this correspondence is not always well marked.

[Sketch of Jundy seed: m504.jpg]

The above marking, corresponding as it does in the flat part of the legume with the funicle, evidently points to a peculiarity in the distribution of the vascular system; probably it consists of the testa, and if so, it is worthy of remark, as the main vessels ordinarily a single one, run along the edge, and not on the flat surface of the fruit.

I know of no similar instance; in this plant the vessels of the testa are distributed primarily at right angles with the placenta, and not in parallel lines with that organ. If the seed were depressed instead of compressed, it would not present this peculiarity, although even then the two primary vessels would be remarkable. From this instance it may be assumed that the hilum may only be defined correctly as the spot of union between the body of the seed and the funiculus. The leaflets of the plumula are pinnate.

It is also curious that the distribution of green parenchyma is along the course of the veins of the legume, and that there is a more minute reticulation, and a greater development of the green colour on the faces of the cells, than on any other part of the surface of the legume. There is no difference appreciable by the naked eye between the placental and dorsal sutures, with the exception of the sutural line of union, which has the usual relation with the axis of the head of the flowers—Euphorbia occurs here.

The affinity of Cacteae with Grossulaceae is questionable, the systems of organization being very different. Query—What instances are there of affinity between inferior ovary plants, with distinct definite envelopes and stamina, and plants with a perhaps similar ovary, but with indefinite envelopes and definite stamina with a want of correspondence in the structure of the fruit?

7th.—To Kussoor, twenty miles. The road extended generally through a Jundy country: about half-way Salvadora appears in abundance. Kussoor is a large well-built town, consisting of three separate parts, each surrounded by a pucka wall furnished with bastions: these three parts are at some distance from each other. Furas tree common.

8th.—Ferozepore. About this place two species of Kochia occur, and Artemisia is not uncommon. The Serratuloides of Alli-Baghan and Ichardeh in profusion, affording cover for game.

16th to 21st.—Loodianah. In the Nullah, Butomus begonifolius occurs.

The following are the fish of Loodianah taken both from the Nullah and the Sutledge.

Roh.—Cyprinus (Cirrhinus), a large, very handsome, excellent, orange- brown fish, takes a bait but is capricious.

Rohoo.—A sombre black-brown fish, intestines several times the length of the body, said to be the young of the above. Both these are different from the Roh or Ruee of the Ganges.

Coorsah.—Labeo Cursis, a definite scaled sombre fish, it is good food, and attains the size of two to three seers; intestines twice the length of the body, very narrow.

Kkul Bhans.—Cirrhinus Calbasu, a sombre looking breamoid-shaped fish, attains the same size as the above, and is reputed to be excellent food.

Mhirgh.—Gobio Mrigala, a handsome fish, particularly when young; form very elegant, intestines fourteen times the length of the body; excellent food.

Bura Raiwah.—Gobio Rewah, a very handsome, eight-cornered, scaled fish, with orange fins and golden sides: takes no bait?

Chota Raiwah.—Gobio occurs in shoals—either occupied in busily turning up its silvery sides against the bottom, or at the surface, above which it may be seen protruding its head.

Bhangun.—Gobio, a handsome fish, not esteemed.

Potea.—Systomus, takes bait—worms; affords good sport and reaches to one seer, but is not esteemed; colours ordinary.

Systomus, a beautiful fish, back shining green, sides yellow, scales beautifully striate, with a spot near the tail; mostly found in still water.

Gonorrhynchus.—Snout rough, colours sombre, belly somewhat protuberant; found with Systomus. The intestines are of the usual form of the genus.

Gonorrhynchus, a sombre smaller fish, found in still water.

Bura Chalwa.—Much esteemed as food in the districts of the Sutledge.

Perilampus.—Intestines shorter than the body, having at the lower end a short curve; above green, from lateral line downwards silvery.

Moh.—A Siluroid fish, does not attain the size of the real Moh, which is a higher or deeper formed fish.

Tengrei.—Silurus platycephalus. Attains a very large size.

Gudha.—A Percoid. Colour irregular brown, mouth very protractile.

Gughal.—Ophiocephalus, a handsome fish, back rich greenish, mottled brown, with 3 or 4 black spots on the sides, which are yellow, passing off into white, and a peacock spot on the tail. Fins spotted with white: it reaches a large size.

Bham.—Macrognathus, body eel-shaped, with a row of movable spines along the back.

About Loodianah, the Naiad of Affghanistan, Monandra, stigmatibus reniformibus, is common in the Nullah, so also is Butomus begonifolius, but this may be a leafless form of Sagittaria.

Towards Roopur, Sissoo becomes more and more common. Roopur is a largish town, with a Seikh pucka fort on a mound. The fort is surrounded by a dry ditch. The town is situated on a low, rather rugged ground, forming the first elevations of the surface towards the Himalayas; beyond it to the north-east is a low spur, also to the west a similar spur, very barren, rugged, clayey rock forming the immediate bank of the river. Every thing assimilates to the Bukriala and Jhilun ranges. Saccharum, Moong, as before, Bheir likewise occurs.

Phoenix, Dalbergia sissoo, Ficus, Adhatoda, Boerhaavia scandens, Hyperanthera, Morus, Apluda, Tamarisk, Riccia, Ammannia, Euphorbia antiquorum, Cactus, and Dodonaea, form the chief vegetation.

Some rapids occur near the Bungalow: the strongest is under a cliff on the opposite side; no fish rose to red or black hackle or orange flies, all which were tried in vain in the deep still water close under Bungalow. The plants of this place are Guilandina, Grewia arbuscula in fruit, Justicia, Bheir, Neem, Mango, Parkinsonia, the latter rare.

Fish caught in net are Mullet, this fish is very active, and escapes by jumping over. Silurus, Mahaseer, several of the latter taken at a haul, the largest 10 lbs., it is a beautiful fish with golden sides, scales black, with the anterior half bluish-black, posterior half tawny-yellow, fins orange, lips very thick and leathery; it lives half or three-quarters of an hour after it is taken out of its element.

The Nepura of the natives, Gobio malacostoma, or Rock Carp of Gray, Hardwicke's Illustrations, is the puhar-ka muchee of these parts: it has the base and edges of the scales dull greenish-blue, fins dusky, a transverse pink line across the scales; the length of the intestines is twenty-two and a half times that of the body, filled with mud and coloured pulp, stomach continuous with the intestine, and more fleshy, filled with green and whitish pulp, and disposed in longitudinal folds.

The Bangun, Roh, (Gobio) is a splendid fish, base and edges of the scales dusky brown, otherwise refulgent gilded, belly white, fins dusky, head greenish-brown, less gilding about the dorsal scales. This fish I have not seen elsewhere. Length of intestines disposed in longitudinal folds, the posterior of which are nearly as long as abdominal cavity, the whole twenty-seven and a half times the length of the body. Organization and contents as in Nepura. The breadth or depth of this fish immediately behind the opercule three inches, across the body, opposite the first ray of dorsal fin, five inches, first ray of anal three inches, length twenty-two inches.

Query—In which part of a fish intestines like that of the Mahaseer, is the chief digestion carried on?

27th.—To Nalighur Bungalow, the distance rather less than sixteen, but over fourteen miles through a similar country to that round Roopur. The road passes a large village called Canowli; at rather less than about half-way it extended across a sandy dry river bed of some extent, on the right bank of which, at the highest part, is a Seikh brick fort. The road subsequently passes the Sursa, a small shallow rapid stream. The dry bed of which turns up on the south side of the low range to the south of Nalighur valley. No change in vegetation takes place, except the occurrence of a Croton, much like that of the Pagoda near Canowli.

Trees observed—Eugenia Jambolana, Mangifera indica, Ficus, Bheir, Neem or Melia Azadarach, Parkinsonia about the bungalow. Toon, Cordia, Bauhinia, Bambusa, Emblica, Morus, Plumeria, Mudar, Saccharum, Moong, Bheir fruticos and Kikkur are the most common indigenous forms. Dhak in patches here and there: Cassia also occurs.

Nalighur consists of a village and fort, the latter situated to the north- east half-way up a range of hills, the country about very barren. Indeed the aspect of the country is much like that between Hussun Abdul and the Jhilun, except in the rarity of Phulahi.

A great affinity exists in foliation between Terebinthace and Sapindaceae. Also both in foliation, flowers, and habit, between Myrtaceae and Guttiferae, the only material differences being in aroma, and adherent ovary.

The plants observed about Nalighur Bungalow, exclusive of species collected, were Cassia lanceolatoid, this is the common Indian Tora, Acacia, Rairoo, Achyranthes aspera, Digera arvensis, Polanisia viscosa, Carissa, Carandas, Bheir frutex, Coccinea communis, Cucurbita, Sida multilocularis, Amaranthus? spicatus, Cassia fistula.

Eleusine echinata; Poa very common, as well as Dhoob.

In gardens—Tabernamontana coronaria, Bhee, Chrysanthemum double and ligulate. Of Birds, Pica vagans.

28th.—From Nalighur to Ramgurh, a good ten miles. The road first ascends through and above the town, then follows a short twisting descent, and soon after a very long but not very steep ascent, until it comes over the ravine of the Ramgurh river, and the descent to that torrent; thence an uninterrupted steep ascent about as much as the descent to Ramgurh. There is no bungalow at this stage, merely a few shops and sheds. The fort is situated to the left of and 600 feet above the town.

From Ramgurh to Sahee Bungalow, the distance is eight miles, there is a steep descent to Sursa torrent, which contains very little water, then a rather long and gradual ascent, then descend to the Gumbur river. The road then extends up this ascent for one and a half mile, and continues ascending on the right bank until within half a mile of the bungalow, to which there is a slight descent. There is no made road along the Gumbur, and I missed or did not observe the Soorog river. The Gumbur is a clear, good-sized stream, fordable about the rapids, bed narrow confined.

The hills traversed were comparatively barren, and decidedly uninteresting. However much in appearance they may here and there assimilate to the Khorassan hills, no identity in vegetation exists except perhaps in the Apocynum found at Attock.

The country is cultivated with great labour, and the villages though small are numerous, and present a look of plenty, like English white-washed cottages.

There is a difference between the vegetation of the hills near the plains and those in the interior. On the former there are scarcely any trees, and Adhatoda occurs in greater profusion than elsewhere. The Himalayan provinces here present an extreme affinity with the same range to the eastward, as Bootan and Mussoorie, but the forms are by no means so frequent—i.e. species are not so numerous. Throughout the above twenty- eight miles the vegetation is tropical: a few European forms occur as one gets into the hills, but they are of no great value. The chief arboreous vegetation consists of Rubiaceae, Mimoseae, Cassiaceae (Bauhinia), Bignoniaceae, and Myrtaceae. These are much the most common between Ramgurh and the ridge over Naligurh. Here also Nyctanthes is very common; Zanthoxylon also occurs here and there like an Ash.

On the ridge above Ramgurh, Adhatoda is very common; Carandas likewise occurs, but is not very common; Eranthemoides is rather common, but this occurs in profusion on the descent; Cassia tora, O. lanceolata, and Peristrophe occur.

On the descent from the above ridge, Porana appears. Lemon-grass, Bambusifolia, Cryptogramae calamelanos, Adiantum flagelliformis.

On the long ascent Grislea, Acacia, Bheir, Zanthoxylon, Cordia, Nyctanthes, Myrtaceae 1-2, Wendlandia, Bignonia, Randia, and two or three other trees about houses, a species of Ficus; Euphorbia antiquorum common on the drier parts.

On the ascent from the torrent, the vegetation is thick. Bauhinia scandens, Carandas, Butea, Erythrina, neither common, others as before: Loranthus.

At Ramgurh, Peepul, Erythrina, Rhus planted; Euphorbia antiquorum very common, Cassia tora, C. lanceolata, Carandas common, Kalanchoe integrifolia, Adhatoda not rare, scarcely a single wild tree.

Scutellaria occurs on the descent. Rubus, Berberis, Gnaphalium. On the ascent from Sursa, Geranium, Clematis, Asparagus, Trichodesma of the plains, Bombax (young), Bambusa, Hiroea, Dioscorea, Fragaria, Adiantum flagelliformis, Calomelanos, Saccharum, Moong, Acacia, Adhatoda, Vitex, etc. as before, but trees are not common, except Ficus and Bheir in profusion.

Descent to the Gumbur the same. Pyrus pomum appears, Carandas, Anatherum muricatum, Briedleioides common. Along the Gumbur river, Pyrus, Adhatoda, Mimosa, Dalbergia sissoo, Myrtaceae, Euphorbia, etc. continue as before.

Between Nalighur and the commencement of the descent to the Gumbur, and especially between the Sursa and that descent, the chief vegetation is tropical grasses, such as Andropogons. Along the Gumbur, the hills are well covered with tall bushes. Carandas common, but little if any grass.

Fossil shells are found along the Gumbur. Of birds Pica vagans, Haematornis, and several Sylviae were observed.

About Sahi, young Pinus longifolia; all around, the hills are of the same aspect. No fish were seen in the Gumbur, although I crossed it several times. The view of the plains shows the commencement of the great chain stretching out in low, very much undulated hillocks, precisely as in Khorassan.

29th.—Proceeded from Syree to Konyar: this I think the longest of the marches to Loodianah, and is nothing but one series of ascents and descents chiefly along the Gumbur ravine: at the foot of ascent to the Konyar, the road crosses a considerable stream, and nearly at the summit of the ascent, branches off to Soobathoo.

Konyar is a rather large village, well ornamented with trees, in rather a fine sort of valley, every inch of which is cultivated. The tank adjacent to the village is well stocked with Nelumbium.

To Syree, the distance is eight and a half to nine miles. The road crosses the Konyar village and valley, then ascends to the south-east, and continues ascending gradually by an excellent road for a considerable way, then it skirts a ridge and comes on the grand Soobathoo road. From this a short but steep ascent, followed by a descent of a mile and a quarter, conducts you to the bungalow.

No change occurs in the vegetation. The hills are more grassy and more bare of trees, especially near Syree, but this is partly owing to cultivation. The principal woody feature is Euphorbia antiquorum.

The plants before noticed occur throughout, except about Syree, where scarcely a shrub is to be seen, nothing but burnt up grasses.

At Sahi, Roylea appears, also an odd-looking Modeeca and a Deeringia. Near these is also an Asplenium, Echites. At Konyar, Prinsepia appears, and continues becoming more and more frequent up to Syree. Towards this place V. reniformis is seen, not a single northern grass, although Syree must be nearly 5,000 feet high.

At Sahi, Pinus longifolia, Phoenix, Salix, and Polygonum of Chugur-Serai; this is common as far as Konyar. Acacia, Carandas, Urtica nivea. Rice cultivated.

About three miles beyond it, there is a beautiful ravine with dense jungle and fine trees, chiefly Laurinea, and I think a Rhus; this is the only spot I have seen reminding me of the Himalaya to the eastward.

At Konyar—Toon, Morus, Musa, Deeringia, Berberis, Briedleia.

The hills are as usual marked with wavy parallel lines, on which nothing appears to grow. These lines are united by smaller oblique ones, whence their origin?

30th.—To Simla. The road extends over undulated ground along ridges until the foot of the great ascent is reached; this is long and steep, especially steep at the first, or Buttiara pass, where it turns to the face of the mountain, and extends through beautiful woods. The ground frozen, with some snow; from this to Simla the road is tolerably level, and defended on the Khudd, or precipice side by a railing. It then passes through fir woods, etc. in which the exceedingly pretty Jay of Bharowli is common.

The vegetation to the foot of the ascent, and nearly half-way up, is unchanged. Andropogoneous grasses forming the prevailing feature; but little arboreus or shrubby vegetation occurs. About halfway between Syree and this an ascent takes place, on which Daphne, Hypericum, and Echinops occur.

Near Syree—Bombax, Ruta albiflora, Daphne, Pteris aquilina, Clutia, Aspidium, Polytrichum nanum and aloides, Hypericum, Berberis, Rubus, Prinsepia, Rosa, Jubrung, Grislea, (rare,) Clematis, Cerasus, Datura, Bukhein, Citrus, Spermacoce, Poederia azurea, and Andropogon bambusifolia were observed. Ficus two species, Ficus repens, Pommereullioid spicis longis, Rubia Mungista, Galium, Polygonum of Chugur, Carissa, (rare,) Amaranthaceae, Conyza.

The great ascent is very instructive; half-way up observed Gaultheria, conspicuous from its blood-coloured leaves; an oak occurs commonly but stunted, and a few stunted Pinus longifolia.

Buddlaeoides occurs two-thirds of the way up, with Mespilus microphyllus, Alpina, Labiata and Pyrus.

The oaks and Gaultheria increase in number and size towards Bithuria, Conaria.

The first to cease is Euphorbia.

At the summit Berberis, Polygonum of Chugur, Rubus deltoideus, Conyza and Prinsepia may be found, but to no extent. From this to Simla the vegetation is chiefly northern.

Nothing definite is observable with regard to the distribution of forests about Simla. The principal secondary ranges, including the Choor, which is quite void of shrubby vegetation, is about north-east and south-west; generally the southern aspects of those ridges on which forests occur is bare; of this, there is a notable instance—Muhassoo.

Mount Jacka, which looks east and west by its broad faces, has both densely enough wooded with oak, Euonymus, Rhododendron, Gaultheria, and Ilex, but the ridge which looks to the plains is bare.

Some ridges again are quite bare, as that lowish one between Mounts Jacka and Muhassoo.

The thickest and most humid woods decidedly occur on the northern faces of the ridges; and all about Simla instances of this occur. Such spots are at Simla so much sheltered from the sun, that the snow which fell on the 23rd November is scarcely diminished.

Even in these there is no comparison in luxuriance and variety of vegetation with the Mishmee or Bootan portions of the same stupendous chain.

The trees are few in number as regards species, the only ones I have observed are a species of oak which is very common, forming the chief vegetation of the northern faces, and of both those of Mount Jacka.

The scarlet Rhododendron which occurs in the highest parts of the woods, an occasional Pyrus, Benthamia, Euonymus, Gaultheria very common, also Pinus Deodara, longifolia, and excelsa; of these the Deodar is most common. Ilex, a pretty tree, occurring on Mount Jacka.

The following forms also I have noticed—Saxifraga ciliata, Berberis asiatica, and Gnaphalia three or four species, which are chiefly confined to grassy naked ridges. Thymus is also confined to these.

Ruta albiflora is very common in woods; Dipsacea and Artemisia on exposed grassy spots; Swertia is common in damp places; Spiraea bella, Ledum, Stemodia, Epilobium, Viola, Saccharum rubrum, Valeriana, Fragaria, Galium, Clematis, Rosa, Rubus, Rumex, Leguminosae, Coronilloid, Smilax.

Acanthaceae, Androsaceae, particularly a Gnaphalioides common on the exposed ridge of Mount Jacka; Myrsinea frutex, Parnassia common, Salix fruticosa; on Prospect Point, Lycopodium, Herminioid, Epipactis, Orchideae aliae, 2 Scitamineae.

Elaeagnus, Mespilus microphyllus, Polygonum of Chugur; 2 or 3 Amaranthaceae; Prinsepia, rare; very little variety in ferns; Pteris chrysocarpa, Aspidium pungens, and another are the most common; nor is there any variety in Epiphytous ferns, and very few Jungermannias. The Mosses are Bartramia, Catharinea, Polytrichum aloides on banks with Fissidens, otherwise Hypna are the most prevalent. A Neckera hangs from every tree, and a Pterogonio Neckeroid covers almost every trunk, a Brachymenium is likewise common.

Altogether, though numerous, there is no great variety in form.

On the summit of Chaka, Quercus, Gaultheria, and Rhododendron are common; with here and there a Deodar.

On the east face of that mountain consisting of a long ridge, grasses form the chief vegetation, among which Andropogons and Schoenanthus are not uncommon, Gnaphalia and Artemisia occur; Thymus, Androsace gnaphalioides, Potentilla, Coronilloid, Labiata frutex, Jasminum, Rosa, Mespilus microphyllus, Clematis, Cnicus, Rubus, Labiata alia, Galium, Swertia, Salvia were noticed.

Of the tropical forms, Andropogoneous grasses are most common, Saccharum rubrum of the Khasyah Mountains, Desmodium, Acanthaceae, and Elaeagnus, which last occurs on Prospect Point.

Saccharum rubrum extends up to 8,000 feet.

The woods generally on the surface are matted down with grasses or Carexes, so that there is no variety of surface for the lower orders; in such places, Ophiopogon is very common.

Regarding the Coniferae, Pinus excelsa is the rarest, Deodar is the most common; longifolia occurs principally on a southern projection from Chaka, and on the south face of the Mall ridge.

December 5th, 1840.—Went to Mount Fagoo. After passing Mount Jacka, or Chaka, you come on a bare country which continues at least on all the southern aspects until you reach the ascent to Muhassoo, which is at first steep, then gradual and long; the vegetation remains unchanged until the Muhassoo ascent is begun upon; then Rhododendron, Quercus and Gaultheria soon cease, and their places are occupied by a Quercus much like Q. semecarpifolius, Pinus excelsa also occurs rather abundantly, and of good size, the other vegetation continues.

The first part of Muhassoo, along which the road runs for some hundred yards under its crest, is occupied by grassy vegetation, chiefly Andropogon and Schoenanthus; Gnaphalia, Buddlaea, Labiata, Polygonum of Chugur, Thymus, etc., and the crest of the same is chiefly occupied by the undescribed oak.

But where the ridge takes a north and south direction, the west face becomes almost exclusively occupied by Deodars, among which as one proceeds up, Pinus Smithiana occurs; after turning again close to the little Bazar on the north face, the road continues on this side to Fagoo, extending through a heavy and magnificent forest of Pinus Smithiana and Quercus semecarpifolius, the Deodar almost ceasing to appear; occasional knolls are passed, on which grasses, Gnaphalium, etc. occur, the scenery is very beautiful, the trees being ornamented with the grey pendulous lichen, and with Neckerae, particularly the dark Neckera pendula. The underwood consists here and there of shrubs, but generally herbaceous vegetation, as grasses, Gnaphalia, etc.

In fact Muhassoo is genuinely Himalayan.

From Fagoo eastward the country is bare, except at great elevations; near Muttiara to the north, forest-clad mountains occur, also at Huttoo, and far away to the eastward other fir-clad ridges appear.

It may be said that the really fine forests are restricted above, within 8,000 feet.

The Smithia pine is a really fine tree, often 100 feet high, and three to five feet in diameter, known by its downward curved branches, pendulous branchlets, and pendulous oblong cones: many dead trees from the effects of barking were observed. It is worthy of remark, that potatoes are now cultivated in these woods.

The Deodar is not so large as Smithia, and is known by its tabular branches and ovoid erect cones.

Andropogoneous grasses occur high up; even at the summit Acanthaceae occur, scarcely any change in the terrestrial ferns, among which Adiantum is found in profusion along the road, little change in Mosses, a Polytrichum occurs at the higher elevations, also a Dicranum on dead trunks of trees.

The only new arboreous vegetation consists in an Acer, which is a small tree, also a small Poplar and Quercus semecarpifolius, this varies greatly, Pinus Smithiana, Limonia laureola, a shrubby Rhododendron.

Fagoo is only 5,600 feet above the adjacent heights.

On the edge of the forest, the following genera, etc. were noticed—Spiraea bella and S. aruncus,* Berberis asiatica, Swertia, grasses common, Gnaphalium, Senecio., Epilobium, Pteris chysocarpa, P. aquilina, Adiantum, Aspidium, Rumex, the Labiata fruticosa of Jacka, Potentilla sanguinea, Artemisia, Coronilloid, Androsacea, Gnaphalioid, Epipactis, Carex, Cnicus, Viola, Valerianum, Jasminum,* Viburnum,* V. aliud, Populus,* Silene, Mespilus microphyllus, Verbascum, Thapsia, Ilex, Euonymus, Loniceroid, Acer,* Eriogonoid,* Geranium scandens.*

Bupleuroid, Polytrichum, Rosa, Rubus, Salex fruticosa,* Fragaria, Crataegus,* Saxifraga crassifolia, Viscum, Rubia cordifolia.

* Means altitudinal.

Viscum has one attachment, but from this many branches spring after the form of the primary one. Muhassoo is of great extent, because an arm of the mountain extends to the south, and there assumes a considerable height, equal to that of Muhassoo itself, and equally well wooded. It is of all other situations about Simla the proper place for collecting. The succession of the pines in these regions is as follows:—

P. longifolia, dry barren spots, from 5,000 to 7,500 feet, as Rhododendrum arboreum.

P. excelsa, from 7,500 to 8,500 feet, no groups occur.

P. Deodars, from 7,500 to 9,000 feet, especially on southern faces.

P. Smithiana, from 9,000 to 10,000 feet, and is in the highest perfection on north faces.

One thing remarkable is the wide ranges of the above forms, for excepting those marked with an asterisk, all are found about Simla.

The most common herbaceous family on Muhassoo is Compositae, and very strange to say, most of its forms, as indeed the others, excepting some of the trees, are found on the Khasyah Mountains at much lower elevations, and much lower latitudes. Of birds the Cone-eater of Bootan occurs.

7th.—To Annandale, a pretty level spot, some 2,000 feet below Simla, remarkable for its beautiful grove of Deodars.

Of the wild grasses they are almost all exclusively tropical forms, Paniceous or Andropogoneous. The chief cultivation of the hills, Atriplex sanguinea, bhatoo vena, some fine walnut trees, mulberries, also Celtoidea? Kirrack ven, Zanthoxylon.

Passed a herd of red-rumped monkeys; the crooked-tailed Lungoor is also found here.

Rich vegetation extends down the southern slope, where there is a waterfall. It is curious that both here and in Annandale the Deodar grows to a large size, although naturally its range does not extend so low as this slope. Passed a beautiful temple, surrounded with fine Deodars.

Ferns occur in more abundance, thence downwards Woodwardia, Dicksonia? Cyatheoides, and Adiantum. Mosses also occur on the dripping rocks.

An Alnus also occurs.

No fish were visible in the streamlet. Peristrophe occurs throughout from Roopur to Simla.

Epiphytous or at least Epirupous Scitaminia. Hedychium is found on rocks on this slope, which would give an elevation of about 5,500 feet.

On the sunny sides of hills about Simla, Dicerma is found, this is one of the most tropical forms.

No Epiphytous Orchidea are seen. And of birds Enicurus, the redstart of torrents, and Myophonus were observed.


Heights and Latitudes of the Stations visited in Affghanistan. {517}

"The subjoined Table contains the latitudes and the altitudes of the principal stations passed through by the late Dr. Griffith during the Cabul campaign in 1838-40, from his original observations. The altitudes for the latitudes were taken with the sextant and the artificial horizon, and the results throughout are so nearly coincident, that it may be relied on the latitudes herein given are correct to within half a minute in space.

[Formula for Latitude/Elevation: m517.jpg]

Latitudes, and Elevations above the Sea, of the various localities visited in Affghanistan.

[Lat/El. 1: tle1.jpg]

[Lat/El. 2: tle2.jpg]

[Lat/El. 3: tle3.jpg]


{0a} Major Thomson, C. B., Engineers, from whom as well as all the officers of the same corps, Mr. Griffith experienced much kindness in Affghanistan.

{0b} Racoma nobilis, Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. Vol. ii, p.577. t. xv fig. 4. Subfam. SCHIZOTHORACINAE.

{0c} Calcutta Journal Natural History, Vol. II. p577, t, xv. f. 4.

{7} It is also on a northern declivity.

{9} On a hill near the Bungalow are the tombs of Lieuts. Burlton and Beddinfield, two distinguished officers murdered by the natives in 1829.

{12} Although in former times it must have been of some note, the vicinity is strewed with sculptured stones and columns, of which the modern buildings are constructed. These remains present the form and proportions of European Architecture, and exhibit considerable taste.

{24} The rank of the chiefs of various nations on the frontiers of Assam depends on the number of skulls of vanquished enemies, which decorate their houses. The Mishmee trophies, as appears from the author's account in the Journ. As. Soc. May 1837, consist of the skulls of cattle only.

{25} Trigonocephalus mucrosquamatus, afterwards described in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1839, Vid. Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist. vol. 1, p.77.

{29a} Subsequently described from this specimen in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society, March 12, 1839. Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist. vol 1, p.82.

{29b} Gonorhynchus bimacalutus, G. brachypterus, Perilompus aequipinnatus, and Cobitis phoxocheila, which have been all since described from these specimens in the 19th vol. As. Res. Beng.

{31} Afterwards crossed by the author in his journey into Burma.

{33} For a narrative of Lieut. Wilcox's visit to the Mishmee mountains, see As. Res. vol. xvii. p.314.

{35} Mithun is, according to the author, a peculiar species of Ox.

{40} Subsequently described by the author in an important communication to the Linnaean Society.

{42} One of the most influential of the Singpho chiefs, whose influence at this period kept Upper Assam unsettled.

{51} A Burmese authority.

{53} Probably Major R. Bruce of the Rajah's service, one of the Superintendents of Tea Cultivation.

{54} For the whole of this able communication, detailing the object and results of his visit to the Mishmee mountains, See Journ. As. Soc. Beng. May 1837.

{60} See Reports of the Coal Committee, 1841, p.3.

{61a} See Description by the Author, As. Res. Bengal, Vol. xix.

{61b} Since described from these specimens as Calamaria monticola, and Dipsas monticola. Vide Proc. Zool. Soc. March 12th 1839, and Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist. Vol. i. pp.80-85.

{61c} As. Res. Vol. xix. p.336.

{64} Dr. Bayfield was deputed by the Resident at Ava to meet the party from Assam on the Burmese Frontier.

{66} This is one of the Mountain Barbels, Oreinus, probably O. guttatus, As. Res. vol. xix. p.273.

{68} A Barbel, and an Oreinus, or Mountain Barbel.

{74a} Opsarius gracilus, As. Res. vol. xix. p.419.

{74b} A species of Barbel; probably B. deliciosus, As. Res. xix. p.352.

{75} Since described as Cyprinus semiplotus, As. Res. vol. xix. p.346.

{78} This would seem to be Coal formation, in which amber is frequently found. It occurs, for instance, in the spurious coal of Kurribori, E. of Rungpore.

{111} The reading of this passage is obscure, the MS. being very faintly written in pencil.

{113} Introd. Nat. Syst. p.44.

{114} The preceding eight pages within brackets are written faintly in pencil.

{115a} The usual route is to Kujoo Ghat, about five miles below Moodoa Mookh, thence through Sooroo, Kujoo, etc. to the Booree Dihing.

{115b} By the Karam and this other branch, on which old Beesa was situated, all the water which formerly supplied the Noa Dihing now passes into the Booree Dihing.

{116} Most of the Singphos subject to our control are located between Kujoo Ghat and the Booree Dihing, as well as on the banks of this river and in the valley of the Tenga Panee.

{117} The existence of Petroleum is of value as connected with the solution of Caoutchouc.

{118} The affix Nam, signifies in the Shan language a river or stream.

{119a} The word Kha is Singfo, and signifies a river.

{119b} Here Capt. Hannay and myself were met by Mr. Bayfield.

{119c} Khioung, or Kioung, signifies a small river in the Burmese language.

{119d} Bhoom is the Singfo word for mountain.

{124a} Which we forded a few miles below Isilone; depth of the ford from two to four feet.

{124b} In this direction the valley is nearly 65 miles in length.

{125} This river rises in a conspicuous range, well known by the name of Shewe Down-gyee, or great golden mountain.

{126} This is certainly not the Ulukhor of Buch. Hamilton's statistics of Dinajpoor.

{128} Probably from a species of Sterculia.

{129} The Toung-bein of the Burmese.

{130} Many of these hills are inhabited by Kukkeens, who do a great deal of mischief, and whose annual depredations remain unchecked and unpunished.

{132} Serpentine is occasionally found in the bed of the Nam-marsan.

{139} Especially on the right bank.

{145} It must be observed that Kamein is several miles out of the route from the Mogoung river to Mogoung itself, we visited it en route to the Serpentine mines.

{147} This is the site of the fossil bones discovered by Mr. Crawfurd.

{149} These brackets are shown in the text turned through 90 degrees. - L. B.

{168} The Kullung rock is a most striking object from its artificial dome- like appearance. It is composed of granite resting on an elevated plateau of soft friable gneiss. This last in mouldering away, leaves numerous rounded boulder-like masses of granite on the surface, which from their hardness, resist the action of the atmosphere amidst the surrounding decay of the softer rock.

{172} For original notice of the discovery of this raised beach, see Journal of the Asiatic Society, September 1835, p.523; and an account of the difference of level in Indian coal fields, vol. vii, 1838, p.65 of the same work; also description of Cyrtoma a new genus of Fossil Echinida, Calcutta Journal of Nat. Hist. vol. i, p.155.

{183} Simia Hylobates agilis.

{186} Raised on posts.

{193} See Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol,—Feb. 1838.

{205a} Eastern Thibet.

{205b} For this and similar figures, see {212}

{205c} Barbus hexagonolepis, Asiatic Res. xix.—Pl. f. 3, pp.170, 313, 336.

{205d} Cyprinus Semiplotus As. Res. xix.—Pl. 37. f. 2, pp.274, 346.

{206a} Opsarius gracilus, As. Res. vol. xix.

{206b} See {35}

{212} Such figures may be thus read. Temp. of the air 60 degrees Fah., that of boiling water 204.5 degrees.

{217a} Relative heights.

{217b} These figures refer to Woollaston's thermetrical barometer.

{221} Centropus nigrorufus.

{227} Oreinus progastus, As. Res. vol. xix. pl. 40, fig. 4.

{349} Referred to by the Author as an Anthemidioid, and on one occasion as Santonica achilleoidea.

{383} Schizothorax Edeniana, Cal. Journ. Nat. Hist. Vol. II. p.579.

{390a} Schizothoracinae.

{390b} Cobitis marmorata, see Calcutta Journal of Nat. Hist. Vol. II, p.560, where the Fishes collected by Mr. Griffith in these parts are described.

{404} Salmo orientalis, Calcutta, Journ. Nat. Hist. Vol. III. p.283.

Throughout Southern Asia, including the Punjab, and both plains and peninsula of India properly so called, no species exists of the trout family or Salmonidae. Their discovery in the streams descending from the northern declivity of the Hindoo-koosh distinguishes that chain as the southern boundary or limit of the family. It is also remarkable that the Hindoo-koosh should likewise be the exclusive province of a numerous group of small scaled Cyprinidae, met with only in the rivers of Affghanistan, consisting of the genera, Schizothorax, Racoma, and Oreinus, of which one or two species only have been found to extend south along the plateau of the Himalaya, as far as 27 degrees N., while the bulk of the family is confined to 34 degrees N. See Calcutta Journ. Nat. Hist. Vol. II. p.560 t. xv.

{417} This alludes to a sketch of the valley.

{418} Melia.

{435} For the particulars of this attack in which Mr. Griffith nearly lost his life, the reader is referred to extracts from private correspondence.

{450} These sketches, together with the author's further views on the subject, will be more appropriately incorporated in the second part of his Posthumous Papers, entitled 'Icones Plantarum Asiaticarum,' and 'Notulae ad plantas Asiaticas.'

{479} Nearly allied to Cobitis chlorosoma, As. Res. Vol. xix, pl. 52, f. 3.

{481} This is an undescribed species if not an undescribed genus, and was by some mischance lost from the collections; it may properly, when described, receive the name of the author, who was the first to notice so remarkable a form.

{484} It is chiefly important as a generic, not as a specific character, see November 1st.

{517} The Editor is indebted to the kindness of Mr. Curnin, not only for the note with which this table of heights and latitudes is introduced, but also for the construction of the table itself from the results of 437 observations for latitudes alone, and an equal number almost for altitudes.


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