Journals of Travels in Assam, Burma, Bhootan, Afghanistan and The - Neighbouring Countries
by William Griffith
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I believe from examination of the most developed scaly ramenta, that these have at an earlier period been fecundating organs, the same peculiarities are to be detected towards their ends, where in fact they retain their original structure, the dilated base being a subsequent development.

In reference to this, the examination of young ferns on their arrival at the age of puberty is indispensable. A curious question arises, what is the frond of a fern? Is it a mass of foliaceous growth containing certain lines of reproductive matter, or is it a distinct development from the axis, in which the reproductive organs are situated? Is it, or is it not, subservient to reproduction? Here again extensive examination is necessary.

If it is altogether subordinate to reproduction, we may expect the occurrence of far more simply constituted ferns than we are yet acquainted with. In fact we may expect a form reduced to an axis, a few ramenta, a frondose dilatation, and one punctum of reproductive organs.

With respect to duration, each frond is analogous to a single seta of a moss, it has definite limits, and is unlike the fronds of certain Hepaticae, which are capable of compound growth; or if this is the case in ferns, as it is in viviparous ferns, the new formation becomes separated from the frond, as a Phaenogamous gemma does. This is a question of importance, as perhaps it may prove that all the foliaceous forms, except Lycopodium, Equisetum, and Chara, are frondose; the dorsal situation is in favour of this assumption, since in all the genuine frondose forms, the reproductive organs of both kinds originate immediately from the under surface, although they may protrude through the upper.

I here ask, is there not prima facie evidence that these organs have peculiar functions; a peculiar form, attended with peculiar changes, must have peculiar functions; and will any one show me in any single instance, like circumstances to the like extent, in any of those organs called hairs? By the bye, ferns themselves may prove that however like these are to certain forms of hair, yet that their functions are different, because the glandular hairs of ferns do not undergo the same alterations, and are evidently nothing but hairs, probably secretory.

19th.—In Ceterach the same thing occurs precisely, with this difference, that the capita of the ramenta are highly developed; and still more, that the terminations of each pinnula of the young frond, are mere scales without a terminal head.

So that almost all the scales of the under surface of the lobes of the mature frond, are mere scales. The peculiar ramenta are to be looked for along the insertion of each pinna, and along the rachis, in which all have the peculiar structure.

At the time that these scales are commencing their development, the peculiar ones are at the age of mature perfection, so far as function goes. No one can look at a young pinnula at this epoch and observe the evident capitation of each ramentum, the inflexion of its apex, so that the head is brought into contact with the frond, without suspecting that they have the same relation of cause to the appearance subsequently of the thecae or capsules. It is curious that the colour of the scales is the same as that of the ramenta, in which the colour is developed from above downwards, a peculiarity as it appears to me.

The frond of Ceterach is very frondose-looking, it has stomata on its under surface, and the cells of the cuticle very sinuate. There can be no doubt of the propriety of including the nature of these ramenta and scales in its generic character.

I can see nothing peculiar in the situation of the scales or ramenta to suggest the reason of the situation of the capsules.

In several cases, each pinna appears to have scales only which become barren lobes? the scales and ramenta have the same imbricate situation. In this country it will be useless to expect more proofs. But the four genera alluded to afford evidence enough, and sufficient to show that these ramenta are formed with reference to some important function, that their universality is incompatible with any functions of such minor degree as are attributed to them by those who represent them to be scales or hairs.

To those who require proof of the existence of the complex male organ of Phaenogams, or of a male of that form with which only they are familiar, I do not address myself; but to the philosophic botanist, who expects to meet with in the lower orders of plants, a lower organization, one with a tendency of reduction to the essential elements, and who bears in mind the comparative anatomy and structure of similar bodies in adjoining, or not very distant groups, I beg leave to suggest the intimate study of the ramenta of Ferns.

Various as the situation of the fructification is, in three out of the above four genera, yet the initial arrangements are precisely the same. The various forms therefore may not depend proximately on fructification itself, but on the peculiar growth given to the species, in the same way in fact as we have the numerous modifications of the theca in mosses, etc. and the infinite modifications of the carpels in Phaenogams.

(Attention is particularly pointed to those ferns which have general capsules or involucres.

Above all to the Cyatheoid forms.

To Ophioglossum.

To naked Thecae.

To indusiate as Asplenia, etc.)

But however erroneous these views may be, they will still have been of service if general attention is directed by them to plants, in consequence of the suggestions they make. The time now thrown away on isolated species, the station of which, still does not become fixed, when devoted to the philosophical examination of ferns, will rescue botany from one of its numerous reproaches. It is strange that such should exist to the greatest degree in all those families stamped by nature as most distinct. Those chaoses Polypodium, Aspidium, Davallia, would then undergo distinct creation, and the primary divisions of the family would become fixed; and we should then be spared the reproach of drawing characters from organs, of the nature and functions of which we are quite ignorant of, and of the importance of which in a science of demonstration like that of botany, it is impossible to judge, without a true knowledge of structure.

Vide Lindley's Introd. ed. 2, 407, for the protest of Greville and Arnott.

What is the most comprehensive definition of a pistil. A case in which the future organs of reproduction are developed; and here is a most curious circumstance, namely, that though the calyptra, which is a genuine pistillum containing an ovulum, becomes torn up from its base, yet it remains in contact with that part of the seta in which the sporules are developed until these make their appearance, or even later!! so that one might as well deny a pistillum to a Reseda, or Leontice, as deny it to these plants on the strength of its being torn from its attachments. Sprengel's objections are worthy only of being noticed from their having been quoted by Lindley. The vagueness of his statement destroys all weight.

His objections in all cases amount to the fact, that the stellulae or buds containing the anthers are capable of growth. So is the prolongation of an axis of Ananassa.

A Gemma has a general character in its formation as well as an anther, or as pollen; one is a congeries of cellular tissue, with or without vessels, the other a sac consisting of a single cell containing active molecular matter. As an anther producing a single grain of pollen is not inconsistent with our notions of structure, so neither is an anther consisting of a single grain of pollen.

Will any one show me an instance of a proved gemma taking upon itself the form of one of these anthers? Will any show an instance of a sac containing fluid matter capable of growth after dehiscence. The real gemmae of the Hepaticae puts the question of gemmae out of doubt. Is there any plant existing with two sorts of gemmae, so differently constituted? Many phaenogams have gemma in addition to sexes, so have Hepaticae. Which is the most probable? That they should have no sexes, reproductive organs, and two sorts of gemmae, or sexes, reproductive organs, or gemmae of one evident kind?

I cannot adopt the belief of any one having seen the germination of the powder in the axillary bodies, that is, if applicable to the organs I take for anthers.

(Memorandum.—To draw up a parallel between the two sets of organs, and the steps followed in the development of each.)


From Pushut to Kettore and Barowl in Kaffiristan, and return to Pushut and Cabul.

February 20th.—Fumaria found.

23rd.—Cloudy, threatening rain. Swallows coming in, also Fringillaria, with blackish cheek-streaks, also Pyrgita alia, starlings uncommon up to this day about the site of the camp, where there is much straw, and camels are lying. Flocks of rooks, genuine rooks, flocks of daws, minas, pigeons, and many carrion crows have been daily resorting to camp, all very wild from being constantly fired at, as in this country every man almost has a matchlock. No Gypaetos seen for several days.

26th.—Fine weather after two days uncertain, in which the large-headed lark has just come in abundance, this and the English one frequent fields; the crystal one is found almost exclusively on certain stony cultivated places: swallows have likewise arrived with many wild fowl. Four raptorial birds are now seen about this, or rather three, for Gypaetos has gone, viz. the common kite, or one which looks much like it, a beautiful white slaty-blue and black harrier, at least it comes about constantly, and looks much like an Indian species, and much like one I shot high up in Bootan, together with a large blackish and white one, with a distinct collar. The fishing hawk, I saw it yesterday catch a large fish, making a strong rapid plunge boldly into the water, and emerging again from it without much difficulty; its habits except while fishing, are very sedentary, and it seems to prefer one spot, viz. the top of some particular tree, near perhaps its favourite feeding place.

27th.—Another new bird has come in. A Fringillina, with curious Flycatcher habits, I have only seen two individuals, they perch towards the top of trees, and thence sally out after winged insects. I examined the contents of its stomach, and found only seeds, gravel, and soft insects.

The sun is increasing wonderfully in power, but the trees are not as yet budded. Shrubby Polygoneae, with flagellate branches and leaves, in which the petiole is as much developed as the lamina, form a curious feature of Affghan Flora; Euphorbia linifolia common, the herbaceous one in profusion.

28th.—Spring coming on rapidly, snow not within 2,000 feet of where it was twenty days back, and the sun oppressively hot; winged ants in abundance: whenever this happens it proves the perfection of the crows, which are on all such occasions to be seen acting the part of flycatchers in addition to their various other callings, soaring and sweeping round after these insects, but not returning as Merops or real flycatchers to a fixed station. I have hitherto seen only the jackdaws at this spot in Calcutta, but here the real crow mingles in it.

In Calcutta, the common kite often acts a similar part, but catches only with its feet.

A small kingfisher is to be found here rarely, it is much like the Indian blue and reddish one, the white and black kingfisher is not seen here, although found at Jallalabad.

The species of sub-wader, with a stout upturned beak, is a true Grallator, yet is not always about water, but often in the driest places; the genus has a flight strongly resembling that of certain Anatidae.

A Monaul pheasant, or some similar splendid bird is found in the snows of Kaffiristan, all I have seen of it are a few feathers.

Merula more common, Anthus, Timalia, observed.

To-day one good specimen of a splendid pinus, allied to P. longifolia, was brought from the mountains, where it is found among snow: this makes the third species; one cultivated at Candahar near a mosque; the short-leaved Julghozeh, from Tazeen; and this one which has as fine a cone as can be wished.

Where did the profusion of Justicia Adhatoda which I find here come from, is it not a distinct species?

March 2nd.—Proceeded to Chugur Serai, started from the other side of the ferry at 11.30 A.M., and reached at 4 P.M. No halt of any consequence on the road. Passed Nachung at 12.50: the first rocky ground occurred at the narrow part of the north side of the valley 2.25.

15th.—And thence to Chugur 4 P.M., distance certainly thirteen miles.

Road decent, good about half-way, where it extends over cultivation on firm ground, then over rocky, stony, raviny ground. From the 12.50 station, the valley becomes much narrower, and the river confined to one bed: cultivation scanty, between this and Chugur, where, about 400 yards of excessively difficult ground occurred, commanded by the precipice under which the path, which is execrable, runs. It is quite impassable for guns.

After this the country traversed seemed to be well cultivated: and even picturesque.

The fort is nothing particular; it is placed on the right bank of the river, which is deep, narrow and raviny: descent to the river abrupt. The bridge very richly ornamented, and of curious and simple Bootan timber construction.

Town small, and the people very civil: I lodged in Meer Alum's own house.

Iris crocifolia abundant, towards Chugur, a Mazus or Stemodia.

Mimosa that of the Khyber, common, Polygoni in abundance on the rocks, Dodonaea.

The hills about Pushut are here only recognisable in two instances, the central one presenting three peaks, next to it the barren cliff, and the three mountains south-west of Dhurrah.

3rd.—Proceeded to Bala Chugur Serai, which is not more than six miles up the river, occasionally passing along the stony bank under hills, otherwise over cultivation, which is conducted in terraces.

The scenery pretty, reminding me of low parts of Bootan, although much more barren; watercourses well made: two kafir ruins passed; valley very narrow, but rather straight. Both chakor and small partridges common. Vegetation is here the same as elsewhere. Zaitoon trees, Mimosa, Euonymus, Dodonaea, Amygdalus in abundance, Polygonum of yesterday.

The stony slopes of hills, covered with Andropogoneous grasses. Rice, beans, wheat, oranges, toot, chanra. Narcissus in swarms, brought in from the kafirs.

Another bridge was here crossed, the same as at lower Chugur Serai. No tributaries passed, the river fordable at rapids, but the road is not passable for guns.

Aquila, Enicurus, Alcedo bengalensis common, as well as jack snipe.

Red-billed crow, chakor, yellow wagtail, Fringilla, Muscicapa in flocks, feeding in the fields, and from trees on insects.

The blackbird of the Himalayas, wild pigeons. Narcissus in abundance in sandy fields, Cryptandrioid, Clematis, Rubus, Euonymus, Pteris!

We had an interview with the kafirs or infidels about a mile below Katoor, they seemed at first much alarmed, our retinue not being small or unarmed, and their reliance on Mussulman faith not very strong. They took up their post at the foot of a hill where a deputation of the Khan of Chugur Serai, (who has married a Chief's daughter) met them; they received the deputation with a feu de joie from one or two firelocks, and then accompanied him to us, preceded by two drums, one of ordinary, the other of an hour-glass shape, and two pipes of gramineous culm, with three or four holes, and apparently oblique mouth-pieces, but of ordinary sound. The Chiefs, the head of whom is Hussin Ali's father- in-law, having been introduced, advanced, and commenced turning and stamping round a circle.

The usual formalities then took place; the followers, although a fine bodied people, and very active, were excessively dirty, and not very fair; most were dressed in skins, having the hair inside, armed with bows, either straight or like cow's horns, and daggers.

The Chiefs were much fairer than their followers, and in the expression of face and eyes European; but in all cases the forehead was very slanting, and head generally badly developed.

Their dress consisted of cotton frocks, with slashed sleeves, embroidered thickly with worsted network: they wear short pyjamas, and skin shoes, with thick skin soles; one had short boots with hair inside: most were ornamented with the blue and yellow longhys of Pushut, etc. The hair is cut short except that of the Chiefs, who had fillets left round their heads, adorned with cowries, in radiated shapes, with a red, worsted, pendant tassel. The headman had a pendant wire chain with ornaments, and from the centre of the tassel, the Monaul pheasant feathers, and his back hair was plaited into many little tails.

Almost all had necklaces of beads, the better sort silver earrings (plain rings), and some pendant silver ornaments; many had bracelets, ornamented with brass; kumurbunds of plain white cloths: the poor ones have their heads naked, or with bits of cloth wrapped round.

They had no swords, but Hindoostany ones, and of these very few.

Even their archery, Macgregor says is bad; one or two had spears, the Chief's spear was provided with a very long head, and ornamented with cowrie shells at the top of the haft; two women came afterwards, their necks loaded with cowries and bits of bones, but otherwise well clothed with the usual gowns, the outer one without sleeves and very wide arm holes. They were decorated with very coarse, large, circular earrings. They approached the rest singing in chorus, not unmelodiously, but with very little variation in notes. Then a whistle, general and loud from the whole party, representing their rejoicing over a slaughtered Mussulman.

On the whole these people present nothing peculiar as compared with other hill people: like them they are vindictive, savage, poor, dirty, remarkable for great cupidity, fond of red cloth, beads, etc. They are a mixed race, some are like Indians, some like Europeans, but in all the forehead is low, Tartar eyes, often light brown or grey, hair often light. Put them among the Nagas, etc. of the Assam frontier, and none would notice them.

The Chief's son wore a black, narrow band round his head, ornamented behind with a few cowries and bone ornaments.

They are independent, appear to delight in talking of their victories over the Mussulmans, but the oddest peculiarity as compared with Asiatics, is their shaking hands, which was certainly done with us in the European custom.

The limits of the firs, are as strict as those of Baloot, etc., of the latter it may be stated as between 3,500 to 5,600 feet, of the firs between 5,500 and 8,000; what makes me say this is, that at Katoor the mountains are covered with heavy snow, and are naked above, but with heavy pine forest below, and then with forests of Baloot.

5th.—Ascended the hills to about 200 feet above the limits of inferior snow, which may be estimated at about 4,500 feet.

These hills from 3,500 feet and upwards, are well wooded, presenting no peculiarity in the distribution of the woods, which are thin, or thickish only in sheltered parts, down ravines, etc. but presenting a great peculiarity in the small variety of forms, for there are not more than three kinds of trees, and not more than a dozen shrubs: the trees are Baloot, which commence at the base, and ascend to the pines, say a height of 4,000 feet: Zaitoon, which commences at the base, and scarcely extends beyond 5,000 feet, Xanthoxylon, which has a wider range than Zaitoon, is comparatively rare.

The inclination of these hills is steep, but the ascent is not more extraordinarily difficult, they are covered with masses and blocks of rock, which are plentifully clothed with lichens and mosses, but of small variety of species. The more open parts are covered with Andropogoneous grasses; the lemon-grass occurs below.

The shrubs and trees are as follows with their Pushtoo names—

Zanthoxylon, Schneae khinfuch, Quercus Baloot, Ichairraye. Olea, Khoo-unn Zaitoon. Amygdalus, Budam, Junglee Tulk. Nanus, Naguhn. Celtis, Tanghuh. Cyrtisoid of Bolan, Wooraijoa. Periploca, Burrara, Banduk. Cotoneaster of Tazeen, Khurrowa. Euonymus, Churroghzye. Dodonaea , Wroolarskye. Artemisia, Tuhakar. Rubus, Khusuhurra.

The higher ridges are crowned with beautiful pines; the most common on this side is called Nukhtur, and has not eatable seeds, its timber is in general use—and it is in much vogue for torches.

The Julghozeh also is met with, but rarely. Abundance of firewood.

Ixioides very common, and now in flower, Amygdalus, Budam, also, this is common, and a curious Irideous plant, allied to Crocus; one Arum likewise occurs. Pigeons very wary, mostly of the green sort with whitish wing-coverts; a pretty small-sized Jay occurs, with a jerking bobtailed flight, a strong-billed Parus, of the climbing sub-genus, Chakors common.

March 6th.—Rain almost all day.

7th.—Unsettled weather continues. To-day the kafirs came in with plants of a decided Himalayan nature, a beautiful Iris, the flowers of which are of a deep indigo-blue, a Viburnum, Euonymus, Valeriana, Juniperus, Spiraeacea, Adiantum, Asplenium, Pteris, etc.

How strangely intelligent all hill people are, and how they are urged by an insatiable love of money. I never expected any thing to be brought in, judging of the kafirs as I have learnt to do of Affghans and Indians, and here they have in one day, without even a lesson, brought in excellent specimens, including mosses, etc. I went out to-day to the end of Meer Alum's territory, this boundary being about one and a quarter miles beyond Shingan. The valley up to this is beautifully cultivated, and begins to look green. Saw and shot another Myophonus, a Saxicola and an Alcedo, the common one of India; this species has strengthening splints, as it were on both mandibles: and the feet, etc. have no scales, being very different from those of the generality of birds.

Myophonus I take to be the large beautiful metallic-blue blackbird, with obscure and elegant white markings. I have observed common to all hills I have seen, and is always found in damp wet places, this bird is very wary, and in carriage much like the English blackbird, on alighting from its short flight, flirting its tail about, etc. This bird leads me to remark how widely the river chats are distributed. The beautiful white- crowned black and red species, and the grey, with a red tail, are found about all hill streams in the north-eastern parts of India; the latter is a curious bird, radiating its tail out constantly. Enicurus is also widely distributed.

I also got to-day a beautiful male Lophophorus, the plumage of which surpasses description; it is a heavy bird, with brown irides, and a brownish-chesnut tail; it came from Daiwag.

I met with five kafirs, when out to-day, only one would come to me; he was a very tall man, with a savage face, light keen eyes, returning from a forage on the Safis: he was an Arunsha man, and a Tor kafir, who are represented as very different from the Espheen or white ones, who are found in the mountains adjacent to Balk, etc. Arunsha is three days journey from this, and has a lame, or one-legged chief, Dheemoo; my friend's name was Bazaar, he was armed with a matchlock taller than himself, and the usual dagger. How they compete with the Mussulmans I cannot imagine, as they can only fight in close quarters, and for which they have daggers about six inches long in the blade.

The Kafir names of the plants brought in are as follows:—

* Praitsoo, Hedera. Akrumah, Iris. * Kreemapotak, Melanthium. Daisoo, Urtica urens? * Joh, Laricoides. Wheeree, Ephedroides. * Amarr, Rhamnea. Whishtur, Juniperus. * Traih, Quercus. * Unzoomal, Spireaea. Gutsuttur, Viola.

Of these, those marked with an asterisk have no affinity at all with the Khorassan Flora: nothing can show the change in the Flora of Katoor better than this, that two kafirs bring in one day, without having their attention directed to ferns, as many species as I have obtained in all that part of Khorassan I have visited, amounting to 1,000 miles in different latitudes and at very various elevations. The following are the kafir names for the corresponding words:—

Darr, Mountain. Wussut, Goat. Trimm, Snow. Wemmi, Doomba sheep. Trosse, Ice. Sovurr, Hog. Wishin, Rain. Kookoor, a Fowl. Earr, Clouds. Melli, Bread. Populass, Lightning. Ow, Water. Doodoowunn, Thunder. Undah, Meat. Tsaih, Sun. Ornachoa, Skin. Mass, Moon. Haddi, Bone. Tarah, Star. Jeet, Body. Geutte, Jungul. Shai, Head. Julla, Tree. Ash, Face. Poutte, Leaf. Uchain, Eyes. Pushe, Flower. Jibb, Tongue. Bhee, Seed. Mass, Nose. Tat, Father. Dhermurr, Neck. Zfee, Mother. Kaitss, Hair. Porottr, Boy, Son. Deh, Beard. Jhoo, Girl, Daughter. Troh, Chest. Moochook, a little Girl. Booh, Arm. Ooruttur, a large ditto. Ungree, Hand. Birra, Brother. Sichupput, Fingers. Soose, Sister. Noach, Nail. Tsoon, Dog. Dust oungree, Thumb. Pishash, Cat. Koorr, Leg. Goh, Cow. Papoa, Foot. Ghora, Horse.

The mixture of Hindoostanee names is very curious indeed, particularly those names of things which, from being indigenous, one would suppose would have indigenous names.

7th.—Went up to Bharowl and returned to-day, March 9th, first went to Loongurze, the Barometer at which stood 24.758. Therm. in sun 85 degrees. Bharowl is a small plain, but still three or four times larger than Loongurze, and perhaps 100 feet below it: this place is up the ravine leading to the fourth peak of the west side, which same peak must be between 9,000 to 10,000 feet high. Loongurze is visible from this, and is more to the south.

The villages consist of several houses forming a sort of wall; outside, the houses are of one story, with terraced roof, supported by timbers, they are built of stones, slabs of micaceous slate, which is the prevailing rock, and timbers interposed as ties; the rooms are very dark, and very dirty, with no outlet for the smoke. The only part of the furniture worth noticing consists of an inverted conical basket, made out of the stems of some large grass, coated with mud, and truncated at the top, used to keep grain in. The under, or ground floor appears to be used for the domestic animals which are cows, goats, fowls, etc. The inhabitants of Bharowl, Bhawiolis, are a kafir race with a Mussulman cast of countenance, but fair, of an unhealthy look, with in many cases light hair, and generally light eyes, they are a rather large tribe, and appear to have but few wants, are very poor, and very dirty; the better part of the men are clothed in Cashgar, chargas, and ordinary cotton under-garments; the women dress in blue. Both villages are on the limit of inferior snow at this season; there is enough of cultivation about to supply their wants, chiefly wheat and barley, and a sort of pea. Loongurze is infested with a villainous midge, of the same genus as that of the Naga Hills, but few are to be found at Bharowl.

At Loongurze I met a Khungurlye slave, of the caste Krungurlye, the head- quarters of which are at a mountain village, about eight cos off, in a north-west direction. The chief of Koorungul is Ahmed Khan, he is independent: his village having 400 men, well armed.

The man wore a goat skin jacket without sleeves, a skull cap of camel hair netted, and leggings to the ancle of the same, to keep off the midges; these leggings are likewise used at Bharowl for the same purpose. The following is a specimen of the Krungurlye dialect.

Baba, Father. Wurrik, Water. Aiee, Mother. Soourr, Hog. Lohideck, Brother. Kookoor, Fowl. Trizzai, Sister. Ow, Bread. Khleck, Woman. Trull, Jungul. Gillor, Horse. Psan-sa, Cat.

The Krungurlies are said to have been kafirs, converted long ago. They are now quite Mussulman in appearance. They were doubtless originally a mixture of European and Tartar races driven by persecution to the hills, to which they are still perhaps restricted by the cause which led to their original isolation.

I tried to ascend the ridge, but the snow was impracticable even within 700 feet of the village. The Nakhtur, or Pinus, which is the prevailing feature above Bharowl, is the same as the Tazeen one, and is a Cedrus or Abils, leaves very short, cones erect and elegant, but only broken ones could be found. The ridge and its face is quite covered with them, they grow singly. Huge masses of micaceous rocks are scattered here and there, some are of gigantic size.

The Baloot is the next most common tree, but I fancy it does not extend beyond 7,500 feet; this is in general use for firewood, many of the trees, especially below, are much damaged, and on these the leaves are generally very thorny. Next is the Zaitoon, but it is not common in this direction, although common a mile to the south on the ridge first ascended. The soil is now saturated with snow water, and appears good and plentiful. The want of soil is another reason why the lower ranges are so barren, but this is just the contrary of what would be expected.

In spite of the beauty and fineness of these forests, there is still the Khorassan paucity of forms. Many herbaceous plants are doubtless hid under the snow, but few shrubs were to be seen: the Mespilus of Tazeen being the most common at 6,000 to 7,000 feet, a Thymus, Labiata, Olea fragrans, Ocymoidea, two or three Crucifera; Sedum pictum observed, and Melanthaceae which has fragrant flowers, is very common. The rocks are covered with mosses, Grimmia pulvinaloides, every where in profusion. New forms consist of a fine Tortula and an Anictangioid, with leaves white, and membranous from the middle upwards.

Birds, a black and white Erythaca, eyes fuscous-brown; the wood pigeon; a jay, which is a beautiful bird, irides light brown; a small woodpecker, with a greenish subcrest; the Parus; a thrush not obtained; Parus caerulens; a pretty red-crowned small Fringilla, eyes light brown; common crow, chakor, bearded vulture; a wren, not obtained, with irides light brown, but with exactly the manners of Troglodytis. Chamaerops, Maizurrye used for netting ropes for bedsteads, Viscum of Baloot, used for food of domestic animals.

Wild goats, sheep, an ass-like animal (Goomasht), and a fox which is handsome, of large size, and common.


The Kafirs have a game exactly the same as the English leap-frog, called by them Shutruck. They were very much astonished at my understanding it. They are miserable marksmen, and were even at small distances unable to strike a large object, as for instance a hat at twenty yards, although offered a handsome reward; nor can they shoot at all at long distances. They are in this respect quite below Khasyas and Booteas.

[Ridge near Loongurze: m466.jpg]

March 9th.—Yesterday evening a female of Lophophorus, was brought in, and a beautiful pheasant, having claret-coloured neck. Body otherwise fuscous and blackish-brown, having a blackish-green head, white cheeks and fine transverse crest, as large as a middle-sized fowl. Apparently a new subgenus of Phasianus.

11th.—Swallows have now come in here. They are apparently a different species from the Pushut kind.

12th.—The large-headed lark has also come in, so that there is a difference of twelve or fourteen days between this part of the country and Pushut, where it was first seen, although this is only 500 feet higher, and about thirteen miles farther north.

The universality of the common crow is curious, especially when contrasted with the circumscribed locality of Jackdaws. The Indian Jackdaw is never found in hills.

A common plover was brought in yesterday, the wing quills had been taken out, and its gestures on being liberated were most absurd, and although originating from fright, were much allied to pride, its head reclining on its neck, the latter curved, and the feet lifted high into a stately walk, while the crest was disposed in a most supercilious manner.

I have got into great request here as a physician, entirely I apprehend owing to the people's faith in vilayuti daroo, or English medicine, especially calomel and cream of tartar, a combination of which has proved an universal panacea.

Goitre is common here, and the place in the hot months is said to be very unhealthy, fever and jaundice carry off numbers of people. The Affghans, strange to say, have no popular medicines, but they are an unintelligent race in many other points. They are aware of bloodletting, which they practise most indiscriminately.

13th.—Unsettled weather. Heavy thunderstorm in the evening with clouds over the western range.

14th.—Beautifully clear, a genuine spring beauty on all sides.

The common Maina of these parts is a gregarious bird, which feeds generally on the ground, but is rarely associated with cattle, to which the Indian species are so addicted: this is an intelligent bird, although from its nature not unnecessarily shy.

It is fond of singing; its notes are very varied, but not very musical, including all sorts of intonations.

While so employed, the bird every now and then bobs his head suddenly down three or four times, much for the same purpose perhaps, as our public singers in the production of certain notes. I do not know whether these actions of the bird are really associated with particular notes, although they generally seem to accompany certain very flat and very base notes, not unlike the clerk of a coachman.

The snow is rapidly disappearing, rain having a most powerful effect even at the summit of the pine ridges: it is fast melting, and no new snow has fallen, although it has been raining occasionally during the last three days, and the sun has been altogether obscured.

Generally on the high Kuttoor range, fresh snow has fallen, a proof of the great height of that range.

Two species of Corydalis, the first Iris and Colchicum I had found in Kaffiristan. Corydalis is another analogy with the genuine Himalayan Flora.

Jackals were heard here for the first time, although they were heard many days ago at Pushut.

15th.—The antilopoid animal called Suja, has horns both on the male and female, it occurs in small herds fifteen to twenty in the wooded mountains, its hair is of the same structure as in the Moschiferus antilope; colour brown. Height to the shoulder two feet six inches; its height does not increase or decrease perceptibly behind; length of neck seven inches. Length of back from root of tail to nape of neck two feet eight inches.

The Lophophorus is called Moorghi Zureem, it is a very gorgeously coloured bird, but of heavy make; the tail is always carried erect. Length of body two feet one inch; the girth of the body at the shoulder including wings, seventeen to eighteen inches. Length of neck from commencement of the crest to the base of the under mandible, five to six inches.

The bird is not uncommon, being found on all the hills about here, and apparently at no great elevations.

16th.—The Ungoor, Ficus cordifolia is the first tree that buds. The Platanus, Thagur; Morus coming into flower, vegetation being very rapid.

A captive fox brought in, a fine and a handsome animal, with greyish fur inclining to fuscous on the back, and with blackish points at the back of ears, which are large, and dark-brown; eyes light yellowish-brown.

Measured as follows from:—

Shoulder to base of tail, 1 feet 3 inches. Shoulder to tip of nose, 1 feet 0 inches. Height at shoulder, 1 feet 4 inches. Height at loins, 1 feet 6.5 inches. Total length, 3 feet 8 inches. Length of tail, 1 feet 7 inches.

There is also a nocturnal beast here which has a voice something like a jackal, but more of a bark. Shot one of the small grey, white-rumped water robins, which was examining a wall for insects, and fluttering about the holes in it. I saw two Carbos (cormorants), distinct from any I had hitherto seen, very black, with some white marks. The common black one also occurs.

17th.—Proceeded to Chugur Pair; the time occupied by the journey, excluding stoppages, was two hours and four minutes, at the rate of three and a quarter miles an hour.

Tulipa in abundance in fields, a beautiful species, external sepals rosy outside, odour faint but sweet.

On a ridge near Chugur Pair is a curious ruin, viz. a long wall.

The mountain is too high to enable me to say what it is like. The tulip has a tendency to produce double flowers: one specimen seen with a regular three-leaved perianth, eight stamina, and four carpellary ovary, angles opposite the outer perianth leaves; the upper leaf or bract has a tendency to become petaloid. If the anthers are pulled, the filaments are separated from them and remain as subulate white pointed processes.

19th.—Labiata, Ocymoidea, Salvia! erect, ramose, foliis rugosis, verticillatis; spicatis racemosis. Cal. bilabiata supra planisculis, medio carinatus, Cor. pallida, caerulea, bilabiata, labio superiora subfornicata: lateralibus subrevolutis. See Catalogue No. 52, in fields Chugur Pair, common on grassy banks.

A curious tendency is observed in Pomaceae, Ceraseae to have the stamina of the same colour as the petals, thereby showing their origin? How is it explained that in some transformations of this, the anthers alone are petaliformed, while in others both filament and anther are equally and primarily affected.

The female Lophophorus has been living on nothing for at least a week; its voice is various, sometimes not unlike that of a large hawk, at others a cackle, or low chuckle; occasionally it runs forward, erecting its crest, and spreading out its tail like a fan, the tail being depressed. I fancy it roosts in trees not unlike certain pigeons, Haematornis one species come in, this genus I think represents Parus: it has the same fluttering clinging habits, it often sallies forth like Merops after insects, the genus is remarkable for the yellow or red colour of the under tail-covers, it is a noisy bird, and not wary until so taught by experience. I doubt its power of singing. The so called Bulbul, hazari dastar, the famous songster, is not a real bulbul, but either Alaudina or a stonechat.

With Haematornis has appeared a fine Merops, of which I have not yet got a specimen; its habits were quite those of Merops, and it made the same noise: it occurred with Haematornis.

Chugur is a large extent of ruins, traces of paths are visible leading to the houses, mere huts built of slabs of slate. There is one square part remaining much like the base of one of the topes to which it assimilates; the building, is of slabs of wood and stone, intervening. What could have induced the Mussulmans to build on such horridly hard barren and hot places, with no water near? or did they occupy places taken from the Kafirs. The latter I should think most likely from the names, which are evidently Kafir.

20th.—The bird alluded to yesterday, was again seen to-day. I remember shooting the same species at elevations of 8,000 feet in Bootan, in oak forests. It has the habits of Merops, with its voice or chirp, and is very gregarious, so that one part of the flock will not separate from the rest. It perches in a very erect manner making swoops and sallies after insects precisely as Merops. Plumage sombre, general colour slaty, quills and crest blackish, bill and feet orange, tail forked.

Is this bird of the sub-family Brachypodinae, or is it a Fissirostral bird; the wings, although graduated as to the two first quills (the first being half spurious) are still long, and may be called pointed. It obviously has much analogy? with the Drongo shrikes in habits, and in forked tail: as well as in lengthened body? Both it and Haematornes are very local, none being found here but just around a village called Pillipote, a favourite station—Zaitoon trees, or naked Bakkeins. Haematornis I have seen feeding on the ground, this species has the same voice as that of the genus generally.

The yellowish Bunting-like water-wagtail, is very common just now: it occurs in wheat fields; flight, chirp, and mode of getting up when disturbed just as in the Buntings.

Weather very unsettled, heavy rain and thunder last night, and now threatening a gale.

21st.—Returned towards Pushut: a Lanius, but not the one shot, was seen near the road in bushes.

22nd.—Of the four red-billed Shrikes, two are male and female, sexes alike, stomach fleshy like that of Haematornis, but food entirely vegetable: the two female stomachs contained each a seed of the Bukkein (Melia): the two males contained fragments of buds, perhaps of a willow, but not a vestige of an insect, so their swooping and sallying is a mere analogical representation of Merops. In Haematornis contents of stomach chiefly vegetable, partly of insects.

26th.—Very rainy and unsettled weather, thunder and lightning.

27th.—-Clearing up: heavy rain in some parts of the night, otherwise fine.

28th.—A beautiful morning. Went to Kooner, distance twelve to thirteen miles: for three miles the road was dangerous but tolerably decent, no defiles being passed, in which murderers were likely to lurk, very little difference in seasons between this and Pushut.

29th.—Returned again to Pushut. The country about Pushut is one sheet of cultivation, studded with trees; so thick are these that few villages are discernible in consequence. Nothing particularly notable occurred, except that a tulip is common in the fields about Kooner, but not found in those about Pushut: it occurs also with Amaryllideae, which is likewise a stranger to Pushut. What is the reason of the ruined forts so common in this country? One would think that it were useless to pull down or destroy a good fort, when it is the intention of building another, so that they are scarcely to be accounted for from a succession of conquerors.

The country has, and always will be, a distracted one. I observe that in all parts approaching mountains, in which the chief danger of robbery exists, that there are generally people and especially boys tending cattle, so that they must probably be familiar with robberies and murders, and seeing these done so openly, so easily, and so securely, they may well be imagined to become ready scholars. So even if the stock already existing in the robbers' sons, etc., were deficient, others would be found ready to take up the profession. The Kooner Dhurrah, or valley, is a very fine one, it is a good instance of the peculiar kind of slope or talus, so common in this country. The soil in such places being so stony as to be useless for cultivation. Low parts entering into the valley become useful for wheat, that is, if rain falls early, these Dhurrahs are formed or filled by debris from the surrounding hills, carried down by torrents, which are constantly changing their beds, the outline of the edge is circular, such as that of a sand bank at the mouth of a river, the finer particles being of course carried furthest down.

The Kooner valley may be considered as the second; the Shaiwa distinct forming the first; it continues as far as the bend to Chugur Pair; its beginning is close to Kooner village, near the ferry where the valley is much contracted.

31st.—The beautiful Smyrna kingfisher of India, with metallic plumage, chocolate-brown underneath, occurs at Kooner.

The common kite is very expert in seizing objects with its claws while flying: as is the Pondicherry falcon. They are often seen about standing water, fishing I fancy with their claws for shells, etc. on the surface.

The late rain has caused a torrent down Dhurrah Bader, and the fields and low grounds about Choke have been inundated; about these spots, birds have collected in numbers, the common crow taking advantage of the circumstance had turned as it were, kingfisher, swooping about like the kite. There were two species of Laridae, neither of which I had seen before, several small Tringae, the very long red shanked bird, Hematopus? the metallic Tantalus, common, jack-snipe, and hosts of Budytes, which were busily employed flying and flitting about after insects. Edolius occurs at Kooner as well as here. The number of birds is small certainly, although the trees, etc. are now in full leaf: no new birds seem to have come in, except the dove, and Edolius; neither Haematornis nor Brachypus yet observed, one or two fresh species of Alaudina, and stonechats have made their appearance. It is curious that the larks do not remain above a few days, none are to be seen now, that the crops are barely a foot high.

The female Monaul is going on well, though obliged to be crammed, for though it takes water voluntarily it will not take food. It is a very domestic bird, and fond of notice, its voice on such occasions is pleasing, on some others very harsh and hawk or eagle-like. Its manners are curious, depressing its tail, and arching its neck, and pecking at imaginary objects in a curious way. From the expressive manner in which it looks up at sunset on surrounding objects, especially trees, it is obviously accustomed to roost.

April 1st.—Pushut Fort.

4th.—Weather unsettled: a slight rumbling sound of an earthquake was felt yesterday evening, the atmosphere at the time being very close: this was succeeded by a squall. Strong winds are prevalent, generally easterly: clear sunshine is evidently of rare continuance at Pushut: little snow remains except towards Bharawul.

I was much struck this morning with the entire disappearance of a green mantle of Confervoid scum from the surface of a foul pool close to my quarters. Yesterday the pool was quite green, now there is no green, nor any traces of the scum except such portion as was not in the water but round the margins.

6th.—Proceeded to Chugur-Serai, which place was reached after marching 3 h. 10 m. at three miles an hour. Ocharrye one of the peaks near this is deep in snow; it is much higher than Speencas. The season here is now nearly as forward as it is at Kooner, although on my last visit sixteen days ago, it was fifteen days behind, but the narrowness of the valley must increase the heat much.

Great delay occurred in crossing the Pushut river, which is much swollen from the heavy rain on the 4th. Thunder and hailstone common, clear days decidedly rare in the spring of these parts.

Edolius occurs here, another stonechat has come in.

7th.—Proceeded to Otipore, which took 8 h. 9 m. to perform the journey; very unsettled weather. Yesterday several thunderstorms, and heavy rain.

10th.—Clearing up, went to Bharawul; and returned on the 12th. I was much disappointed at the paucity of forms, for I did not get ten species, not met with before. The flora of the fir woods amounts to almost nothing, Colchicum straggles up now and then, this and a grass or Carex, a Caprifoliaceous shrub, and Cotoneaster of Tazeen, and Fragaria are the only forms. The oak as it gets to higher altitudes assumes a different form, probably it is a different species, for the leaves are much less coriaceous, and are not glaucous underneath, otherwise there is little difference between it and the common Baloot, the chief plants found occurred in the clearings, which surround Bharawul to some extent. Alliaria is very common; also Tulipa. In this variety the dehiscence of the anthers continues until, from a single simple pore, a line reaching nearly the whole length of the anther is formed: a very pretty and sweet smelling Anemone common, Viola, Rumex, Thalictrum a rather fine species, Hedera, Rubia cordifolia, Valeriana, Corydalis, Fragaria, Thlaspidea, Sambucus, Ebulus adonis, Berberis, Equisetum, Clematis, Urtica urens, were noticed, either in cultivation or on the edge of the clearings. Poor as the flora is, I see no chance of its promising much variety, for I observe few other plants showing themselves: several ferns were met with in moist places, and under rocks, two Asplenia, one undetermined; Aspidioides very common in some places, but of last year.

The soil is deepish and good, when wet it is subtenacious. The Nukhtur is a large tree, seventy to eighty feet high; one of an average size measured fourteen feet in girth, four feet from the base. The slopes of the mountain are steep, and the ravines very rocky: on the ridges between these, the ground is covered with soil. Colchicum observed as high as 7,500 feet. I returned another way, keeping along the large ravine that drains the mountain to the north, and which falls into the Otipore river, below Shinegam.

Buddlea was noticed at 5,800 feet, Hyacinthus throughout from this to Bharawul; Nurgiss 5,800 feet, Impatiens the same as the species below 5,000, Myrsinea ditto, Fraxinus is very common about 4,000 feet, it is very easily mistaken for the Xanthoxylon, which appears common over most parts of Khorassan. The range of the Cytisus, which is a beautiful sweet smelling shrub, is extensive, it may be included here between 3,000 and 7,000 feet: associated with it between 4,000 to 4,500 feet is a Caragana, and about this occurs a fine Salveoideo-Dracocephalum.

The limit of the Baloot may be taken at 4,000 feet, but in sheltered ravines it descends lower.

Euonymus Moamunna, Periplocea, scarcely extend above 4,000 feet, neither do the spirescent Astragali, these are succeeded by two or three espinous species, one the same as the Astragalus stipulis magnis of the river towards Pironi. Amygdalus ranges between 3,500 and 7,000 feet, the pretty Cerasus does not extend above 4,000 feet. There appears to be another Amygdalus above.

The chief vegetation of the mountain below 6,000 feet appears to be a tufted coarse Andropogoneous grass, and in such situations as this occupies, little soil is to be found; the Baloot, and Zaitoon, are confined to sheltered places. Above they occur indiscriminately on all faces, but Zaitoon is rare at such elevations; few birds were observed, the most common about Bharawul are an Emberizoid and a Certhia? Muscicapa flammea was seen at 7,000 feet in pine forests with several Sittae: in these forests and about Bharawul, only one Garrulus was heard, and few woodpigeons were seen. The Picus is still common, Myophorus now extends up to Bharawul. Parus caeruleus still continues. Another female Nemorrhaedus is brought in with young: the breeding time probably takes place two months later. The Merula before found below, now occurs in flocks about Bharawul.

According to the natives there is only about twenty days difference in the seasons of cutting wheat and barley; this is probably not true, yet it is borne out by the Tulip, Cytisus and Hyacinth.

The village has been founded five years since, and contains 180 souls. The burial ground contains sixteen graves, which will give the annual percentage of mortality. At Otipore the mortality is said to be great. Whence do these people get their curious grey eyes, and light hair?

Daphne extends to Bharawul.

14th.—The kingcrow is now in here, also Columba, and Lanius; this last has an unceasing jarring chirp, it has however considerable powers of voice.

Sitta feeds on seeds as well as on insects, but the structure of its stomach is insectivorous.

The female Monaul died yesterday. I heard some of these birds in the pine forests of Bharawul, their voice being very loud and grating; the female was a good tempered bird, capable of attachment, when caressed its notes were pleasing.

15th.—The Hoopoe seen; another fish brought in to-day, the usual mountainous form, but with a very rough nose.

The Edolius is here the earliest and the latest daily bird. I observed several to-day on a tree making a great noise with their harsh chirp, at each chirp the tail was for the instant jerked out like a fan.

17th.—A single parrot seen flying overhead.

19th.—What is the bodily strength of man to that of insects! I have just been watching an ant dragging the body of a hornet, many times larger than itself, up a door with the greatest ease; so much so, that after dragging it up three feet, it came down to alter its position, carrying it up a second time by its wing: the ant was of a large species.

23rd.—Pastor came in to-day, an elegant bird, eyes nearly white, tinged with grey; legs and beak yellow, base of gape leaden-blue, junction of yellow and blue parts greenish!

26th.—Mango bird first seen today, another dove came in about the 23rd. Quail coming in, Pastor roseus.

Every plant from the Kafir hills convinces me that they are Himalayan in their features, and that about this the transition between the American and genuine European forms takes place. Thus I have seen Asperula, two and three European looking Ranunculi.

Cratoegus, etc. in addition to the other forms, before alluded to.

There is a rather fine sissoo near Sheargar, it is curious that it is later in coming into leaf than any other tree. Does this indicate its being of a more tropical nature than the others? on the contrary, the Bukkeim is now in flower, also Citrus.

The Affghans are fond of Amaryllideae, Gratool, Goolab, and Lonicera, in the season of the two former, every one met has a bunch placed over each ear.

Observed to-day a curious monstrosity of the ovula of the Lonicera of this place, from which it is evident, that the ovule represents a bud; the funicle the stalk; the teguments convolute leaves, and the nucleus the punctum of growth.

Every variation was observed, generally the more leafy the outer tegument the greater was the degree of straightness of the funicle, and the abortion of the nucleus.

29th.—To Chugur-Serai.

June 5th.—Arrived at Cabul.

The whole country between Khuggur and Koord Cabul, even including the high ground of this, or Huft-Kotul, presents the same formation, but from Khuggur it rises gradually, and beyond Gundamuck loses all characters of tabularity, it consists of sand, overlying which is a bed of blocks or often of boulders; in this sand, which is here and there easily pulverised, (in other places it is pressed as it were into slabs of no great thickness;) layers or beds of conglomerate frequently occur, either regularly or irregularly; in one case two conglomerated beds approached at an angle and then united.

The framework or base of the country is generally limestone, sometimes slate which presents every variety of distortion, the strata being often vertical and wavy, no dykes were observed. The older rocks are generally completely covered by sand and shingle, or stones; but as we approach the boundaries of the valleys, they protrude into ridges, often of considerable size and height. The valleys however are not entirely bounded by these to the west, for as I have said, the plain of Koord Cabul is reached by crossing undulations of this same formation. From Khuggur to Gundamuck, about five stony steppes are crossed, each rising in height above the last, and each separated by deep ravines, with one or both banks generally precipitous, affording exit to streamlets from the Sofaid-Koh. It is curious that the streamlets, and streams about Gundamuck have not worn themselves half as deep channels as those about Khuggur, although no appreciable difference is apparent in the strata.

The surface is often rendered rugged in places by the occurrence of loose slabs, which give the appearance of stratification to the rocks.

It appears to me that the whole of the extreme eastern Khorassan originally was a bed of stones or boulders, overlying a formation of pure sand, and that its irregular surface is due to the subsequent upheavement of the foundation ridges. The good soil is in such case necessarily confined to the immediate neighbourhood of the streams, etc. descending from those ridges.

The following is a section exposed on the north boundary of the valley, not far from Jugdulluck:—

[Section of valley near Jugdulluck: m476.jpg]

The whole tract is devoid of trees, until one nears Jugdulluck, when not only the foundation rocks, but also the stony undulated hills are dotted with stunted trees of Baloot and Xanthoxylon. Tufted Andropogoneous grasses form the prevailing feature, AErua also is common along the streams: and wherever the ground retains moisture, Typha latifolia abounds with the usual frequenters of watery spots. The road to Gundamuck, especially the ascent of the two last steppes, is infamous; but the regular Jallalabad road is good, having only one descent to Neemla, and an easy ascent from that place, and thence it is over a gentle declivity to Futtehabad.

The spurs from the Sofaid-Koh are very numerous, and the ravines they form show the great quantity of water derived from this ridge, their direction is N. 45, E. The direction of the streams after emerging from the lower ridges continues about the same.

The Cabul and Soorkhab rivers debouche at a much greater angle. Their direction being 95, E. The waters of both are turbid, but those of the latter are reddish.

Throughout the valley of Jallalabad cultivation extends alone along the streams, many of which are entirely consumed by agricultural processes; in no place does it bear any proportion to the uncultivated portion, which is invariably densely strewed with stones, the smaller of which are generally water-worn; the larger, masses of angular rock.

White mulberries ripen in perfection at Gundamuck in the early part of July. There is more cultivation about Khuggur occurring in a continuous and broadish tract, than in almost any other place.

I observed a curious tendency to anastomosis, or self-grafting in the roots of Morus: this in its young state often has pinnatifid artacarpoid leaves. Query, is this a sign of the greater development of Morus? or is it in any way analogous to that progressive development existing during the growth of every animated being?

At Gundamuck observed Oriolus; it differs in plumage and voice from the Indian Mango bird, which is a far more beautiful bird, with only one note: Edolius also seen.

Pastor and the other common birds. Merops was seen soaring over stones, and stooping at insects; in such situations it remains long on the wing; it does not appear to perch on any thing but withered branches.

Composita Senecionoides occurs about Soorkhab, Reaumuria occurs half-way between it and Gundamuck. Capparis continues to Soorkhab. Statices common, also Campanula; and about Jugdulluck a striking Boragineous plant, Boraginiae sp., and on the sandy pass above Barkhab, a Salvia is found in profusion, one of the commonest grasses is Poa cynosuroides?

The stem of Hippuris is worth examination, inasmuch as it consists of a central easily separable axis, and a vertical system of great thickness, highly cellular, so that judging a priori, as these cells (which are compound) occupy the whole space between the ligneous system and the cutis, no longitudinal vessels can exist in that part which represents the bark.

15th.—Cabul. Glycyrrhiza thermopsoides frequently presents on the non- flowering stems, a pod-like transformation of the uppermost leaves.

In Centaurea cyanea, the disposition of the limb of the ray is such that the incomplete part or the fissure is outside. This is exactly opposite to the disposition of the same part in true Ligulatae.

Judging from Centaurea, the smaller lip of the bilabiate species of Compositae ought to be situated outside.

Erythraeoides, Glauca floribus albidis occurs on the Chummums.

16th.—Regaled with a library: "Calumny and detraction," says Boerhaave, "are sparks, which if you do not blow them, will go out of themselves."—Murphy's Johnston, Vol. IX. p.34.

In Johnston's Life of Drake, p.99 to 100, are some admirable remarks on those minds, that disapprove of every strikingly novel scheme, and from which a good motto might be chosen, should any national system be proposed in Botany.

What were Sir Thomas Browne's five sorts of vegetables, and what were his remarks on the form of plants and laws of vegetation?—See Johnston's Works, Vol. IX. p.296.


From Cabul to Kohi-Baba.

July 17th.—Proceeded from Cabul to Shah Bagh; cloudy weather, occasionally a very slight shower during the last few days, depending probably on the Punjab rains. To-day, observed a small green caterpillar, climbing up a fine thread, like a spider's web, which hung from the fly of the tent; its motions were precisely those of climbing, the thread over which it had passed was accumulated between its third pairs of legs; it did not use its mouth.

I did not ascertain whether the thread was its own production or not; if it was, it must have come out of its tail.

24th.—The fish in the Cabul river here are, a Loach, an Oreinus, and a Barbel; none of these grow to any size, as there is but little water left in the river in consequence of the drain for extensive cultivation on both the east and west sides of the city.

Small specimens of these fish, especially the Loach and Oreinus, are found in the canals or larger watercuts, in which the current is slow and regular. It is curious that in the canal near the Shah Bagh, which has been lately turned off above the Cantonment, all the specimens of the Loach left in the pools of water were dead, while the Oreinus did not appear to have suffered.

This Loach is a Cobitis propria, it has the usual form of that genus, the spots are disposed irregularly, rarely becoming banded. The shape of the head is curious, the forehead being prominent, this gives the mouth an appearance of unusual depression. {479}

The country both on the east and west sides of Cabul may have been formerly a lake. Such indeed would seem to have been the origin of all the valleys in which there is an expanse of tillable ground, and not mere strips confined to the banks of the draining streams.

The eastern valley is indeed partly occupied by the large sheet of water to the north, and the west is very marshy. The eastern one is interspersed with low detached ranges of hills.

The birds are a magpie, a dove, Oriolus, Pastor roseus, Pastor alter, sparrow, water-wagtail, Hirundo, Hoopoe, Lanius, Sylvia sp., water-hen, wild ducks on the lake, and Merops; almost all these as at Khujgal, but no minas, or Edolia.

At Urghundy occurs Potentilla quinquifolia, repens radicans pubescens, stipulis oblongis.

28th.—Halted at Koti-Ashruf. The most common plants on the Khak-i- Sofaid pass are two or three of the small pulvinate Statices, Senecionoides glaucescens. The yellow Asphodelus is very common, and I also saw A. mesembryanthemifolia. At the foot of the pass, I saw Scabiosa, which also occurred on the summit.

First march on the Cabul side of Ghuznee. Whole tracts blue with the Labiata Plectranthoides; at Urghundy, along a watercut, are planted several willows of the common large-leaved kind, the bark of these on all the older parts is cracked longitudinally, and the trunk has the appearance of being twisted, which I have no doubt is the natural state, the spire is from left to right. The prevailing winds are easterly.

Bean cultivation is very common in the valley of the Cabul river to the west beyond the Khak-i-Sofaid pass; I suspect it requires a greater altitude than most of the other cultivated plants of Affghanistan, it abounds in the high ground about Shaikhabad.

29th.—Proceeded in the morning from Julraize to Sir-i-Chushme. The fish of the place are the same, the Silurus being common. The two sorts of Oreinus vary much in the length of the intestinal canal,—the yellowish and large one having it five times: the small and less yellowish, three and a half lengths of the body. Both these species come close to Barbus, showing that the spinosity of the dorsal fin is a more valuable character than that of the form of the mouth.

The cartilaginous disc of Oreinus is a reflection outwards of the osseo- cartilaginous part of the mouth, the fleshy part alone is the lips. Oriolus, Upupa, and Percnopterus, continue with Columba. Grapes and apricots khar see, and the common ones reach as far as this, but are very inferior to those of Cabul; rice cultivated here and there. The chief trees are Populus lombardensis, Salix magnifolia, and S. pendula, Hippophae.

At Koti-Ashruf Salix angustissima is found, and on it Cuscuta gigantea; on to-day's march Hippophae, but this is found also at Maidan: Merops was heard at Koti-Ashruf. In the spring of Sir-i-Chushme, a Typhoid plant occurs in profusion, Veronicae 2, alta et repens rotundifolia, Nasturtium aquatica, Scrophularia of Julraize, Juncus, Triglochin, and Plantago of the green sward, everywhere between 6,000 and 11,000 feet.

Trees end at the foot of Oonnye.

30th.—Girdun Dewar. Salvia swarms up the ascent and on the descent, but less so than before, and on the Yonutt platform it is almost absent; Cnicus also in profusion both up and down, and on the platform Festuca triticoides begins about half-way up; Statice are common over the whole pass. Caragana in the grassy swardy ravines. On the highest point Astragalus arbuscula, the fields studded with yellow buttons of tansy, and white flowers of Stellaria; Arabidea glauca siliculosa, also common; this is rare on the west side of Hindoo-koosh, as is also Stellaria. Tansy continues in some places.

31st.—To Kurzar. Proceeded up the Siah-Sung; along the river, green sward with patches of Caragana, Campanula, and Geraniums occurred in profusion in some places. Salvia not uncommon; at the first part, or perhaps for three miles from camp a large Hingoid is common, smaller and whiter than the species so common on the lower hills, and which is the large-leaved species of Quettah and the Kojhuk pass. Potamogeton cylindrifolia common; Senecionoides.

On the stony part, or beyond Siah-Sung, when one leaves the bed of the river, Astragali two or three species, Salvia, and Blitum. Two sorts of fish are found in the river, and perhaps a third in the black hammer-headed Silurus. {481} Of the two caught, one is an Oreinus, but passing close into Barbus. Beneath the glandular line, white, above fuscous-brownish, with irregular black spots, fins fusco-reddish.

The other is a loach, Cobitis propria, shape shark-like, colour yellowish- brown, almost tawny, sides irregularly spotted with brownish-black spots, arranged on the back in broad irregular, generally complete bands. Head not banded, fins tawny, with oblong black spots, eyes prominent, irides reddish-orange: this is a very abundant species.

Poplar trees, (P. lombardensis): these from being planted close, grow together, the union generally taking place near the base. I have not seen a section of the wood.

August 2nd.—Kaloo. So far as I can judge, the flora of this side of the pass does not differ, but in a few unimportant instances from that of the Kurzar side. The summit however has a much colder climate, probably from being exposed on the Kurzar side to an extremely cold and piercing wind from the Kohi-Baba range. Cnici 2, and Festuca triticoides are the most common plants, with Arenaria fruticosa, Composita No. 152, Asphodelus of Erak now nearly passed flower, and some Astragali. But on this side, Cnici cease almost entirely, although they re-appear lower down, but only partially, and the top of the pass is covered with the Statice of Kurzar, and Astragali, among which, that with the flat pod, winged on the dorsal suture, is the most common. Lower down the same, or similar features continue, and the only plants limited to this side are a curious Astragalus, Crotalarioid, Polygonum fruticosa, microphyllum, and spinosum, a Boraginea like that of Jugdulluck, but much smaller and decumbent, a Papaveraceae, petalis Papaveris Rhoeadis, with a siliquose fruit, and Clematis erecta: willow trees (the broad leaved species) occur here, a large Agrostic grass, Ribes and Symphorema of Erak.

The Affghans appear to cut every plant almost of any size for winter fodder, even thistles, docks, etc. The purple Lactucoid of Cabul re-appears, and the curious flat fruit calyxed Boraginea of Shawl both in abundance. The crops here are not more forward than those at Kurzar; the fields are crowded with Stellaria, but there is much less Tanacetum; Geraniums occur in profusion.

Silene fimbriata, is a night flower, withering by 9 A.M.

I found no snow up the left Hajeeguk ravine, and the effect was marked, namely, that none of the alpine plants are so abundant about it as last season, when they were in flower, or had passed.

There is on the hills about this ravine, a large burrowing animal, probably a marmot; it is of a dark colour with tawny rump; when on the alert it sits on its rump, or rather perhaps raised on the hind legs, and has the voice of an ordinary Rodentia.

I heard several of these, but saw only one.

Rich botanising is to be had on the swampy ground at the mouth of the right ravine. Pediculares 2, Silenaceae 3 or 4, Veroniceae 2, Orchis 1, Ranunculi 2, Junci 2, Carices several, Swertiae 2, one the larger Solidago, Geranium, Gramineae several, Parnassia of Erak, Campanula, Ruta odora, etc.

3rd.—To Topehee. The vegetation of Kaloo is far less varied than that of Hajeeguk, for it presents no such swampy ravines at such elevations.

The plants of the hills around Kaloo villages continue half-way up, on the road over the ravine Corvisartia is plentiful, with a Labiata, Calyce Royleae, in profusion; this and Cnici form the chief vegetation; Papaveraceae also continue.

Up the 1st ascent Hingoid tenuifolia, Ephedra stricta, Ribes commence, Ephedra continuing throughout wherever the bare rocks project through the loose soil; one-third way up, Statice long and short-peduncled commence with an Astragalus. The bulk of the vegetation is an Artemisia; Royleoid and Chenopodium villosum continue, and do so for half-way up.

At the black rock half-way up, Dianthus, Astragalus, Crotalarioid, Rosae sp., Statice pulvinata, are common, this last and Artemisia are the chief features: Scutellaria, Stellaria dichotoma, Umbellifera of Yonutt, Corvisartia, wild Gramineae of Yonutt, Arenaria fruticosa, Festuca triticoides continues. Borago of upper Kaloo, and the Glauci of Kaloo occur. Astragali 2 or 3 sp., Silene sp., but the chief vegetation is Artemisia.

On the summit, Corvisartia, Boragineae, Gramineae, several; a straggling Plectranthus coeruleus, Arenaria fruticosa, Allium rubrum, Cnici 2, the yellow Erigeronoid of Hajeeguk summit, occur on the descent just below the ridge, and on this side the Statice pulvinata is in profusion, and of large size. Large marmot, with teeth like those of a rat.

4th.—Proceeded to Bamean. At Topehee was found a curious succulent Hypericum, it is odd that the leaves, etc. of these succulent saline plants are cold; strikingly so. Connected with this low temperature, is the fact, that if shut up in a box with other plants, and water thrown in, that even though they be at the top, they cause the deposit of all the water that passes up in the shape of vapour, while the ordinary plants remain quite dry! A wonderful provision of nature adapting them the more to extremely dry stations. About Topehee, Cichorium is common; Salvia of Oonnye, Geranium, Artemisia exaltata of Sir-i-Chushme, and Pulmonaria, so common everywhere, occur; Glaucum swarms in saline marshy places. Triglochin is also found, also Ranunculus stoloniferae trilobata of Kaloo, Hippuris. The flat-calyxed Boraginea, Melilotus officinalis also found; Potamogeton cylindrifolia, Centaurea lutea.

There also occurs along the barren slopes of the hills a glaucous shrub, much like that between Chunni and Dund-i-Goolai, decumbens, subspinos: glauco alb. fruct. baccato drupaceis, oblongis, purpuris, basi calyce parvo, 5-fido, stylo brevi apiculatis, putamina osseo-crasso oblongo ovato, Sem. immatur.

8th.—Bamean. The fish, so far as I have caught any, seem to be one trout, and two barbels. Of 5 species, one of these takes the worm greedily, the length of the intestines varied in every instance, and of three the relative lengths of body and canal were as follows:

Inches. Canal.

Body 6 (times ) 2.125 ( Of three since captured and Body 7 (longer ) 2.5 ( about 8 inches long, all Body 10.5 (than the) 3.5 ( nearly the same size, the (body. ) ( length of the canal was ( three times longer than the ( body.

The intestines as usual taper almost gradually from the stomach and oesophagus, and are gorged with greenish pulp.

This is worth following up. It is scarcely credible, but that the species are really different; or if not, the variety in the length will considerably diminish the value of the length of canal as a principle of arrangement. {484}

The glaucous long-peduncled, large-flowered Statice is limited to the east side of Kaloo. On this side another species occupies similar elevations, viz., 9,500 to 10,500 feet; it is a good deal like the one met with towards Ghuzni. These species are less alpine than the short- peduncled species with large flowers, which continues all over Kaloo, being in great perfection on the west side, near the summit. Another short-peduncled species appears on the descent, close to upper Topehee. Towards this Royleoid occurs but sparingly, and the first change takes place in the abundance of Salicornia or Kochia. Also about this, Peganum and Salvia reoccur, both kinds not being uncommon about Bamean.

Lactuca dislocata occurs throughout.

The vegetation of Bamean is that of Topehee, but the small flowered Tamarisk is scarce—Potentilla anserina is common, Hyoscyamus spinosus of Kaloo occurs.

The Bamean river divides the Kohi-Baba from the Hindoo-koosh, but both are obviously of the same system, i.e. they divide the ranges to the north. To the east their offsets are divided by the Kaloo river. The direction of the Hindoo-koosh and that of the Kohi-Baba, is about 115 west. The space to the west consists of a low, rather flat plateau, (as it appears from the top of Kaloo,) this flat belongs to the Kohi-Baba range; the offsets of the Hindoo-koosh to the east and north are ordinarily shaped. All the hills on the north side of the valley disintegrate on their south faces, forming cliffs of partial extent.

13th.—Proceeded to Akrobat, ascending the Bamean river, and then diverging up a kotul or acclivity of considerable height, but gradual ascent. Then descending at once steeply to Akrobat, which is about 9,500 feet above the sea. Along the river, Rosa, Hippophae, and Salix occur, the two former being abundant. Scarcely any change in vegetation occurs: an Ephedra, very common up the kotul and abundantly in fruit. The hills are very barren, and nothing remarkable is observable about Syghan. Apricot constitutes the only fruit tree. Salix, Populus, and Sinjit occur.

All the valleys are narrow, and the hills very barren, the chief vegetation being Salsolaceae. The vegetation of the valleys is the same as that of Bamean; on the north of Akrobat two Statice occur, one with spathulate leaves scapigerous, the other a tall straggling plant.

22nd.—Erak. The vegetation of Kurzar consists of Hypericum, Salsolaceae, Carduacea, and Hyoscyamus spinosus, but Salsolaceae occur in profusion and several species.

Hypericum enjoys to perfection, the faculty of condensing water on its leaves, much more so than Salsolaceae; it presents an obvious affinity to Rutaceae, capsula radiata 5-valvis, loculicida: valvis linea centrali notatis, septis solutis imo apice exceptis. Seminibus basi locul. affixis, apice villosis; the tobacco is different from the Nicot. tobaccum, cor. virida tubo calyce, duplo longiore lamina brevi plicato: apricots in sheltered places.

24th.—Kurzar. The Erak kotul is thickly covered with Festuca triticoides, two Carduaceae, Salvia, Artemisiae, and Statices on the south side. On the north Statices, Onosma, and Carduaceae are most common, and the vegetation is scantier. Ribes is common up the Erak ravine; with it, Rosa and Symphorema are the chief shrubs. Ephedra ceases about 10,000 feet. A snake found of general grey colour, with black-brown marking.

26th.—Ascended Kohi-Baba from upper Kaloo, the ascent occupied about five hours, the ridge was surmounted but no view of Baissoat was obtained, except that the crest surmounted, as well as the still loftier culminating one belong to ridges running 30 degrees north from a main ridge, the passes of which, although apparently the same height as the peak surmounted, are much more heavily covered with snow. These passes do not appear very difficult.

At 2 P.M. set up the barometer on the ridge, the mercury stood 17.354. Therm. in cistern, 79.5. Detached Therm. in sun 85 degrees—on the ground 105 degrees.

September 2nd.—At 2.5 P.M. the barometer stood 17.356.

Assuming this to give about 15,000 feet, none of the peaks will be found to be higher than 16,500. The culminating point was close by, and did not appear more than 1,000 feet above me. The different ridges are separated by deep spaces in which snow lies to a considerable extent.

Having descended a considerable way I again set up the barometer. Time 4- 45 P.M.

The mercury stood at 18.889.

Therm. in the Cistern. 63 degrees Ditto in the air. 68 degrees

The vegetation continues unaltered, the same as that of Kaloo kotul.

Carduaceae, Astragali, Nardoid, Bromoid, Hordeoid pubescens, and Statices. And up to this, which may be assumed as 13,500 feet, the hills present the same features, rounded with a good deal of soil, and large granitic masses.

But above this the disintegration of the ridge has reached a great extent; for 1,500 to 2,000 feet the ascent is steep, passing over a profusion of blocks and slabs of granite, generally externally of a dark brown colour; here and there there is some coarse granular soil, and towards the second station, say at an altitude of 14,000 feet, a marshy spot occurred, crowded with Primula, together with Arenaria, Fumaria of Erak, Ranunculus of Hajeeguk, Carex, etc. From within 1,000 feet of the summit the ascent was easier, over ground composed entirely of small angular bits of granite, which rock protrudes to the north, forming the south wall of a huge amphitheatre, heavily snowed in places.

This granite varies much; being below a coarse quartzose grey rock, above a very compact brown rock, except perhaps in its lowest outcrop, where it has a slaty structure.

The second station may be assumed as the lowest limit of the inferior snow line, but this so much depends on casual circumstances that even many places at 15,000 feet are uncovered by snow, which as might be expected is always heaviest in the higher valleys which are least exposed to the sun's rays. The surface of the snow in many places was picturesque, being in the shape of crowded pinnacled ridges, the interstices from 4 to 5 feet deep, holding water or ice. I saw from the summit a flock of the large grouse, and at 14,000 feet, a large hare.

The peak surmounted is the lowest, and the nearest to Upper Kaloo. The granite on the west side formed a precipitous cliff of 200 to 300 feet deep.

The vegetation of the slope with small fragments, say between 14 to 15,000 feet was very scanty, a Cheiranthus, Polygonum scariosum, Papaveraceae, Phloxoides and Statice, being the only plants; and perhaps this may be assumed as having no particular plant, all those enumerated being found below.

The vegetation of the steep rugged portion, which contained many patches of snow and better soil, was more varied; in the upper parts of this a Carex, two or three Graminae, Cheiranthus, Plectranthus, Sedoides, Arenaria, Potentilla, Primula, Draboides and Brassicacea occurred. A Tanacetoid was perhaps the most common.

The most alpine forms of these were Carex, Holcoides, Sedoides, Statice densissima, and Papaveracea; but of these Papaveracea, Phloxoid, Statice densissima, Cheiranthus, and Polygonum are alone found above. Here again the effect of the proximity of a bed of snow in retarding vegetation was most evident. Phloxoides elsewhere partly in flower, being found in full flower near one of the beds of snow.

It is curious that no green spots are found above, all the water passing down under the soil, the swardy ravines scarcely extend beyond an elevation of 1,500 feet above the camp on Upper Kaloo.

The limit of the grey shrubby Salix may be taken as 1,000 feet above that, the other plants are precisely the same as those of other swards; Abelia extends higher than Salix.

The limit of crops is about the same, the issue of the water obviously being in relation to the extent of cultivation by irrigation. The associated plants present no change.

23rd.—Cabul. Curious transformation in Carthamus was observed, either affecting the involucrum alone, when those branches that would have become flowers become clavate, covered with very dense aristate leaves, or affecting the florets which become more or less converted in the branches. In these the involucre is little altered, and the receptacle is attacked by larva. In certain of these the florets are submitted to very curious metamorphoses, each envelope remaining, but quite green, the stamina being little changed, the pistillum changed into a leaf-bearing branch, the stigmata, etc. into two leaves.

This is chiefly remarkable because of the general tardiness of change in the stamina, since it shows that the binary formation of the pistillum is a primary effect: it may be asked, if the number should be 5, why has it not reverted to its original or typical state? The calyx is not reducible to 5. The permanency of the character of aggregate flowers is here shown, as well as in Echinops, so that it is scarcely probable we shall ever meet a compositious flower solitary in the axil of an ordinary leaf.

To be examined hereafter in detail.

If wood is a descending formation, produced by leaves, how are woody tendrils to be accounted for. In the vine the ancient tendrils are perfectly woody, although this may not be true wood, yet it is truly fibrous, and I ask, from what is it formed?

The growth of young shoots is at once a proof that the whole system may be formed from ascending growth, for in many we find woody fibre complete, though not indurated, and all the leaves from which wood is said to be formed are only in a rudimentary state.

October 2nd.—Seh-Baba. Spiraea belloides, commonish on limestone rocks in the ravine near the road which leads from Tazeen valley to Khubur-i-Jubbur. This limestone is in thin strata; the strata are subdivided by quartzose veins, they occur generally at a dip of from 15 to 20 degrees, but are occasionally quite vertical or highly wavy, presenting evidence of concentrated force upwards. The outcrop wears an uniform aspect, and occurs to the north of the ravine. The south here and there presents sheets of rock, the overlying strata having slipped off. The strike of the strata is north and south.

Coal is said by Hatchet to be formed chiefly from the resinous principles of plants,—this would account for its appearance when burnt, which is the same as that of burnt bitumen. But resinous principles are, even when they exist, of partial extent only in plants. In good coal the whole of the vegetable substance seems to be transformed, a supposition barely compatible with Hatchet's idea.

To study this, extensive examination of coal in all degrees of formation would be necessary, beginning with the wood so curiously changed by the Brahmapootra, i.e. brown coal occurring in its sand banks, and which has a very peculiar and disagreeable odour when burning. It would also be necessary to examine how far the coal-plants exhibit vegetable structure, are they mere impressions or are they the plants themselves changed? To what extent do these agree with coal? What particular plants and what parts of these appear to have formed coal? Its fibrous structure would hint at formation from the woody system, and it is not incompatible with the deliquescence of a thick layer of drift.

The plants of coal fields having been drifted, can only give us an idea of the vegetation along the natural drains of the then country, such may by no means have had one universal character.

The plants of the open surface of modern tropical countries being generally different from those along the beds of streams, in which situations now-a-days Equiseteae, Lycopods and Filicis are chiefly found. Coal being drift, it follows that the plants of the coal fields can give us no information on the distribution of vegetables in those days; to gain information on this, the fossils should be in their original situation. And there again an obstacle may exist in our not being able to ascertain the height or level of that situation.

If the plants of coal fields are found to be converted into coal, then the only difference between coal shale, and coal will consist in the very small proportion of vegetable matter in the former.

The small number of coal plants, i.e. the small number of species, at once points to the supposition that fossil plants are confined to those of the most indestructible nature: here again is another sign of this in the preponderance of Ferns, which Lindley finds to be the most permanent.

Hence the preponderance of Ferns, is by no means explainable by their greatest simplicity of form, and consequent priority of formation.


From Peshawur to Lahore.

October 14th.—Peshawur.—Cucurbitaceae. The petals of cucurbita were observed in one instance united along two of the corollal sinuses to the staminal column, alternating with the smaller stamina; the processes were produced upwards into petaloid appendages.

17th.—Proceeded to Nowshera. As far as Pubbe the road extended chiefly through a cultivated country, thence as far as could be judged at night, over a plain country covered with coarse grass, and here and there (whenever a sufficiently gravelly surface occurred) among the thick of Bheir, which is here used for fences; Mudar, AErua, Nerioides and Adhatoda occurred; Furas a common tree.

18th.—Reached Khairabad. The same kind of country as about Nowshera, stony or sandy, with extensive tracts covered with Bheir, Mudar, and AErua as before, Mimosa common towards Geedur Gulli, and on it also Kureel, which appears for the first time as it was not seen about Jumrood. On to-day's march many grasses are apparent, the pale Saccharoid grass of Jugdulluck common, a species of Cynodon (given to me by Dr. Ritchie at Dhukk) very common, a Pommereullioid, a curious Schoenanthus, a Poa, all are coarse and cover a large tract towards Geedur Gulli: Barleria spinosa appears.

Geedur Gulli is a ravine winding in and out in a curious manner among low hills at the north-west end of what is called the Afredi Spur. Mimosa very common, Kureel, Dodonaea and Edgeworthia, neither very common, but Moarcurra and Euonymus are both rather common. Mudar common; some Andropogons, of which one is the same as that of the Khyber. Bheir very common, also a Mimosa like the common Babool, but flowers unscented. Chokeys, or police stations are situated along the whole line of road to Peshawur. Adhatoda common at the entrance to Geedur Gulli where the scenery is rather pretty; Adiantum common on banks near the water; the hills of Geedur Gulli are rather thickly sprinkled with wood.

The Cabul river is here a large stream, with a moderate confined bed between high banks on which Akora and Khairabad are situated. The view of the Indus from Geedur Gulli presents a desolate look of sand, which extends over a large space visible through a break in the hills to the north. The passage of the Indus through the Attock range seen from the same point is curious; but general remarks on scenery can be of no use, except when they are founded on an intimate acquaintance with the country. The most natural course, i.e. one less impeded by mountains, would seem to be to the east instead of south.

[Diagram of Attock Range: m491.jpg]

Mulberry, Salix angustifolia, or willow, and Buckein, were seen at Attock. The scenery is not however bold, but on the contrary very poor compared with the defiles of the Irrawadi. The hills are low, rounded, and present no precipices of striking dimensions. An old fort situated near the junction of the rivers is a handsome looking building, but completely commanded. A large Serai or place for travellers is situated near it to the north. The water of the Indus is muddy, but presents nothing remarkable in temperature. The analogous points between the Indus and Irrawadi consist in defiles and the want of branches for a long way above their mouths. Jackdaws were the first old acquaintances I met with on entering Peshawur; and the common kite, the Affghan one not having the same thrilling cry that the Indian one has; grey partridges are found about Nowshera; as also Kuchaloo or Yams.

19th.—Proceeded over the plain to Chuch and Khot-bha, winding along the Attock hill round to the fort, and passing the Serai, and another smaller one in ruins near the plains, thence over level ground to within two miles of Bhowli, where conspicuous trees were observed, otherwise the plain is rather barren, a few Bheirs and some Phoenix only occurring about villages on hills. The vegetation is the same. Chuch plain, where not cultivated, is covered with short coarse grasses, Andropogoneae. Among these a large-leaved Salvia occurs. The forms presented by the vegetation are however very little diversified. Mudar, a small-fruited Kochia, like that of Jallalabad; Boerhaavia very common.

Cultivation is conducted in Bheir fences, and consists of Indian-corn, Bajra, and cotton.

From the Attock hills, the Indus is seen much divided by beds of sand, and churs or islands covered with a large purple Saccharum. Peganum continues to Attock and even extends beyond.

Water plants of Chuch, Trapa, Valisneria verticillata, and Nymphaea.

Shumshbad.—This town lies to the left of the road, one mile in the rear of my encampment.

The spines of Barleria are evidently axillary, as is seen in young branches, probably they represent the lower pair of leaves of the lateral branches, the terminal parts of which have a tendency to develop.

The spines of Mimosa belong evidently to the same exertion as the leaf; they are connate at the base, and from the centre of this hardened part, arises the leaf; they may be either the lower pinnae, or they may be spurious stipulae. The leaves developed within the true ones belong to an ill-developed branch. True stipulae are leaves with a distinct origin. Spurious stipulae belong to their leaves, as is evident from their not having a distinct origin.

20th.—Hussun Abdul. Until we came near the Boorhan valley, the road passed over a high, dry, sandy plain, with no cultivation, and no water, then the descent took place through picturesque raviny ground with a few isolated mounds, to a fine clear stream. The remaining part extended either along the cultivation of the Boorhan valley, or through similar raviny ground. Two streams were passed, the last is the Hussun Abdul river.

The vegetation of the high plain continues the same. Bheir, Mimosa, Kureel, AErua, Mudar, Andropogoneae, Pommereullia, OEgilops, Salvia, and Crotalaria aphylla.

Among the ravines and thence to Hussun Abdul, a new feature presents itself in the frequency of a largish Mimosa, probably that of the Khyber pass. This forms prettily wooded scenery, the white thorned Mimosa also occurs, Moacurra none, Euonymus, Bheir.

About Boorhan a Ficus becomes very common, Achyranthes, Kochia fructibus parvis, Salvia, Serratuloid of Ali-Baghan and Ichardeh. Paganum common—Adhatoda and Vitex. In scenery the country is pretty, particularly after passing the last river: a dampish spot was passed at Bhowli: a large Acacia, Melanoxylon and Pteris were found on the river banks. Dodonaea seen on low hills near Bhowli, as also Adiantum. Started at 5 hours 40 minutes and reached at 11.30; distance at least eighteen miles.

Hussun Abdul, is a pretty place, particularly the broken ground about the sacred stream, and the tank, in which Mahaseers abound; the water beautiful, many trees occur, especially Morus, Salix and Ficus.

Zyziphus is a fine tree here, Phoenix, Khuggur, Bukkein, Ficus, and Cupressus occur.

The jackdaw, mina, blue and chesnut kingfisher, a noisy bird. The small kingfisher, black and white kingfisher common: Myophonus, Pomatorrhinus.

21st.—The chief cultivation here is bajra, and Zea maize. The former produces a second crop from branches; hence it is left standing after the top spike, which is the largest, is picked; vegetation chiefly Indian, very few Affghan forms remaining, those of the hills are Mimosa, Adhatoda, and Euonymus.

The water plants are all decidedly tropical; no Epilobium seen since leaving Peshawar: Eclipta, Cyperaceae.

Trichodesma, Cannabis.

Fish have few engaging habits, the tame Mahaseers take no notice of any one until food is thrown to them.

Tagetes, Sud Buruk, is a curious genus, on account of its simple tubular involucrum, very entire and pappus florets, conduplicate in aestivation, all florets faeminine are ligulate; are the folded up ones representations of the males?

22nd.—To Janika Sung, seventeen miles: the country continues much the same. The road passes out of Hussun Abdul over a low stony elevation, and enters another valley, the exit from which is through the Maha Gullah: a large Serai is passed about two and a half miles from the Boorgi; in the Gullah near this, is a portion of a formed road. Janika Sung is a small village, about five miles from the Boorgi.

The face of the country is undulated, intersected by ravines, rather thickly covered with the large Mimosa and Bheir: the same may be seen in every direction.

Affghan plants have nearly ended, Moacurra and Euonymus alone continuing. At the Maha Gullah a Carissa, and a Zaitoon, Ehretioides. This defile is picturesque, the wood prettily contrasted with bits of grassy ground. Adhatoda in abundance.

The Maha Gullah was formerly a notorious place for robbers, but is now quite safe, which says much for the Seikh rule.

There was not much cultivation passed to-day, although most of the surface is fit for it: water is near the surface. The Maha Gullah range is composed of limestone.

The white-spined Mimosa and crooked-spined one change places, the former occupies uncultivated plains, the latter stony, undulated, or hilly ground.

Carissa certainly represents Jasminum.

On the Kaliki Serai plain the chief plant is Mimosa albispina, then Bheir—here and there patches of Leguminosa, like the Cytisoides, so common in Affghanistan. In the Bheir thickets Schoenanthus is common; Andropogon and Pommereullioid also occur.

In the Hussun Abdul river there is a species of Perilampus approaching to Leuciscus, but with faint bars. In the sacred stream there is a small Cyprinoid, probably a Systomus, with a conspicuous spot on either side near the tail: there is also a small loach.

The Mahaseer in the water is a handsome fish, the edges of the scales being then blackish, as is also the longitudinal line.

It is curious that all plants hitherto found parasitical on roots, have no green leaves; to this, marked exceptions exists in Cuscuta and Cassytha, such true-leaved parasites being found only on the ascending axis; this rule is so permanent, that species of certain genera, such as Burmannia, the bulk of which are not parasitical, have no leaves. The mode of attachment of all parasitical plants is I think the same, otherwise I should suspect the above difference to point to a marked one in the nature of the fluid derived from the stock: thus leafless plants might be supposed to induce no particular change in the fluid they imbibe, while the others might be supposed to elaborate their own from that of the stock.

There is another very remarkable circumstance connected with the most typical leafless parasites, in their very frequent limitation to the genus Cissus, on which perhaps all Rafflesiaceae and Cynomorieae are exclusively found.

My chief reason for supposing Sarcocodon to be Monocotyledonous, or rather Endogenous, is the ternary division of its parts, and if my supposition be correct, it tends to establish, if indeed other ample evidence did not exist, the great permanence and consequent value of this numerical character.

And with respect to Sarcocoidalis I shall adopt the same opinion, if I find on enquiry that a binary number, and imperfection of the female as compared with the male, are more characteristic of Endogenous than of Exogenous growth. This same genus I consider in both these characters to allude to some analogy with one or more Acrogenous divisions.

The establishment of the order of Rhizanths, as well as that of Gymnosperms, I consider as a retrograde step in Botanical science. It is totally opposed to all sound principles of classification, and is a proof that, in the nineteenth century, arbitrary characters are still sought for, and when found are obstinately maintained.

Even in the arbitrary character, which is considered as destructive of all their other claims to ordinary vegetable rank, there is no unison whatever, for Rafflesiaceae have ordinary ovula, while Sarcocoidalis very extraordinary.

The amount of testimony proving their analogy in germination to be with Acrogens, must be very strong before I am convinced that plants with perfect ovula as Rafflesia, etc. germinate from an indeterminate point, the existence of an aperture in the coats, points in the most marked manner to some part representing a radicle. With the exception perhaps of Sarcocoidalis, these plants differ in no respect whatever from other Phaenogamous vegetables; we have instances of the same parasitical growth, and instances of the same apparent want of a radicle or homogeneousness of embryo, and in the structure of the parts of the flower there is tolerably absolute general identity.

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