Friday.—Started at eight per Long Island Rail-way to Boston, Brooklyn, and Greenport, ninety-five miles; per rail thence to Stonington, thirty-two miles; per steamer in the Bay Sounds thence to Providence—a town of 15,000 inhabitants, where H.W. Doe is confined; and to Boston, forty-four miles: in all 218 in ten hours—the quickest travelling I have had; and proceeded to the Tremont-house. Read the English papers; and saw the account of my old friend T. Sidney being made sheriff and alderman in the same week, with the likelihood of his being Sir Thomas before I return. "Some men are born great, and others have greatness thrust upon them."
Population of Boston, 50,000.
Saturday morning.—I visited the Custom-house, by previous arrangement, to clear some pattern-cards. I could not help being strongly impressed with the contrast their Custom-house presented, when compared with some I could mention, and the attention, politeness, and good-humour with which its officers discharged their duties. They saw the force of my arguments at once, and let me have the books free of duty; and at their particular request I promised the Custom-house examiners one. They offered me any amount of money for it, which I declined to take. They are building a new Custom-house upon a large scale. The air here is very piercing—easterly winds prevail a great deal. The houses are bright, and have a gay appearance, the signboards are painted in such gaudy colours; the gilded letters are so very golden; the bricks so very red; the blinds and area-railings so very green; the plates upon the street-doors so marvellously bright and twinkling—and all so slight and unsubstantial in appearance. The suburbs are, if possible, more unsubstantial-looking than the city. The city is a beautiful one, and cannot fail to impress all strangers very favourably. The State-house is built upon the summit of a hill, which rises gradually by a steep ascent almost from the water's edge—a fine building, where all government operations are carried on, as at Albany, and elsewhere in the different states. From the top there is a charming panoramic view of the whole town and neighbourhood. In front is a green inclosure called the Common, a great benefit to the town. The docks are not very good: a great many ships lay over at East Boston. The Exchange is a very fine building, where the merchants congregate; but in fair weather a great deal of business is done in the streets. I wrote about thirty circulars to St. John's and Halifax, instead of going myself; and retired to rest at eleven.
Sunday morning, October 27th.—Attended the Trinity church, and heard a most impressive sermon by Bishop Eastburn, Ephesians iv. 17: "This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord, that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk, in the vanity of their minds." A wet, nasty day; read the Bible till dinner-time; thence to St. Paul's church to hear Dr. Vinton: he spoke so Yankee-like, I could not understand him at the distance I was. Very handsome churches they have here. Took a long walk all round the city; admired the neat houses they are building in all directions; and felt that the State of Massachusetts stood the highest in my estimation of any of the states I had yet visited. Spent the evening with Mr. Schofield, of Henry and Co.'s, Manchester—the most decided man of business I had met with for many a long day. It had been previously arranged that he should carry our patterns through all the states and Canada.
Monday morning.—Took a regular turn through amongst the importers of lace, and was thunderstruck at the enormous quantity of highly-respectable importers, certainly far exceeding New York and Philadelphia. They are first-rate business men: no auctions, which I detest: no overstocks, which will be the ruin of New York; well assorted, and in good condition. In fact, I felt as if I had been in an English town, for the men of business are more like English than Americans. They nearly all import—at least thirty first-rate men import—our goods. I experienced a great deal of civility from Mr. W. Appleton, and Mr. Ward, Barings' agent; and altogether was much pleased with my reception. Had not Mr. Schofield undertaken to receive our orders, I could have done a very large trade. I may here observe, the Tremont is one of the best houses in the states in every respect. Buckwheat cakes to breakfast; and they use the incredibly large quantity of 45 tons of butter per year.
Tuesday morning, the 29th.—A regular wet day; rained incessantly. Called upon all the lace-importers, and found them thorough men of business—very prompt: came to an understanding with nearly all that they would order through Mr. Schofield, of Henry and Co.'s, Manchester.
Wednesday morning.—Received my despatches per Great Western, and proceeded to Lowell per rail. I forget whether I described an American railroad before. There are no first and second class carriages, as with us, but gentlemen's cars and ladies' cars; and, as a black man never travels with a white one, there is a negro car. Each car holds from thirty to fifty. There is a stove blazing hot. Except where a branch-road joins the main one, there is seldom more than one track of rails. They rush across the turnpike-road, where there is no gate, no policeman, no signal. There is painted up, "When the bell rings, look out for the locomotive." I was met at Lowell by my fellow-passenger in the Western, Royal Southwick, intimately connected with the factories there. The first we visited was a cotton cloth and drill factory, where they make about 50,000 yards per day, all by water-power (the Merrimack), and have a couple of hundred girls employed. The good order and clean appearance of both factory and girls contrasted greatly with both in Lancashire. There are twenty-five mills here. We then visited a carpet manufactory, by machinery that reduces labour 75 per cent., and where some of the many girls employed make a dollar a-day. There is no manufactory like this in the world: there is a patent taken out by E.B. Bigelow to protect the carpet power-loom manufactory. They must be making money fast here. We then visited a cloth manufactory upon a large scale, where they employ about 800 hands; and the excellency of the cloth surprized me. They will have no occasion for English cloths much longer. All by water-power. The last place was a large cylinder print-works, where they produce some first-rate goods, and, I think, as cheap as ours. There are several factories in Lowell, each of which they call a corporation, as they are chartered. They employ about 8000 girls, who make 3-1/2 dollars per week, or 14 s. Their neat, clean, and healthy appearance pleased me much: they are well dressed; and, meeting them out, you would take them to be of a higher grade. They pay 1-1/2 dollar per week for lodgings, which are situated near, and belong to the different corporations. They are strictly moral and virtuous, and all contribute to a monthly publication called "The Lowell Offering," well worth reading. I saw the principal editors (young ladies), and ordered it for next year. The rooms in which they work are well arranged; and green plants are trained to shade the glass windows. The laws of the state forbid their working more than nine months in the year, and require that they shall be educated during the other three. There is a hospital or boarding-house for the sick, at 3 dollars per week: they do not often require its assistance, for in 1841 they had 100,000 dollars in the savings-bank. We visited the Mechanics' Reading-room—a large building, with papers from all parts.
The population of Lowell is 25,000; one of the most rising towns in the states. There are also Fall River, Taunton, Manchester, Great Falls, Dover, New Hampshire—all rising manufacturing places. In New England state there is no coal, which is a great drawback. I returned to Boston, and spent the evening with some friends.
Thursday.—Mr. Hanson drove me to Cambridge, to see the Universities. This is a clean, well-built town, with 8000 or 9000 inhabitants. The expense of education is 300 dollars; and if that cannot be paid, the students are educated free, subject to instructing others a little. There is no barrier here to the poorest man's son becoming the President, as free-schools abound. We then drove to Mount Auburn, a cemetery delightfully situated about five miles from Boston. They pay 4000 dollars for a lot for a family burying-place. Here some eminent men are interred. There are some beautiful walks over this one-hundred-acres plot of ground. We then drove round by Charlestown, a place of 10,000 inhabitants, where the Bostonians reside, well-situated; and so on to Bunker-hill Monument, where the battle was fought in 1775, when General James Warren fell: it is a very substantial mark of Jonathan conquering John. Bull. I then visited the Massachusetts State-house: the Congress-house and Representatives are very commodious. I ascended the top, which gives a most commanding view of the whole city: it was very clear, and the view was most extensive. Like New York, it is upon an island, surrounded (except a few yards) with the River Charles and the Ocean. Home to dinner, and gave my friends T. Cochrane and Mr. Schofield two bottles of champagne, it being my last day in the States. We then proceeded to Perkins's Institution for the Blind, managed by my fellow-passenger, Dr. Howe. We saw the gifted Laura Bridgman, whose biography I give elsewhere.[A] She is an interesting-looking girl, fifteen years old, deaf, dumb, blind, and no smell: still Providence makes her contented and happy: she can read and write, and understand geography with her fingers, and is blessed with the knowledge of Divine grace. It was truly interesting and gratifying to see the blind girls read and write and work, all so clean and neat in their persons, and apparently happy. Also the boys are instructed in a similar way, and, when ready, put out to some trade; and, if no master can be found, they instruct them in the institution to make mattresses, chair-bottoms, &c., several of whom I saw working. We then visited South Boston State Hospital for the Insane, at the head of which is Dr. Stedman, who conducts it admirably on the enlightened principles of conciliation and kindness, and evinces a confidence and apparent trust even in mad people. Each ward in this institution is shaped like a long gallery or hall; and, as we walked along, the patients flocked round us unrestrained, with all sorts of stories. I had ten minutes' talk with an elderly lady, who had a great many scraps of finery, of gauze, &c., which gave her a strange appearance: she fancied she was the hostess of the mansion. Another I talked to said she was Queen of the States. Another poor fellow, gentlemanly in appearance, said it was a hard run between him and Prince Albert who should have the Queen of England. He had written and received several letters from her. I discovered they had all some weak point, and the doctor gave me the cue. I felt quite at ease amongst them: nearly all are unrestrained; and, strange to say, they never talk to each other, or molest each other in any way. We then visited the House of Correction for the State, where about three-fourths of the expenses are paid by the prisoners' industry. It is a well-managed prison, with strict discipline: no conversation allowed, and all kept at work, both men and women: the latter are very bad to manage. Comfort and cleanliness are very apparent. We then visited the Orphan Asylum and House of Reformation for young offenders, and for neglected and indigent boys who have committed no crimes, but perhaps soon would if they were not taken from the hungry streets and sent here: this is called the Boylston School. There is the House of Industry for old, helpless paupers: these words are painted on the walls—"Self-government, quietude, and peace are blessings." This was a clean, neat place, with a plant or two on the window-sill, a row of crockery upon the shelf, or small display of coloured prints upon the whitewashed wall. We have no such sights in our unions.
[Footnote A: See Appendix.]
I left South Boston much gratified with all I had seen; but pleasure must have an alloy. My companion drove up against a cart in the dark, broke both shafts, the horse kicked the vehicle all to pieces, and how we escaped is wonderful. I got my knee bruised, and that was all. I retired to rest, grateful to Providence for my narrow escape.
Friday, and last day in America.—Saw the famed Dr. Channing's Unitarian chapel; and witnessed such a demonstration the previous night, with at least 10,000 boys, non-electors, parading the streets with torches, crying "Clay, of Ashland, near Lexington, Kentucky!" I really feel that I am leaving Boston with regret: I never was more pleased with any town, both in a business and social point of view. I have many kind and intelligent friends that I shall leave with regret. The Bostonians are more English in idea, smart to a degree, and well situated for commerce. The town and suburbs abound with charitable institutions of every description; and every article of living is half the price it is in England. I visited Famenil Hall, the oldest building in the town, and famed in American history.
In conclusion, my feelings prompt me to acknowledge, with a deep sense of gratitude to Messrs. Overend and Gurney, the very sympathetic and high-character letter they gave me to Messrs. Prime, Ward, and King, of New York, as I had taken the journey to recruit my health. From that letter emanated others to every town I visited, which at once placed me in communication with the most intelligent of men. I am further bound to add, contrary to the general opinion formed in England, that I met with the most open, frank, communicative people I ever came in contact with; and further I am bound to add, I frequently had occasion to blush for my own ignorance, both about Europe and America. To use a vulgar expression, they are a wide-awake people. Their cheap publications, their thirst for knowledge, and their naturally quick perceptions, place them above the level in society. That America must rise, and become a great country, is my earnest wish and belief. I do not like to individualize, but I feel an inward gratitude to many kind and dear friends whom T made in my short sojourn, whose study it was to make me happy, and my journey a pleasing one.
At one o'clock I paid my bill, and proceeded to East Boston, on board the Acadia; and set sail exactly at two o'clock, P.M., for England, with 25 passengers.
On leaving the harbour, on the right, we passed several small islands, and the Liverpool light and Dorchester heights, where the Orphan Asylum is situated on a lofty eminence. On the left we passed Lynn and Salem, and steamed it along in good style during the night.
Saturday morning, the 2nd November.—Spoke the Hibernia at eight o'clock, A.M.: about 130 passengers, all on deck, with whom we exchanged cheers as she passed. I was struck with the warlike appearance she had: whether it has been contemplated or not, I discovered that all these mailsteamers are admirably adapted for war: all they require are port-holes for cannon. They are made to Admiralty order, and cost L60,000 each. At six P.M. we passed the Devil's Limb, a rock close by Seal Island, where the Colombia was lost. The coast is dangerous between Boston and Halifax. The captain was up both nights.
Sunday morning, at seven.—I was aroused by the discharge of a brace of cannon, and on coming on deck I found we were in Halifax harbour. Population of this place is 20,000. Governed by Lord Falkland. Nova Scotia is about 300 miles in circumference. Staple of the town, fish: I should have thought dogs, for I saw some hundreds. It is a mean-looking town: nearly all wood houses: a very good fort and government-house. St. John's, New Brunswick, is 250 miles from here: population, 35,000: governed by Sir W. Colebrooke: staple, timber and deals, and whale-fishing. I intended visiting St. John's, but had not time. It was fortunate, as I should have been left behind. Owing to some breakdown, the mail did not arrive in Halifax in time for us: neither did the Quebec mail, by the Gulf of St. Lawrence, from Quebec, via Picton, 120 miles from Halifax, arrive; and, because Captain Harrison would not wait for these mails, the Governor would not allow him the Halifax: so we started at half-past ten, leaving them all behind. At Halifax I made the acquaintance of Mr. Howe, late of the Executive Council, and Collector of Excise, which he resigned: salary, L700 a year. He is now editor of the Nova Scotia newspaper. I shall not forget his politeness, although he is a red-hot Radical. They send whalers from Halifax to the South Seas. Opposite Halifax is Dartmouth, a town of 15,000 inhabitants, whence they send plaster and rum to the States. We passed St. George's Island, a battery, and the Thumb Cap, where the Tribune was lost. We also passed the Curzon and Devil's Island Beacon, and were much gratified by passing a fleet of men-of-war, the largest of which, the Illustrious, 74 guns, 700 hands, was in full sail, with a band of music playing and singing "Home, sweet home," which went to my very soul. They were bound for Bermuda, West India Islands. Their Admiral, Sir C. Adam, was on board, with sixteen officers. At five P.M. we were out of sight of land, steaming it along at ten knots.
PASSAGE HOME PER ACADIA.
Nov. 1st.—Light westerly winds, with fine clear weather. All sails set.
Lat. 42 deg. 57'; Long. 66 deg. 57' 87".
2nd.—Westerly winds, steady, with clear weather, and smooth water. Passed the Hibernia at eight A.M., from Liverpool, bound to Boston. At four saw Seal Island, bearing north: distance about seven miles. At daylight made Halifax harbour.
Lat. 42 deg. 20'; Long. 71 deg. 4'.
3rd.—At seven landed the mails. At eleven cast off from the wharf, and proceeded to sea. Light winds, westerly, with smooth water. All sails set.
394 miles. Lat. 44 deg. 39-1/2'; Long. 62 deg. 33-3/4'.
4th.—Winds from S.W. to N.W., light, with hazy weather, and small rain.
231 miles. Lat. 45 deg. 17'; Long. 58 deg. 0'.
5th.—Wind N.E., light, with fine clear weather, and smooth water. At eleven Cape Race, 10 miles distance, bearing to the east. At four exchanged signals with the brig Mary and Martha. Wind standing to the southward.
241 miles. Lat. 46 deg. 30'; Long. 52 deg. 47'.
6th.—Strong easterly gales, with dark cloudy weather, and a heavy sea running.
202 miles. Lat. 47 deg. 10'; Long. 47 deg. 56'.
7th.—Moderate breeze, and clear weather: wind easterly, with a head sea.
178 miles. Lat. 48 deg. 12'; Long. 44 deg. 17'.
8th.—Strong S.E. gales: dark gloomy weather, and heavy N.E. swell.
214 miles. Lat. 49 deg. 0'; Long. 39 deg. 0'.
9th.—Winds strong N.E. breezes, with drizzly rains: dark cloudy weather: heavy northerly swell running.
238 miles. Lat. 50 deg. 19'; Long. 33 deg. 12'.
10th, Sunday.—Light baffling winds, and clear weather, with a heavy northerly swell or sea. Performed Divine service at eleven A.M. This put me in mind of the pilot's song—
"Fear not, but trust in Providence, Wherever you may be."
256 miles. Lat. 50 deg. 31'; Long. 26 deg. 30'.
11th.—Strong southerly winds, with dark hazy weather, and a heavy sea running. Saw a vessel in distress. Hove-to, and found she was the John and Mary of Dublin, a perfect wreck, and deserted, the sea running over her, and for some minutes out of sight, except the masts.
244 miles. Lat. 50 deg. 30'; Long. 20 deg. 10'.
12th.—Strong breezes from the west: dark cloudy weather and rain, and heavy sea running.
280 miles. Lat. 50 deg. 54'; Long. 12 deg. 44'.
13th.—Strong breezes: thick hazy weather, with rain. At six A.M. made the land (Irish). Kinsale Light bearing North: distance, 10 miles. Noon, fine clear weather, with heavy southerly swell. Waterford Harbour Light bearing north: distance, 12 miles. At four P.M. spoke the Alexander Grant, from Quebec. Passed the Coningsby light-ship and Saltee Islands. Thence Cansore Point, county of Wexford, and Holyhead at eleven.
14th.—At seven A.M. arrived in Liverpool, and made the town echo with our cannon.
BIOGRAPHY OF LAURA BRIDGMAN.
She was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, on the 21st December, 1829. She is described as having been a very spritely and pretty infant, with bright blue eyes. She was, however, so puny and feeble until she was a year and a half old, that her parents hardly hoped to rear her. She was subject to severe fits, which seemed to rack her frame almost beyond her power of endurance, and life was held by the feeblest tenure; but when a year and a half old she seemed to rally, the dangerous symptoms subsided, and at twenty months old she was perfectly well. Then her mental powers, hitherto stinted in their growth, rapidly developed themselves; and during the four months of health which she enjoyed she appears (making due allowance for a fond mother's account) to have displayed a considerable degree of intelligence. But suddenly she sickened again: her disease raged with great violence during five weeks, when her eyes and ears were inflamed, suppurated, and their contents were discharged. But, though sight and hearing were gone for ever, the poor child's sufferings were not ended. The fever raged during seven weeks: for five months she was kept in bed in a darkened room. It was a year before she could walk unsupported, and two years before she could sit up all day. It was now observed that her sense of smell was almost entirely destroyed, and consequently that her taste was much blunted.
It was not until four years of age that the poor child's bodily health seemed restored, and she was able to enter upon her apprenticeship of life and the world. But what a situation was hers! The darkness and the silence of the tomb were around her;—no mother's smile called forth her answering smile; no father's voice taught her to imitate his sounds: brothers and sisters were but forms of matter which resisted not her touch, but which differed not from the furniture of the house save in warmth and in the power of locomotion, and not even in these respects from the dog and the cat.
But the immortal spirit which had been implanted within her could not die, nor be maimed, nor mutilated; and, though most of its avenues of communication with the world were cut off, it began to manifest itself through the others. As soon, as she could walk she began to explore the room, and then the house. She became familiar with the form, density, weight, and heat of every article she could lay her hands upon. She followed her mother, and felt her hands and arms as she was occupied about the house; and her disposition to imitate led her to do everything herself. She even learned to sew a little, and knit. The reader need scarcely be told, however, that the opportunities of communicating with her were very, very limited, and that the moral effects of her wretched state soon began to appear. Those who cannot be enlightened by reason can only be controlled by force; and this, coupled with her great privations, must soon have reduced her to a worse condition than that of the beasts that perish, but for timely and unhoped-for aid. At this time I was so fortunate as to hear of the child, and immediately hastened to Hanover to see her. I found her with a well-formed figure, a strongly-marked, nervous-sanguine temperament, a large and beautifully-shaped head, and the whole system in healthy action. The parents were easily induced to consent to her coming to Boston; and on the 4th October, 1837, they brought her to the Institution. For a while she was much bewildered; and after waiting about two weeks, until she became acquainted with her new locality and somewhat familiar with the inmates, the attempt was made to give her knowledge of arbitrary signs, by which she could interchange thoughts with others. There was one of two ways to be adopted—either to go on to build up a language of signs on the basis of the natural language which she had already commenced herself, or to teach her the purely arbitrary language in common use: that is, to give her a sign for every individual thing, or to give her a knowledge of letters, by combination of which she might express her idea of the existence, and the mode and condition of existence, of anything. The former would have been easy, but very ineffectual: the latter seemed very difficult, but, if accomplished, very effectual. I determined, therefore, to try the latter.
The first experiments were made by taking articles in common use, such as knives, forks, spoons, keys, &c., and pasting upon them labels with their names printed in raised letters. These she felt very carefully, and soon, of course, distinguished that the crooked lines spoon differed as much from the crooked lines key as the spoon differed from the key in form. Then small detached labels, with the same words printed upon them, were put into her hands, and she soon observed that they were similar to the ones pasted on the articles. She showed her perception of this similarity by laying the label key upon the key, and the label spoon upon the spoon. She was encouraged here by the natural sign of approbation—patting on the head. The same process was then repeated with all the articles she could handle, and she very easily learned to place the proper labels upon them. It was evident, however, that the only intellectual exercise was that of imitation and memory. She recollected that the label book was placed upon a book; and she repeated the process first from imitation, next from memory, with only the motive of love of approbation, but apparently without the intellectual perception of any relation between the things. After a while, instead of labels, the individual letters were given to her on detached bits of paper: they were arranged, side by side so as to spell book, key, &c.; then they were mixed up in a heap, and a sign was made for her to arrange them herself, so as to express the words book, key, &c., and she did so. Hitherto the process had been mechanical, and the success about as great as teaching a very knowing dog a variety of tricks. The poor child had sat in mute amazement, and patiently imitated everything her teacher did; but now the truth began to flash upon her—her intellect began to work. She perceived that here was a way by which she could herself make up a sign of anything that was in her own mind, and show it to another mind; and at once her countenance lighted up with a human expression: it was no longer a dog or parrot: it was an immortal spirit eagerly seizing upon a new link of union with other spirits! I could almost fix upon the moment when this truth dawned upon her mind. I saw that the great obstacle was overcome, and that henceforward nothing but plain and straightforward efforts were to be used. The next step was to procure a set of metal types, with the different letters of the alphabet cast upon their ends: also a board in which were square holes, into which holes she could set the types, so that the letters on their ends could alone be felt above the surface. She was exercised for several weeks in this way; and then the important step was taken of teaching her how to represent the different letters by the position of her fingers, instead of the cumbrous apparatus of the board and types. This was the period, about three months after she had commenced, that the first report of her case was made, in which it is stated "that she has just learned the manual alphabet as used by the deaf mutes; and it is a subject of delight and wonder to see how rapidly, correctly, and eagerly she goes on her with labours." At the end of the year a second report of her case was made, from which the following is an extract:—"It has been ascertained, beyond the possibility of doubt, that she cannot see a ray of light—cannot hear the least sound—and never exercises her sense of smell, if she have any. Of beautiful sights, and sweet sounds, and pleasant odours she has no conception: nevertheless, she seems as happy and as playful as a bird or a lamb; and the employment of her intellectual faculties, or the acquirement of a new idea, gives her a vivid pleasure, which is plainly marked in her expressive features."
She chooses for her friends and companions those children who are intelligent, and can talk best with her; and she evidently dislikes to be with those who are deficient in intellect, unless, indeed, she can make them serve her purposes, which she is evidently inclined to do. She takes advantage of them, and makes them wait upon her in a manner which she knows she could not exact from others; and in various ways she shows her Saxon blood.
* * * * *
Such are a few fragments from the simple, but most interesting and instructive, history of Laura Bridgman. The name of her great benefactor and friend who writes it is Dr. Howe. There are not many persons, I hope and believe, who, after reading these passages, can ever hear that name with indifference.
Indian corn—58 lbs. to the bushel: price, 49 c.
Columbus discovered America in 1492.
Mr. Rathbourn projected the City of the Falls, and built Buffalo; and was confined afterwards seven years for forgery.
Sir C. Metcalfe, Governor of Canada. Lord Falkland, " " Nova Scotia. Sir W. Colebrooke, " " New Brunswick. Sir John Harvey, " " Newfoundland. Captain Fitzroy, " " Prince Edward Isld.
Latitude is North and South: Longitude East and West.
A Geographical Mile is one-seventh more than a statute mile.
A Knot is a geographical mile.
Price of Negroes, 8 dollars to 1200 dollars. Females, 4 dollars to 600 dollars.
Tobacco is grown at— New Orleans. Petersburg } Richmond } Virginia. Maryland and Kentucky.
Lower and Upper Canada were united three years ago into one province. There are also St. John's, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia.
In Lower Canada eight-tenths are French, and in Upper Canada about equal.
500 bales of cotton are said to be used in New York yearly for ladies' fronts and bustles.
Soldiers in the States enlist for five years only.
G.M. weighed to-day, October 9, 149 lbs., or 10 st. 9 lbs.
Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Superior contain half the fresh water in the world.
Taxes on good land, say 50 dollars per acre, are as follows: State-tax, 15 cents per acre; county, 15 c.; road, 7 c. to 15 c.; horse, 30 c,. cow, 15 c. each; servant-man, 1 d. 50 c.; waggon, 2 d. 50 c.; dog, 50 c. If sheep are killed the State pays.
Representatives are for four years; get 4 dollars per day: State Senators for one year, 6 d.: Representatives to Congress, four years, 8 d.: Congressional Senators, four years, 12 d.: Governor of a State, two years, 5000 d. a year: has power of pardoning criminals, calling military out, &c.; Lieut.-Governor, two years, 2500 d. a year: he is Chairman of State Senators. Each State has a state attorney, secretary of state, treasurer, &c.
DUTIES. Barrel of wheat flour into Canada 2 s. for 196 lbs. Thence into England 7-1/2 d. for do.
Price of Wheat in the States 3 d. 75 c. per 60 lbs. Barley 3 d. 75 c. " Oats 3 d. 75 c. "
Wheat from Canada pays 3 s. per qr. (stationary).
Price in Kingston, Price in Price in Upp. Can. Canada. U.S. s. d. s. d. s. d. 3 6 Wheat, 60 lbs. or 32 qts. 3 9 3 0 1 6 Barley, 48 lbs. or 32 qts. 2 4 2 0 0 10-1/2 Oats, 36 lbs. or 32 qts. 1 3 1 0 Rye, 56 lbs. or 32 qts. 2 9 2 3
Flour, 196 lbs., 15 s., 18 s. 9 d., 2 1 s. 3 d., Montreal: 17 s., States.
A Cord of Wood is eight feet long, four wide, and four high, or 128 square feet: worth at Brockville, 1 d.; at Montreal, 3 d.
POPULATION OF THE STATES.
Free, or New England.
Number of Counties. Population.
Maine 13 501,793 New Hampshire 8 284,547 Vermont 14 291,948 Massachusetts 14 737,699 Rhode Island 5 108,830 Connecticut 8 309,978 North, New York 58 2,428,921 New Jersey 18 373,306 Pennsylvania 54 1,724,033 Delaware 3 780,085 Michigan 32 212,267
Ohio 79 1,519,467 Indiana 87 686,866 Illinois 87 476,183 Missouri 62 383,702
SOUTHERN SLAVE STATES.
Maryland 20 469,232 Virginia 119 1,239,797 North Carolina 68 753,419 South Carolina 29 594,398 Kentucky (S.W.) 90 779,828 Tennessee 72 829,210 Georgia 83 691,392 Alabama 79 590,756 Mississippi 56 375,651 Louisiana 39 352,411 Arkansas 39 97,574 ————— District Columbia (Slave) 2 43,712 Iowa Territory 18 43,112 Wisconsin Territory 22 30,945 Florida Territory (Slave) 20 54,447
CERTIFICATE OF NATURALIZATION.
"Be it remembered, that at a Nisi Prius, holden by one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in and for the Eastern District, a Court of Record, on the tenth day of October, in the year of Our Lord One thousand eight hundred and forty-two, Edwin Williams, a native of England, exhibited a petition, praying to be admitted to become a Citizen of the United States; and it appearing to the said Court that he had declared on oath, before the Prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania for the Eastern District, on this day, that it was bona fide his intention to become a Citizen of the United States, and to renounce for ever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty whatsoever, and particularly to the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of whom he was at that time a subject; and the said Edwin. Williams having on his solemn oath declared, and also made proof thereof according to law, to the satisfaction of the Court, that he had resided within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States of America three years next preceding his arriving at the age of twenty-one years, and continued to reside therein to the time of making his application; that, including the three years of his minority, he had resided one year and upwards, last past, within the State of Pennsylvania, and within the limits and under the jurisdiction of the United States five years and upwards; and that during the three years next preceding it had been bona fide his intention to become a Citizen of the United States, and that during that time he had behaved as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the same; and having declared on his solemn oath, before the said Court, that he would support the Constitution of the United States, and that he did absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, potentate, state, and sovereignty whatsoever, and particularly to the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of whom he was before a subject; and having in all respects complied with the laws in regard to Naturalization, thereupon the Court admitted the said Edwin Williams to become a Citizen of the United States, and ordered all the proceedings aforesaid to be recorded by the Prothonotary of the said Court, which was done accordingly.
"In witness whereof I have hereunto affixed the seal of the said Court at Philadelphia, this tenth day of October, in the year One thousand eight hundred and forty-two, and of the Sovereignty and Independence of the United States of America the sixty-seventh.
"J. SIMON COHEN, Prothonotary."
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Palmer and Clayton. Crane-court, Fleet-street.