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James VI and the Gowrie Mystery
by Andrew Lang
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Hay, Peter, on Henderson and the Falkland ride, 45

Heddilstane, 196; receipts from Logan to him forged by Sprot, 199; blackmailed by Sprot, 199

Henderson, Andrew, with the Master of Ruthven at Gowrie House, 43; accompanies the Master on a mission to James at Falkland, and sent with a message to Gowrie, 44; enjoined by Gowrie to keep this ride secret, 44, 45; Robertson's evidence respecting his presence in the death chamber, 60, 61; other theories on the same, 61 note; his flight after the affray, 60, 62; proclaimed by Galloway as the man in the turret, 63: reasons for his flight, 64; examined before the Lords, 64; his narrative of the events leading to the tragedy, 64; incidents at Falkland, 65; the Master's message to Gowrie, 65; bidden to put on a coat of mail by Gowrie, 66; waits on the King at dinner, 65; sent to the Master in the gallery, 66; locked in the turret by the Master, 66; accordance of his account of the final scenes in the tragedy with that of the King, 66; states that he threw the dagger out of the Master's hand, 66; discrepancies in his later deposition, 67; in his second deposition omits the statement that he deprived the Master of his dagger, 67; his version of the words exchanged between the Master and James in the turret chamber, 68; the question of his disarming the Master, 69; on what was his confession modelled, 70; clings to the incident of the garter, 70; the most incredible part of his narrative, 70; perils to him in listening to treasonable proposals from the Ruthvens, 72; Robert Oliphant's statement contrasted with his, 75, 77; quarrels with Herries, 77, 78; Rev. Mr. Bruce's attitude towards his deposition, 103, 104; said to have been induced by the Rev. Mr. Galloway to pretend to be the man in the turret, 114; share in the Gowrie affair, 145; questioned by Moncrieff, 145

Henry, Prince (son of James VI and his heir), in the charge of Mar, 138

Heron, Captain Patrick, his career, 76 note; seizes, by commission, Oliphant's portable property and claps him in prison in the Gate House of Westminster, 76; compelled to restore Oliphant's property, 77

Herries, Dr., at the King's hunt at Falkland, 12; at Gowrie House when the Ruthvens were killed, 20, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31; his share in the affray, 59, 85; wounded by Cranstoun, 74; quarrels with Henderson, 77; knighted and rewarded, 78; fable of his prophecy to Beatrix Ruthven, 131

Hewat, Rev. Peter, accepts James's narrative, 102, 103; at Sprot's examination, 186, 217, 220, 226

History of the Kirk of Scotland (MS.), cited, 164

Hogg, Rev. William (minister of Aytoun), on the Logan plot-letters, 243

Home, Lady, aware of Logan's desire to obtain Dirleton, 207, 208

Home, (sixth) Lord, in communication with Bothwell, 129, 130, 152, 205, 206, 207

Home, Lord (Logan's uterine brother), 184, 187, 205; Logan's contempt for him as a conspirator, 237

Home, William (sheriff clerk of Berwick), on the Logan plot-letters, 243

Horne, John (notary in Eyemouth), on the Logan plot-letters, 243

Horse, King James's, his part in the Gowrie mystery, 22

Hudson, Mr. (James's resident at the Court of England), interviews the King and Henderson on the transactions in the turret chamber, 67, 69 note; his explanation of the origin of differences between the King's narrative and Henderson's evidence, 69

Hume of Cowdenknowes (married to Gowrie's sister Beatrix), 124

Hume of Godscroft, on a message from the Earl of Angus to Gowrie's father in conspiracy, 121, 122

Hume of Manderston, 187

Hume of Rentoun, 196

Hume, Sir George, of Spot, 64

* * * * *

JAMES VI of Scotland, married to Anne of Denmark, 2; early life and character, 4; his version of the Gowrie mystery, 6; reasons for doubting his guilt, 7; untrustworthiness of his word, 8; substantial character of his tale, 9; love of the chase, 11; political troubles, 11; hunting costume, 12; concerning him, facts drawn from Lennox, 13 et seq.; starts for the hunt in Falkland Park, 13; the Master of Ruthven interviews him before the hunt, 13; goes to Gowrie's house, 14; observers' accounts of the transactions implicating him, 20-34; his dinner at Gowrie House, 20; goes upstairs on a quiet errand, 20; Cranstoun's statement that the King had ridden away, 20; search for him in the house, 21; Gowrie confirms his departure, 22; but—the King's horse still in the stable, 22; heard calling from the window, 23; struggle with the Master of Ruthven, 24, 25, 26; the man in the turret behind the King's back, 25; sanctions the stabbing of the Master of Ruthven by Ramsay, 26; shut up in the turret, 29, 30; kneels in prayer in the chamber bloody with the corpse of Gowrie, 32; his own narrative of the affair, 35 et seq.; theory of the object of the Ruthvens, 37; the Master of Ruthven's statement to him of the cloaked man and the pot full of coined gold pieces, 39; suspects the Jesuits of importing foreign gold for seditious purposes, 40; his horror of 'practising Papists,' 40; hypothesis of his intended kidnapping, 37, 42; importance of the ride of the Master and Henderson to Falkland and its concealment to the substantiation of his narrative, 44, 45, 46; asserts Henderson's presence at Falkland, 46; rides, followed by Mar and Lennox, after the kill to Perth, 47; surmises regarding Ruthven, 47; motives for the Master acquiring his favour regarding the Abbey of Scone, 48; asks Lennox if he thinks the Master settled in his wits, 48; pressed by the Master to come on and see the man and the treasure, 48; met by Gowrie with sixty men, 49; presses the Master for a sight of the treasure, 49; the Master asks him to keep the treasure a secret from Gowrie, 49; Gowrie's uneasy behaviour while the King dines, 49, 50; despatches Gowrie to the Hall with the grace-cup, and follows the Master alone to the turret to view the treasure, 50, 51; the question of the doors he passed through to reach the turret chamber and their locking by the Master, 51, 52, 53, 54; threatened by the Master with the dagger of a strange man in the turret chamber, 55; denounced for the execution of the Master's father, 56; his harangue to the Master excusing his action, and promising forgiveness if released, 56; Ruthven goes to consult Gowrie, leaving him in the custody of the man, 56; questions the man about the conspiracy, 57; orders the man to open the window, 58; the Master returns and essays to bind his hands with a garter, 58; struggles with the Master and shouts Treason from the window, 58; rescued by Ramsay, who wounds the Master, 59; returns to Falkland, 59; Henderson's narrative of events, 60 et seq.; his interview with the Master and journey to Gowrie House, 65; at dinner, 65; Henderson's account of the struggle in the turret chamber mainly in accord with the King's narrative, 66; discrepancy between his and Henderson's accounts of the disarming of Ruthven, 69, 104; causes Oliphant to be lodged in the Gate House, Westminster, 76; subsequently releases him and restores his property, 76, 77; maintains his to be the true account of the Gowrie affair and disregards discrepancies in evidence, 78; on the way to Gowrie House had informed Lennox of Ruthven's tale of the pot of gold, 94; theory of his concoction of the tale, 95; despatches Preston to Elizabeth with his version of the Gowrie affair, 96; rates the Edinburgh preachers for refusing to thank God for his delivery from a 'Gowrie plot,' 101; reasons for his ferocity towards the recalcitrant preachers, 102; his alleged 'causes' for the death of Gowrie, 104; Bruce states that he is convinced, on Mar's oath chiefly, of his innocence, 106; under interrogation by Bruce, 107, 108; subsequent persecution of Bruce, 109; objections taken by contemporary sceptics to his narrative, 111-117; grounds for a hereditary feud between him and Gowrie, 118; early years of his reign, 119; the Raid of Ruthven, 119; his acquiescence in the execution of Gowrie's father, 123; Arran's influence over him, 119, 123; suspected of favouring the Catholic earls of the North, 124; Gowrie, Atholl and Bothwell in alliance against him, 125; their manifesto to the Kirk, 125; Gowrie's relique at Padua forwarded to him by Sir Robert Douglas, 127; early correspondence with Gowrie, 127; his alleged jealousy of Gowrie, 130; gives Gowrie a year's respite from pursuit of his creditors, 131; thwarted by Gowrie in his demands for money, 131; romantic story of his discovery of the Queen's ribbon on the Master's neck, 132; his letters inviting Atholl, the Master and Gowrie to Falkland, 134, 135, note; his motives for killing both the Ruthvens, 139, 140; method attributed to him by his adversaries on which he might have carried out a plot against the Ruthvens, 142; plots against him encouraged by the English Government, 161; his life aimed at by witchcraft, 198. See 'The Verie Manner of the Erll of Gowrie,' &c.

Jesuits, suspected by James of importing foreign coin for seditious purposes, 40

* * * * *

KEITH, Andrew, at Padua, 126, 248

Ker, George (Catholic intriguer with Spain), 154

Ker of Newbattle, at Padua with Gowrie, 248

Ker, Robert, of Newbattle, at Padua, 126

Kirk, the, the King's version of the Gowrie plot discredited by, 36

Kirkcaldy of Grange, in defence of Edinburgh Castle, 152; hanged on the fall of the castle, 153

* * * * *

LENNOX, Duke of, at the King's hunt in Falkland Park, 12, 47; his account of what followed, 13 et seq.; accompanies James to Gowrie House, 14; his opinion of the Master of Ruthven and the story of the pitcher of gold coins, 14; at Gowrie House with the King, 19; his version and that of others of the transactions which brought about the deaths of Gowrie and the Master, 20-34; questioned by James as to the sanity of the Master, 48; informed by James of the Master's story of the gold coins, 94, 95; at the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 86, 88, 119, 124; married to Gowrie's sister Sophia, 124

Lesley, suspected as the man in the turret, 62

Letter I (Logan to—), 167, 174, 185, 188, 189, 196, 200, 216, 217, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 257, 258

Letter II (Logan to Bower), 183, 184, 185, 188, 189, 195, 205, 208, 224, 228, 229, 239, 258, 259

Letter III (Logan to—), 200, 216, 217, 223, 224, 228, 232, 233, 234, 235, 239, 259, 260

Letter IV (Logan to Gowrie), cited, 166, 167, 170, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 182, 186, 187, 190, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196, 197, 199, 202, 206, 207, 215, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 260-263

Letter V (Logan to—), 200, 215, 216, 217, 223, 224, 228, 232, 233, 234, 235, 263, 264

Lindores, at the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 19, 20, 21

Lindsay, James, at Padua with Gowrie, 126, 248

Lindsay, Lord, surety for Lord Robert Stewart, 153

Lindsay, Rev. David, sent to tell James's story of his escape from the Gowrie plot at the Cross, Edinburgh, 101

Lindsay, Sir Harry, Laird of Kinfauns, Sprot withdraws his charge against him, 217

Locke, Henry (Cecil's go-between and agent in conspiracy against James), 160

Logan, Matthew, 187, 189, 193, 203; bearer of letters from Logan to Bower, 211, 212, 213; account of Bower's reception of them, 213; denies every word attributed to him by Sprot, 213, 220

Logan, Sir Robert (father of Logan of Restalrig), 150, 205, 206

Logan of Restalrig, his name on Bothwell's list of Catholic nobles, 129; surety for Lord Robert Stewart, 153; marries Elizabeth Macgill, and is divorced from her, 153; on terms both with Protestant and Catholic conspirators, 154, 155, 156; diplomatic ambitions, 156; on the packed jury which acquits Archibald Douglas, 157; relations with the Master of Gray, 157; a partisan, with Gowrie's father, of Bothwell, 157; helps himself to the plate-chest of Nesbit of Newton, 158; bound over not to put Fastcastle in the hands of the King's enemies, 158; his character from Lord Willoughby, 159; intimacy with the Mowbrays, 160; sells all his landed property at the time of the Gowrie plot, 161, 205; erratic behaviour previous to his death, 161; death, 161, 162; compromising papers from him found on his notary Sprot, 162; under torture Sprot confesses these papers to be his own forgeries, 162; on examination before the Privy Council Sprot persists in Logan's complicity in the Gowrie plot, 163, 170; his exhumed remains brought into court and tried for treason, 164; compromising letters, 164, 165; his family forfeited, 165; production of alleged plot-letters at his posthumous trial, 168, 175; contents of Letter IV to Gowrie, 176; use made of the letters by the Government, 179, 181; letters from and to Gowrie, 183; letter to Bower, 183, 184, 185; conduct immediately before and after Gowrie's death, 187; his scheme to get possession of Dirleton, 189; his keep Fastcastle, where it is said James was to have been carried, 193; charge of conspiracy to murder James made in the Indictment in his posthumous trial, 193; faint evidence that he was connected with the Gowrie plot, 194; with Bower at Coldinghame on the failure of the plot, 195; memorandum to Bower and Bell, 195; singular behaviour in trusting his letters to Bower, 202; burns Ruthven's and Clerk's letters, 202; letter to Baillie of Littlegill, 202; events at his Yule at Gunnisgreen, 203; takes Sprot into his confidence, 204; discourages the idea of bringing Lord Home into the plot, 207, 208; conversation with Lady Home about Dirleton, 208; his visit to London, 210; letter to Bower, and Sprot's answer, 211; fears the effect of Bower's rash speeches, 212; forged letters attributed to him, 215, 216, 217; partner in a ship with Lord Willoughby, 218; his letter to Gowrie the model for Sprot's forgeries, 177, 221; motives for his sale of his lands, 228

Logan, Robert (son of Logan of Restalrig and Elizabeth Macgill), 153

Lords of the Articles, the, the Gowrie case before, 8; the Logan trial before, 165

Lumisden, Rev. Mr., present when Sprot confessed to forgery of letters, 186; at the examination of Sprot, 226

Lyn, tailor, Mr. Robert Oliphant's confidences to him about the Gowrie plot, 73, 75

* * * * *

MACBRECK, witness of the attack on Gowrie, 29

Macgill, Elizabeth, married to Logan of Restalrig, and divorced from him, 153

Maitland of Lethington, 152

Man, the, in the turret, 35, 55, 56, 57, 62, 72

Mar, Earl of, at the King's hunt at Falkland, 12, 47; with James at Gowrie House, 23, 24, 26, 32; at the Gowrie slaughter, 86, 88; assures the preacher Bruce of the truth of the King's narrative, 104, 105; is told by Bruce that he will accept the verdict in the Gowrie case but not preach Gowrie's guilt, 105; entrusted by James with the care of Prince Henry, 138; the Queen's plots against him, 138

Mary of Guise (James's grandmother), 118

Mary Queen of Scots and the Casket Letters, 5, 7, 8; declares that Ruthven (Gowrie's grandfather) persecuted her by his lust, 119

Mason, Peter, 190

Masson, Dr., on the Gowrie mystery, 5

Matthew, Toby (Dean of Durham), Bothwell's statement to him, 251

Maul, one of Sprot's victims, 203

Maxwell, Lord, cited, 193

Melville, Sir Robert, his treachery in procuring the conviction of Gowrie's father, 120-122

Moncrieff, Hew, present at the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 29, 32; at the fight in the death chamber, 60; proclaimed, 63; puzzled regarding the Master's early ride from Perth to Falkland, 137

Moncrieff, John, questions Henderson as to the ride to Falkland, 44, 145; on Gowrie's silence as to his knowledge of the King's approach, 45; on Gowrie's actions on the morning of the fatal 5th, 137

Montrose (Chancellor), 64; desires the preachers to thank God in their churches for the King's 'miraculous delivery,' 100

Montrose, the Master of, conspiring against James, 125

Moray, Earl, his alleged relations with Queen Anne, 2

Morton, Regent, confines Lord Robert Stewart in Linlithgow Castle, 153

Mossman, imprisoned for share in the Gowrie plot, 203

Mowbray, Francis, intriguing with Cecil against James, 159; imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle, and killed in trying to escape therefrom, 160

Mowbray, Philip, of Barnbogle, surety for Lord Robert Stewart, 153; intriguing with Cecil against James, 159

Moysie, David, probable writer of the Falkland letter, after the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 38 note; 100

Murray, George, in attendance on James, 12

Murray, John of Arbany, in attendance on James, 12; with James at the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 24, 25, 26, 32, 61; wounded by a Ruthven partisan, 88

Murray, Sir David, on Gowrie's speech against James's demands for money, 131

Murray of Tullibardine, in Perth at the time of the Gowrie tragedy, 28

* * * * *

NAISMITH (surgeon), with James at the Falkland hunt, 47

Napier, Mr. Mark, on Sprot's alleged forgery of the Logan letters, 172, 173, 222; denies that any compromising letters were found, 178

Napier of Merchistoun, his contract as to gold-finding with Logan of Restalrig, 171

Nesbit, William, of Newton, robbed by Logan, 158

Neville, recommends Gowrie to Cecil as a useful man, 130

Nicholson, George (English resident at the Court of Holyrood), his account of James's Falkland letter on the Gowrie case, 38; on Robert Oliphant's indiscretions of speech, 74; communicates to Cecil Oliphant's statement respecting Cranstoun and Henderson 75 note; refers to a book on the Ruthven side published in England, 82; cites the King's letter to the Privy Council regarding the Gowrie plot, 100, 102; informs Cecil of Gowrie's conversion to Catholicism, 128

* * * * *

OLIPHANT of Bauchiltoun, brother of Robert, 77

Oliphant, Robert, identified by the first proclamation as the man in the turret, 62; proves an alibi, 62, 72; his confidences to tailor Lyn anent his foreknowledge of the Gowrie plot, 73; denounces the hanging of Cranstoun, and affirms the guilt of Henderson, 75; avers that Gowrie proposed to him in Paris the part offered to Henderson, 75; seeks to divert Gowrie from his project, 75; his portable property seized by Captain Heron, and himself imprisoned, 76; released by James and goes abroad, 76; property subsequently restored, 77; his statement contrasted with Henderson's, 77; cited, 144

* * * * *

PADUA University, 126

Panton, Mr., on Henderson at Falkland, 64 note; his defence of the Ruthvens, 80; refers to a contemporary vindication, 80

'Papers relating to the Master of Gray,' cited, 158

Paul, Sir James Balfour, on the Gowrie arms, 245

Perth, gathering of the burgesses of, before Gowrie House on the day of the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 30, 32

Pitcairn, on Bruce's interrogation of the King, 109; discovery and publication of Logan of Restalrig's alleged plot-letters, 169

Pittencrieff, Laird of, at Gowrie House on the day when the Ruthvens were killed, 23

Popular contemporary criticism on the King's narrative, 111-117

Preachers of Edinburgh, the, summoned before the Privy Council to hear the King's letter on the Gowrie plot read, 99, 100; desired by Montrose to thank God for the King's 'miraculous delivery,' 100; their reply to that request, 100, 101; taken to task by James for refusing to thank God for his delivery from a Gowrie 'conspiracy,' 101; their defence, 101, 102; James's punishment of the recalcitrants, 102; before the King at Stirling, 103-106; summon Gowrie home to be the leader of the Kirk, 140

Preston, sent by James to Elizabeth with his version of the Gowrie affair, 96; his account to Sir William Bowes, 97 note

Primrose (Clerk of Council), attests the record of Sprot's examination, 201, 210

Privy Council, Scottish, receipt of a letter from James containing an account of the Gowrie plot, 99; the preachers summoned to hear it read, and desired by the Chancellor to thank God in their churches for the King's escape, 99, 100; report to James that the preachers will not praise God for his delivery, 101

* * * * *

RAID of Ruthven, the, 119

Ramsay, John, in attendance on James, 12; his share in the proceedings at Gowrie House which led to the deaths of the Gowries, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 33, 53, 97; takes part in the slaughter of the Master of Ruthven, 26, 85; kills the Earl of Gowrie, 31

Ray, Andrew (a bailie of Perth), at Gowrie House on the day of the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 21, 24

Restalrig House, 149, 150

Restalrig, Lady (Logan's wife), 189; her agitation on the knowledge of the Logan conspiracy, 204; blames Bower for the selling of Fastcastle, 204; her postscript to Logan's letter to Bower after his death, 215; distressed at Logan's conduct, 220; her daughter by Logan, 220

Restalrig Loch, 149, 150

Restalrig village, 148, 149, 150, 151

'Return from Parnassus,' the, quoted, 126

Rhynd, Mr. (Gowrie's tutor), at Padua with Gowrie, 126; at Gowrie House when the Ruthvens were killed, 32; tells of the ride to Falkland, 45, 46; gives the key of the gallery to the Master, 66; on Gowrie's views as to secrecy in plots, 144

Robertson, Rev. Mr. (Edinburgh preacher), accepts James's narrative, 102

Robertson, William (notary of Perth), his evidence of what he saw near the death chamber, 60, 61, 97

Roll of Scottish scholars at Padua, 126

Rollock, Mr. (tutor to Gowrie and the Master), 56, 124

Ruthven, Alexander, the Master of (Gowrie's brother), attributed relations with the Queen, 3; plot to seize the King, 7; Lennox's version of events, 13 et seq.; interviews James before the hunt in Falkland Park, 13; induces the King to visit Perth, to see the pot of gold coins, 14; his actions at Gowrie House after the King's arrival, 19; observers' accounts of the transactions which led to his death, 24-34; stabbed by Ramsay, 26; James's own narrative of the affair, 35 et seq.; the King's interview with the Master, 39; the cloaked man and the lure of the pot of gold pieces, 39-42; his suggested project of kidnapping James, 42; was accompanied by Henderson in his mission to James at Falkland, 43, 44; alleged differences with his brother over the Abbey of Scone, 48, 49; enjoins on James to keep the treasure a secret from Gowrie, 49; conducts the King alone to view it, 50; duplicity in securing this privacy, 51; suspicious conduct in locking doors of rooms passed through, 51, 52, 53; threatens the King with a dagger, 55; James harangues him and promises forgiveness, 56; goes to consult Gowrie, leaving James in the custody of the man in the turret, 56; returns and essays to bind the King's hands with a garter, 58; struggles with the King, 58; Ramsay enters and stabs him, 59; he is driven down stairs, and killed by Erskine and Herries, 59; further details given by Henderson, 62 et seq.; his message to Gowrie by Henderson from Falkland, 65; locks Henderson in the turret, 66; Henderson's narrative of the struggle with the King, 66; words exchanged with James in the turret chamber, 68; the 'promise,' 68; question of his disarming, 69; romantic story of the King's discovery of the Queen's ribbon round his neck, 132; gossip about his relations with the Queen, 133

Ruthven, Alexander (cousin of the Earl of Gowrie), at the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 29, 32; letter to Logan, 183, 184

Ruthven, Andrew, with the Master, at Gowrie House, on the day of the slaughter, 43, 157; rides with the Master and Henderson to Falkland, 45, 64, 65; asserts the despatch of Henderson by the Master from Falkland to acquaint Gowrie of the King's coming, 45, 46, 145

Ruthven, Beatrice (Gowrie's sister), Queen Anne's favourite maid of honour, 13, 124, 131

Ruthven, Harry, present at the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 29

Ruthven, Lord (Gowrie's grandfather), his part in the murder of Riccio, 118

Ruthven, Mary (sister of Gowrie), married to the Earl of Atholl, 123

Ruthven, Patrick (Gowrie's brother), 124

Ruthven, Sophia (sister of Gowrie), married to Lennox, 124

Ruthven Vindication, the contemporary, 80-93, 252-256

Ruthven, William (Gowrie's brother), 124, 129

* * * * *

ST. TRIDUANA'S Chapel, 150, 151

Salisbury, Marquis of, in possession of genuine letters of Logan, viii, 241

Sanderson, William, on the Gowrie arms, 250

Scone, Abbey of, in the Gowrie inheritance, 48, 54

Scott, Rev. John, his Life of John, Earl of Gowrie, cited, 80 note, 248; on the Gowrie arms and seal, 250, 251

Scott, Sir Walter, cited, 5

Scrymgeour, Sir James (Constable of Dundee), accused falsely by Sprot, 217

Smith, Rev. Alexander, on the Logan plot-letters, 242

Spottiswoode, Archbishop of Glasgow, his opinion of Sprot, 178; kept in the dark as to the Logan letters, 179; present at Sprot's examination, 176, 201, 210

Sprot (Logan of Restalrig's law agent), arrested by Watty Doig, 162; confesses that he knew beforehand of the Gowrie conspiracy, 162; tortured, and in part recants, 162; persists in maintaining Logan of Restalrig's complicity in the Gowrie conspiracy, 163, 170; question of his forgery of letters to prove Logan's guilt, 170, 171; motive for forging the letters, 172; confesses to the forgery in private examinations, 173; records of those examinations in possession of the Earl of Haddington, 173; letters quoted from memory by him, 175; the indictment against him, 176, 177; Sir William Hart's official statement of his trial, 177, 178; use made by the prosecution of the Logan letters, 179; his tale of Logan's guilt, 182; sources of his knowledge, 183, 184; discrepancies in his statements, 184, 185; preachers present at his confession of forgery, 186; his written deposition, 186; the cause for which he forged, 187; his conflicting dates, 188; his account of Logan and Bower's scheme to get Dirleton, 189; excuses for the discrepancies in his dates, 192; asserts that Logan let Bower keep his letter to Gowrie for months, 195; steals that letter, 194; confesses to the forgery of Logan's letter to Bower, 195; and to that of Logan's memorandum to Bower and Bell, 196; blackmailing operations, 196, 197; forges receipts from Logan to Heddilstane for blackmailing purposes, 199; his uncorroborated charges, 202, 203; in the confidence of Logan, 204; his account of Logan's revels in London, 210; goes with Matthew Logan to Bower to give answers to Logan's letters, 211; denies that he had received promise of life or reward, 214; reports an incriminating conversation with Matthew Logan, 214; confesses forging, for blackmailing purposes, Logan's letters to Chirnside and the torn letter, 215; swears to the truth of his last five depositions, 217; on Logan's ship venture with Lord Willoughby, 219; solemnly confesses to the forgery of the letters in Logan's hand, 220; details respecting the letter of Logan to Gowrie on which he modelled his forgeries, 220, 221, 222, 223; the letter found in his kist, 224; copies endorsed by him found among the Haddington MSS., 224, 225; oral discrepancies, 225; tried and hanged at Edinburgh, 226; protestations on the scaffold, 226; small effect of his dying confession on the Kirk party, 227; motives which prompted his forgeries, 227-231

Stewart, Colonel, his part in the arrest and the conviction of Gowrie's father, 11, 120, 122; dreads Gowrie's revenge, 140

* * * * *

'THE Verie Manner of the Erll of Gowrie and his brother, their death, &c.,' a manuscript written in vindication of the Ruthvens, received by Carey, and forwarded to Cecil, 81; conspectus of its arguments: Dr. Herries shown the secret parts of Gowrie House a day or two before the tragedy, 82; preparations by Gowrie's retainers on the fatal day to accompany him to Dirleton, 82; the visit of the Master to Falkland, accompanied by Ruthven and Henderson, 83; the Master sends Henderson to Gowrie with a message that the King will visit him 'for what occasion he knew not,' 83; the Master tells Craigengelt that Abercromby brought the King to Gowrie House to take order for his debt, 83, 84; James accompanied to Perth by sixty horsemen, 84; Gowrie advertised of the King's approach by Henderson, 84; James meets Gowrie on the Inch of Perth and kisses him, 85; a hurried dinner, 85; the keys of the house handed to Gowrie's retainers, 85; the slaughter of the Master in the presence of four of James's followers, 85; a servant of James brings the news that he has ridden off, 85; Gowrie hears his Majesty call from the window that the Master is killed by traitors and James himself in peril, 86; Gowrie and Cranstoun alone permitted by James's servants to enter the House, 86; Sir Thomas Erskine's dual role, 86; the true account of Gowrie's death, 87; the question of Henderson's presence at Falkland, 83, 87, 92; derivation of the narrative, 87; on the payment by Gowrie of his father's debts, 87; points on which the narrative is false, 86-88; points ignored, 88, 89; presents a consistent theory of the King's plot, 89; conflicting statements, 89, 90, 91, 92; the detail of the locked door, 92

'True Discourse,' quoted on the doors leading to the turret, 52

'True Discovery of the late Treason, the' (unpublished MS.), on the Gowrie family, 48

Tullibardine, Young, at the slaughter of the Earl of Gowrie, 28, 33; effort to relieve the King, 60; helps to pacify the populace after the tragedy, 88

Tytler, Mr., cited, on James VI, 5; on the King's account of the Gowrie tragedy, 41, 42; on Logan's plot-letters, 169

* * * * *

URCHILL, present at the slaughter of the Gowries, 19

* * * * *

VINDICATION of the Ruthvens, the contemporary, 80 et seq., 252 et seq.

* * * * *

WALLACE, asks Sprot for silence on Logan's conspiracy, 187

Watson, Rev. Alexander, on the Logan plot-letters, 242

Wilky, Alexander, surety for John Wilky not to harm tailor Lyn, 73, 74

Wilky, John, his pursuit of tailor Lyn for revealing Robert Oliphant's confidences respecting the Gowrie plot, 73, 74

Willoughby, Lord, kidnaps Ashfield, 139; his opinion of Logan of Restalrig, 159; builds a ship for protection of English commerce, 218; offers the venture to Cecil if subsidised by government, 218, 219; admits Logan to the venture, 218, 219; dies suddenly on board his ship, 219

Wilson (Erskine's servant), at the slaughter of the Ruthvens, 27, 30, 31, 85

* * * * *

YOUNGER, suspected as the man in the turret, 62

* * * * *

Spottiswoode & Co. Ltd. Printers, New-street Square, London.



Footnotes:

{0a} Longmans, Green, & Co., 1871.

{7} See The Mystery of Mary Stuart. Longmans, 1901.

{12a} Extracted from the Treasurer's Accounts, July, August, 1600. MS.

{12b} The King's Narrative, Pitcairn's Criminal Trials of Scotland, ii. 210.

{13} The King's Narrative, ut supra. Treasurer's Accounts, MS.

{14} Lennox in Pitcairn, ii. 171-174.

{18} The description is taken from diagrams in Pitcairn, derived from a local volume of Antiquarian Proceedings. See, too, The Muses' Threnodie, by H. Adamson, 1638, with notes by James Cant (Perth, 1774), pp. 163, 164.

{19} Pitcairn, ii. 199.

{23} The evidence of these witnesses is in Pitcairn, ii. 171-191.

{28} Cranstoun's deposition in Pitcairn, ii. 156, 157. At Falkland August 6.

{30} The adversaries of the King say that these men ran up, and were wounded, later, in another encounter. As to this we have no evidence, but we have evidence of their issuing, wounded, from the dark staircase at the moment when Cranstoun fled thence.

{38} Quoted by Pitcairn, ii. 209. The Falkland letter, as we show later, was probably written by David Moysie, but must have been, more or less, 'official.' Cf. p. 100, infra.

{40} Many of these may be read in Narratives of Scottish Catholics, by Father Forbes-Leith, S.J.

{42} Carey to Cecil. Berwick, Border Calendar, vol. ii. p. 677, August 11, 1600.

{44a} Deposition of Craigengelt, a steward of Gowrie's, Falkland, August 16, 1600. Pitcairn, ii. 157.

{44b} Pitcairn, ii. p. 185.

{44c} Pitcairn, ii. p. 179.

{45} Barbe, p. 91.

{48a} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 50.

{48b} Mr. S. R. Gardiner alone remarks on this point, in a note to the first edition of his great History. See note to p. 54, infra.

{52a} Apparently not Sir Thomas Hamilton, the King's Advocate.

{52b} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 51.

{53} Pitcairn, vol. ii. p. 249.

{58} Mr. Scott suggested that a piece of string was found by Balgonie. The words of Balgonie are 'ane gartane'—a garter. He never mentions string.

{59} According to a story given by Calderwood, Ruthven's sword was later found rusted in its sheath, but no authority is given for the tale.

{60} Pitcairn, ii. 197.

{61a} The Tragedy of Gowrie House, by Louis Barbe, 1887, p. 91.

{61b} Mr. Barbe, as we saw, thinks that Robertson perjured himself, when he swore to having seen Henderson steal out of the dark staircase and step over Ruthven's body. On the other hand, Mr. Bisset thought that Robertson spoke truth on this occasion, but concealed the truth in his examination later, because his evidence implied that Henderson left the dark staircase, not when Ramsay attacked Ruthven, but later, when Ruthven had already been slain. Mr. Bisset's theory was that Henderson had never been in the turret during the crisis, but had entered the dark staircase from a door of the dining-hall on the first floor. Such a door existed, according to Lord Hailes, but when he wrote (1757) no traces of this arrangement were extant. If such a door there was, Henderson may have slunk into the hall, out of the dark staircase, and slipped forth again, at the moment when Robertson, in his first deposition, swore to having seen him. But Murray of Arbany cannot well have been there at that moment, as he was with the party of Lennox and Mar, battering at the door of the gallery chamber.—Bisset, Essays in Historical Truth, pp. 228-237. Hailes, Annals. Third Edition, vol. iii. p. 369. Note (1819).

{63a} Privy Council Register, vi. 149, 150.

{63b} Pitcairn, ii. 250.

{64} Mr. Panton, who, in 1812, published at Perth, and with Longmans, a defence of the Ruthvens, is very strong on the improbability that Henderson was at Falkland. Why were not the people to whose house in Falkland he went, called as witnesses? Indeed we do not know. But as Mr. Panton looked on the King's witnesses as a gang of murderous perjurers, it is odd that he did not ask himself why they, and the King, did not perjure themselves on this point. (A Dissertation on the Gowry Conspiracy, pp. 127-131.)

{67a} Pitcairn, ii. 222, 223.

{67b} Hudson to Cecil, Oct. 19,1600, Edinburgh. State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 78.

{69a} James Hudson to Sir Robert Cecil.

'. . . I have had conference of this last acsyon, first wth the King, at lenght, & then wth Henderson, but my speache was first wth Henderson befoar the King came over the watter, betwixt whoame I fynde no defference but yt boath alegethe takinge the dager frome Alexander Ruthven, wch stryf on the one part maie seame to agment honor, & on the other to move mersy by moar merit: it is plaen yt the King only by god's help deffended his owin lyff wel & that a longe tyme, or els he had lost it: it is not trew that Mr. Alex spok wth his brother when he went owt, nor that Henderson vnlokt the door, but hast & neglect of Mr. Alex, left it opin, wherat Sr Jhon Ramsay entrid, & after hime Sr Tho. Ereskyn Sr Hew Haris & Wilsone. Yt it is not generally trustid is of mallice & preoccupassyon of mens mynds by the minesters defidence at the first, for this people ar apt to beleve the worst & loath to depart frome yt fayth.

. . . .

'Edinborow this 19 of October 1600.'

{69b} Pitcairn, ii. 218.

{73} Privy Council Register, vi. 671.

{74a} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 107.

{74b} Cranstoun mentioned his long absence in France to prove that he was not another Mr. Thomas Cranstoun, a kinsman of his, who at this time was an outlawed rebel, an adherent of Bothwell (p. 155, infra).

{75} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 107.

'George Nicolson to Sir Robert Cecil.

. . . . .

'A man of Cannagate speaking that one Mr. Ro: Oliphant, lyeng at his house, should haue complayned and said that "there was no justice in Scotland, for favlters skaped fre and innocentis were punished. Mr. Thomas Cranston was execute being innocent, and Henderson saued. That therle of Gowry had moued that matter to him (Oliphant) in Paris and here, that he had wth good reasons deverted him, that therle thereon left him and delt wth Henderson in that matter, that Henderson vndertooke it and yet fainted, and Mr. Thomas Cranston knew nothing of it and yet was executed." This I heare, and that this Oliphant that was Gowries servant is, vpon this mans speache of it, againe fled. The heades of Gowry and his brother are sett vpon the tolebuthe here this day. . . . .

'Edenb. the 5 of Decemb. 1600.'

{76} The Captain was 'a landless gentleman.' His wife owned Ranfurdie, and the Captain, involved in a quarrel with Menteith of Kers, had been accused of—witchcraft! The Captain's legal affairs may be traced in the Privy Council Register.

{77} The proceedings of the English Privy Council at this point are lost, unluckily. The Scottish records are in Privy Council Register, 1608-1611, s.v. Oliphant, Robert, in the Index.

{80} See the Rev. Mr. Scott's Life of John, Earl of Gowrie. Mr. Scott, at a very advanced age, published this work in 1818. He relied much on tradition and on anonymous MSS. of the eighteenth century.

{81} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 52. For the document see Appendix B.

{83} James himself, being largely in Abercromby's debt, in 1594 gave him 'twelve monks' portions' of the Abbacy of Cupar.—Act. Parl. Scot. iv. 83, 84.

{93} Mr. Henderson, in his account of William, Earl of Gowrie, in the Dictionary of National Biography, mentions 'The Vindication of the Ruthvens' in his list of authorities. He does not cite the source, as in MS. or in print; and I know not whether he refers to 'The Verie Manner &c.,' State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 52. The theory of Mr. Scott (1818) is much akin to that of 'The Verie Manner,' which he had never seen.

{94} Barbe, p. 124.

{96} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 64.

{97} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 64.

Sir William Bowes to Sir John Stanhope, Sept. 2, 1600.

Sr I attending hir Mties embassadr toward Newcastle happened to meet wyth Mr Preston then on his waie from his king to hir Mtie. In renewing a former acquaintance I found hym verie willing to possesse me wyth his report of the death of Gowrie and his brother, in the circumstances wherof sundrie thingis occurring hardlie probable I was not curious to lett him see that wyse men wyth vs stumbled therat. And therfor I thought yt wysdom in the king to deliuer his honor to the warld and especiallie to her Mtie. And in this as in other albeit I am not ignorant that the actions of princes must chalenge the Fairest interpretation Yet because in deed truthe symplie canne doe no wrong And that we owe or dearest and nearest truthes to or soueraygnes in this matter so precisely masked lett me deliuer to youe what For myne own part I doe belieue.

The King being readie to take horse was wythdrawen in discourse with the Mr of Gowrie, a learned sweet and hurtles yong gentleman, and one other attending. Now were it by occasion of a picture (as is sayde) or otherwise, speech happening of Earle Gowrie his father executed, the king angrelie sayde he was a traitour, whereat the youth showing a greeved and expostulatorie countenance and happelie Scot-like Woordis, the King, seeing hymself alone and wythout weapon, cryed, Treason, Treason. The Mr abashed much to see the king so apprehend yt, whilest the king wold call to the Lords, the Duke, Marre, and others that were attending in the court on the king comming to horse, putt his hand with earnest deprecations to staie the king, showing his countenance to them wythout in that moode, immediatlie falling on his knees to entreat the King. At the K. sound of Treason, from out of the Lower Chamber hastelie running Harris the physician Ramsey his page and Sr Thomas Erskyn came to where the king was Where Ramsey runne the poore gentleman thorough, sitting as is saide vpon his knees.

At this stirr the earle wyth his Mr Stablere and somme other, best knowing the howse and the wayes, came first to the slaughter where finding his brother dead and the king retyred (For they had perswaded hym into a countinghouse) some fight beganne between the earle and the others. Mr Preston saies that vpon thar relation that the king was slayne the earle shronke from the pursuyte, and that one of the afornamed rushing sodainlee to the earle thrust hym through that he fell down and dyed. This matter seeming to haue an accidentall beginning, to gyve it an honorable cloake is pursued wyth odious treasons coniurations &c. imputed to the dead earle, wyth the death of the Mr Stabler, Wyth making knyghtis the actors, And manye others such as I know are notified to you long ere this. The ministers as I heare are asked to make a thankgyving to god, where they think more need of Fasting in Sackclothe and Ashes, to the kingis much discontenting. This I must not saie (as the scholers terme yt) to be categoricallie true, but heupatheticallie {98} I take yt so to be. Wherevpon maie be inferred that as the death of the twoe First maie be excused by tendering the verie showe of hazard to the King, so is the making of religion and iustice cloakes to cover accidentall oversightis a matter which both heaven and earth will iudge. . . .

From Bradley this 2de of Sept.

Yor poore Frend to commannd.

WILLM. BOWES.

{98} Hypothetically?

{103} Calderwood, vi. 84.

{104} Pitcairn, ii. 248 et seq.

{105a} Calderwood, vi. 98.

{105b} Ibid. vi. 130.

{107a} Calderwood, vi. 147.

{107b} Ibid. vi. 156.

{110} Mr. Bruce appears to have gone to France in 1599-1600, to call Gowrie home. In a brief account of his own life, dictated by himself at about the age of seventy (1624), he says, 'I was in France for the calling of the Master' (he clearly means Earl) 'of Gowrie' (Wodrow's 'Life of the Rev. Robert Bruce,' p. 10, 1843). Calderwood possessed, and Wodrow (circ. 1715) acquired, two 'Meditations' by Mr. Bruce of August 3, 4, 1600. Wodrow promises to print them, but does not, and when his book was edited in 1843, they could not be found. He says that 'Mr. Bruce appears to have been prepared, in Providence,' for his Gowrie troubles, judging (apparently) by these 'Meditations.' But Mr. Henry Paton has searched for and found the lost 'Meditations' in MS., which are mere spiritual outpourings. Wodrow's meaning is therefore obscure. Mr. Bruce had great celebrity as a prophet, but where Wodrow found prophecy in the 'Meditations' of August 3, 4, 1600, is not apparent (Wodrow's 'Bruce,' pp. 83, 84. Wodrow MSS., Advocates' Library, vol. xliv. No. 35).

{111} Calderwood, vi. 49, 66-76.

{114} Pitcairn, ii. 196.

{118} Bain, Calendar, ii. 350; Nau, p. 59.

{121a} Form of certain Devices, &c. See Papers relating to William, Earl of Gowrie, London, 1867, pp. 25-29.

{121b} Form of examination and death of William, Earl of Gowrie. British Museum, Caligula, c. viii. fol. 23.

{126} Thorpe, Calendar, ii. 650

{127a} De Natione Anglica et Scota Juristarum Universitatis Patavinae Io. Aloys. Andrich. Patavii, 1892, pp. 172, 173.

{127b} Ottavio Baldi to the King, June 22, 1609. Record Office. Venice, No. 14, 1608-1610. See infra, Appendix A, 'Gowrie's Arms and Ambitions.'

{128a} Gowrie's letters of 1595 are in Pitcairn.

{128b} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxiii. No. 85.

G. Nicolson to Sir Robert Cecil.

Edinborough, 25 December, 1598.

. . . . .

'I heare Gowry is become a papist. But the K. takes little care to this, And yet sure it importes him most to se to it, vnlest he accompt otherwais of it than he hath cause, except he haue other pollicy than I will conjecture.' Compare Galloway's sermon, in Pitcairn, ii. 249, and A Short Discourse, ii. 231, 232.

{129a} Simancas, iv. pp. 653, 654, 677, 680, 715.

{129b} Compare note, p. 110, supra.

{130a} Winwood Memorials, pp. 1, 156. Hudson to Cecil. State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 19.

{130b} Border Calendar, vol. ii. May 29, 1600. Carey to Cecil.

{131a} The whole proceedings are printed in Arnot's Criminal Trials.

{131b} Nicholson to Cecil, June 22, June 29, 1600. Tytler, vol. ix. pp. 325, 326, 1843.

{131c} This date I infer from Cranstoun's statement. On August 5 he had scarcely seen the Ruthvens, to speak to, for a fortnight.

{133} Border Calendar, vol. ii. p. 698, Oct. 21, 1600. Carey to Cecil.

{134a} Calderwood, vi. 71.

{134b} A defender of Gowrie, Mr. Barbe, has the following 'observes' upon this point. It has been asserted by Calderwood that, 'while the Earl was in Strathbraan, fifteen days before the fact' (say July 20), 'the King wrote sundry letters to the Earl, desiring him to come and hunt with him in the wood of Falkland, which letters were found in my lord's pocket, as is reported, but were destroyed.' Mr. Barbe then proves that letters were sent to Gowrie and Atholl in the last days of July. It is certain that a letter was sent to Gowrie about July 20, possibly a sporting invitation, not that there was any harm in an invitation to join a hunting party. James is next accused of 'trying to stifle the rumour' about this 'letter,' by a direct denial. This means that Craigengelt, Gowrie's caterer, was asked whether he knew of any man or boy who came to Gowrie from Court, and said that he did not, a negative reply supposed to have been elicited by the torture to which Craigengelt was certainly subjected. We only know that at the end of July letters were sent to Gowrie, to Inchaffray, to Atholl, and to Ruthven. Whether his reached Gowrie or not, and what it contained, we cannot know.

{137} Privy Council Register, vi. 194.

{140a} Cf. p. 110, note.

{140b} Border Calendar, i. 491.

{142} Tragedy of Gowrie House, pp. 29, 31.

{147} As to Bothwell's whereabouts, in 1600, he left Brussels in March, nominally to go to Spain, but, in June, the agent of the English Government in the Low Countries was still anxious to hear that he had arrived in Spain. When he actually arrived there is uncertain. Compare Simancas, iv. p. 667, with State Papers, Domestic (Elizabeth) (1598-1600), p. 245, No. 88, p. 413 (March 24, April 3, 1600), p. 434, May 30, June 9, p. 509. Cecil meant to intrigue with Bothwell, through Henry Locke, his old agent with Bothwell's party, Atholl, and Gowrie October 1593). Compare infra, p. 160.

{152} Privy Council Register, ii. 217, 218.

{153} Privy Council Register, ii. 622, 699.

{155a} Privy Council Register, vi. 73, 74.

{155b} State Papers, Scotland (Elizabeth), vol. lxvi. No. 13, No. 21.

{156} Hatfield Calendar, viii. 147, 399.

{157} For these letters of Logan's, see Hatfield Calendar, vols. iii. iv. under 'Restalrig,' in the Index.

{158} Privy Council Register, vol. v., s. v. 'Logan' in the Index.

{159} Border Calendar, vol. ii. Willoughby to Cecil, January 1, 1599.

{160a} Pitcairn, ii. 405-407.

{160b} See Thorpe's Calendar, vol. ii., s. v. 'Mowbray, Francis' in the Index.

{161} He had sold Nether Gogar in 1596.

{162} Some of the papers are in the General Register House, Edinburgh.

{164} The evidence for all that occurred to Sprot, between April and July 1608, is that of a manuscript History of the Kirk of Scotland, now in the Advocates' Library. It is written in an early seventeenth-century hand. Calderwood follows it almost textually up to a certain point where the author of the MS. history says that Sprot, on the scaffold, declared that he had no promise of benefit to his family. But Calderwood declares, or says that others declare, that Sprot was really condemned as a forger (which is untrue), but confessed to the Gowrie conspiracy in return for boons to his wife and children.

We have, of course, no evidence that anything was done by Government, or by any one, for Mrs. Sprot and the children. The author of the MS., which Calderwood used as he pleased, avers that Sprot denied on the scaffold the fact that he had any promise. Neither draft nor official account confirms the MS. history on the point of no promise. The official draft of his last moments (from its interlineations, each signed by the Clerk of Council) appears to have been drawn up on the spot, or hurriedly, as soon as Sprot was dead. This is the aspect of the draft of the account; the official printed account says that there was 'no place of writing on the scaffold, in respect of the press and multitude of people' (Pitcairn, ii. 261).

{169} Vol. ii. pp. 282-7.

{170} Letter I is a peculiar case, and was not, perhaps, spoken of by Sprot at all.

{183} Laing, Charters, Nos. 1452, 1474-76, 2029.

{198} Hatfield Calendar, iv. 659.

{199a} Pitcairn, iii. Appendix vii.

{199b} Border Calendar, i. 486, 487.

{202} Thorpe, ii. 614, 616, 617. Border Calendar, i. 457.

{203} Privy Council Register, viii. 150-2, 605.

{206a} Pitcairn, ii. 287, n 2.

{206b} Neville to Cecil, Paris, Feb. 27, 1600. Willoughby to Cecil, Berwick, April 22, 1600. Winwood Memorials, p. 166. Border Calendar, ii. 645.

{217} The peculiarities of spelling are those recognised as Logan's, and easily imitated by the forger.

{221} He had not the letter before him at this moment, and may have forgotten.

{222} Spottiswoode, vol. iii. pp. 274, 282.

{224} Cromarty, An Historical Account, &c., 92 (1713).

{227a} Calderwood, vi. 780.

{227b} In the Auchendrane case (1615), the public, partisans of the murderers, wished the only witness to be hanged, just to see if he would persevere in his confession.

{239} Melrose Papers, vol. i. pp. 72, 73.

{243a} Pitcairn, ii. 289-290.

{243b} Ibid. ii. 292.

{247} State Papers, Venice, R.O., No. 14, 1608-10. Hill Burton, History of Scotland, vol. vi. pp. 135, 136. Note. Edition of 1870.

{248} This information I owe to Mr. Anderson, with the reference to Crawfurd, and other details.

{249} Burnet's History of his Own Time, vol. i. pp. 24, 25, mdccxxv.

{250a} Papers relating to William, first Earl of Gowrie, p. 30. (Privately printed, 1867.)

{250b} Sanderson, p. 226.

{251a} Scott, pp. 282, 284.

{251b} Border Calendar, vol. i. p. 491.

THE END

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