India: What can it teach us? - A Course of Lectures Delivered before the University Of Cambridge
by F. Max Mueller
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[Footnote 265: Lewis, "Astronomy," p. 92.]

[Footnote 266: See Hayman, Journal of Philology, 1879, p. 139.]

[Footnote 267: See M. M., "History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature," pp. 497 seqq., "On the Introduction of Writing in India."]

[Footnote 268: M. M., "History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature," p. 515.]

[Footnote 269: M. M., "Hibbert Lectures," p. 153.]

[Footnote 270: Learning was anciently preserved by memory. The Jewish, or rather Chaldaic Kabala, or Tradition was not written for many centuries. The Druids of ancient Britain preserved their litanies in the same way, and to a Bard a good memory was indispensable, or he would have been refused initiation.—A. W.]

[Footnote 271: See my article on the date of the Kasika in the Indian Antiquary, 1880, p. 305.]

[Footnote 272: The translation of the most important passages in I-tsing's work was made for me by one of my Japanese pupils, K. Kasawara.]

[Footnote 273: See Bunyiu Nanjio's "Catalogue of the Chinese Tripitaka," p. 372, where Aryasura, who must have lived before 434 A.D., is mentioned as the author of the "Gatakamala."]

[Footnote 274: Wellington, 1880.]

[Footnote 275: De Bello Gall. vi. 14; "History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature," p. 506.]

[Footnote 276: See De Coulanges, "The Ancient City," Book I. II. "We find this worship of the dead among the Hellenes, among the Latins, among the Sabines, among the Etruscans; we also find it among the Aryas of India. Mention is made of it in the hymns of the Rig-Veda. It is spoken of in the Laws of Manu as the most ancient worship among men.... Before men had any notion of Indra or of Zeus, they adored the dead; they feared them, and addressed them prayers. It seems that the religious sentiment began in this way. It was perhaps while looking upon the dead that man first conceived the idea of the supernatural, and to have a hope beyond what he saw. Death was the first mystery, and it placed man on the track of other mysteries. It raised his thoughts from the visible to the invisible, from the transitory to the eternal, from the human to the divine."

The sacred fire represented the ancestors, and therefore was revered and kept carefully from profanation by the presence of a stranger.—A. W.]

[Footnote 277: "Principles of Sociology," p. 313.]

[Footnote 278: "The Hindu Law of Inheritance is based upon the Hindu religion, and we must be cautious that in administering Hindu law we do not, by acting upon our notions derived from English law, inadvertently wound or offend the religious feelings of those who may be affected by our decisions."—Bengal Law Reports, 103.]

[Footnote 279:

"Earth-wandering demons, they their charge began, The ministers of good and guards of man; Veiled with a mantle of aerial light, O'er Earth's wide space they wing their hovering flight."]

[Footnote 280: Cicero, "De Leg." II. 9, 22, "Deorum manium jura sancta sunto; nos leto datos divos habento."]

[Footnote 281: See Atharva-Veda XVIII. 2, 49.]

[Footnote 282: Rig-Veda X. 14, 1-2. He is called Vaivasvata, the solar (X. 58, 1), and even the son of Vivasvat (X. 14, 5). In a later phase of religious thought Yama is conceived as the first man (Atharva-Veda XVIII. 3, 13, as compared with Rig-Veda X. 14, 1).]

[Footnote 283: Rig-Veda X. 14.]

[Footnote 284: In the Avesta many of these things are done by Ahura-Mazda with the help of the Fravashis.]

[Footnote 285: See Satapatha Brahmana I. 9, 3, 10; VI. 5, 4, 8.]

[Footnote 286: Rig-Veda VIII. 48, 3: "We drank Soma, we became immortal, we went to the light, we found the gods;" VIII. 48, 12.]

[Footnote 287: Rig-Veda IX. 97, 39.]

[Footnote 288: L. c. X. 14, 6.]

[Footnote 289: L. c. X. 16, 10.]

[Footnote 290: A translation considerably differing from my own is given by Sarvadhikari in his "Tagore Lectures for 1880," p. 34.]

[Footnote 291: Cf. Max Mueller, Rig-Veda, transl. vol. i. p. 24.]

[Footnote 292: In a previous note will be found the statement by Professor De Coulanges, of Strasburg, that in India, as in other countries, a belief in the ancestral spirits came first, and a belief in divinities afterward. Professor Mueller cites other arguments which might be employed in support of such a theory. The name of the oldest and greatest among the Devas, for instance, is not simply Dyaus, but Dyaush-pita, Heaven-Father; and there are several names of the same character, not only in Sanskrit, but in Greek and Latin also. Jupiter and Zeus Pater are forms of the appellation mentioned, and mean the Father in Heaven. It does certainly look as though Dyaus, the sky, had become personal and worshipped only after he had been raised to the category of a Pitri, a father; and that this predicate of Father must have been elaborated first before it could have been used, to comprehend Dyaus, the sky, Varuna, and other Devas. Professor Mueller, however, denies that this is the whole truth in the case. The Vedic poets, he remarks, believed in Devas—gods, if we must so call them—literally, the bright ones; Pitris, fathers; and Manushyas, men, mortals. (Atharva-Veda, X. 6, 32.) Who came first and who came after it is difficult to say; but as soon as the three were placed side by side, the Devas certainly stood the highest, then followed the Pitris, and last came the mortals. Ancient thought did not comprehend the three under one concept, but it paved the way to it. The mortals after passing through death became Fathers, and the Fathers became the companions of the Devas.

In Manu there is an advance beyond this point. The world, all that moves and rests, we are told (Manu III., 201), has been made by the Devas; but the Devas and Danavas were born of the Pitris, and the Pitris of the Rishis. Originally the Rishis were the poets of the Vedas, seven in number; and we are not told how they came to be placed above the Devas and Pitris. It does not, however, appear utterly beyond the power to solve. The Vedas were the production of the Rishis, and the Pitris, being perpetuated thus to human memory, became by a figure of speech their offspring. The Devas sprung from the Pitris, because it was usual to apotheosize the dead. "Our ancestors desired," says Cicero, "that the men who had quitted this life should be counted in the number of gods." Again, the conception of patrons or Pitris to each family and tribe naturally led to the idea of a Providence over all; and so the Pitri begat the Deva. This religion preceded and has outlasted the other.—A. W.]

[Footnote 293: Satapatha Brahmana XI. 5, 6, 1; Taitt. Ar. II. 11, 10; Asvalayana Grihya-sutras III. 1, 1; Paraskara Grihya-sutras II. 9, 1; Apastamba, Dharma-sutras, translated by Buehler, pp. 47 seq.]

[Footnote 294: In the Sankhayana Grihya (I. 5) four Paka-yagnas are mentioned, called Huta, ahuta, prahuta, prasita.]

[Footnote 295: Asv. Grihya-sutras I. 3, 10.]

[Footnote 296: Manu III. 117-118.]

[Footnote 297: L. c. III. 85.]

[Footnote 298: See Des Coulanges, "Ancient City," I. 3. "Especially were the meals of the family religions acts. The god [the sacred fire] presided there. He had cooked the bread and prepared the food; a prayer, therefore, was due at the beginning and end of the repast. Before eating, they placed upon the altar the first fruits of the food; before drinking, they poured out a libation of wine. This was the god's portion. No one doubted that he was present, that he ate and drank; for did they not see the flame increase as if it had been nourished by the provisions offered? Thus the meal was divided between the man and the god. It was a sacred ceremony, by which they held communion with each other.... The religion of the sacred fire dates from the distant and dim epoch when there were yet no Greeks, no Italians, no Hindus, when there were only Aryas. When the tribes separated they carried this worship with them, some to the banks of the Ganges, others to the shores of the Mediterranean.... Each group chose its own gods, but all preserved as an ancient legacy the first religion which they had known and practiced in the common cradle of their race."

The fire in the house denoted the ancestor, or pitri, and in turn the serpent was revered as a living fire, and so an appropriate symbol of the First Father.—A. W.]

[Footnote 299: "Taittiriyaranyaka," Preface, p. 23.]

[Footnote 300: Masi masi vo 'sanam iti sruteh; Gobhiliya Grihya sutras, p. 1055.]

[Footnote 301: See "Pindapitriyagna," von Dr. O. Donner, 1870. The restriction to three ancestors, father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, occurs in the Vagasaneyi-samhita, XIX. 36-37.]

[Footnote 302: There is, however, great variety in these matters, according to different sakhas. Thus, according to the Gobhila-sakha, the Pinda Pitriyagna is to be considered as smarta, not as srauta (pinda-pitriyagnah khalv asmakkhakhayam nasti); while others maintain that an agnimat should perform the smarta, a srautagnimat the srauta Pitriyagna; see Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras, p. 671. On page 667 we read: anagner amavasyasraddha, nanvaharyam ity adaraniyam.]

[Footnote 303: "Ueber Todtenbestattung und Opfergebraeuche im Veda," in "Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlaendischen Gesellschaft," vol. ix. 1856.]

[Footnote 304: Asvalayana Grihya-sutras IV. 4, 10.]

[Footnote 305: Manu V. 64-65.]

[Footnote 306: Buehler, Apastamba, "Sacred Books of the East," vol. ii., p. 138; also "Sraddhakalpa," p. 890. Though the Sraddha is prescribed in the "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," IV. 4, 2-3, it is not described there, but in a separate treatise, the Sraddha-kalpa.]

[Footnote 307: As meaning the food, sraddha occurs in sraddhabhug and similar words. As meaning the sacrificial act, it is explained, yatraitak khraddhaya diyate tad eva karma sraddhasabdabhidheyam. Pretam pitrims ka nirdisya bhogyam yat priyam atmanah sraddhaya diyate yatra tak khraddham parikirtitam. "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 892. We also read sraddhanvitah sraddham kurvita, "let a man perform the sraddha with faith;" "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 1053.]

[Footnote 308: Manu III. 82.]

[Footnote 309: Pitrin uddisya yad diyate brahmanebhyah sraddhaya tak khradd ham.]

[Footnote 310: Apastamba II. 16, 3, Brahmanas tv ahavaniyarthe.]

[Footnote 311: L. c. p. 142.]

[Footnote 312: Manu III. 138, 140.]

[Footnote 313: "Asv. Grihya-sutras" IV. 5, 8.]

[Footnote 314: It is described as a vikriti of the Parvana-sraddha in "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 1011.]

[Footnote 315: One of the differences between the acts before and after the Sapindikarana is noted by Salankayana:—Sapindikaranam yavad rigudarbhaih pitrikriya Sapindikaranad urdhvam dvigunair vidhivad bhavet. "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 930.]

[Footnote 316: "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 1023.]

[Footnote 317: "Grihya-sutras," ed. Oldenberg, p. 83.]

[Footnote 318: A pratyabdikam ekoddishtam on the anniversary of the deceased is mentioned by Gobhiliya, l. c. p. 1011.]

[Footnote 319: "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 1039.]

[Footnote 320: "Sankh. Grihya," p. 83; "Gobh. Grihya," p. 1024. According to some authorities the ekoddishta is called nava, new, during ten days; navamisra, mixed, for six months; and purana, old, afterward. "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 1020.]

[Footnote 321: "Gobhiliya," l. c. p. 1032.]

[Footnote 322: "Gobhiliya," l. c. p. 1047.]

[Footnote 323: "Life and Essays," ii. p. 195.]

[Footnote 324: Colebrooke adds that in most provinces the periods for these sixteen ceremonies, and for the concluding obsequies entitled Sapindana, are anticipated, and the whole is completed on the second or third day; after which they are again performed at the proper times, but in honor of the whole set of progenitors instead of the deceased singly. It is this which Dr. Donner, in his learned paper on the "Pindapitriyagna" (p. 11), takes as the general rule.]

[Footnote 325: See this subject most exhaustively treated, particularly in its bearings on the law of inheritance, in Rajkumar Sarvadhikari's "Tagore Law Lectures for 1880," p. 93.]

[Footnote 326: "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 892.]

[Footnote 327: L. c. p. 897.]

[Footnote 328: See p. 666, and p. 1008. Grihyakarah pindapitriyagnasya sraddhatvam aha.]

[Footnote 329: Gobhila IV. 4, 3, itarad anvaharyam. But the commentators add anagner amavasyasraddham, nanvaharyam. According to Gobhila there ought to be the Vaisvadeva offering and the Bali offering at the end of each Parvana-sraddha; see "Gobhiliya Grihya-sutras," p. 1005, but no Vaisvadeva at an ekoddishta sraddha, l. c. p. 1020.]

[Footnote 330: L. c. pp. 1005-1010; "Nirnayasindhu," p. 270.]

[Footnote 331: See Burnell, "The Law of Partition," p. 31.]

[Footnote 332: Kalau tavad gavalambho mamsadanam ka sraddhe nishiddham, Gobhilena tu madhyamashtakayam vastukarmani ka gavalambho vihitah, mamsakarus kanvashtakyasraddhe; Gobhiliya Grihya-sutra, ed. "Kandrakanta Tarkalankara, Vignapti," p. 8.]

[Footnote 333: It may be seriously doubted whether prayers to the dead or for the dead satisfy any craving of the human heart. With us in "the North," a shrinking from "open manifestations of grief" has nothing whatever to do with the matter. Those who refuse to engage in such worship believe and teach that the dead are not gods and cannot be helped by our prayers. Reason, not feeling, prevents such worship.—AM. PUBS.]

[Footnote 334: A deeper idea than affection inspired this custom. Every kinsman was always such, living or dead; and hence the service of the dead was sacred and essential. The Sraddhas were adopted as the performance of such offices. There were twelve forms of this service: 1. The daily offering to ancestors. 2. The sraddha for a person lately deceased, and not yet included with the pitris. 3. The sraddha offered for a specific object. 4. The offering made on occasions of rejoicing. 5. The sraddha performed when the recently-departed has been incorporated among the Pitris. 6. The sraddha performed on a parvan-day, i.e., new moon, the eighth day, fourteenth day, and full moon. 7. The sraddha performed in a house of assembly for the benefit of learned men. 8. Expiatory. 9. Part of some other ceremony. 10. Offered for the sake of the Devas. 11. Performed before going on a journey. 12. Sraddha for the sake of wealth. The sraddhas may be performed in one's own house, or in some secluded and pure place. The number performed each year by those who can afford it varies considerably; but ninety-six appears to be the more common. The most fervent are the twelve new-moon rites; four Yuga and fourteen Manu rites; twelve corresponding to the passages of the sun into the zodiacal mansions, etc.—A. W.]

[Footnote 335: See "Hibbert Lectures," new ed. pp. 243-255.]

[Footnote 336: The same concept is found in the Platonic Dialogue between Sokrates and Euthyphron. The philosopher asks the diviner to tell what is holy and what impiety. "That which is pleasing to the gods is holy, and that which is not pleasing to them is impious" promptly replies the mantis, "To be holy is to be just," said Sokrates; "Is the thing holy because they love it, or do they love it because it is holy?" Euthyphron hurried away in alarm. He had acknowledged unwittingly that holiness or justice was supreme above all gods; and this highest concept, this highest faith, he dared not entertain.—A. W.]

[Footnote 337: In Chinese we find that the same three aspects of religion and their intimate relationship were recognized, as, for instance, when Confucius says to the Prince of Sung: "Honor the sky (worship of Devas), reverence the Manes (worship of Pitris); if you do this, sun and moon will keep their appointed time (Rita)." Happel, "Altchinesische Reichsreligion," p. 11.]

[Footnote 338: Rig-Veda I. 164, 46; "Hibbert Lectures," p. 311.]

[Footnote 339: Rig-Veda X. 114, 5; "Hibbert Lectures," p. 313.]

[Footnote 340: Rig-Veda I. 164, 4.]

[Footnote 341: [Greek: Tu de phronema tou pneumatos zoe kai eirene]. See also Ruskin, "Sesame," p. 63.]

[Footnote 342: Major Jacob, "Manual of Hindu Pantheism," Preface.]

[Footnote 343: "Life and Letters of Gokulaji Sampattirama Zala and his views of the Vedanta, by Manassukharama Suryarama Tripathi." Bombay, 1881.

As a young man Gokulaji, the son of a good family, learned Persian and Sanskrit. His chief interest in life, in the midst of a most successful political career, was the "Vedanta." A little insight, we are told, into this knowledge turned his heart to higher objects, promising him freedom from grief, and blessedness, the highest aim of all. This was the turning-point of his inner life. When the celebrated Vedanti anchorite, Rama Bava, visited Junagadh, Gokulaji became his pupil. When another anchorite, Paramahansa Sakkidananda, passed through Junagadh on a pilgrimage to Girnar, Gokulaji was regularly initiated in the secrets of the Vedanta. He soon became highly proficient in it, and through the whole course of his life, whether in power or in disgrace, his belief in the doctrines of the Vedanta supported him, and made him, in the opinion of English statesmen, the model of what a native statesman ought to be.]

[Footnote 344: Professor Kuenen discovers a similar idea in the words placed in the mouth of Jehovah by the prophet Malachi, i. 14: "For I am a great King, and my name is feared among the heathen." "The reference," he says, "is distinctly to the adoration already offered to Yahweh by the people, whenever they serve their own gods with true reverence and honest zeal.(A1) Even in Deuteronomy the adoration of these other gods by the nations is represented as a dispensation of Yahweh. Malachi goes a step further, and accepts their worship as a tribute which in reality falls to Yahweh—to Him, the Only True. Thus the opposition between Yahweh and the other gods, and afterward between the one true God and the imaginary gods, makes room here for the still higher conception that the adoration of Yahweh is the essence and the truth of all religion." "Hibbert Lectures," p. 181.

A1: There is, we believe, not the slightest authority for reading Malachi in this way; any reader of the Old Testament is competent to judge for himself.—AM. PUBS.]

[Footnote 345: The author's enthusiasm has carried him beyond bounds. The weight to be given to Schopenhauer's opinion touching any religious subject may be measured by the following quotation: "The happiest moment of life is the completest forgetfulness of self in sleep, and the wretchedest is the most wakeful and conscious."—AM. PUBS.]

[Footnote 346: "Sacred Books of the East," vol. i, "The Upanishads," translated by M. M.; Introduction, p. lxi.]

* * * * *



ABBA Seen river, 192.


ABU FAZL, on the Hindus, 75.

ACTIVE side of human nature in Europe, 120.

ADITI, meaning of, 215.

ADITYA, 158.




AFGHANISTAN, 159; inhabitants of, 189.

AGNI, god of fire, 167.

AGNI-IGNIS, fire, 41; as a terrestrial deity, 195.

AITAREYA BRAHMANA, on heaven and earth, 175.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, 37; changes the name of a river, 191.


ALPHABET, the, whence derived, 86; Ionian and Phoenician, 222; two used in Asoka's inscription, 225.

AMITABHA worship, 106.

ANAXAGORAS, his doctrine, 177.

ANCESTORS, spirits of, 238; worship of, 239.



ARCHAEOLOGICAL survey of India, 26.

ARRIAN, on the Hindus, 73; rivers known to, 191.

ARYANS, the, our intellectual relatives, 33; seven branches of, 41; found in Sanskrit literature, 116; religion of, 161.

ASMI, I am, 43.

ASOKA, king, 96; adopts Buddhism, 106; author of the first inscriptions, 225; language of the same, 234.

ASTRONOMY, ancient, in India, 114; in the Veda, 150; in China, 151.

ATMAN, the Self, 265.

AVATARAS of Vishnu, three, 153.


BABYLONIAN division of time, 36; influences on Vedic poems, 145; on Vedic astronomy, 147; zodiac, 158.

BARZOI, 114.

BASTIAN, on the Polynesian myths, 169.

BENGAL, the people of, 55; villages of, 65; schools in, 80.



BHAGAVAT, supreme lord, 272.

BIMETALLIC currency, 37.

BHISHMA, death of, 83.

BIBLE, the, Sanskrit words in, 28; and the Jewish race, 140.

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL survey of India, 102.

BOOKS read by ancient nations compared with modern, 137.

BOPP, his comparative grammar, 46.

BRAHMA sacrifice, 249.

BRAHMA Samaj, of india, 163.


BRAHMANAS, on truth, 84; as a class, 256.

BUDDHA and the popular dialects, 96.

BUDDHISM, chief source of our fables, 27; striking coincidences with Christianity, 108; its rise, 234.



CABUL river, 192.

CAESAR, on the Druids and their memorizing, 233.

CANAAN, 140.

CARLYLE, his opinion of historical works, 16.

CASTE, origin of, 117; in the laws of Manu, 117; in the Rig-Veda, 117.

CAT, the domestic, its original home, 42.

CHINA, origin of the name, 151; chronicles of, 104; lunar stations of, 150; aspects of religion, 264.

CHRISTIAN religion, the, and the Jewish race, 35.

CIVIL service examinations, Indian, 20.

CLIMATIC influences on morals and social life, 120.

COINS of India, 26.

COLEBROOKE'S religious ceremonies, 247.

COMMERCIAL honor in India, 82.

COMMERCE between India and Syria in Solomon's time, 28.

COMMERCIAL writing, 225.

CONFUCIUS, a hard student, 230.

CONQUERORS of India, 30.

COULANGES, Professor, his opinion on religious beliefs, 245.

CUNNINGHAM'S Ancient Geography of India, 192.

CYLINDERS of Babylon, 139.



DARWIN, 141.

DAWN, the, 173.

DAYANANDA'S introduction to the Rig-Veda, 104.

DELUGE, the, 153; in Hindu literature, 154; not borrowed from the Old Testament, 157; its natural origin, 159.

DEPARTED spirits, 237; honors paid to, 240; ceremonies to, 246.

DEVA, 159; the meaning of, 236.

DEVAPATNIS, wives of the gods, 164.

DEVAPI'S prayer for rain, 204.

DEVELOPMENT of human character in India and Europe, 118.

DIALECTS in Asoka's time, 106.


DIVI Manes, 240.

DONKEY, in the lion's skin, 27; in the tiger's skin, 28.

DRUIDS, their memory, 233.

DYAUS and Zeus, 213.


EABANI, 158.

EAST, the, our original home, 49.

ECLIPTIC, Indian, 153.

EDUCATION of the human race, 107.

EDUCATION in India, by training the memory, 232.

EGYPTIAN hieroglyphics preserved in the alphabet, 36.

ELPHINSTONE, Mountstuart, his opinion of the Hindus, 77.

ENGLISH officers in India, 69.

ENGLISH oriental scholars, a list of, 22.

EOS and Ushas, 201.

ESTHONIAN prayer to Picker, the god of thunder, 211.

EURIPIDES, on the marriage of heaven and earth, 177.

EXAMINATIONS, work produced at, 20.


FABLES, migration of, 27.

FALSEHOOD, no mortal sin, five cases of, 89.

FATHERS, Hymn to the, 241.

FINITE, the, impossible without the infinite, 126.

FIRE, names for, 41; as a civilizer, 195; a terrestrial deity, 195; why worshipped, 196.

FIVE nations, the, 117.

FIVE sacrifices, religious duties, 249.

FRAVASHIS, in Persia, 240.

FREDERICK the Great, 34.

FRIAR Jordanus, opinion of Hindu character, 75.

FUNERAL ceremonies, 248; an earlier worship, 252; striking coincidences, 253; burial and cremation, 253.


GAINAS, language of, 97.

GALILEO, his theory, 135.

GANGES, sources of, 96; its tributaries, 187.


GATHAS, 107.

GAUTAMA allows a lie, 88.

GERMANY, study of Sanskrit in, 22.

GEMS, the nine, 114.

GILL, Rev. W., myths and songs of the South Pacific, 169; savage life in Polynesia, 233.

GODS in the Veda, their testimony for truth, 83; the number of, 164; river gods and goddesses, 167; made and unmade by men, 182; growth of a divine conception in the human mind, 198.

GOLDEN RULE, the, 92.

GOETHE'S West-oestlicher Divan, 22.

GOKULAJI, the model native statesman, 271.

GRASSMAN, translation of Sanskrit words, 183.

GREEK alphabet, age of, 221.

GREEK literature, its study and use, 23; when first written, 222.

GREEK deities, their physical origin, 129.

GREEK philosophy our model, 38.

GREEK and Latin, similarity between, 40.

GRIMM, identification of Parganya and Perun, 210.

GROWTH of ancient religions, 128.

GRUNAU on old Prussian gods, 210.

GUIDE-BOOKS, Greek, 223.



HARDY, his Manual of Buddhism, 97.

HASTINGS, Warren, and the Darics, 216; opinion of Hindu character, 79.

HEBREW religion, foreign influences in, 145.

HEBER, Bishop, opinion of the Hindus, 79.

HEAVEN and Earth, 169; Maori legend of, 173; Vedic legends of, 175; Greek legends of, 176; epithets for, in Veda, 178; as seen by Vedic poets, 178.



HINDUS, truthful character of, 52; the charge of their untruthfulness refuted, 53; origin of the charge, 54; different races and characteristics of, 55; testimony of trustworthy witnesses, 55; their litigiousness, 60; their treatment by Mohammedan conquerors, 72; reason for unfavorable opinion of, 76; their commercial honor, 82; their real character transcendent, 126; their religion, 127; sacrifices and priestly rites, 148; knowledge of astronomy, 153; first acquainted with an alphabet, 224.



HISTORY, its object and study, 34; its true sense, 44.

HITOPADESA, fables of, 110.

HOTTENTOT river names, 188.

HOMERIC HYMNS, 140; heaven and earth in the, 176.

HUMAN Mind, study of, India important for, 33.

HUMBOLDT Alexander von, on Kalidasa, 110.


HYDRAOTIS, or Hyarotis, 191.

HYPASIS, or Hyphasis, 191.


IDA, 156.

IDRISI, on the Hindus, 74.

IJJAR, April-May, 158.

INDIA, what it can teach us, 19; a paradise, 24; its literature a corrective, 24; past and present aspects of, 25; its scientific treasures, 25; a laboratory for all students, 32; its population and vast extent, 142.

INDRA, god of the wind, the Vedic Jupiter, 83; the Aryan guide, 116; the god of the thunderstorm, 168; as creator, 180; the principal god of the Veda, 198; peculiar to India, 201.

INDUS, The river, 167.

INFINITE, The, 126.

INNER Life, Influence of Indian literature upon our, 24.

INSCRIPTIONS in India, 225.

IONIANS, The, their alphabet, 222; first writing, 223.

I-TSING, his visit to India, 229; his account of Buddhist priests, 229; of education, 230; of perfection of memory, 231; of Brahmans, 231.

IZDUBAR, or Nimrod, the poem of, 158.



JEWS, The, as a race, 36; their religion as related to Oriental religions, 36; necessary to a study of the Christian religion, 35; the beginning and growth of their religion, 128.

JONES, Sir William, his voyage to India, 49; his dreams become realities, 50.

JOSHUA'S battle, 200.

JOURNALS, Sanskrit, now published in India, 98.

JUDGMENT of Solomon, 30.



JUMNA, the river, 190.


JUSTICE of the Indians, 74.


KALIDASA, the poet, his age, 110; plays of, 111.

KAMAL-EDDIN Abd-errazak, on the Hindus, 75.

KAUSIKA, punished for truthfulness, 89.

KANISHKA, the Saka king, 106.

KANJUR, the women and the child in the, 29.

KATHAKA, or reader, 158.


KESHUB Chunder Sen, his grandfather, 59.

KINAS, or Chinese, 151.

KORAN, oaths on, 70.

KRUMU, 185.


KTESIAS, on the justice of the Indians, 72.

KTISIS, 223.

KUBHA, 185.

KULLAVAGGA, quotation from the, 96.

KUENEN, Professor, on worship of Yahweh, 272.


LADAK, 192.


LARES familiares in Rome, 240.

LASSEN, 151.

LAW books of India, 30.

LIFE, Indian and European views of, 121; beautiful sentiments of, from Hindu writings, 124; a journey, 120.

LAW of Nature, 263.

LAWS of Manu, 111.

LIBERAL, The, Keshub Chunder Sen's organ, 99.

LIBERAL education, the elements of, 38.

LIGHTNING, son of Parganya, 205.

LITERATURE, written, 224.

LITUANIA, 209; its language, 209; its god of rain, 210; prayer to the same, 211.


LOST Tribes, The, of Israel, 159.

LUDLOW on village schools in India, 80.

LUDWIG, translation of Sanskrit words, 187.

LUNAR stations, 150.

LUNAR zodiac, 147.


MAHABHARATA, an epic poem, speaks for the truth, 88; yet recited, 99.

MAHMUD of Gazni, 72.

MAINE, Sir Henry, 65.

MALCOLM, Sir John, on the Hindus, 55.

MANA, A golden, 146.

MANAVAS, The laws of, on evil-doers, 93.


MANNING, Judge, 173.

MANU, his code of laws, 30; their true age, 111; his connection with the deluge, 155.

MANUSCRIPTS, the first collectors of, 224.

MAORI Genesis, 173.

MARUTS, the storm-gods, 199.

MAUI, son of Ru, 171; legend of, 171; its origin, 173.

MEGASTHENES on village life, 65; on Hindu honesty, 72.


MEMORY, power of, 232.

METAMORPHIC changes in religions, 128.

MILL, History of India, 59; estimate of Hindu character, 60.

MINA, its weight, 125.

MITRA, 156; invoked, 215.

MODERN Sanskrit literature, 107.

MOHAMMEDANS, their opinion of the Hindus, 75; the number of sects, 76; treatment of Hindus, 90.

MONOTHEISM in the Veda, 164.

MORALITY, our, Saxon, 38.

MORAL depravity in India, 93.

MUNRO, Thomas, Sir, opinion of Hindus, 61.

MUeLLER, Max, his teachers, 45; intercourse with Hindus, 81; opinion of their character, 82.


NAKSHATRAS, The twenty-seven, 148.

NAKTA and Nyx, 201.

NALA, 110.

NATIVE scholars, 81.


NEW and Full-Moon Sacrifices, 252.

NEW Testament, Revised Edition, 141.

NEWSPAPERS, Sanskrit, 98.

NINE gems or classics, 115.

NORTHERN conquerors, 106.

NUMERALS in Sanskrit, 46.


OATH, Taking an, in village communities, 68; its understanding by the Hindus, 69; fear of punishment connected with, 70.

OLD Testament, 140.

OPHIR, 28.

ORANGE River, 188.

ORIENTAL SCHOLARS, names and work hardly known, 22.


ORME, 60.

ORPHEUS and Ribhu, 201.

OS, oris, 44.

OUDE, 189.



PAHLAVI, translation of the Pankatantra into, 115.


PALI dialect, 107.

PANDITS, 57; Professor Wilson on the, 58.

PANINI, 230.



PARGANYA, 202; hymn to, 205; derivation of name, 207.

PARVANA Sraddha, 260.



PERIPLUS, or circumnavigations, 222.

PERJURY, common in India, 71.

PERKONS, thunder, 210.


PERKUNAS, Lituanian god of thunder, 210.


PERSIANS, what we owe to, 36.

PETERSBURGH Dictionary, 183.

PHOENICIANS, what we owe to, 36; their letters, 222.


PIPAL tree, 50.

PITRIS, the fathers, 239; invoked, 241.


PLATO, 142.

PLINY, Indian rivers known to, 191.

POLITICAL communities, 31.

POLYTHEISM, the kind of, in the Veda, 165.

POSITIVIST sentiments of a Brahman, 87.

PRIMITIVE man, 133.

PRAYERS for rain, 205; for the dead, 262.

PROMETHEUS and Pramantha, 195.

PROTO-ARYAN language, 43.



PUNJAB, the, rivers of the, 183.



RAGHU, 86.

RAJENDRALAL Mitra, on sacrifices, 251.

RAMA, on truth, 87.

RAMA BAVA, the anchorite, 271.

RAMAYANA, the plot of, 86; yet recited, 99.

RAWLINSON, Sir Henry, 158.

READERS not numerous in ancient or modern times, 141.

RECITATION of the old epics in India, 99.

RELIGION, its home in India, 31; our debt to Oriental religions, 36; its transcendent character, 126; metamorphic changes in, 128; began in trust, not in fear, 197.

REMUSAT on the Goths, 104.

RENAISSANCE period in India, 110.

REVIVAL of religion in India, 270.

RIBHU and Orpheus, 201.

RIG-VEDA, editions of, now publishing, 98; known by heart, 99; a treasure to the anthropologist, 134; character of its poems, 143; its religion primitive, 144; compliment to the author for his edition of, 163; the number of hymns in, 163; age of the oldest manuscripts, 221; total number of words in, 228; how transmitted, 231.

RINGOLD, Duke of Lituania, 209.

RISHIS, The Vedic, 168; question of earth's origin, 180; their intoxicating beverage, 243.

RITA, the third Beyond, 263.

RIVERS, as deities, 182; hymn to, 183; names of, in India, 185.

RIVER systems of Upper India, 188.

ROBERTSON'S Historical Disquisitions, 60.

RU, the sky-supporter, 170; his bones, 171; why pumice-stone, 173.

RUeCKERT'S Weisheit der Brahmanen, 22.

RUDRA, the howler, 199.


S, pronounced as h, in Iranic languages, 189.

SACRIFICES, priestly, 148; daily and monthly, 248.

SAKAS, invasion of the, 104.

SAKUNTALA, her appeal to conscience, 90.

SANSKRIT language, its study differently appreciated, 21; use of studying, 23; its supreme importance, 39; its antiquity, 40; its family relations, 40; its study ridiculed, 45; its linguistic influence, 46; its moral influence, 47; a dead language, 96; early dialects of, 96; still influential, 97; scholars' use of, 98; journals in, 96; all living languages in India draw their life from, 100.

SANSKRIT literature, human interest of, 95; the literature of India, 99; manuscripts existing, 102; divisions of, 104; character of the ancient and the modern, 107; known in Persia, 113; a new start in, 115; its study very profitable, 275.

SATAPATHA Brahmana, 91.

SCHOPENHAUER, on the Upanishads, 273.

SEASONS, how regulated, 148.

SELF-KNOWLEDGE, the highest goal of the Veda, 125.

SINDHU, the Indus river, 183; address to, 184; meaning of, 189.

SLEEMAN, Colonel, his rambles and recollections, 60; his life in village communities, 63; his opinion of Hindus, 67.

SOLAR myths, 216.

SOLOMON'S judgment compared, 29.

SPENCER, Herbert, on ancestor worship, 239; his misstatement corrected, 240.

SRADDHAS, or Love Feasts, 248; to the departed, 254; their source, 257; their number, 258; striking resemblance, 261.

SUDAS, 200.

SUN, the central thought in Aryan mythology, 216.

SURYA, god of the sun, 168.


TAMIL, 95.

TANE-MAHUTA, forest-god, 174.

TARAS, the stars, 151.

TERRESTRIAL gods, 169.

TEUTONIC mythology, 166.


THORR, 166.

THREE beyonds, 220.

THSIN dynasty, 152.

THUGS, 63.

TORTOISE, the story of the, 154.

TOWERS of Silence, 22.

TOWNS, names of, in India, 189.

TROY, siege of, 172.

TRUTH, root meaning in Sanskrit, 82.

TRUTHFULNESS, a luxury, 91.

TURANIAN invasion, 104.

TWO women and child, story of, 29.

TYR and Tin, 213.


UGVIS, Lithuanian, 41.

UNIVERSITIES, the object of their teaching, 19.

UNTRUTHFULNESS of the Hindus, 53.

UPANISHADS, 267; their beauty, 273.

URANOS and Varuna, 201.

URVASI, 110.

USHAS and Eos, 202.



VAGA, 183; as plural, 184.

VAISVADEVA, offering, 249.

VAISYA, a, 162.

VAK, wife of Vata, 165.

VALMIKI, the poet, 100.


VARUNA, 156; hymns to, 204.

VASISHTHA, on righteousness, 93.

VATA, the wind, 200; and Wotan, 201.

VEDA, their antiquity, 101; silly conceptions, 118; religion of, 129; necessary to the study of man, 133; objections to, 135; native character of, 159; lessons of, 161; use of their study, 162; character of their poetry, 182; knowledge of God progressive in, 194; their hymns, a specimen, 205; their gods, number of, 219; meaning of their names, 220; three periods in their literature, 234; three religions in, 236.

VEDIC Mythology, its influence, 27; contrasts, 169.

VEDA-END, 267.

VEDANTA philosophy, 265; the present religion in India, 269; its prevalence, 270; commended to students, 271; its highest knowledge, 273.

VIDALA, cat, 42.

VIHARAS, or colleges, the ancient, 26.

VIKRAMADITYA, 110; his varied experience, 113.

VILLAGE communities in India, 64; large number of, 65; morality in, 67.


VYASA, the poet, 100.


WARRIORS, native and foreign, 116.

WATERS, divers gods of the, 167.

WEASEL and the woman, 28.

WILSON, Prof., on the Hindus, 57.

WITNESSES, three classes of, 69.

WOLF, F. A., his questions, 221; his dictum, 223.


WORSHIP of the dead, 240.

WOTAN and Vata, 201.

WRITING unknown in ancient India, 226.


XANTHOS, the Lydian, 223.


YAG, ishta, 208.


YAGNAVALKYA, on virtue, 92.

YAHWEH, worship of, 272.

YAMA, lord of the departed, 85; on immortality, 86; invoked, 242; as the first man, 242; dialogue on death, 267.

YASKA, division of the Vedic gods, 168.

YUEH-CHI, The, and the Goths, 104.


ZEUS, 129; the survivor of Dyaus, 213; the interval between, 235.

ZEUS, Dyaus, and Jupiter, 198.

ZIMMER, Prof., on polytheism, 166; translation of Sanskrit words, 185.

ZODIACAL signs, known to Sanskrit astronomers, 114.

ZODIAC, The Babylonian, 147.


* * * * *






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Young's Analytical Concordance



Dr. Young cannot endure to have this, the great work of his life, judged by the unauthorized editions with which the American market is flooded. These editions, he feels, do his work and the American public great injustice.

That Americans may be able to see the work as printed under his eye and from his own plates, he will sell some thousands of copies at

A Great Pecuniary Sacrifice.

The sale at the reduced prices will begin March 1, 1883, and will continue until the thousands of copies set apart for this sale are exhausted. This is the authorized, latest revised and unabridged edition—in every respect the same type, paper, binding, etc., as we have sold at the higher prices.

It is a burning shame that the great life-work of one of the most eminent scholars, a work pronounced in both Europe and America as one of the most laborious and important that this century has produced, embracing nearly 1100 large quarto pages, each larger and containing more matter than Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, should prove a great financial loss to its author!

This great work is selling in England at $9, and is now imported and sold in America at $2.50!!

Orders will be filled in the order received up to the time of the exhaustion of the stock.

Young's Great Concordance.


There is but one authorized and correct edition of Young's Concordance sold in America. Every copy of this edition has on the title-page the words "Authorized Edition," and at the bottom of the page the imprint


All copies, no matter by whom sold, that have not these words printed on the title-page are printed on the bungling plates made by the late American Book Exchange.

Dr. YOUNG says: "This unauthorized American edition is an outrage on the American public, and on me, containing gross errors."


"Dr. Robert Young's Analytical Concordance is worthy of the lifetime of labor he has spent upon it. I deeply regret that his natural and just expectation of some return from its sale on this side of the ocean is not realized; and I hope the sense of justice to a most painstaking author will lead to the choice by many purchasers of the edition which Dr. Young approves—that of Messrs. FUNK & WAGNALLS, with whom Dr. Young cooperates in bringing out here the best edition.



Do not be deceived by misrepresentations. Insist that your bookseller furnish you the Authorized edition.


1100 quarto pages (each larger than a page in Webster's Unabridged Dictionary), Cloth, $2 50

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