Increasing Efficiency In Business
by Walter Dill Scott
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(c) So soon as I can forget others and myself and can take the objective, or the problem attitude, the chances of efficient action are greatly increased. I find it relatively easy to assume this attitude when I feel that I stand on my own responsibility; that the problem cannot possibly be referred to any higher authority, but that the solution depends upon me alone. My chances of solving the problem would be much reduced, if it were proposed to me at a time when I felt domineered by a superior, or when I felt that he knew much more about it and could settle it much more easily and surely than I. If the problem demanded previous experience and the possession of knowledge which I did not possess, it would be likely to make me self-conscious and hence incapable of utilizing even the experience and the knowledge that I do possess. Past success, the possession of wide experience, and technical instruction keep me from assuming the self-attentive attitude and enable me to take the problem or objective attitude. This is the only attitude consistent with improved form of thought or action, and hence is the attitude essential for valuable experience.

4. That experience is the most valuable that is acquired in dealing with conditions similar to those in connection with which improvement is sought. Experience in wood-chopping makes one a better chopper but does not necessarily increase his skill in sawing wood. Experience in bookkeeping increases one's ability in that particular, but does not appreciably increase his ability to handle men. Speed and accuracy of judgment secured in inspecting one sort of goods cannot be depended upon, if a different sort of goods is to be inspected.

The experience secured in responding to one situation will be valuable in responding to a similar situation because of the three following facts:—

(a) Two similar conditions may secure identical factors in our activity. Thus school life and the executive's work secure such identical activities as are involved in reading, in writing, or in arithmetic, and so forth, whether accomplished in the schoolroom or the office.

(b) The method developed in one experience may be applied equally well to another activity. In connection with a course in college, a student may acquire a scientific method of procedure. At a later time he may (or he may not) apply this same method to the problems arising in his business or industrial life.

(c) Ideals developed in one experience may be projected into other experiences. If the ideals of promptness, neatness, accuracy, and honesty are developed in one relationship of life, the probabilities are somewhat increased that the same ideals will be applied to all experiences.

Provided that the four general conditions discussed are secured, we then have the more specific and important question to ask:—


Only those experiences are valuable that in an appreciable degree modify future action. One way in which an experience or a series of experiences modifies future action is in the formation of habits.

Habit Formation

Habit has a beneficial influence on future action in five particulars:—

(a) Habit reduces the necessary time of action. Repeating the twenty-six letters of the alphabet has become so habitual that I can repeat them forward in two seconds. To repeat them in any other than an habitual order, e.g. backwards, requires sixty seconds.

(b) Habit increases accuracy. I can repeat the alphabet forward without danger of error, but when I try to repeat it backward I am extremely likely to go astray.

(c) Habit reduces the attendant exhaustion. Reading English is for me more habitual than reading French. Hence the latter is the more exhausting process.

(d) Habit relieves the mind from the necessity of paying attention to the details of the successive steps of the act. When piano playing has been completely reduced to habit, the finger movement, the reading of the notes, etc., are all carried on successively with the minimum of thought.

(e) Habit gives a permanency to experience. For many years in playing tennis I served the ball in a way that had become for me perfectly habitual. For an interval of three years I played no tennis, but when I began again I found that I could serve as well as ever. If the manner of service had not been so perfectly reduced to habit, I would have found after an interval of three years that I was completely out of practice, i.e. that my previous experience did not have a permanent value.

(The subject of habit formation will be more completely presented in Chapter XIII.)

A second form of experience that is capitalized and so predetermines a man's capacity to act and to think is the formation of what is known as practical judgments.

Practical judgments

By a practical judgment is meant the conscious recall of a concrete past experience and the determination of some action by means of this consciously recalled event. I find that it will be necessary for me to secure a new stenographer. I solve the problem by consciously recalling how I got one before. Upon the basis of that consciously recalled previous experience I decide how to act now. This is a practical judgment.

In strictness what is capitalized is not the practical judgment itself but the original concrete experience that is recalled at a later time, and upon the basis of which a practical judgment is formed.

Practical judgments cannot be more comprehensive than one's previous experience. The necessary condition for fertility in the formations of practical judgments is therefore richness of previous experience. Indeed one's practical judgments are much more restricted than one's actual experiences. A practical judgment is dependent not merely upon having had the necessary experience, but upon the recall of it at the appropriate occasion. The key to a side door of my house was temporarily lost. After trying scores of keys, I found that a key to a room in the attic would also open the side door. This side-door key was again carried off last week. After much vexation and after trying numerous keys, I again discovered that the key to the room in the attic would open the side door. I failed to make the necessary practical judgment. If when the key was lost the second time I had recalled my former experience and had taken advantage of it, I would have formed a practical judgment and would have saved myself much inconvenience.

The formation of practical judgments is not a high form of thought. Indeed it is held by many that the animals are capable of some form of practical judgment. A much more effective form of thought is the formation of reflective judgments.

Reflective judgments

A practical judgment is based on a single concrete case. A reflective judgment is based on a generalization, an abstraction, or a principle derived from many previous experiences.

Last night a salesman tried to induce me to purchase an interest in an Idaho apple orchard. Thereupon I recalled an instance of a friend who a year ago had made such a purchase and had found it a profitable investment. If on the basis of this or some other concrete case I had accepted or rejected his offer, I would have made a practical judgment. As a matter of fact I caused several concrete instances to pass through my mind, made the generalization that most professional men lose when they invest in distant properties, and upon the basis of this generalization made my reflective judgment and rejected his proposition.

Last week on the golf links I saw a Bohemian peasant woman wearing clothes full of small holes. I tried to figure out how the clothing had become so injured. I recalled seeing a coat that had been left all summer in an attic till it had been eaten to pieces by the moths. On the basis of that recalled incident I satisfied myself by means of the practical judgment that she was wearing moth-eaten clothing. A few days later I saw three of these women working on one of the greens, and each of them had on clothing full of small holes. I began to reflect as to the cause of the holes. I observed that each woman held a bottle in her hand and was apparently applying the contents of the bottle to the roots of the dandelion plants. I inferred that the liquid must be an acid. Then of all the qualities of an acid I considered merely its corrosiveness. With that abstraction in mind I made the reflective judgment that the women were working with an acid and that from time to time particles of the acid got on their clothes and corroded them.

A manager of a large manufacturing and selling organization made a study of the conditions affecting the prosperity of his organization. From his observations he deduced the principle that for him it is more important to increase the loyalty of the men to the organization than to reduce the apparent labor cost. With this principle in mind he made various reflective judgments in upbuilding his organization.

In these illustrations of theoretical or reflective judgments it will be observed that no previous single experience was in the mind of the one forming the judgment but merely a generalization, an abstraction, or principle.

The experience that is really capitalized is the formation of the generalizations, abstractions, and principles which are thereafter available for reflective judgments and can be applied to a multitude of novel situations but situations in which the generalization, abstraction, or principle is a factor.

The significance of reflective judgments in increasing human efficiency was manifested in a striking manner by the following experiment. A group of individuals were tested as to their ability to solve a number of mechanical puzzles. The time required for each individual was recorded. The subjects then described as completely as possible how they had solved the problem (worked the puzzle). In some instances the subjects kept trying blindly, till by accident they hit upon the right method. In such cases the second and third trials might take as long or even longer than the first trial. If, however, the subject had in mind the right principle or principles for solving the problems, the time required for succeeding attempts fell abruptly. Curve A of Figure 6 is a graphic representation of the results of A with one of the puzzles. To solve the problem the first time required 1476 seconds. While solving it this first time A discovered a principle upon which success depended. The second attempt consumed 241 seconds. While solving the problem this second time he discovered a second principle. With these two principles in mind succeeding attempts were rendered rapid and certain.

Another young man, B, in solving his problem. (Chinese Rings Puzzle) succeeded after working 1678 seconds. At the completion of this successful attempt he had in mind no principle for working it. The second trial was not so successful as the first and lasted 2670 seconds. With succeeding trials he reduced his time but not regularly and was still working "in the dark.'' His method was one of extreme simplicity and probably not different from the "try, try again'' method employed by animals in learning. The results of his first ten trials are graphically shown in Curve B of Figure 6.

A comparison of Figure 6 with the five

{illust. caption = FIG. 6.}

figures of Chapter X will show how rapidly increase of efficiency is when dependent upon judgments as contrasted with improvement dependent upon habit.

A judgment once having been made may be utilized again and again. The process of applying these preformed judgments is known as an intuitive or perhaps better called an expert judgment.

Expert judgments

Just as appropriate concrete experiences determine the nature and the range of practical judgments, and as the formation of generalizations, abstractions, and principles determine the possibilities of reflective judgments, so the actual formation of the practical and reflective judgments determine the nature and the range of the intuitive or expert judgments.

Some years ago I had a need for an attorney to perform for me a petty service. Just at that critical moment I met a friend who was a lawyer. I employed him forthwith. At a later time I needed a lawyer again, recalled my former experience, and called up the same attorney. This employing him the second time was clearly a practical judgment. If I have frequent need for an attorney, I shall probably make use of my preformed practical judgment and employ this same attorney. This act will never become a habit, but it will approximate more and more a habitual action, and will seem to be performed intuitively, and will be an illustration of an expert judgment.

This morning I was asked to find a cook and man of general utility for an outing camp. I had no preformed practical judgment which I could apply to the case and did not even possess a remembrance of any experience upon which I might base a practical experience. In such a case therefore I am not only not an expert but I do not possess the necessary preliminary experiences for developing such ability.

During the last decade I have given much thought to this question: Does the efficiency of one's thinking depend at all upon the clearness and distinctness of the mental image used in the thinking? I settled the question in the negative. The formation of this principle (clear thinking does not depend upon clear visual image) was an act of reflective judgment. But now the application of this preformed judgment has developed into an expert judgment. Recently I was given the manuscript of a course in psychology and asked to appraise it. One of the chief points of the author was to advise all business men to develop clear visual images. In fact he asserted that clearness of thinking was in proportion to clearness of the visual image with which the thinking is carried on. Without again weighing the evidence for my principle, I applied my preformed judgment and by means of this expert judgment condemned the course.

A man is expert only in those fields in which he has developed the appropriate habits, the necessary, practical, and reflective judgments, and has had some practice in applying these judgments.

We find that four classes of experiences are valuable, i.e. such experiences as result in the formation of habits; such as result in practical judgments, in reflective judgments, and in expert judgments. Our final task is to consider methods for increasing the probabilities that such experiences may be secured and utilized.


The conditions best adapted for procuring and utilizing one class of these most valuable experiences may not be the best for the other three classes. Our final problem must therefore be subdivided into four parts corresponding to the four classes of valuable experience.

Special Conditions Favorable to Habit Formation

The essential condition for habit formation is repetition with intensity of application. The modern movement in the industrial world known as scientific management supplies this need for repetition by standardizing all activities so that they will be repeated over and over in identical form; and it secures the intensity of application by means of the task and bonus system. By these means the most valuable experiences for habit formation are secured and utilized.

The working out of this fact is so admirably described in recent reports upon scientific management that further description here would be superfluous.

Special Conditions Favorable to the Formation of Practical judgments

In addition to the four general conditions discussed on pages 278 to 283@@@ the special conditions most favorable to the formation of practical judgments are the three following:—

1. The experiences most effective in arousing practical judgments are those that are most recent. A few days ago I purchased a piece of real estate and was asked how I wanted the property transferred. I replied immediately that I wanted a warranty deed and a guarantee policy. This was a practical judgment made upon the basis of a recent previous experience. As a matter of fact there are three distinct methods of transferring real estate, but until after my judgment had been made I was perfectly oblivious of the other methods, although I had had experience with them some years before. Thus I utilized only my recent experience in making my practical judgment.

2. Other things being equal, those experiences are most valuable in arousing practical judgments that have been the most frequent. I have seen burns dressed many times and in many ways, but most often they have been dressed with soda and water. When I was called upon recently to dress a burn I recalled the method which I had seen most often and formed a practical judgment based thereupon and was helped out of my difficulty.

3. Our most vivid and intense experiences are the ones most likely to be recalled and to be utilized in the formation of practical judgments. The mistakes that I have to pay for and the deed that secured my promotion are the experiences most fertile in the formation of practical judgments.

Special Conditions Favorable to the Formation of Reflective judgments

In addition to the general conditions mentioned on page 278@@@ the special conditions favorable for the formation of reflective judgments are as follows:—

1. A theoretical education. Proverbially schools teach generalizations, abstractions, and principles. The scholar and the student are compelled to practice in this most effective form of thinking. A justifiable criticism of the schools is that they are inclined to neglect the lower forms of thinking—the dealing with the concrete—in their zeal for the highest forms of thinking. However, a school education not only gives practice in handling generalizations, abstractions, and principles, but it provides the conditions necessary to stimulate the learners to amass a useful stock of concepts that at a later time will be used in reflective judgments.

2. Suggestions from others. Reflective judgments depend upon condensed experience. The condensation is not produced by compres- sion but by selecting the common though essential element from various former experiences and by uniting these elements into a new unity. This breaking up of former experiences by analyzing out the essential factor is a difficult task and one in which no man can proceed far without assistance from others.

At a recent meeting of psychologists a speaker presented a paper on the most helpful order of presentation of topics for a course in psychology. He simply called our attention to certain facts which we had all experienced as teachers of psychology. He then combined these abstracted elements in a new unity in such a way that I was enabled to form a reflective judgment as to the order of presenting topics in psychology. Without his suggestion I probably never would have been able to make the analysis necessary for the reflective judgment.

We need all the help we can get to assist us to analyze our own experiences. To this end we employ with great profit such agencies as conferences with fellow-workmen, conventions, visitations, trade journals, and technical discussions upon our own problem (cf. Chapter XI).

3. Verbal expression. We cannot well unite factors of previous experience into a new whole unless we have some symbol to stand for the new unity. As such a symbol, a word is the most effective. Animals never carry on reflective judgments and never can, since they do not possess a language adequate to such demands. The attempt to express one's thought in words is in reality often a means for creating the thought as well as a means for its expression. A few years ago I prepared a paper on the subject, "Making Psychology Practical.'' In my attempt to express myself I clarified my thinking, formed new generalizations, and therefore was enabled to do with full consciousness (with reflective judgments) what previously I had done but blindly.

It is a most helpful practice to attempt to express in words just what one is trying to accomplish; what are the conditions necessary for success; what the conditions that are lower- ing efficiency; and what are the possibilities of the work, etc. The method of analysis and expression assists wonderfully in abstracting the aspects of one's experience necessary for the generalization, abstraction, and principle used in reflective judgments.

Special Conditions Favorable to the Formation of Expert judgments

There are no clearly defined special conditions for increasing one's capacity to apply expert judgments. The general conditions discussed on page 278@@@ seem to cover the case. If I have provided, as an executive, for all these conditions for developing expert judgments:—

(1) if I have good vigorous health,

(2) if I am working with enthusiastic application,

(3) if I have the right attitude towards my work,

(4) and finally, if I am having frequent experience in making practical and theoretical judgments,—I am then fulfilling the conditions most favorable for the development of expert judgments.



AFTER spending four years in an Eastern college, a young graduate was put in charge of a group of day laborers. He assumed toward them the attitude of the athletic director and the coach combined. He set out to develop a winning team, one that could handle more cubic yards of dirt in a day than any other group on the job.

He had no guidebook and no official records to direct him. He did not know what the best "form'' was for shoveling dirt, and he did not know how much a good man could accomplish in an hour. With stop watch and notebook in hand, he began to observe the movements of the man who seemed the best worker in the group. He counted the different movements made in handling a shovelful of dirt, and the exact time required for each of the movements. He then made similar observations upon other men. He found that the best man was making fewer movements and faster movements than his companions. But he also discovered that even this best workman was making movements which were not necessary, and that he was making some movements too slowly and thus losing the advantage of the momentum which a higher speed would have produced, and which would have enabled him to accomplish the task with less effort.

The young collegian then set about to standardize the necessary movements and the most economical speed for each movement required in the work of his group. He instructed his best man in the improved method of working, and offered him a handsome bonus if he would follow the specifications and accomplish the task in the estimated time. The man, eager to earn the increase, followed the directions closely, and in a few weeks was enabled to accomplish more than twice the work of the average workman. The improved habit of working was then taught the other workmen, and the result was a winning team.

The success of the young collegian did not get into the colored supplements of the daily press, but it was heralded by mechanical engineers as marking an epoch in the industrial advance of humanity. It made manifest the necessity of a study of habits, the elimination of the useless ones, and the acquisition of those most beneficial.

The study of habit has not received from the practical business man the attention which it deserves because he has too often looked upon habit as something detrimental to efficiency. The possession of any and of all habits has at times been regarded as a misfortune.

An employer of men for responsible positions recently made this inquiry concerning each applicant for a position, "Does he have any habits? If so, what are they?'' This employer confused all habits with such things as habits of intemperance, habits of slovenliness, habits of dishonesty, and habits of loafing. Little did he suspect that the habits of the men were in reality their strongest recommendation. He did not realize that the capitalized experience of these men was funded in the masses of useful habits which they had acquired.

Habits are but ways of thinking and of acting which by reason of frequent repetition have become more or less automatic. We are all creatures of habit; we all possess both good and bad habits.

In performing an habitual act we do not pay attention to the individual separate steps included in the act. So we are liable to think of our habitual acts as those done *carelessly, and of other acts as those performed with caution and consideration. The folly of such a criticism of habit is made apparent by the study of any act which may be performed by one person as a habit and by another person as an act every step of which demands attention. A barber stropping his razor is a familiar illustration of the working of habit. An adult attempting to strop a razor for the first time and compelled to give attention to each step in the process is a typical illustration of an act demanding attention in contrast with an habitual act which needs no such attention.

We are also inclined to deprecate habits on the ground that the man in the grip of habit is hopelessly in the *rut, that the man who has reduced his work to habit ceases to be original and is incapable of further improvement. On the contrary, the grip of habit is but a support. The editor could not write his trenchant editorials, and the advertiser could not write his compelling copy, unless in the act of writing each could turn over to habit the manipulation of the pen, the formation of the letters, and the spelling of the words. The attorney cannot make his most logical arguments and the salesman cannot make the best presentation of his goods, unless they can depend upon habit for correct verbal expressions, unless their thoughts clothe themselves automatically in appropriate verbal forms. When we are in the grip of habit, if it be a good habit, we are not so much in a rut as on the steel rails where alone the greatest progress is made possible. We are not enslaved by good habits, but rather might it be said that no man is truly free to advance and to make rapid progress till he has succeeded in establishing a mass of useful habits.


Modern physiological psychology has dealt with the problem of explaining the possibility of the formation and maintenance of habits. The explanation is found in the mutual development of the mind and the nervous system and in the dependence of thought and action upon the nervous system, and particularly upon the brain. To understand habit we must look beyond thought and action and consider some of the fundamental characteristic features of the nervous system. One such characteristic is the plasticity of the nervous substance. If I bend a piece of paper and crease it, the crease will remain even after the paper is straightened out again. The paper is plastic, and plasticity means simply that the substance offers some resistance to adopting a new form, but that when the new form is once impressed upon the substance it is retained. Some effort is required to overcome the plasticity of the paper and to form the crease, but when it is once formed the plasticity of the paper preserves the crease.

Modern conceptions of psychology have emphasized the intimate relationship existing between our thoughts and our brains. Every time we think, a slight change takes place in the delicate nerve-cells in some part of the brain. Every action among these cells leaves its indelible mark, or crease. Just as it is easy for the paper to bend where it has been creased before, it is likewise easy for action to take place in the brain where it has taken place before.

The brain may also be likened to the cylinder or disk used in a dictating machine and in phonographs, and a thought likened to the needle making the original record. It takes some energy to force the needle through the substance of the cylinder, but thereafter it moves along the opened groove with a mini- mum of resistance. In a similar way it is easy to think the old thought or to perform the old act, but it is most difficult to be original in thinking and in acting. When an idea has been thought or an act performed many times, the crease or groove becomes so well established that thinking or acting along that crease or groove is easier than other thoughts or actions, and so this easier one may be said to have become habitual. In a very real sense the thoughts and actions form the brain by means of the delicate physical changes which they produce; and then, when the brain is formed, its plasticity is so great that it determines our future thinking and acting.


Human efficiency depends in part upon the rapidity with which we are able to accomplish our tasks. It is surprising to us all when we find how rapidly we can accomplish our habitual acts and how slowly we perform the tasks to which we are compelled to give specific atten- tion. I find that I can repeat the twenty-six letters of the alphabet in two seconds. I do not give attention to the order of the letters) but all I seem to do is to start the process, and then it says itself. If, however, I attempt to pronounce the alphabet backward, my first attempt takes a full minute. If I attempt to say the alphabet forward but to insert after each letter a single syllable, such as "two,'' it takes sixteen seconds. Thus, a 2, b 2, C 2, d 2, etc., requires eight times as many seconds as the simple alphabet, a, b, c, d, e, etc. The sequence which has become most perfectly habitual requires but two seconds; the process which employs the old habit in part requires sixteen seconds; but the act which has never been reduced to a habit at all (repeating the alphabet backward) requires at least sixty seconds.

Some time ago I could pick out the letters on a typewriter at the rate of about one per second. Writing is now becoming reduced to a habit, and I can write perhaps three letters a second. When the act has been reduced to the pure habit form, I shall be writing at the rate of not less than five letters per second.

I can send a telegraph message at a rate but little faster than one contact per second. Those who have reduced the transmission of messages to a habit are capable of making twelve contacts per second.

In multiplying one three-place number by another I have the fixed habit of writing the multiplier under the multiplicand, the partial products under these, and the final product beneath all. If I reverse all these positions, the multiplying should be no more difficult, but as a matter of fact this simple reversal increases the time of operation about eighty-five per cent. All mathematical operations are rapid in proportion to the degree to which they are habitual.

The speed of thought is slow unless it follows the old creases and the old grooves. No adequate speed is possible so long as attention must be given to the succeeding stages of the thought or act. This is true of all acts and of all thoughts, whether in the home or upon the street, in the shop or in the office.

Great speed of thought and action must not be confused with hurried thought and action. Speed which is habitual is never hurried. There are many acts of skill which can be done much more easily if performed rapidly than if performed slowly. When working hurriedly, there is a speeding up of all movements whether necessary or unnecessary; but the speed secured from correct habits is primarily dependent upon the elimination of useless movements and the concentration of energy at the essential point.


Where machinery can be employed we find greatly increased accuracy of work. The product of the loom and the lathe are more perfect, more uniform, and more accurate in all details than similar work produced by hand. The product of the printing press thus attains a greater degree of accuracy in details than was ever attained by the ancient monk in the printing of his scrolls.

In general, our work becomes accurate, as well as swift, in the degree to which we are able to mechanize it into habits. The beginner in piano playing or typewriting pays attention to the striking of each key. When he is in this stage of development he is liable at any time to strike the wrong key and certainly cannot be depended upon for regularity of touch. As soon as he has reduced the striking of the keys to a habit, he ceases to strike the wrong keys and secures uniformity of touch.

The expert marksman has reduced to a habit the necessary steps of shooting and gives no special attention to the position of the fingers, the tension of the hands, the angle of the head, the closing of the eye, and the pulling of the trigger. He has reduced all these to habit before he is able to secure his expert skill.

The reliable bookkeeper has reduced to habit the combining of all the ordinary sums of the ledger. The man of accuracy of speech is the one whose thoughts clothe themselves in the verbal expressions by habit but with no conscious selection of words. The man of the most accurate judgment in any field is the one who has succeeded in reducing to habit most of the steps of the judgments in that field, the one who has the largest stock of intuitive judgment.


Attention cannot be directed to more than one thing at a time. It is doubtless true that the "one thing'' may be very complex, e.g. four letters or even four words. So long as the performance of an act demands attention, this one act is practically all that can be done at that time. As soon as this thing is reduced to habit, it may go on automatically, and the attention may be turned to other things.

When I begin to learn to play the piano, the finger movements require all my attention so that I cannot read the notes on the scale and make the proper execution at the same time. Gradually, the reading of notes and the execution are reduced to habit, and I can then turn my attention to the reading of the words of the air. As each essential detail is reduced to habit, I acquire the ability to read the score, to make the correct finger and foot movements, to read the words of the song, to sing it correctly, and at the same time to be thinking more or less of other things.

My use of the pen has become so reduced to habit that I need pay no attention to the writing, but am enabled to give my entire attention to the thought which I am attempting to formulate. So every useful habit becomes a power or a tool which may be used for multiplying the efficiency of the individual. Habit formation is the greatest labor saving device in the human economy. No one has expressed this truth so forcefully as the late Professor William James.

"The great thing, then, in all education, is to make our nervous system our ally instead of our enemy. It is to fund and capitalize our acquisitions, and live at ease upon the interest of the fund. For this we must make automatic and habitual, as early as possible, as many useful actions as we can, and guard against the growing into ways that are likely to be disadvantageous to us as we should guard against the plague. The more of the details of our daily life we can hand over to the effortless custody of automatism, the more our higher powers of mind will be set free for their own proper work. There is no more miserable human being than one in whom nothing is habitual but indecision, and for whom the lighting of every cigar, the drinking of every cup, the time of rising and going to bed every day, and the beginning of every bit of work, are subjects of express volitional deliberation. Full half the time of such a man goes to the deciding or regretting of matters which ought to be so ingrained in him as practically not to exist for his consciousness at all. If there be such daily duties not yet ingrained in any one of my readers, let him begin this very hour to set the matter right.''


The various acts connected with my morning toilet have been reduced to sheerest habit. I do not think of the different acts as I perform them—they seem to perform themselves. The sequence of the various acts and the manner of performing them are not particularly good, but I do not seem inclined to change them. I put on my left shoe before my right, my right sleeve before my left. I have the absurd habit of washing my teeth after I have washed my face. That my habits may execute themselves automatically, all the articles of my toilet must be in their proper places. I am thwarted in carrying out my habits unless my laundry has been properly placed, unless towels, brushes, etc., are all where they should be. If everything is in its place, I get down to breakfast refreshed and recuperated. If the toilet articles are so located that I am compelled to do consciously what I might have done subconsciously, I get down to breakfast irritated and nervously depleted. The peace and restfulness of an orderly and systematic household are in part dependent upon the fact that it is only in such a household that we are enabled to turn over to habit the accomplishment of untold recurrent acts.

The experienced accountant can add figures continuously for eight hours a day, and at the end of the day may feel no great exhaustion. The man who has not reduced to habit the necessary steps in addition cannot add continuously for two hours without a degree of exhaustion so great that it paralyzes effort. The same is true with typewriting, telegraphing, and with all forms of manipulations which may be reduced to habit.

The habit of reading in a foreign language is rarely so well established as the habit of interpreting the printed symbols of the mother tongue. Even when I seem to be reading German as easily as English, a few hours spent in reading German is to me much more exhausting than the same amount of time spent with an English book. Attending lectures delivered in German is to me more exhausting than the same lectures would be if delivered in English.

Work that requires much constructive thinking cannot be continued for many hours a day. This is due to the fact that such thinking does not admit of complete reduction to specific habits. The executive who accomplishes much is the man who has formed many useful habits and who is able to fall back on them for a large part of his work. His decisions are reached in a habitual manner. Investigations take a regular, automatic course. All the details of the office are reduced to mechanical system. No useless energy is spent in giving attention to details that can be better done by habit, and the mind is thus freed from exhaustion and left fresh for attacking the problems arising for solution.

The performance of every new act and the thinking of every new idea is of necessity exhausting, and they become easy to the extent to which they utilize old habits. Although constructive thinking is most stimulating and exciting, no man can continue it for more than a few hours or a few minutes unless it depends mainly upon old habits.

Some of the most constructive thinkers of the world have been men who could work at their original work for but a few minutes at a time. One brilliant contemporary writer accomplishes most when he works not more than fifteen minutes at a time. Charles Darwin is famous for the originality of his thinking, and hence we are not surprised when we find that he was able to work but three hours out of the twenty-four.


Personal habits are the most apparent and those by which we most often judge an individual. Manner of dress becomes so much a matter of habit that the wearing apparel is sometimes spoken of as the habit, and, as Shakespeare says, it oft betrays the man. Cleanliness and neatness of appearance, the tone and accent of voice, the manner of walk- ing and of carrying the head, and the use of language are personal habits which are acquired early in life, but which mean much in the chances of success. The manner of eating, of sleeping, and of caring for all the needs of body and mind are for most persons mainly a matter of habit, yet they, to a large extent, determine the condition of health and the length of days.

We become fond of doing things in the manner to which we have become habituated. This tendency manifests itself to an abnormal degree in the drinking and the smoking habit. In a lesser degree we see the same thing in the attachment of the babe for his pacifier and the child for his chewing gum. Habit creates a craving for the good as well as for the bad. The ways to which we have become habituated seem pleasing to us whether they be good or bad. There is truth in the proverb, "Train up a child in the way he should go and when he is old, he will not depart from it.'' It might be added that the child will not want to depart from the way to which he has been trained, for the habits thus acquired beget a fondness for the acts themselves.

It is very unusual for any one to acquire a language after the age of twenty so as to speak it without a foreign accent. All other personal habits are like the use of language in that they are acquired during the early years and are not easily changed. So far as personal habits are concerned, but little change need be anticipated after the twentieth year.


Our treatment of others is largely a matter of habit. We are affable or gruff according to habit. Honesty and dishonesty in dealing with others is, in the main, a matter of habit. The honest man is the one who takes honesty for granted and acts honestly from habit. So soon as he begins to observe that he is an honest man, to call attention to the fact, and to be much impressed by the honor of his choices—at that moment suspicion of him should be entertained, for honesty has with him ceased to be a habit.

We classify individuals largely by means of their personal and social habits. By these the gentleman is recognized as surely as the boor. By means of them we select our friends and engage new employees. Efficiency in every life calling depends upon our success in dealing with people. Such success is largely dependent upon the social habits that we acquire.


Until the recent rise of interest in psychology, relatively little attention had been given to the study of those habits which are developed in business. When proper care is not given to the formation of these habits developed in connection with one's daily occupation, wrong habits are certain to appear. The mason makes two motions with his trowel where he should make but one. The accountant substitutes "short cuts'' in adding where all the operations should be taken in regular order and made as automatic as the few short cuts previously developed. The executive has the habit of depending upon "desultory'' memory where the logical should be developed. The salesman in speaking to a critical customer says "he don't,'' instead of saying "he doesn't''; "gents' goods'' instead of "men's goods.'' Every investigation into the human actions and the human methods of thinking as involved in business reveals the presence of unfortunate habits such as the examples here cited.

Therefore, one of the most noteworthy events in the business and industrial world of the last twenty years is the study of the occupation habits of the workman to which reference was made in the first paragraphs of this chapter. The research has been especially successful in dealing with the occupation habits of mechanics.

The fundamental discovery was made that the workman's occupation habits are not such as enable him to accomplish his task in an economical and efficient manner. To discover what occupation habits should be developed, experts in each of several typical establishments were assigned the task of making a careful study of every movement of eye, hand, foot, and body, and the rate and sequence of all the movements necessary for performing single tasks most easily and efficiently. The experts were also to study the tools, the materials, and conditions best adapted to the work. In general, the experts found the greatest opportunity for improvement in the *movements of the men. As a result of this research, numerous processes have been scientifically standardized. The workmen have been taught the new and better way and have been drilled till the processes have been, so far as possible, reduced to occupation habits. The workmen have been easily induced to acquire the new habits, as their earning capacity is thereby greatly increased. Ordinarily, a considerable bonus is awarded to all workmen who develop the desired habits and perform the task exactly as prescribed by the expert.

An investigation into the results secured from the adoption of this scientific attempt to study and to regulate the occupation habits of workmen reveals most gratifying success.

Mr. H. R. Hathaway, an expert engineer, testifies that "under this system a workman can turn out from two to four times as much work'' as he was able to accomplish when working with his old habits,

Mr. Lewis Sanders, of the General Engineering Company, New York, reports most satisfactory results from the introduction of this systematic attempt to regulate the occupation habits of employees. A typical example which he reports is the following: It regularly took a man one minute and forty seconds to set a piece in a jig. "After a study of the exact motions required to pick the piece up and set it accurately, we showed the same man how to do it in twenty seconds.'' This workman soon reduced the correct movement to habit, attained the specified speed, and without in any way working harder than formerly was assisted to increase his efficiency four hundred per cent.

A well-known engineering company re- quired the reading of twelve thermometers, each every two minutes. The man assigned to the task could rarely read so many as eight of them in the two minutes. An expert took up the problem and at first could do no better than the first man. The expert studied the most favorable position of the head and eyes for reading, eliminated all useless motions, and discovered that the twelve thermometers could then be read in one minute and fifty seconds. The workman who previously had with difficulty read eight thermometers in two minutes soon acquired the proper occupation habits and was enabled to read the twelve with perfect ease. His efficiency was increased forty per cent, and the task was rendered less exacting than before.

Typewriting is carried on by habits. The habit of writing most naturally formed is that known as the sight system. Recently, attempts have been successfully made to enable the operators to form the habit of writing by touch rather than by sight. The operator who acquires the habit of locating the keys by touch writes much faster and with less nervous strain than the operator who writes from sight.

No one has been more successful in studying occupation habits than Mr. Frank B. Gilbreth, an expert in the building trades. He discovered that in constructing a brick wall a good mason can lay one hundred and twenty bricks in an hour and that in laying each brick he makes eighteen distinct motions. The motions were not made in an economical sequence; some of them were useless, and merely exhausted the energy of the workman. Mr. Gilbreth attempted to apply to the industry of bricklaying the principles of billiard playing. Every motion of the mason should be a "play for position.'' He should make each motion so as to be ready for the next. For example, the motion of placing the mortar for the end joint should end with the trowel in position ready to cut off the hanging mortar. When the motions are made in the correct sequence, two or more of them can be combined and performed in but little more time than would be required to make each of the separate motions. Thus, cutting off mortar, buttering the end of the laid brick, and reaching for more mortar can all be performed as a single movement. In this way the motions of the mason have been reduced from eighteen to five per brick. All this change has been brought about from a study of the occupation habits of masons. In discussing the results, Mr. Gilbreth says: "It has changed the entire method of laying bricks by reducing the kind, number, sequence, and length of motions. The economic value of motion study has been proved by the fact that we have more than tripled the workman's output in bricklaying and at the same time lowered cost and increased wages simultaneously, and the end is not yet.''

Attempts to develop beneficial occupation habits in executives have not yet been exhaustively and scientifically carried out. Such experiments are, however, sure to be successful, and it is quite probable that before another decade has passed the habits of executives will have been as successfully studied and controlled as have the occupation habits of mechanics cited above.

The introduction of physics and chemistry have led to marvelous results in methods of manufacture and transportation. Those who have given most attention to the advances of psychology during the past two decades are confident that by the proper application of psychology the efficiency of men is to be increased beyond the idle dream of the optimist of the past. Since by a study of habits the efficiency of men in fundamental occupations has been increased from forty to four hundred per cent, it is hard to prophesy what results are to be secured from more extensive studies.

{The remaider of this etext (Index + Advert.) is raw OCR} INDEX

Ability, potential, 231. Accidents, mine, 96. Acclimated, 17. Acclimatization, 18. Accountant, experienced, 319. Advance, periods of, 232; of learning, 242. Africa, 189. Air, 172; foul, 180. Alertness, mental, 44. Alphabet, repeating, 284. Altruistic, 203. American, business, 24; steel- makers, 48, 206; executives, 118; ideals, 205; people, 209 f., 219. Architecture, 174. Armour, 87. Athletic, contest, 9; events, 169; trainer, 2 11. Attention, 3; passive, 109 f.; secondary passive, 112 ff.; voluntary, III ff., 123, 234, 249 ff., 279. Attitudes, 132 ff., 177; receptive, 182, 183, 187; promotion of, 193, 202, 215; "do-or-die,'' 250; personal, 279 ff. Authority, plenary, 88.

"Bad days,'' 207. Bessemer converters, 48. Bicycles, 194. "Big'' selling months, 72. "Bogy'' in golf, 55 f. Bohemian woman, 288. Bonus, 35, 142, 145, 165, 178, 252, 304; system, 297, 326. Book, W. F., "Psychology of Skill,'' 227. Bookkeeping, experience in, 282. Boor, 324. Boss, 49, 83, 178, 253. Boy, messenger, 7; errand, 277. Brain, 309. Breakdowns, 208. " Breaking in,'' 41, 232, 237. British Iron and Steel Institute, 49. Brooding, habit of, 216. Bryan & Harter, Psychological Review, 230.

Cabinet meetings,'' 119. Campaign, educational, 102, 155; advertising, 238. Capacities, mental, 134, 178. Capitalizing experience, 303 ff. Carnegie, Andrew, 49 ff.; mills, 57 f., 87; his cabinet, 94 f., 221. Caution in competition, 61. Cells, brain and muscle, 172, 173. Chemistry, 4, 7, 331. Christ, 85, 206. Clauston, Dr., 206. Cleveland, Grover, 188. Clubs, local, 220. Coach, 9, 303. Coaching, effect of, 9, 10. College grades, 16. Combustion, 171. Commendation in competition, 62 f., 73. Competition, 48 ff . Concentration, 104 ff . Connection, body and mind, 121. Consciousness, 172. Conservation of individuality, 94. Consumption, comparative, 50, 172,173. Contests, 68; shooting match, 69; balloon race, 70. Coperation of employees, 80. Cost of living, 160. Courses, coperative, 270 f; in college, 282; automatic, 320. Crane, R. P., 20. Curve practice, 224 ff.

Danger signal, 211. Darwin, Charles, 22 ff. Devices, mechanical, 170. Dickens, C., 176. Discipline, 11, 179. Discomfort, 165, 177. Disparity, 168. Dissipations, 220. Distinction, social, 141. Distribution, 1, 3, 4-

Doherty, H. L., 217. "Dragged out,'' 08. Drill, 3.

"Easy improvements,'' 246. Edison, 14, 37. Education, industrial, 201; work on, 21Q; school, 264; theoretical, 299. Efficiency, see Chap. 1, 7, A; personal, io5, 18o, 186; curve Of, 223, 251; high, 240; slumps in, 253. Effort, voluntary, 111[, 124. Electric, fans, YL66; lights, 2. " Employment,'' ioi. Energies, 16; mental, 20; expenditure Of, 21. Engines, gas, 2; steam turbine, 2. English, ironmasters, 48, 319, 320. Enthusiasm, 186, 1187, 190. Environment, physical, 2, 179 f., 18o; factors in, 253. Establishments, 49, 158; successful, 175. European, 208. Exhaustion, A8, 172, 173, 284. Experience, see Chaps. XI-XII; most valuable, 296. Expression, verbal, 3oi.

"February sale,'' 53. Field, Marshall, 87, 94, 193. Fluctuations, in learning, 232; subject to, 249. Food, 172. Football, 9. Forfeiture of bond, 75. French, reading, 284. Fulton, 37. "Garden cities,'' 122. General Electric CO., 271. Generations, rising, 220. Geniuses, potential, T.9i; business, igi. German, 319, 320. " Getting together,'' 198. Gilbreth, F. B., 329 f. Girls, sewing, 05. Gladstone, 113, 2 2 1. Golf, 54; bogy, 194, 248. "Go stale,'' 235, 251. Government, paternalistic, 8o. Grant, 9r. Grasp, intellectual, 22. Great Lakes, 48. Greece, ancient, 219. Grip, maximum, 225 f. Guilds, industrial, 1197-

Habit formation, see Chap. XIII; special conditions, 296 ff., 3o8; social, 323; personal, 3 2 1 reduce exhaustion, 318. Handicaps, in competition, 61; principle of, 61 f. Handy men,'' o6, 253. Harriman, E. H., 17. Hathaway, H. R., 327. Health and vigor, 278. Herculean, 14, 205. Hill, J. J., 20, Hours, reasonable, 82; of freedom, 219.

House organs,'' see papers, 35; photographs in, 63, 67, 69, House patriotism,'' 8o; history and policies, go; picnics, 101. Human sympathy, as a factor, 85 ff.

Idaho orchard, 287. Ideas, management, 44. Illumination, i8o. Imitation, 26 ff., 53; voluntary, 30. Improvements, periods Of, 233. Incubation, periods Of, 233, 247, 249, 253. Industrial towns, 122. Industry, attitude of, 136. Injuries, 16q. Instincts, to collect, 139, 188; hunting, 188; specific, igo; of man, igo; of competition, 64. Institute, Smithsonian, r8g. Insurance, 16o. Interests, outside, 222; novelty, 239, 249; sustained, 240; appeals to, 240; spontaneous, 251. In the running,'' 71. Instruction, 270 f. Invention, 3, 48, 217; flagging, 239.

James, Professor William, 207, 218) 30. Jefferson, gi. Jones, W. R.) A 50 f. Judgments, practical, 285 ff.; reflective, 287 ff. ; expert, 293 ff.

Knowledge, empirical, 244; acquired, 243.

Labor, hand, 3, 101; intellectual, 168, 70; manual, r68; dignity of, 19q. Law, 7. Lawyers, 175. Learning, rate Of, 231. Lincoln, 9r. Love of the game, 186 ff.; classifying, 19o; summarized, 192; social prestige, 194, 1195; tostimulate, 97; developing, 202. Loyalty, 75 ff . Lyons, Joseph, 208, 209.

McCormick, C. H., 24. Machinist, skilled, 26o. Magician, i. Making Experience an Asset, 276 ff. Making good,'' 71, 25T. Making Psychology Practical,'' 301. Manager, 6, 154; successful, 143; office, 244. Marketing, 3. Medium of competition, 64. Memory, desultory, 325. Methods, business, i; specific, 25; of training, iig; improved, 181, 304; acquisition Of, 243, 266 ff.

Millennium, 203. Miser, i4o. Models, energetic, 2, 33. Mood, mental, 218. Movements, preleamed, 246; necessary, 303 ff. Muck raking, 195-

National Cash Register CO., 272. Nature, laws Of, 211. Need,'' 73. New blood,'' 156, 276. New York Herald, 210. Nourishment, 18. Nervous system, 12. Novice, 244, 277.

Ohio territory, o8. One thing,'' 315. Organization spirit,'' 8o, 84. Ornamentation, unobtrusive, i8o. Output, 158, 165, 167, 08. " Overselling,'' 98. Overtension, 214.

Pace, 2. Pacemaker, 52. " Pain economy,'' 179. Palmer, Potter, 87. Papers, weekly or monthly, 35. Peers, rivalry between, 56. Perseverance, 16q. Personal relations in loyalty, 83. Personal relationship with workers, 87 ff . Personality, 84, 87, 93~ 176. Philanthropy, 221 f. Physics, 7, 331. Piano playing, 284. "Pick Up,'' 259. Piecework, 142,143, 145) 162,178, 252. Plans, profit-sharing, go. Plateau, 233 ff., 239, 243 ff. Pleasure, 165 ff . Policy, house's, 152; Multiple tryout, 99. Population, British, 207. " Pop Up,'' 127. Poverty, 179. Practice plus Theory, 254 ff . Press, printing, 2; punch, 3. Preventive, 16q. Prizes in competition, 62, 67, 165. Production, instruments of, i. Profits, surrender of, 84. Promotions, 73, 101, 155, 156, 157. Prostrations, nervous, 21. Psychology, 6, 7; law Of, 25; modem, 20; work on, 132; conception Of, T34; student of, x38; research, iog; course, 295, 300, 3o8 ff.; interest in, 324, 331. Public opinion, 75. Puzzle, Chinese block, 266 ff.; mechanical, 290; results Of, 291.

Quarters, working, 82. Quota, 72.

Rate of Improvement in Efficiency, 223 ff. Recognition, social, 148.

Recreation, 174; hours Of, 221. Recruits, new, 46, 96. Regiments, 57. Relaxation, 204 ff.; necessity for, 210; power Of. 214; gospel Of. 215; complete, 216. Research, 14. Resistance, line of, i io. Reward, monetary, 139. '' Right way, 11 252. Rockefeller, 221. R6oms, work, 181; lunch, 181. Roosevelt, Theodore, 13, 189. "Rush'' months, 65; seasons, 72.

Sales quota,'' 65 ff . Sanders, Lewis, 327. San Francisco fire, 98. School, night, 181, 201 ; life, 282 engineering, 270, 299; sales. men training, 28 f. Scientific manage-it,'' 252 Scientific study, 5. Second wind, 12. Self-preservation, means of, 139, 139, 144; instincts of, 1141 . Self-protection, methods of, iij. Selling, haphazard, 5o. Settlement workers, 220. Shadwell, Arthur, 206. Ships, steam, 2. " Showing how,'' 46. " Sidelines,'' 26, 131Y 154. Simmons, E. C., 20. Sixth sense, 6. Skill, special, 43; acquisition of, 246; act of, 256; in perform- ing, 256 ff.; perfection Of, 262, 264 f. Sleep, 14. "Slowing down'' process, 32. Slump, summer, 165 f.; general, 226 ; profound, 247. Social, Y94; prestige, 202; demands, 279. Social approval, desire for, 72. Society, organized, 113; whims Of, 194. Speed, extra, 83; daily record for, 224; average, 224, 282; economical, 304. Speeding up, 34, 313. Spencer, Herbert, 219. " Sporting editor,'' 69, 73. " Square deal,'' 99. Stability, native, 2 2 f. Stagnation, periods of, 233. Standard, of artist, 197; Of capitalist, 197; method, 252; of efficiency, 253. " Star'' club, 67. "Steady job,'' 154. " Stealing his trade,'' 26o ff. Steel Corporation, 5o ff. Stephenson, 37. Stepping stones, 196. Stimulus, YL96; personal efficiencyideals, 279. Storage battery, 174. Strength, muscular, 7, 183, 184; physical, 226. Strike, 161. Students, 16, 133; colleges, 278. Subordinate, 187. Success, first, 239-

Suggestible, 177. Suggestion, 177, 178, 183, 185. Sunday,219. " Swell,'' 196. Swift, E. J., "Mind in the Making,'' 231. System, apprentice, 26; suggestion, 44; premium, 178.

Talks to Teachers,'' 208, 219. Taylor, F. W., 5 ff., 24. Teachers, college, 270. Team work, go, 145. Telegraph, 7; operator, 226 f. Telephone, 2, 7. Temperature, 165. Tennis, 284 f. Therapeutics, mental, 214. Thompson, Edgar, works, Si. Torrid zone, 17 f. Traditions and ideals, or. Trifles, I. Trips, educational, 44 ff. Tugboat, 213, 2X4,

Union, assemblers', 152. Union Pacific, 17.

Vacation camps, iox. Vacations, 14. Ventilation, 179.

Wages, fair, 82, 153,~ cOrAmiFsions, 143; piece rates for, i5o; maximum, 152; sums paid in, 153; value, 241; little or no, 262. Wanamaker, John, 271. Warming up, I 1, 12, 232. "Wars,'' 68. Washington, 85) 91. Waste, elimination of, 6; body, 173; poisonous, 173; in methods, 261. Watson, E. P., 13 f. Weariness, 12; aftermath of, 177-

"Welfare,'' features, 122. Westinghouse, 37. Will, effort of, 111, 124; strength Of, ITLI. Wizard, I.

Yawning, contagion of, 31.

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One of the basic books of true Christian thought of to-day and of all times.''—Boston Courier.

Van Dyke- The Spirit of America. BY HENRY VAN DYKE.

"Undoubtedly the most notable interpretation in years of the real America. It compares favorably with Bryce's ' American Commonwealth.' "—Philadelphia Press.

Veblen- The Theory of the Leisure Class. By THORSTEIN B. VEBLEN. The most valuable recent contribution to the elucidation of this subject.''—London Times.

Vedder- Socialism and the Ethics of Jesus. By HENRY C. VEDDER. A timely discussion of a popular theme.''—New York Post.

Walling -Socialism as it Is. By WILLIAM ENGLISH WALLING.

". . . the best book on Socialism by any American, if not the best book on Socialism in the English language.'' -Boston Herald.

Wells—New Worlds for Old. By H. G. WELLS.

"As a presentation of Socialistic thought as it is working to-day, this is the most judicious and balanced discussion at the disposal of the general reader.''—World To-day. Weyl -The New Democracy. By WALTER E. WEYL.

"The best and most comprehensive survey of the general social and political status and prospects that has been published of late years.''

White—The Old Order Changeth. By WILLIAM ALLEN WHITE.

"The present-status of society in America. An excellent antidote to the pessimism of modern writers on our social system.'' Baltimore Sun.




The authentic edition of Scott revised from the interleaved set of the Waverley Novels in which Sir Walter Scott noted corrections and improvements almost to the day of his death. The present edition has been collated with this set, and many inaccuracies, some of them ludicrous, corrected. The Portrait Edition is printed in clear, easy type on a high grade of paper, each volume with colored frontispiece, making it by far the best cheap edition of the Waverley Novels on the market.

Each volume, decorated cloth, 12mo, 50 cents per volume Each volume with colored frontispiece


Complete Sets, twenty-five volumes, $12-50


A new and important series of some of the best popular novels which have been published in recent years.

These successful books are now made available at a popular price in response to the insistent demand for cheaper editions.

Each volume, cloth, 12mo, 50 cents net; postage, 10 cents extra

Allen-A Kentucky Cardinal. By JAMES LANE ALLEN.

"A narrative, told with naive simplicity, of how a man who was devoted to his fruits and flowers and birds came to fall in love with a fair neighbor.''—New York Tribune.

Allen—The Reign of Law. A Tale of the Kentucky Hempfields. By JAMES LANE ALLEN.

Mr. Allen has style as original and almost as perfectly finished as Hawthorne's.... And rich in the qualities that are lacking in so many novels of the period.''—San Francisco Chronicle.

Atherton -Patience Sparhawk. By GERTRUDE ATHERTON.

"One of the most interesting works of the foremost American novelist.''


"A big, simple, leisurely moving chronicle of life. Commands the profoundest respect and admiration. Jim is a real man, sound and fine.''—Daily News.

Crawford—The Heart of Rome. By MARION CRAWFORD. A story of underground mystery.''

Crawford—Fair Margaret: A Portrait. BY MARION CRAWFORD.

"A story of modern life in Italy, visualizing the country and its people, and warm with the red blood of romance and melodrama.'' Boston Transcript.

Davis- A Friend of Csar. By WILLIAM STEARNS DAVIS.

"There are many incidents so vivid, so brilliant, that they fix themselves in the memory.''—NANCY HUSTON BANKS in The Bookman.

Drummond- The justice of the King. By HAMILTON DRUMMOND.

"Read the story for the sake of the living, breathing people, the adventures, but most for the sake of the boy who served love and the King.''—Chicago Record-Herald. Elizabeth and H er German Garden.

"It is full of nature in many phases—of breeze and sunshine, of the glory of the land, and the sheer joy of living.''—New York Times.

Gale—Loves of Pelleas and Etaffe. By ZONA GALE.

11 , * . full of fresh feeling and grace of style, a draught from the fountain of youth.''—Outlook.

Herrick—The Common Lot. By ROBERT HERRICK.

"A story of present-day life, intensely real in its picture of a young architect whose ideals in the beginning were, at their highest, sthetic rather than spiritual. It is an unusual novel of great interest.''

London -Adventure. By JACK LONDON.

11 No reader of Jack London's stories need be told that this abounds with romantic and dramatic incident.''-Los Angeles Tribune.

London- Burning Daylight. BY JACK LONDON.

"Jack London has outdone himself in ' Burning Daylight.' The Springfield Union.

Loti—Disenchanted. By PIERRE LOTI.

"It gives a more graphic picture of the life of the rich Turkish women of to-day than anything that has ever been written.'' Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

Lucas—Mr. Ingleside. By E. V. LUCAS.

"He displays himself as an intellectual and amusing observer of life's foibles with a hero characterized by inimitable kindness and humor.''—The Independent.

Mason—The Four Feathers. By A. E. W. MASON.

"' The Four Feathers ' is a first-rate story, with more legitimate thrills than any novel we have read in a long time.''—New York Press.

Norris -Mother. By KATHLEEN NORRIS. " Worth its weight in gold.''—Catholic Columbian.

Oxenham- The Long Road. BY JOHN OXENHAM.

"I The Long Road' is a tragic, heart-gripping story of Russian .political and social conditions.''—The Craftsman.

Pryor- The Colonel's Story. By MRS. ROGER A. PRYOR.

"The story is one in which the spirit of the Old South figures largely; adventure and romance have their play and carry the plot to a satisfying end.'' Remington -Ermine of the Yellowstone. By JOHN REMINGTON.

"A very original and remarkable novel wonderful in its vigor and freshness.''

Roberts—Kings in Exile. By CHARLES G. D. ROBERTS.

"The author catches the spirit of forest and sea life, and the reader comes to have a personal love and knowledge of our animal friends.'' - Boston Globe.

Robins -The Convert. By ELIZABETH ROBINS.

"' The Convert ' devotes itself to the exploitation of the recent suffragist movement in England. It is a book not easily forgotten by any thoughtful reader.''—Chicago Evening Post.

Robins—A Dark Lantern. By ELIZABETH ROBINS.

A powerful and striking novel, English in scene, which takes an essentially modern view of society and of certain dramatic situations.

Ward- The History of David Grieve. By MRS. HUMPHREY WARD. " A perfect picture of life, remarkable for its humor and extraordinary success at character analysis.''


This collection of juvenile books contains works of standard quality, on a variety of subjects—history, biography, fiction, science, and poetry—carefully chosen to meet the needs and interests of both boys and girls.

Each volume, cloth, 12mo, 50 cents net; postage, 10 cents extra

Altsheler—The Horsemen of the Plains. By JOSEPH A. ALTSHELER.

A story of the West, of Indians, of scouts, trappers, fur traders, and, in short, of everything that is dear to the imagination of a healthy American boy.''—New York Sun.

Bacon—While Caroline Was Growing. By JOSEPHINE DASKAM BACON.

Only a genuine lover of children, and a keenly sympathetic observer of human nature, could have given us this book.'' Boston Herald. Carroll—Alice's Adventures, and Through the Looking Glass. By LEWIS CARROLL. One of the immortal books for children.''

Dix- A Little Captive Lad. By MARIE BEULAH Dix.

"The human interest is strong, and children are sure to like it.'' Washington Times.

Greene—Pickett's Gap. BY HOMER GREENE.

"The story presents a picture of truth and honor that cannot fail to have a vivid impression upon the reader.''—Toledo Blade.

Lucas—Slowcoach. By E. V. LUCAS.

"The record of an English family's coaching tour in a great old- fashioned wagon. A charming narrative, as quaint and original as its name.''—Booknews Monthly.

Mabie—Book of Christmas. By H. W. MABIE.

"A beautiful collection of Christmas verse and prose in which all the old favorites will be found in an artistic setting.''—The St. Louis Mirror.

Major- The Bears of Blue River. BY CHARLES MAJOR. " An exciting story with all the thrills the title implies.''

Major—Uncle Tom Andy Bill. BY CHARLES MAJOR.

"A stirring story full of bears, Indians, and hidden treasures.'' Cleveland Leader.

Nesbit—The Railway Children. By E. NESBIT.

"A delightful story revealing the author's intimate knowledge of juvenile ways.''—The Nation.

Whyte- The Story Book Girls. BY CHRISTINA G. WHYTE.

"A book that all girls will read with delight—a sweet, wholesome story of girl life.''

Wright- Dream Fox Story Book. BY MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT.

"The whole book is delicious with its wise and kindly humor, its just perspective of the true value of things.''

Wright- Aunt Jimmy's Will. BY MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT. Barbara has written no more delightful book than this.''


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