In Eastern Seas - The Commission of H.M.S. 'Iron Duke,' flag-ship in China, 1878-83
by J. J. Smith
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One of the accounts of their origin is peculiar. A certain beautiful goddess once descended from the celestial regions and sojourned in Corea. But it would appear that she left her hat behind, for shortly after arrival she received a sun-stroke, which caused her to lay an egg of abnormal size, out of which there stepped—minerva-like—a full blown Corean of gigantic stature. This young fellow, in one of his incursions into the mountains, one day returned to his mamma with a beautiful white-skinned maid whom he had picked up in a fairy bower. His mother was not at all pleased—so the story goes—with this maid of earth, and made it so hot for her that in a fit of rage the son, whom she had hatched with such tender solicitude, slew her. Remorseful at the deed, he swore that henceforth a similar misfortune should never again occur to any man; hence the seclusion of the women. I need scarcely add that from this stalwart first Corean and his pale bride all the present race is descended.

The mandarin at Gen San came on board, attended with great ceremony—flags, banners, pennons, soldiers, and trumpeters, in boat loads; the latter gentlemen being furnished with brass instruments, such as angels are usually depicted with, but which can be made to shut up like a telescope to vary the music. The men are certainly a fine race—tall and upright as an arrow, and rather intelligent looking than otherwise. They wear long coarsely-fabricated, white cotton garments, split up behind, in front and on the hips—all tails in fact; but the great national peculiarity seems to be the hats, some made of bamboo, others of horse hair, of very delicate net or gauze work, and shaped like a reversed flower pot with a rim attached. Its purpose cannot be to keep the head warm, to protect it from the rain, or to answer any other purpose to which a hat may be applied: for instance you could not get a drink of water by means of it, nor would it serve as a pillow. The ordinary color of these hats is black, but in consequence of the queen's demise they now don a white one—white being, as in China, the symbol of mourning. Some who cannot afford, or have not the inclination, to purchase a white one, paste a patch of white paper over the crown of the black one which answers the purpose just as well.

They betray a weakness for rum, and a knowledge of the vessels in which it is usually issued on board a man-of-war, scarcely credited of a people who have so few means of acquiring such familiarity. But so it is, and if noses can be accepted as indices of truth in such matters, something stronger than water has been used in tinting them.

The soldiers of the party presented the appearance of guys, rather than men of "fight." What do you say to a mixed uniform of pink and light blue glazed calico, over dingy under-garments of impossible analysis, and a mushroom hat of the coarsest felt, with the distinguishing red horse hair attached to the crown; wooden shot and powder pouches of the roughest and rudest make slung across the shoulders by a piece of thin cord? And such shot! irregular pellets of raw iron and lead, of which all I can say is that dying by such help would be far from an aesthetic operation. And yet these same soldiers, as a mere pastime, are employed in a service which requires no mean bravery. When not fighting the two-legged enemies of their country, they are engaged waging war against the four-legged ones, their land being infested with tigers of great size and strength.

In the evening the local mandarin sent a present of fruits, fowls, eggs, vegetables, and a pig, to the admiral. "Dennis," however, made a terrible fuss at the prospect of being converted into a toothsome dish for the sailors, and sent up such a squeal, in choicest pig-Corean—piercing, prolonged, torturing—that the band was compelled to cease, in the midst of the most pathetic part of "La Traviata," out of respect of his superior music.

As the ladies of this country are for ever immured within the four mud walls of their houses, the men have usurped a right generally conceded to females, namely, that of indicating by some sign their state in life—married or single. The married men do their hair up in a knot at the top of the head; those who have not yet seen the girl they like better than themselves wear theirs in a loose trace behind; whilst some others who have successfully passed through both states, and are quite willing to try it again—for marriage amongst them is honorable and universal, as in China—indicate this desire by donning a sort of skull cap. I thought it not a little curious that the men, and not the women, should take the initiative in this matter. Men, in general, after having committed a mistake, don't like to admit it.

After Gen-San we moved a little further south to Chosan, where, scarce had we anchored, when the arrival of a small steamer threw the whole squadron into violent commotion. She had been chartered either by Sir Thomas Wade or Sir Harry Parkes expressly to convey despatches to the admiral—what the subject was none of us could even guess, though it subsequently leaked out that a disturbance of some sort had broken out at Foo-Choo. The "Zephyr" was at once signalled to raise steam; and all the admiral's staff were warned to hold themselves in readiness to turn over to the "Vigilant" on the following day. Next morning the admiral sailed, preceded by the "Cleopatra" by a few hours, and followed by the "Swift."

September 12th.—We are now at Port Hamilton, and drawing towards the end of our cruise. The "Vigilant" came in this morning with Mrs. Willes on board to witness the regatta got up for the squadron. It was a success in every way—especially so to the crew of our first cutter; in fact a more than average share of prizes fell to "Jumbo." I quote the flag borne by our boats (arms, an elephant passant-argent; motto, "Jumbo"). The sailing races were to have come off the following day, but at daybreak it was blowing so hard, and the barometer falling so rapidly, that a second anchor had to be dropped. On the gale increasing cable was veered; and it went on increasing until a third anchor was let go.

The third day came in fine, with a breeze all that could be desired. To prevent loss of time, and to simplify matters, all the boats, of no matter what race, started at once. It was a pretty sight to witness this mosquito fleet clapping on sail after sail—balloons, outriggers, skyjibs, and other extraordinary bits of duck. Our second cutter—under the joint control of the commander and Mr. Alexander, midshipman—went around in splendid style, the manoeuvring of Mr. Alexander being beyond all praise. She came in first, and carried off the admiral's cup. The whaler was managed equally well by Mr. Patey, and came in an excellent second.

This regatta brought the cruise practically to an end, though each ship has to repair to Chefoo for provisions, independently of the other.

On the passage we ran against something dirty, which succeeded in whipping our main-topsail clean off the yard, and left it dangling by the starboard sheet, at the lower yard-arm; and as misfortunes don't happen singly, the jib made most energetic and partially successful efforts to hang up beside it. It did not reach quite so far aft as that, but it did manage to coil itself around the fore yard arm. Such a terrific squall we have never encountered before. And such lightning and rain! who ever saw the like?

But joyful news was awaiting us at Chefoo. Mr. Robinson, in fulfilment of a promise he made on leaving us at Nagasaki, telegraphed the welcome, long-expected intelligence that the "Audacious" commissioned on the 5th instant.

And now, dear shipmates, I must leave you, and I do so at once regretfully and joyfully; regretfully, that I have to bid farewell to what has given me not a little pleasure to write; joyfully, that I have—as I would fain hope—been enabled to bring my narrative to a successful termination. If any of you are disappointed that I have not pursued it further, think how necessary it was that my manuscript should be in the printer's hands as speedily as possible. I thought no more opportune ending could have offered itself to me than the telegram before quoted.

If "In Eastern Seas" shall have in the slightest degree contributed one pleasure to you or your friends, or shall be the humble instrument of calling to your mind some pleasant memories of the commission, I shall indeed feel amply rewarded for any little trouble I may have been put to in helping you to such pleasure or to such memories.

We have seen many lands together, many and strange peoples, much that is delightful beyond description in this, our beautiful world; but, after all, one feels his soul filled with enthusiasm at the thought that he is an Englishman, though he may be but a sailor. Persons at home scarcely realise what an inheritance that is.

In conclusion, may we all find happy homes; happy mothers, wives, sisters, and sweethearts, all the more willing to treasure us because we have been loyal to them for such a long, long time. I don't drink—as you know—but I don't mind cracking a bottle of lemonade to the future success in life, and happiness of all my late, much-respected, shipmates. God bless them all.


Deaths During the Commission.

Rank or Date of Place of Cause of NAMES. Rating. Death. Death. Death. —————————————————————————————————

1878. ——- John Bayley Pte. R.M. Sept. 13th Red Sea Heat Apoplexy

Mr. Easton Gunner " 14th " "

Mr. Scoble Engineer " 17th " "

E. Dewdney Boy Oct 18th Singapore "

1879. ——- Richd. Darcy Ord. March 10th Hong Kong Fall from Aloft

Hy. Harper Bandsman May 10th Shanghai Decline

Fredk. Smyth Stoker July 3rd Yokohama Drowning

Ch. Allen Ord. Dec. 11th Amoy "

1880. ——- John Irish A.B. Oct. 26th At Sea "

1881. ——- Wm. Edwards 2d. C.M.T. April 15th Hong Kong General Debility

Wm. Edwards Boy June 24th Chefoo Fall from Aloft

Wm. McGill Ord. Aug. 12th Vladivostock "

John Higgins Pte. R.M. Novr. 6th Wosung Choleraic Diarrhoea

Wm. Young A.B. " 8th " "

Wm. Drew[A] A.B. ? Hong Kong Ruptured Blood-vessel

[Note A: Discharged to hospital, and died during our cruise to the north. Date of death not procurable in ship's office.]


Table showing places visited and actual distance run, in miles, by H.M.S. "Iron Duke" during commission.

Date Date Actual of of Distance Departure. From To Arrival. run. —————————————————————————————————— July 25 Plymouth Portsmouth July 26 139

August 1 Portsmouth Plymouth August 2 150

" 4 Plymouth Gibraltar " 11 1022

" 15 Gibraltar Malta " 22 931

" 25 Malta Port Said Septr. 1 865

Septr. 2 Port Said Suez " 4 86

" 7 Suez Aden " 17 1144

" 21 Aden Point de Galle Octr. 4 1950

Octr. 8 Point de Galle Singapore " 18 1434

Novr. 18 Singapore Malacca Novr. 19 100

" 19 Malacca Din Ding " 21 164

" 21 Din Ding Penang " 22 102

" 28 Penang Din Ding " 29 112

" 30 Din Ding Singapore Decr. 2 271

Decr. 5 Singapore Sarawak " 8 368

" 9 Sarawak Labuan " 12 325

" 14 Labuan Manilla " 19 724

" 24 Manilla Manilla " 28 511

" 31 Manilla Hong Kong Jany. 4 640


March 11 Hong Kong Chino Bay March 12 101

" 14 Chino Bay Hong Kong " 15 101

April 21 Hong Kong Merz Bay April 21 61

" 22 Merz Bay Amoy " 24 262

" 26 Amoy White Dogs " 27 152

" 28 White Dogs Chusan " 30 283

May 5 Chusan Wosung May 7 111

" 23 Wosung Nagasaki " 25 388

June 11 Nagasaki Takasima June 12 230

" 13 Takasima Sojasima " 13 96

" 14 Sojasima Kobe " 14 39

" 17 Kobe Yokohama " 19 319

July 24 Yokohama Yamada July 25 231

" 26 Yamada Awomori " 27 200

" 28 Awomori Hakodadi " 29 53

August 9 Hakodate Dui Augst 15 597

" 16 Dui Castries Bay " 17 51

" 19 Castries Bay Barracouta Hr. " 20 132

" 23 Barracouta Hr. Olga Bay " 26 380

" 26 Olga Bay Askold Is. " 27 146

" 28 Askold Is. Vladivostock " 28 32

" 31 Vladivostock Nagasaki Septr. 4 666

Septr. 7 Nagasaki Chefoo " 12 580

Octr. 18 Chefoo Takasima Octr. 23 662

" 24 Takasima Sojasima " 24 94

" 25 Sojasima Kobe " 25 48

Novr. 5 Kobe Yokohama Novr. 6 346

" 24 Yokohama Matson Is. Decr. 3 1311

Decr. 3 Matson Amoy " 4 185

" 12 Amoy Hope Bay " 13 132

" 14 Hope Bay Hong Kong " 15 146

At Hong Kong Target Practice 147


April 5 Hong Kong Tong Sha April 9 423

" 15 Tong Sha Chefoo " 21 844

May 11 Chefoo Nagasaki May 15 581

" 29 Nagasaki Yobuko " 29 88

" 31 Yobuko Himesima " 31 109

June 1 Himesima Obe-hito-ura June 1 60

" 2 Obe-hito-ura Sojasima " 2 89

" 3 Sojasima Kobe " 3 45

" 9 Kobe Yokohama " 12 364

July 8 Yokohama Kamaishi July 10 339

" 10 Kamaishi Endermo " 12 240

" 17 Endermo Hakodadi " 17 68

" 29 Hakodadi O'Kosiri island " 30 94

August 3 Okisiri Island Hakodadi August 3 80

" 6 Hakodadi Nagasaki " 10 830

" 11 Nagasaki Amoy " 16 922

" 17 Amoy Hong Kong " 18 295

Septr. 25 Hong Kong Amoy Septr. 27 349

" 28 Amoy Nagasaki Octr. 5 896

Octr. 16 Nagasaki Sojasima " 18 369

" 19 Sojasima Kobe " 19 51

" 23 Kobe Sojasima " 23 68

" 24 Sojasima Nagasaki " 26 312

Decr 2 Nagasaki Rugged Isles Decr. 5 440

" 10 Rugged Isles Pirates' Bay " 10 10

" 11 Pirates' Bay Amoy " 14 495

" 15 Amoy Hong Kong " 17 258


Feby. 16 Hong Kong Singapore Feby. 24 1415

March 3 Singapore Malacca March 4 106

" 4 Malacca Din Ding " 6 170

" 6 Din Ding Penang " 7 97

" 8 Penang Singapore " 11 412

" 13 Singapore Cape St. James " 17 658

" 18 Cape St. James Saigon " 18 38

" 19 Saigon Hong Kong " 25 1067

April 21 Hong Kong Chino Bay April 22 148

" 25 Chino Bay Tungao Bay " 25 33

" 26 Tungao Bay Namoa Is. " 26 55

" 30 Namoa Is. Rees Is. " 30 40

May 1 Rees Is. Amoy May 1 57

" 7 Amoy Lamyet Is. " 8 117

" 13 Lamyet Is. White Dogs " 13 64

" 14 White Dogs Matson " 14 18

" 19 Matson Chefoo June 6 1269

July 3 Chefoo Wosung July 6 467

" 10 Wosung Nagasaki " 14 426

" 28 Nagasaki Tsusima " 29 127

" 31 Tsusima Posiette Bay August 7 606

Augst. 11 Posiette Bay Vladivostock " 12 78

" 19 Vladivostock Olga Bay " 22 190

" 29 Olga Bay St. Vladimir Bay " 30 24

Septr. 3 St. Vladimir Bay Hakodadi Septr. 7 373

" 15 Hakodadi[A] Yamada " 17 239

" 18 Yamada Sendai Bay " 19 104

" 20 Sendai Bay Yokosuka " 22 274

" 24 Yokosuka Yokohama " 24 13

Octr. 2 Yokohama Kobe Octr. 4 372

" 5 Kobe Sojasima " 5 42

" 6 Sojasima Gogosima " 6 92

" 7 Gogosima Himesima " 7 51

" 8 Himesima Nagasaki " 9 210

" 26 Nagasaki Wosung " 29 448

Novr. 23 Wosung Hong Kong Novr. 29 804

[Note A: Touched at Kamaishi en route.]


Feby. 11 Hong Kong Titam Bay Feby. 11 22

" 13 Titam Bay Titam Bay " 13 6

" 14 Titam Bay Bogue Forts " 14 60

" 27 Bogue Forts Hong Kong " 27 61

April 19 Hong Kong Osima, Loo Choo May 3 1193

May 11 Osima, Loo Choo Nagasaki " 16 416

" 27 Nagasaki Kobe June 3 532

June 10 Kobe Kaneda Bay " 14 368

" 15 Kaneda Bay Yokohama " 15 21

July 2 Yokohama Hakodadi July 9 665

" 12 Hakodadi Castries Bay " 22 636

" 27 Castries Bay Dui " 28 54

" 30 Dui Barracouta " 31 131

August 4 Barracouta Vladivostock Augst 13 480

" 19 Vladivostock Gen San[B] " 24 393

" 30 Gen San Fusan[C] Septr. 3 288

Septr. 7 Fusan Port Hamilton " 8 134

" 15 Port Hamilton Chefoo " 19 429

Octr. 4 Chefoo Wosung Octr. 8 482

" 20 Wosung Nagasaki 388

[D] Nagasaki Hong Kong 1217

Decr. 7 Hong Kong Singapore 1415

" 20 Singapore Point de Galle or Trincomalee 1434


[D] Point de Galle Aden Jany. 15 1950

Jany. 17 Aden Suez 1114

[D] Suez Port Said " 27 86

" 28 Port Said Malta Feby. 4 865

Feby. 7 Malta Gibraltar 931

[D] Gibraltar Plymouth 1022

Total number of miles made during the commission, 55,566; or a distance equal to 2-1/4 times around the earth.

[Note B: Port Lazaref.]

[Note C: Cho-San.]

[Note D: The writer assumes that these places will be visited on the voyage home; and—as will be seen by referring to the earlier part of the table—we have touched at the same places before, the same distances are quoted. The dates necessary to make the form complete it is hoped the reader will be able to supply.]



Every effort has been made to keep to the original text as much as possible. Non-standard spelling and grammar have been mostly preserved. Changes have only been made in the case of obvious typographical errors, and where not making a correction would leave the text confusing or difficult to read. There is a fair amount of inconsistency in the author's transliteration of foreign words, especially in place and person names. Such inconsistency has been mostly preserved but in some cases names have been made more recognizable or the spelling has been standardized so that it is easier for the reader to follow the author's narrative. All changes are documented below.

Inconsistencies in the hyphenation of words preserved. (ahead, a-head; bluejackets, blue-jackets; cocoanut, cocoa-nut; eyebrows, eye-brows; Gen San, Gen-San; ironclad, iron-clad; Loo Choo, Loo Choo; outlined, out-lined; ricksha, rich-sha; seaboard, sea-board; semicircle, semi-circle; sundown, sun-down; stokehole, stoke-hole; Tientsin, Tien-tsin; Tsusima, Tsu-sima; topgallant, top-gallant; Yangtsze, Yang-tsze;)

The author's inconsistent style of making a diary entry has been preserved. In some cases, a date is followed by a period and emdash and then the entry proper. In others, there is a date, no period and an emdash. In yet others, the date is followed by a comma and then the entry proper.

Pg. 7, word "smart'", in the original there was a lefthand or opening single quote mark just after the letter "t" and the whole word including the single quote mark was enclosed in double quote marks. The opening single quote mark is more plausibly a comma which printer has placed upside down. Changed to comma. (we are told he is "smart," meaning, of course, that)

Pg. 8, "fete" grave accent changed to circumflex, matching spelling on page 289. (a sort of fete was made of it)

Pg. 10, period after "aft" changed to comma, which is more appropriate in the context. (two forward and two aft, that they may be discharged)

Pg. 20, "aud" changed to "and". (beer and stout, and something)

Pg. 21, duplicated word "are" removed (we are invited to insert our names)

Pg. 28, "Pontellaria" changed to "Pantellaria", to match spelling later in the same paragraph. (for Pantellaria—an island of more interest)

Pg. 30, "criental". The word "oriental" might possibly have been intended, however, the original text is preserved. (criental love for colour)

Pg. 31, "ubiquitious May" changed to "ubiquitous Mary". The phrase "ubiquitous Mary" seems more appropriate in context, changed accordingly. (who does not know Mary the ubiquitous Mary)

Pg. 50, "laterel" changed to "lateral". (by dint of a little lateral pressure)

Pg. 54, "Simatra" changed to "Sumatra". (off Acheen head, in Sumatra)

Pg. 56, "liries" changed to "lories", seems more appropriate in context. (doves, pigeons, lories, and humming birds)

Pg. 61, "to the Hindoo god Brahin". Unclear what author's intended to refer to: "Brahmin", "Brahma" are among several possibilities. The author's original text is preserved.

Pg. 61, "becomiug" changed to "becoming". (becoming a fixture by planting his feet)

Pg. 64, "Lebaun" changed to "Labuan", to match spelling elsewhere in the text. (Coaling is a long process at Labuan)

Pg. 72, "Rowloon" changed to "Kowloon". (the peninsula of Kowloon)

Pg. 72, "wont". Throughout the text, when "wont" is used as a contraction for "will not" or "would not" the author did not insert an apostrophe. This original style is preserved in all instances. In other contexts the author also uses "wont" to mean "habitually".

Pg. 74, "Cirea" changed to "Corea", matching the spelling elsewhere in the text for the country now more commonly called "Korea". (beyond it in Japan, Corea, and)

Pg. 75, "Cirea" changed to "Corea", matching the spelling elsewhere in the text for the country now more commonly called "Korea". (after the style of the people of Corea)

Pg. 85, "blatent" changed to "blatant". (and other blatant pyrotechnical compositions)

Pg. 85, "univeral" changed to "universal". (there is but one universal fashion of garment)

Pg. 91, "as" changed to "at", which seems more appropriate in context. (arsenal was built at Foo-Choo)

Pg. 92, ship name "Eyera". Author was possibly referring to "Egeria", an English warship which is also mentioned elsewhere in the text. Original spelling preserved.

Pg. 92, ship name "Monocasy". Author was most likely referring to the USS Monocacy but the author's original spelling is preserved as it is a plausible rendering of an unfamiliar name as he heard it.

Pg. 94, a closing double quote mark is presumed after the word "delight" and has been inserted. ("unqualified expressions of delight,")

Pg. 96, "Yeso" also spelled "Yesso" and "Yezo" elsewhere in the text. The original text is preserved in all instances.

Pg. 97, "panace" changed to "panacea", seems more appropriate and easily understood in the context. (was the panacea he sought)

Pg. 98, "Sintor", elsewhere, also "Sintoo". This refers to the Japanese religion now more commonly spelled "Shinto". However, the author's original spelling is preserved as they are plausible transliterations of the foreign words as heard by an English seaman with no knowledge of Japanese.

Pg. 98, "Kivto" changed to "Kioto", matching spelling elsewhere in the text. This refers to the Japanese city now more commonly spelled "Kyoto". (to the holy city, Kioto, where)

Pg. 108, "by putting on, in addition their long gown" would read more smoothly as "by putting on, in addition to their long gown". The word "to" has been added. (by putting on, in addition to their long gown, a European hat)

Pg. 110, "coure" changed to "course". (only of course on a much more gigantic)

Pg. 119, "shades" changed to "shade", seems more appropriate in context. (effect of light and shade playing)

Pg. 119, "Fusi-yama" refers to the mountain now more commonly spelled Fujiyama. The author's original spelling is preserved as it is a plausible rendering of an unfamiliar word as he heard it.

Pg. 119, comma after "days" changed to period, seems more appropriate in context. (of a few days. Few sights are likely)

Pg. 120, "usuage" changed to "usage". (the common usage of maritime nations)

Pg. 121, "part" changed to "port", seems more appropriate in context. (chief naval and foreign trading port of Japan)

Pg. 129, "nationalites" changed to "nationalities", seems more appropriate in context. (The two nationalities I have mentioned seem)

Pg. 136, "Saghalien" is also spelled "Sagalien" on page 168. Original text preserved in both instances.

Pg. 150, "infer" changed to "refer", seems more appropriate in context. (I refer, of course, to that bird which)

Pg. 159, "unusal" changed to "unusual". (such heavy and unusual evolutions)

Pg. 161, "billets deux" changed to "billets doux", seems more appropriate in context. (six or eight billets doux.)

Pg. 162, "bumbed". The author might possibly have intended "bumped" but unclear, so original text preserved. (From the manner in which the cable "surged" and bumbed)

Pg. 162, "their was still" changed to "there was still", seems more appropriate in context. (and as there was still a big lump of a sea on)

Pg. 163, "Golo islands". Author was probably referring to the "Goto islands". However the author's original spelling is preserved as it is a plausible transliteration of an unfamiliar word as he heard it.

Pg. 166, comma changed to period at end of sentence. (their sex. Can it be that this is)

Pg. 168, "daimios". This is also spelled "daimio" without diaeresis above the "i" elsewhere in the text. The original spellings have been preserved in all instances.

Pg. 173, "unusal" changed to "unusual". (presence of an unusual number of jelly-fish)

Pg. 175, "Liminoseki" likely to be "Simonoseki", as mentioned on page 99 and also as "Simoneski" on pages 113 and 153, both plausible transliterations. The author was most likely referring to the place now more commonly spelled "Shimonoseki". Changed to "Simonoseki". (we had cleared the strait of Simonoseki, we fell in with)

Pg. 176, "legecy" changed to "legacy". (come into a legacy from some of his)

Pg. 178 and 179, ship name "Themis" is more correctly spelled "Themis" and "Themis". The original spelling is preserved in all instances as all are plausible renderings on the part of the author and there is no ambiguity in reference.

Pg. 183, original text "January 28th" probably ought to read "February 28th" in order to conform to the chronological sequence. Changed accordingly. (February 28th.—So quietly, that the)

Pg. 185, "populaton" changed to "population". (The native population is Anamese)

Pg. 188, "gulf of Ne-chili" changed to "gulf of Pe-chili". (for evolutions in the gulf of Pe-chili)

Pg. 192, "slighest" changed to "slightest". (does not lessen her chance of coming in first in the slightest)

Pg. 192, period changed to comma after "sail". (At the moment of shortening sail, our lame duck)

Pg. 195, place name "Yokusuka" also spelled "Yokosuka" elsewhere in the text. Both are plausible transliterations and so the original is preserved in all cases.

Pg. 196, "pupose" changed to "purpose". (for the purpose of making the ships)

Pg. 204, missing period at sentence end, added. (in this neighbourhood. Dozens of these)

Pg. 211, "recalcitant" changed to "recalcitrant". (proved themselves so reckless and recalcitrant)

Pg. 217, missing period at sentence end, added. (set them at their ease. They were all)

Pg. 225, ship name "Vittor Pinani" is more correctly spelled "Vittor Pisani" on page 143. The author's original spelling is preserved as it is a plausible rendering of an unfamiliar name as he heard it and there is little ambiguity. Also closing double quote mark added after "Pinani". (the "Vittor Pinani," for Italy, in 1880)

Pg. 225, ship name "Ticonderego" is more correctly spelled "Ticonderoga". However, the author's original spelling is preserved as it is a plausible rendering of an unfamiliar name as he heard it and there is little ambiguity.

Itinerary, entry for 1879, August 9, point of departure "Hakodate". This should probably read "Hakodadi", a spelling which is used in the entry just above and also, consistently, elsewhere in the text (although the place name is in fact more commonly spelled Hakodate today). The difference in spelling between the names in the two adjacent itinerary entries is rather easy to spot, and so the inconsistency is puzzling. To allow for the possibility that the author might well have spotted the inconsistency and chose, for whatever reason, to let it remain, the original text is preserved.

Itinerary, entry for 1880, August 3, point of departure, "Okisiri Island". This should probably read "O'Kosiri Island", a spelling used in the entry just above and elsewhere in the text, being a place of some importance in the narrative. However the original spelling is preserved for the same reasons as for "Hakodate" above.


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