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Human Foods and Their Nutritive Value
by Harry Snyder
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256. Dietary Studies in Public Institutions.—Dietary studies in public institutions, as prisons, and asylums for the insane, show that it is possible to secure greater variety of food containing a larger amount of nutrients, and even at a reduction in cost.[84] In such institutions it is important that the food should be not only ample in amount, but wholesome and nutritious, as many of the inmates respond both physically and mentally to an improved diet. For humanitarian as well as economic reasons institutional dietetics should more generally be placed under the supervision of skilled dietists.



CHAPTER XVIII

RATIONAL FEEDING OF MAN

257. Object.—Rational feeding of man has for its object the regulation of the food supply in accord with the demands of the body. It is based upon the same principles as the rational feeding of animals; in each, the best results in the way of health, amount of labor performed, and economy are secured when the body receives nutrients sufficient for the production of heat and energy and for the repair of worn-out tissues. Rational feeding is simply regulation of the food, both as to kind and amount, to meet the needs of the body.[72]

258. Standard Rations.—In human feeding, as in animal feeding, it is not possible to lay down hard and fast rules as to the quantity of nutrients required for a standard ration.[85] As stated in the chapter on Dietary Studies, such standards have been proposed, but they are to be considered as tentative rather than absolute, for the amount of food required by different persons must necessarily vary with the individuality. While it is impossible to establish absolute standards, any large variation from the provisional standards usually results in lessened ability to accomplish work, ill health, or increased expense.

259. Amounts of Food Consumed.—The approximate amounts of some food articles consumed per day are as follows:

=================================== RANGE APPROXIMATE AMOUNT IN LBS. Bread 6 to 14 oz. 0.50 Butter 2 to 5 oz. 0.12 Potatoes 8 to 16 oz. 0.75 Cheese 1 to 4 oz. 0.12 Beans 1 to 4 oz. 0.12 Milk 8 to 32 oz. Sugar 2 to 5 oz. 0.20 Meats 4 to 12 oz. 0.25 Oatmeal 1 to 4 oz. 0.12 ===================================

In the calculation of rations it is desirable that the amount of any food article should not exceed that designated, unless for some special reason it has been found the food can consistently be increased. The amount of nutrients given in dietary standards is for one day, and the nutrients may be divided among the three meals as desired. It is to be noted that, ordinarily, the foods which supply carbohydrates are flour, corn meal, cereal products, potatoes, beans, sugar, and milk; those which supply fat are milk, butter, lard, and meats; and those which supply protein in liberal amounts are beans, cheese, meats, oatmeal, cereals, bread, and milk.

260. Average Composition of Foods.—The amounts of nutrients in foods are determined from the average composition of the foods. These figures for average composition are based upon analyses of a large number of samples of food materials.[7] In individual cases it will be found that foods may vary from the standards given; as for example, milk may contain from 2.5 to 5 per cent of fat, while the protein and fat of meats vary appreciably from the figures given for average composition. With the cereals and vegetable foods, variations from the standards are small. In the table, the composition of the food as purchased represents all of the nutrients in the food, including those in the refuse, trimmings, or waste, while the figures for the edible portion represent the nutrients in the food after deducting what is lost as refuse. In making calculations, the student should use the figures given for the foods as purchased, unless the weights are of the edible portion only. The figures in the table are on the basis of percentage amounts, or nutrients in 100 pounds of food. By moving the decimal point two places to the left, the figures will represent the nutrients in one pound, and if this is multiplied by the number of pounds or fraction of a pound used, the quantity of nutrients is secured. For example, suppose bread contains 9.5 per cent of protein and 56 per cent of carbohydrates, 1 pound would contain 0.095 pound of protein, 0.56 pound of carbohydrates; and 0.5 of a pound would contain approximately 0.05 pound of protein and 0.28 pound of carbohydrates. In calculating rations, it is not necessary to carry the figures to the third decimal place.



261. Example of a Ration.—Suppose it is desired to calculate a ration for a man at light muscular work. First, note the requirements in the way of nutrients in the table "Dietary Standards," Section 246. Such a ration should supply approximately 0.22 pound each of protein and fat, and 0.77 pound of carbohydrates, and should yield 2800 calories. A trial ration is made by combining the following:

========================================================== Pound Bread 0.50 Butter 0.12 Potatoes 0.75 Milk 1.00 Sugar 0.12 Beef 0.25 Ham 0.20 Oatmeal 0.12 Eggs 0.25 ==========================================================

The quantities of nutrients in these food materials are approximately as follows:

RATION FOR MAN AT MODERATE WORK

=================================================================== PROTEIN FAT C.H. LB. LB. LB. LB. CALORIES -+ + -+ + + Bread 0.50 0.05 0.01 0.29 653 Butter 0.12 0.10 432 Potato 0.75 0.01 0.12 244 Milk 1.00 0.04 0.04 0.05 323 Sugar 0.12 0.12 192 Beef (round) 0.25 0.05 0.03 218 Ham 0.20 0.03 0.07 331 Oatmeal 0.12 0.02 0.01 0.08 223 Eggs 0.25 0.03 0.03 164 Squash 0.20 0.01 25 + -+ + + 0.23 0.29 0.67 2805 ===================================================================

It is to be noted that this ration contains approximately the amount of protein called for in the standard ration, while the fat is slightly more and the carbohydrates are less. The food value of the ration is practically that called for in the standard. This ration is sufficiently near the standard to supply the nutrient requirements of a man at light muscular work. To supply palatability, some fruit and vegetables should be added to the ration. These will contribute but little to the nutrient content, but are necessary in order to secure health and the best returns from the other foods, and as previously stated, they are not to be estimated entirely upon the basis of nutrient content. A number of food articles could be substituted in this ration, if desired, either in the interests of economy, palatability, or personal preference.

262. Requisites of a Balanced Ration.—Reasonable combinations of foods should be made to form balanced rations.[2] A number of foods slow of digestion, or which require a large amount of intestinal work, should not be combined; neither should foods which are easily digested and which leave but little indigestible residue. After a ration has been calculated and found to contain the requisite amount of nutrients, it should be critically examined to see whether or not it fulfills the following requirements:

1. Economy and adaptability to the work required.

2. Necessary bulk or volume.

3. Desired physiological influence of the foods upon the digestive tract, whether constipating or laxative in character.

4. Ease of digestion.

5. Effect upon health. It is recognized that there are foods wholesome and nutritious, that cannot be used by some persons, while with others the same foods can be consumed with impunity.

As explained in the chapter on Dietary Studies, the nutrients should be supplied from a number of foods rather than from a few, because it is believed the various nutrients, particularly the proteins, are not absolutely identical from all sources, or equal in nutritive value.

EXAMPLES

1. Calculate a ration for a man with little physical exercise.

2. Calculate a ration for a man at hard muscular labor, and give the approximate cost of the ration.

3. Calculate the amounts of food and the nutrient requirements for a family of seven for 10 days; five of the family to consume 0.8 as much as an adult. Calculate the cost of the food; then calculate on the same basis the probable cost of food for one year, adding 20 per cent for fluctuation in market price and additional foods not included in the list.

4. Weigh out the food articles used in problem No. 2, and apportion them among three meals.



CHAPTER XIX

WATER

263. Importance.—Water is one of the most essential food materials. It enters into the composition of the body, and without it the nutrients of foods would be unavailable, and life could not be sustained. Water unites chemically with various elements to form plant tissue and supplies hydrogen and oxygen for the production of organic compounds within the leaves of plants. In the animal economy it is not definitely known whether or not water furnishes any of the elements of which the tissues are composed, as the food contains liberal amounts of hydrogen and oxygen; it is necessary mainly as the vehicle for distributing nutrients in suspension and solution, and as a medium in which chemical, physical, and physiological changes essential to life processes take place. From a sanitary point of view, the condition of the water supply is of great importance, as impure water seriously affects the health of the consumer.[87]

264. Impurities in Water.—Waters are impure because of: (1) excessive amounts of alkaline salts and other mineral compounds; (2) decaying animal and vegetable matters which act chemically as poisons and irritants, and which may serve as food for the development of objectionable bacterial bodies; and (3) injurious bacteria. The most common forms of impurities are excess of organic matter and bacterial contamination. The sanitary condition of water is greatly influenced by the character of the soil through which it flows and the extent to which it has been polluted by surface drainage.[88]



265. Mineral Impurities.—- The mineral impurities of water are mainly soluble alkaline and similar compounds dissolved by the water in passing through various layers of soil and rock. When water contains a large amount of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate or carbonate, or other alkaline salts, it is termed an "alkali water." Where water passes through soil that has been largely formed from the decay of rocks containing alkaline minerals, the water dissolves some of these minerals and becomes alkaline. The kind of alkali determines the character of the water; in some cases it is sodium carbonate, which is particularly objectionable. The continued use of strong alkali water causes digestion disorders, because of the irritating action upon the digestive tract. Hard waters are due to the presence of lime compounds. In regions where limestone predominates, the carbon dioxid in water acts as a solvent, producing hard waters. Waters that are hard on account of the presence of calcium carbonate give a deposit when boiled, due to liberation of the carbon dioxid which is the material that renders the lime soluble. Calcium sulphate, or gypsum, on the other hand, imparts permanent hardness. There is no deposit when such waters are boiled. A large number of minerals are found in various waters, often sufficient in amount to impart physiological properties. Water that is highly charged with mineral matter is difficult to improve sufficiently for household purposes. About the only way is by distillation.[89]

266. Organic Impurities.—Water that flows over the surface of the ground comes in contact with animal and vegetable material in various stages of decay, and as a result some is dissolved and some is mechanically carried along by the water. After becoming soluble, the organic matter undergoes further chemical changes, as oxidation and nitrification caused by bacteria. If the organic matter contain a large amount of nitrogenous material, particularly of proteid origin, a series of chemical changes induced by bacterial action takes place, resulting in the production of nitrites. The nitrifying organisms first produce nitrous acid products (nitrites), and in the further development of the nitrifying process these are changed to nitrates. The ammonia formed as the result of the decomposition of nitrogenous organic matter readily undergoes nitrification changes. Nitrates and nitrites alone are not injurious in water, but they are usually associated with objectionable bacteria and generally indicate previous contamination.[90]

267. Interpretation of a Water Analysis.—"Total solid matter" represents all the mineral, vegetable, and animal matter which a water contains. It is the residue obtained by evaporating the water to dryness at a temperature of 212 deg. F. Average drinking water contains from 20 to 90 grains per gallon of solid matter. "Free ammonia" is that formed as a result of the decomposition of animal or vegetable matter containing nitrogen. Water of high purity usually contains less than 0.07 parts per million of free ammonia. "Albuminoid ammonia" is derived from the partially decomposed animal or vegetable material in water. The greater the amount of nitrogenous organic impurities, the higher the albuminoid ammonia. A good drinking water ought not to contain more than 0.10 part per million of albuminoid ammonia. An abnormal quantity of chlorine indicates surface drainage or sewage contamination, or an excess of alkaline matter, as common salt. Nitrites should not be present, as they are generally associated with matter not completely oxidized. Nitrites are usually considered more objectionable than nitrates; both are innocuous unless associated with disease-producing nitrooerganisms.

268. Natural Purification of Water.—River waters are sometimes dark colored because of large amounts of dissolved organic matter, but in contact with the sun and air they gradually undergo natural purification and the organic matter is oxidized. However, absolute reliance cannot be placed upon natural purification of a bad water, as the objectionable organisms often have great resistive power. There is no perfectly pure water except that prepared in the chemical laboratory by distillation. All natural waters come in contact with the soil and air, and necessarily contain impurities proportional to the extent of their contamination.

269. Water in Relation to Health.—There are many diseases, of which typhoid fever is a type, that are distinctly water-born. The typhoid bacilli, present in countless numbers in the feces of persons suffering or convalescent from typhoid fever, find their way into streams, lakes, and wells.[91] They retain their vitality, and when they enter the digestive tract of an individual, rapidly increase in numbers. Numerous disastrous outbreaks of typhoid fever have been traced to contamination of water. Coupled with the sanitary improvement of a city's water supply, there is diminution of typhoid fever cases, and a noticeable lowering of the death rate. Many cities and villages are dependent for their water upon rivers and lakes into which surface drainage finds its way, with all contaminating substances. Mechanical sedimentation and filtration greatly improve waters of this class, but do not necessarily render them entirely pure. Compounds of iron and aluminium are sometimes added in small amounts, under chemical supervision, to such waters to precipitate the organic impurities. Spring waters are not entirely above suspicion, as oftentimes the soil through which they flow is highly polluted. All water of doubtful purity should be boiled, and there are but few natural waters of undoubted purity. There is no such thing as absolutely pure water in a state of nature. The mountain streams perhaps approach nearest to it where there are no humans to pollute the banks; but then there are always the beasts and birds, and they, too, are subject to disease. There are very few waters that at some time of the year and under some conditions are not contaminated with disease-producing organisms. No matter how carefully guarded are the banks of lakes furnishing the water supply of cities, more or less objectionable matter will get in. In seasons of heavy rains, large amounts of surface water enter the lakes, carrying along the filth gathered from many acres of land drained by the streams entering the lakes. Some of the most serious outbreaks of typhoid fever have come from temporary contamination of ordinarily fairly good drinking water. In general, too little attention is given to the purity of drinking water. It is just as important that water should be boiled as that food should be cooked. One of the objects of cooking is to destroy the injurious bacteria, and they are frequently more numerous in the drinking water than in the food.

The argument is sometimes advanced that the mineral matter present in water is needed for the construction of the bone and other tissues of the body, and that distilled water fails to supply the necessary mineral matter. This is an erroneous assumption, as the mineral matter in the food is more than sufficient for this purpose. When water is highly charged with mineral salts, additional work for their elimination is called for on the part of the organs of excretion, particularly the kidneys; and furthermore, water nearly saturated with minerals cannot exert its full solvent action.

In discussing the immediate benefits resulting from improvement of water, Fuertes says:[92]

"Immediately after the change to the 'four mile intake' at Chicago in 1893, there was a great reduction in typhoid. Lawrence, Mass., showed a great improvement with the setting of the filters in operation in September, 1893; fully half of the deaths in 1894 were among persons known to have used the unfiltered canal water. The conclusion is warranted that for the efficient control of the death rate from typhoid fever it is necessary to have efficient sewerage and drainage, proper methods of living, and pure water. The reason why our large cities, which are all provided with sewerage, have such high death rates is therefore without doubt their continuance of the filthy practice of supplying drinking water which carries in solution and suspension the washings from farms, from the streets, from privies, from pigpens, and the sewage of cities.... And also we should recognize the importance of flies and other winged insects and birds which feed on offal as carriers of bacteria of specific diseases from points of infection to the watersheds, and the consequent washing of newly infected matter into our drinking water by rains."

There is a very close relationship between the surface water and that of shallow wells. A shallow well is simply a reservoir for surface water accumulations. It is stated that, when an improved system of drainage was introduced into a part of London, many of the shallow wells became dry, indicating the source from which they received their supply. Direct subterranean connection between cesspools and wells is often traced in the following way: A small amount of lithium, which gives a distinct flame reaction, and a minute trace of which can be detected with the spectroscope, is placed in the cesspool, and after a short time a lithium reaction is secured from the well water.

Rain water is relied upon in some localities for drinking purposes. That collected in cities and in the vicinity of barns and dwellings contains appreciable amounts of organic impurities. The brown color is due to the impurities, ammonium carbonate being one of these. There are also traces of nitrates and nitrites obtained from the air. When used for drinking, rain water should be boiled.

270. Improvement of Waters.—Waters are improved by: (1) boiling, which destroys the disease-producing organisms; (2) filtration, which removes the materials mechanically suspended in the water; and (3) distillation, which eliminates the impurities in suspension and solution, as well as destroys all germ life.

271. Boiling Water.—In order to destroy the bacteria that may be in drinking water, it is not sufficient to heat the water or merely let it come to a boil. It has been found that if water is only partially sterilized and then cooled in the open air, the bacteria develop more rapidly than if the water had not been heated at all. It should boil vigorously five to ten minutes; cholera and typhoid bacteria succumb in five minutes or less. Care should be taken in cooling that the water is not exposed to dust particles from the air nor placed in open vessels in a dirty refrigerator. It should be kept in perfectly clean, tight-stoppered bottles. These bottles should be frequently scalded. Great reliance may be placed upon this method of water purification when properly carried out.

272. Filtration.—Among the most efficient forms of water filters are the Berkefeld and Pasteur. The Pasteur filter is made of unglazed porcelain, and the Berkefeld of fine infusorial earth (finely divided SiO_{2}). Both are porous and allow a moderately rapid flow of water. The flow from the Berkefeld filter is more rapid than from the Pasteur. The mechanical impurities of the water are deposited upon the filtering surface, due to the attraction which the material has for particles in suspension. These particles usually are the sources of contamination and carry bacteria. When first used, filters are satisfactory, but unless carefully looked after they soon lose their ability to remove germs from the water and may increase the impurity by accumulation. Small faucet filters are made of porous stone, asbestos, charcoal, etc. Many of them are of no value whatever or are even worse than valueless. Filters should be frequently cleansed in boiling water or in steam under pressure. Unless this is done, the filters may become incubators for bacteria.



273. Distillation.—When an unquestionably pure water supply is desired, distillation should be resorted to. There are many forms of stills for domestic use which are easily manipulated and produce distilled water economically.[93] The mineral matter of water is in no way essential for any functional purpose, and hence its removal through distillation is not detrimental.



274. Chemical Purification.—Purification of water by the use of chemicals should not be attempted in the household or by inexperienced persons. When done under supervision of a chemist or bacteriologist, it may be of great value to a community. Turneaure and Russell,[94] in discussing the purification of water by addition of chemicals, state:

"There are a considerable number of chemical substances that may be added to water in order to purify it by carrying down the suspended matter as well as bacteria, by sedimentation. Such a process of purification is to be seen in the addition of alum, sulphate of iron, and calcium hydrate to water. Methods of this character are directly dependent upon the flocculating action of the chemical added, and the removal of the bacteria is accomplished by subsidence."

275. Ice.—The purity of the ice supply is also of much importance. While freezing reduces the number of organisms and lessens their vitality, it does not make an impure water absolutely wholesome. The way, too, in which ice is often handled and stored subjects it to contamination, and foods which are placed in direct contact with it mechanically absorb the impurities which it contains. For cooling water, ice should be placed around rather than in it. Diseases have frequently been traced to impure ice. The only absolutely pure ice is that made from distilled water.

276. Mineral Waters.—When water is charged with carbonic acid gas under pressure, carbonated water results, and when minerals, as salts of sodium, potassium, or lithium, are added, artificial mineral waters are produced. Natural mineral waters are placed on the market to some extent, but most mineral waters are artificial products and they are sometimes prepared from water of low sanitary character. Mineral waters should not be used extensively except under medical direction, as many have pronounced medicinal properties. Some of the constituents are bicarbonates of sodium, potassium, and lithium; sulphates of magnesium (Epsom salts) and calcium; and chloride of sodium. The sweetened mineral waters, as lemonade, orangeade, ginger ale, and beer, contain sugar and organic acids, as citric and tartaric, and are flavored with natural or artificial products. Most of them are prepared without either fruit or ginger. Natural mineral waters used under the direction of a physician are often beneficial in cases of chronic digestion disorders or other diseases.

277. Materials for Softening Water.—The materials most commonly used for softening water are sodium carbonate (washing soda), borax, ammonia, ammonium carbonate, potash, and soda lye. Waters that are very hard with limestone should have a small amount of washing soda added to them. Two ounces for a large tub of water is the most that should be used, and it should first be dissolved in a little water. If too much soda is used, it is injurious, as only a certain amount can be utilized for softening the water, and the excess simply injures the hands and fabric. When hard limewater is boiled and a very little soda lye added, a precipitate of carbonate of lime is formed, and then if the water is strained, it is greatly improved for washing purposes. Borax is valuable for making some hard waters soft. It is not as strong in its action as is sodium carbonate. For the hardest water 1/4 pound of borax to a large tubful may be used; most waters, however, do not need so much. Ammonia is one of the most useful reagents for softening water. It is better than washing soda and borax, because the ammonia is volatile and does not leave any residue to act on the clothes, thus causing injury. For bathing purposes, the water should be softened with ammonia, in preference to any other material. Ammonia should not be poured directly into hot water; it should be added to the water while cold, or to a small quantity of cold water, and then to the warm water, as this prevents the ammonia from vaporizing too readily. Ammonia produces the same effect as potash or soda lye, without leaving a residue in the garments washed. It is especially valuable in washing woolen goods or materials liable to shrink. Waters which are hard with alum salts are greatly benefited by the addition of ammonia. A little in such a water will cause a precipitate to form, and when the water is strained it is in good condition for cleaning purposes. Ammonium carbonate is used to some extent as a softening and cleaning agent, and is valuable, as there is no injurious effect upon clothing, because it readily volatilizes. Caustic potash and caustic soda are sometimes employed for softening water, but they are very active and are not adapted to washing colored or delicate fabrics. They may be used for very heavy and coarse articles that are greasy,—not more than a gram in a gallon of water. Bleaching powder is not generally a safe material for cleansing purposes, as it weakens the texture of clothing. After a contagious disease, articles may be soaked in water containing a little bleaching powder and a few drops of carbolic acid, followed by thorough rinsing and bleaching in the sun. But as a rule formaline is preferable for disinfecting clothing. It can be used at the rate of about one pound to 100 gallons of water. Bleaching powder, caustic potash or soda, and strong soap are not suitable for cleaning woodwork, because of the action of the alkali on paint and wood; they roughen the surface and discolor the paint. Waters vary so in composition, that a material suitable for softening one may not prove to be the best for softening another. The special kind must be determined largely by trial, and it should be the aim to use as little as possible. When carbolic acid, formaline, bleaching powder, and caustic soda are used, the hands should be protected and the clothes should be well rinsed.



278. Economic Value of a Pure Water Supply.—From a financial point of view, the money spent in securing pure water is one of the best investments a community can make. Statisticians estimate the death of an adult results in a loss to the state of from $1000 to $5000; and to the losses sustained by death must be added those incurred by sickness and by lessened quality and quantity of work through impaired vitality,—all caused by using poor drinking water. Wherever plants have been installed for improving the sanitary condition of the water supply, the death rate has been lowered and the returns to the community have been far greater than the cost of the plant. Impure water is the most expensive food that can be consumed.



CHAPTER XX

FOOD AS AFFECTED BY HOUSEHOLD SANITATION AND STORAGE

279. Injurious Compounds in Foods.—An ordinary chemical analysis of a food determines only the nutrients, as protein, carbohydrates, and fats; and unless there is reason to believe the food contains injurious substances no special tests for these are made. There are a number of poisonous compounds that foods may contain, and many of them can but imperfectly be determined by chemical analysis. Numerous organic compounds are produced in foods as the result of the workings of microoerganisms; some of these are poisonous, while others impart only special characteristics, as taste and odor. The poisonous bacteria finding their way into food produce organic compounds of a toxic character; and hence it is that the sanitary condition of a food, as influenced by preparation and storage, is often of more vital importance than the nutrient content.[95]



280. Sources of Contamination of Food.—As a rule, too little attention is given to the sanitary handling and preparation of foods. They are often exposed to impure air and to the dust and filth from unclean streets and surroundings, and as a result they become inoculated with bacteria, which are often the disease-producing kind. Gelatine plates exposed by bacteriologists under the same conditions as foods develop large numbers of injurious microoerganisms. In order to avoid contamination in the handling of food, there must be: (1) protection from impure air and dust; (2) storage in clean, sanitary, and ventilated storerooms and warehouses; (3) storage of perishable foods at a low temperature so as to retard fermentation changes; and (4) workmen free from contagious diseases in all occupations pertaining to the preparation of foods. Ordinarily, foods should not be stored in the paper wrappers in which they are purchased, as unclean paper is often a source of contamination.

281. Sanitary Inspection of Food.—During recent years some state and city boards of health have introduced sanitary inspection of foods, with a view of preventing contamination during manufacture and transportation, and this has done much to improve the quality and wholesomeness. Putrid meats, fish, and vegetables are not allowed to be sold, and foods are required to be handled and stored in a sanitary way. Next to a pure water supply, there is no factor that so greatly influences for good the health of a community as the sanitary condition of the food. While the cooking of foods destroys many organisms, it often fails to render innocuous the poisons which they produce, and furthermore the unsound foods when cooked are not entirely wholesome, and they have poor keeping qualities.

Often meats, vegetables, and other foods eaten uncooked, as well as the numerous cooked foods, are exposed in dirty market places, and accumulate large amounts of filth, and are inoculated with disease germs by flies. Protection of food from flies is a matter of vital importance, as they are carriers of many diseases. In the case of typhoid fever, next to impure drinking water flies are credited with being the greatest distributors of the disease germs.[96]



282. Infection from Impure Air.—The dust particles of the air contain decayed animal and vegetable matter in which bacteria are present; these find their way into the food when it is not carefully protected, into the water supply, and also into the lungs and other organs of the body. When foods are protected from the mechanical impurities which gain access through the air, and fermentation is delayed by storage at a low temperature, digestion disorders are greatly lessened. From a sanitary point of view, the air of food storerooms and of living rooms should be of equally high purity. When foods are kept in unventilated living rooms, they become contaminated with the impurities thrown off from the lungs in respiration, which include not only carbon dioxid, but the more objectionable toxic organic materials.

Vegetable foods need to be stored in well-ventilated places, as the plant cells are still alive and carrying on life functions, as the giving off of carbon dioxid, which is akin to animal respiration; in fact, it is plant-cell respiration. Provision should be made for the removal of the carbon dioxid and other products, as they contaminate the air. When vegetable tissue ceases to produce carbon dioxid, death and decay set in, accompanied by fermentation changes.

283. Storage of Food in Cellars.—Cellars are often in a very unsanitary condition, damp, poorly lighted, unventilated, and the air filled with floating particles from decaying vegetables. The walls and shelves absorb the dust and germs from the foul air and are bacterially contaminated, and whenever a sound food is stored in such a cellar, it readily becomes inoculated with bacteria. There is a much closer relationship existing between the atmosphere of the cellar and that of the house than is generally realized. An unclean cellar means contaminated air throughout the house. When careful attention is given to the sanitary condition of the cellar, many of the more common diseases are greatly reduced. Cases of rheumatism have often been traced to a damp cellar. In some localities where the cellars are unusually unsanitary, there is in the season of spring rains, when they are especially damp and contain the maximum of decayed vegetation, a prevalence of what might be called "cellaritis." The symptoms differ and the trouble is variously attributed, but the real cause is the same, although overlooked, for, unfortunately, doctors do not visit the cellar.

Cellars should be frequently cleaned and disinfected, using for the purpose some of the well-known disinfectants, as formaline, bleaching powder, or a dilute solution of carbolic acid. It has been found in large cities, when the spread of such diseases as yellow fever was imminent, that a general and thorough cleaning up of streets and cellars with the improved sanitary conditions resulting greatly lowered the usual death rate.



284. Sunlight, Pure Water, and Pure Air as Disinfectants.—The most effectual and valuable disinfectants are sunlight, pure water, and pure air. Many kinds of microoerganisms, particularly those that are disease-producing, are destroyed when exposed for a time to sunlight. The chemical action of the sun's rays is destructive to the organic material which makes up the composition of many of these organisms, while higher forms of organic life are stirred into activity by it. The disinfecting power of sunlight should be made use of to the fullest extent, not only in the house, but plenty of sunlight should also be planned for in constructing barns and other buildings where milk-and meat-producing animals are kept. Pure water is also a disinfectant, but when water becomes polluted it loses this power. Many disease-producing organisms are rendered inactive when placed in pure water. Water contains more dissolved oxygen than air, and apparently a portion of the oxygen in water is in a more active condition than that in air. Pure air, too, is a disinfectant; the ozone and hydrogen peroxide and oxides of nitrogen, which are present in traces, exert a beneficial influence in oxidizing organic matter. Fresh air and sunlight, acting jointly, are nature's most effectual disinfectants. Sunshine, fresh air, and pure water are a health-producing trinity. In discussing the importance of pure air, water, and sunlight, Ellen H. Richards[97] says:

"The country dweller surrounds his house with evergreens or shade trees, the city dweller is surrounded with high brick walls. Blinds, shades, or thick draperies shut out still more, and prevent the beneficial sunlight from acting its role of germ prevention and germ destruction. Bright-colored carpets and pale-faced children are the opposite results which follow. Sunlight, pure air, and pure water are our common birthright which we often bargain away for so-called comforts."

And Dr. Woods Hutchinson says of sunlight:

"It is a splendid and matchless servant in the promoting of healthfulness of the house, for which no substitute has yet been discovered. It is the foe alike of bacilli and the blues; the best tonic ever yet invented for the liver and for the scalp, and for everything between, the only real complexion restorer, and the deadliest foe of dirt and disease."



285. Utensils for Storage of Food.—In order that dishes and household utensils may be kept in the best sanitary condition, they should be free from seams, cracks, and crevices where dust and dirt particles can find lodgment. From the seams of a milk pail that has not been well washed, decaying milk solids can be removed with the aid of a pin or a toothpick. This material acts as a "starter" or culture when pure, fresh milk is placed in the pail, contaminating it and causing it to become sour. Not only is this true of milk, but also of other foods. Wooden utensils are not satisfactory for the handling, storage, or preparation of foods, as it is difficult to keep wood in a sanitary condition. Uncleanliness of dishes in which foods are placed is too often caused by the use of foul dishcloths and failure to thoroughly wash and rinse the dishes. It is always well to rinse dishes with scalding water, as colds and skin diseases may be communicated from the edges of drinking glasses, and from forks and spoons, and, unless the dish towels are kept scrupulously clean, it is more sanitary to drain the dishes than to wipe them.

286. Contamination from Unclean Dishcloths.—When the dishcloth is foul, the fat absorbed by the fibers becomes rancid, the proteids undergo putrefaction changes with formation of ill-smelling gases containing nitrogen, the carbohydrates ferment and are particularly attractive to flies, and all the various disease germs collected on the surface of the dishcloth are, along with the rancid fat and other putrifying materials, distributed over the surface of the dishes with which the cloth comes in contact.



287. Refrigeration.—At a low temperature the insoluble or unorganized ferments become inactive, but the chemical ferments or enzymes are still capable of carrying on fermentation. Thus it is that a food, when placed in a refrigerator or in cold storage, continues to undergo chemical change. An example of such enzymic action is the curing of beef and cheese in cold storage. A small amount of ventilation is required when foods are refrigerated, just sufficient to keep up a slight circulation of air. It seems not to be generally understood that all fermentation changes do not cease when food is placed in refrigerators, and this often leads to neglect in their care. Cleanliness is equally as essential, or more so, in the refrigeration of food as in its handling in other ways. Too often the refrigerator is neglected, milk and other food is spilt, filling the cracks, and slow decomposition sets in. A well-cared-for refrigerator is an important factor in the preservation of food, but when it is neglected, it becomes a source of contamination. Unclean vegetables and food receptacles, impure ice and foul air, are the most common forms of contamination. The chemical changes which foods undergo during refrigeration are such as result in softening of the tissues.

288. Soil.—The soil about dwellings and places where foods are stored frequently becomes polluted with decaying animal and vegetable matter, and in such soils disease-producing organisms readily find lodgment. Poorly drained soils containing an excess of vegetable matter furnish a medium in which the tapeworm and the germs of typhoid fever, lockjaw, and various diseases affecting the digestive tract, may propagate. The wind carries the dust particles from these contaminated places into unprotected food, where they cause fermentation changes and the disease germs multiply. In considering the sanitary condition of a locality, the character of the soil is an important factor. Whenever there is reason to suspect that a soil is unsanitary, it should be disinfected with lime or formaldehyde. Soils about dwellings need care and frequent disinfecting to keep them in a sanitary condition, equally as much as do the rooms in the dwellings.[99] In the growing of garden vegetables, frequently large quantities of fertilizers of unsanitary character are used, and vegetables often retain mechanically on their surfaces particles of these. To this dirt clinging to the vegetables have been traced diseases, as typhoid fever and various digestion disorders.

289. Disposal of Kitchen Refuse.—Refuse, as vegetable parings, bones, and meat scraps, unless they are used for food for animals or collected as garbage, should preferably be burned; then there is no danger of their furnishing propagating media for disease germs. Garbage cans should be kept clean, and well covered to protect the contents from flies. Where the refuse cannot be burned, it should be composted. For this, a well-drained place should be selected, and the refuse should be kept covered with earth to keep off the flies and absorb the odors that arise from the fermenting material, and to prevent its being carried away by the wind. Lime should be sprinkled about the compost heap, and from time to time it should be drawn away and the place covered with clean earth. It is very unsanitary to throw all of the kitchen refuse in the same place year after year without resorting to any means for keeping the soil in a sanitary condition. Although composting refuse is not as sanitary as burning, it is far more sanitary than neglecting to care for it at all, as is too frequently the case.

Ground polluted with kitchen refuse containing large amounts of fatty material and soap becomes diseased, so that the natural fermentation changes fail to take place, and the soil becomes "sewage sick" and gets in such a condition that vegetation will not grow. Failure to properly dispose of kitchen refuse is frequently the cause of the spread of germ diseases, through the dust and flies that are attracted by the material and carry the germs from the refuse pile to food.



Where there is no drainage system, disposal of the liquid refuse is a serious problem. Drain basins and cesspools are often resorted to, and these may become additional sources of contamination. As stated in the chapter on well water, direct communication is frequently established between such places and shallow wells. Where the only place for the disposal of waste water is the surface of the ground, it should be thrown some distance from the house and where it will drain from and not toward the well. The land should be well drained and open to the sunlight. Coarse sand and lime should be sprinkled over it frequently, and occasionally the soil should be removed and replaced with fresh. Sunlight, aeration, and disinfection of the soil and good drainage are necessary, in order to keep in a sanitary condition the place where the dish water is thrown.

Poor plumbing is often the cause of contaminated food. The gases which escape from unclean traps may carry with them solid particles of organic matter in various stages of decay. The "house side" of traps always ventilates into the rooms, and hence it is important that they be kept scrupulously clean. Where the drip pipe from the refrigerator drains directly into the sewerage system, there is always danger. Special attention should be given to the care of plumbing near places where foods are stored. Frequently there are leaky joints due to settling of the dwellings or to extreme changes in temperature, and the plumbing should be occasionally inspected by one familiar with the subject.[100]

290. General Considerations.—In order to keep food in the most wholesome condition, special care should be taken that all of its surroundings are sanitary. The air, the dishes in which the food is placed, the refrigerator, cellar or closet where stored, and the other food with which it comes in contact, all influence the wholesomeness or cause contamination. A food may contain sufficient nutrients to give it high value, and yet, on account of products formed during fermentation, be poisonous. Foods are particularly susceptible to putrefaction changes, and chemicals and preservatives added as preventives, with a view of retarding these changes, are objectionable, besides failing to prevent all fermentation from taking place. Intelligent thought should be exercised in the care of food, for the health of the consumer is largely dependent upon the purity and wholesomeness of the food supply.



CHAPTER XXI

LABORATORY PRACTICE

Object of Laboratory Practice, Laboratory Note-book, and Suggestions for Laboratory Practice.—The aim of the laboratory practice is to give the students an idea of the composition, uses, and values of food materials, and the part which chemistry takes in sanitation and household affairs; also to enable them by simple tests to detect some of the more common adulterants in foods.

Before performing an experiment, the student is advised to review those topics presented in the text which have a bearing upon the experiment, so that a clear conception may be gained of the relationship between the laboratory work and that of the class room. The student should endeavor to cultivate the power of observation and to grasp the principle involved in the work, rather than do it in a merely mechanical and perfunctory way. Neatness is one of the essentials for success in laboratory practice, and too much emphasis cannot be laid upon this requisite to good work. The student should learn to use his time in the laboratory profitably and economically. He should obtain a clear idea of what he is to do, and then do it to the best of his ability. If the experiment is not a success, repeat it. While the work is in progress it should be given undivided attention. Care should be exercised to prevent anything getting into the sinks that will clog the plumbing; soil, matches, broken glass, and paper should be deposited in the waste jars.



A careful record of the experiments should be kept by each student in a suitable note-book. It is suggested that those students desiring more time in writing out the experiments than the laboratory period affords, take notes as they make the various tests, and then amplify and rearrange them in the evening study time. The final writing up of the notes should, however, be done before the next laboratory period. Careful attention should be given to the spelling, language, and punctuation, and the note-book should represent the student's individual work. He who attempts to cheat by copying the results of others, only cheats himself. In recording the results of an experiment, the student should state briefly and clearly the following:

1. Number and title of experiment. 2. How the experiment is performed. 3. What was observed. 4. What the experiment proves.



LIST OF APPARATUS USED IN EXPERIMENTS

1 Crucible Tongs 2 Evaporating Dishes 1 Casserole 6 Beakers 12 Test Tubes 1 Wooden Stand 1 Test Tube Stand 1 Sand Bath 2 Funnels 1 Tripod 1 Stoddart Test Tube Clamp 1 Test Tube Brush 1 Burner and Tubing 2 Stirring Rods 6 Watch Glasses 2 Erlenmeyer Flasks 1 Package Filter Paper 1 Box Matches 1 Wire Gauze 2 Burettes 1 Porcelain Crucible 1 Aluminum Dish

Directions for Weighing.—Place the dish or material to be weighed in the left-hand pan of the balance. With the forceps lay a weight from the weight box on the right-hand pan. Do not touch the weights with the hands. If the weight selected is too heavy, replace it with a lighter weight. Add weights until the pans are counterpoised; this will be indicated by the needle swinging nearly as many divisions on one side of the scale as on the other. The brass weights are the gram weights. The other weights are fractions of a gm. The 500, 200, 100 mg. (milligram) weights are recorded as 0.5, 0.2, and 0.1 gm. The 50, 20, and 10 mg. weights as 0.05, 0.02, and 0.01 gm. If the 10, and 2 gm., and the 200, the 100, and the 50 mg. weights are used, the resulting weight is 12.35 gms. No moist substances should ever come in contact with the scale pans. The weights and forceps should always be replaced in the weight box. Too much care and neatness cannot be exercised in weighing.



Directions for Measuring.—Reagents are measured in graduated cylinders (see Fig. 74). When the directions call for the addition of 5 or 10 cc. of a reagent, unless so directed it is not absolutely necessary to measure the reagent in a measuring cylinder. A large test tube holds about 30 cc. of water. Measure out 5 cc. of water and transfer it to a large test tube. Note its volume. Add approximately 5 cc. of water directly to the test tube. Measure it. Repeat this operation until you can judge with a fair degree of accuracy the part of a test tube filled by 5 cc. In the experiments where a burette is used for measuring reagents, the burette is first filled with the reagent by means of a funnel. The tip of the burette is allowed to fill before the readings are made, which are from the lowest point or meniscus. When reagents are removed from bottles, the stopper should be held between the first and second fingers of the right hand (see Fig. 75). Hold the test tube or receptacle that is to receive the reagent in the left hand. Pour the liquid slowly until the desired amount is secured. Before inserting the stopper, touch it to the neck of the bottle to catch the few drops on the edge, thus preventing their streaking down the sides of the bottle on to the shelf. Replace the bottle in its proper place. Every precaution should be taken to prevent contamination of reagents.



Use of the Microscope.—Special directions in the use of the microscope will be given by the instructor. The object or material to be examined is placed on a microscopical slide. Care should be exercised to secure a representative sample, and to properly distribute the substance on the slide. If a pulverized material is to be examined, use but little and spread it in as thin a layer as possible. If a liquid, one or two drops placed on the slide will suffice. The material on the slide is covered with a cover glass, before it is placed on the stage of the microscope. In focusing, do not allow the object glass of the microscope to come in contact with the cover glass. Focus upward, not downward. Special care should be exercised in focusing and in handling the eye-piece and objective. A camel's-hair brush, clean dry chamois skin, or clean silk only should be used in polishing the lenses. Always put the microscope back in its case after using.

Experiment No. 1

Water in Flour

Carefully weigh a porcelain or aluminum dish. (Porcelain must be used if the ash is to be determined on the same sample.) Place in it about 2 gm. of flour; record the weight; then place the dish in the water oven for at least 6 hours. After drying, weigh again, and from the loss of weight calculate the per cent of water in the flour. (Weight of flour and dish before drying minus weight of flour and dish after drying equals weight of water lost. Weight of water divided by weight of flour taken, multiplied by 100, equals the per cent of water in the flour.)

How does the amount of water you obtained compare with the amount given in the tables of analysis?

Experiment No. 2

Water in Butter

Carefully weigh a clean, dry aluminum dish, place in it about 2 gms. of butter, and weigh again. Record the weights. Place the dish containing butter in the water oven for 5 or 6 hours and then weigh. The loss in weight represents the water in the butter. Calculate the per cent of water. Care must be taken to get a representative sample of the butter to be tested; preferably small amounts should be taken with the butter trier from various parts of the package.

Experiment No. 3

Ash in Flour

Place the porcelain dish containing flour from the preceding experiment in a muffle furnace and let it remain until the organic matter is completely volatilized. Cool, weigh, and determine the per cent of ash. The flour should be burned at the lowest temperature necessary for complete combustion.

Experiment No. 4

Nitric Acid Test for Nitrogenous Organic Matter

To 3 cc. of egg albumin in a test tube add 2 cc. of HNO{3} (conc.) and heat. When cool add NH{4}OH. The nitric acid chemically reacts upon the albumin, forming yellow xanthoprotein. What change occurs in the appearance of the egg albumin when the HNO{3} is added? Is this a physical or chemical change? What is the name of the compound formed? What change occurs on adding NH{4}OH?

Experiment No. 5

Acidity of Lemons

With a pipette measure into a small beaker 2 cc. of lemon juice. Add 25 cc. of water and a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator. From the burette run in N/10 KOH solution until a faint pink tinge remains permanently. Note the number of cubic centimeters of KOH solution required to neutralize the citric acid in the lemon juice. Calculate the per cent of citric acid.

(1 cc. of N/10 KOH solution equals 0.00642 gm. citric acid. 1 cc. of H_{2}O weighs 1 gm. Because of sugar and other matter in solution 1 cc. of lemon juice weighs approximately 1.03 gm.)

1. What is the characteristic acid of lemons? 2. What is the salt formed when the lemon juice is neutralized by the KOH solution? 3. Describe briefly the process for determining the acidity of lemon juice. 4. What per cent of acidity did you obtain? 5. How does this compare with the acidity of vinegar?

Experiment No. 6

Influence of Heat on Potato Starch Grains

With the point of a knife scrape slightly the surface of a raw potato and place a drop of the starchy juice upon the microscopical slide. Cover with cover glass and examine under the microscope.

In the evaporating dish cook a small piece of potato, then place a very small portion upon the slide, and examine with the microscope.

Make drawings of the starch grains in raw and in cooked potatoes.

Experiment No. 7

Influence of Yeast on Starch Grains

Moisten a small portion of the dough prepared with yeast and with the stirring rod place a drop of the starchy water upon the slide. Cover with cover glass and examine under the microscope.

Repeat, examining a drop of starchy water washed from flour.

Make drawing of wheat starch grain in flour and in dough prepared with yeast.

Experiment No. 8

Mechanical Composition of Potatoes

Wash one potato. Weigh, then peel, making the peeling as thin as possible. Weigh the peeled potato and weigh the peeling or refuse. Calculate the per cent of potato that is edible and the per cent that is refuse.

Experiment No. 9

Pectose from Apples

Reduce a small peeled apple to a pulp. Squeeze the pulp through a clean cloth into a beaker. Add 10 cc. H_{2}O and heat on a sand bath to coagulate the albumin. Filter, adding a little hot water if necessary. To the filtrate add 5 cc. alcohol. The precipitate is the pectose material.

1. Is the pectose from the apple soluble? 2. Is it coagulated by heat? 3. Is it soluble in alcohol?

Experiment No. 10

Lemon Extract

To 5 cc. of the extract in a test tube add an equal volume of water. A cloudy appearance indicates the presence of lemon oil. If the solution remains clear after adding the water, the extract does not contain lemon oil.

Why does the extract containing lemon oil become cloudy on adding water?

Experiment No. 11

Vanilla Extract

Pour into a test tube 5 cc. of the extract to be tested. Evaporate to one third. Then add sufficient water to restore the original volume. If a brown, flocculent precipitate is formed, the sample contains pure vanilla extract. Resin is present in vanilla beans and is extracted in the essence. The resin is readily soluble in 50 per cent alcohol. If the alcohol is removed from the extract, the excess of resin is precipitated, or if free from alkali, it may be precipitated by diluting the original solution with twice its volume of water. Test the two samples and compare.

(Adapted from Leach, "Food Inspection and Analysis.")

1. Describe the appearance of each sample after evaporating and adding water. 2. Which sample contains pure vanilla extract? 3. State the principle underlying this test.

Experiment No. 12

Testing Olive Oil for Cotton Seed Oil

Pour into a test tube 5 cc. of the oil to be tested and 5 cc. of Halphen's Reagent. Mix thoroughly. Plug the test tube loosely with cotton, and heat in a bath of boiling saturated brine for 15 minutes. If cotton seed oil is present, a deep red or orange color is produced. Test two samples and compare.

Halphen's Reagent.—Mix equal volumes of amyl alcohol and carbon disulphid containing about one per cent of sulphur in solution.

(Adapted from Leach, "Food Inspection and Analysis.")

Experiment No. 13

Testing for Coal Tar Dyes

Dilute 20 to 30 cc. of the material to 100 cc.; boil for 10 minutes with 10 cc. of a 10 per cent solution of potassium bisulphate and a piece of white woolen cloth which has previously been boiled in a 0.1 per cent solution of NaOH and thoroughly washed in water. Remove the cloth from the solution, wash in boiling water, and dry between pieces of filter paper. A bright red indicates coal tar dye. If the coloring matter is entirely from fruit, the woolen cloth will be either uncolored or will have a faint pink or brown color which is changed to green or yellow by ammonia and is not restored by washing. This is the Arata test.

(Adapted, Winston, Conn. Experiment Station Report.)

1. Describe Arata's wool test for coal tar dyes. 2. What is the appearance of the woolen cloth when the coloring matter is entirely from fruit? 3. What effect has NH_{4}OH upon the color? 4. Why is NaOH used? 5. Why may not cotton cloth be used instead of woolen? 6. What can you say of the use of coal tar dyes in foods?

Experiment No. 14

Determining the Per Cent of Skin in Beans

Place in an evaporating dish 10 gm. of beans, 50 cc. of water, and 1/2 gm. of baking soda. Boil 10 minutes or until the skins are loosened, then drain off the water. Add cold water and rub the beans together till the skins slip off. Collect the skins, place on a watch glass and dry in the water oven for 1/2 hour. Weigh the dried skins and calculate the per cent of "skin."

1. What does the soda do? 2. What effect would hard limewater have upon the skins? 3. How does removal of skins affect food value of beans and digestibility?

Experiment No. 15

Extraction of Fat from Peanuts

Shell three or four peanuts and with the mortar and pestle break them into small pieces. Place in a test tube and pour over them about 10 cc. of ether. Cork the test tube and allow it to stand 30 minutes, shaking occasionally. Filter on to a watch glass and let stand until the ether evaporates, and then observe the fat.

1. What is the appearance of the peanut fat? 2. What is the solvent of the fat? 3. What becomes of the ether? 4. Why should the peanuts be broken into small pieces?

Experiment No. 16

Microscopic Examination of Milk

Place a drop of milk on a microscopical slide and cover with cover glass. Examine the milk to detect impurities, as dust, hair, refuse, etc. Make drawings of any foreign matter present.

Experiment No. 17

Formaldehyde in Cream or Milk

To 10 cc. of milk in a casserole add 10 cc. of the acid reagent. Heat slowly over the flame nearly to boiling, holding the casserole in the hand and giving it a slight rotary movement while heating. The presence of formaldehyde is indicated by a violet coloration varying in depth with the amount present. In the absence of formaldehyde the solution slowly turns brown.

Acid Reagent.—Commercial hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.2) containing 2 cc. per liter of 10 per cent ferric chlorid.

(Adapted from Leach, "Food Inspection and Analysis.")

1. How may the presence of formaldehyde in milk be detected? 2. Why in this test is it necessary to use acid containing ferric chlorid? 3. Describe the appearance of the two samples of milk after adding the acid reagent and heating. 4. Which sample showed the presence of formaldehyde?

Experiment No. 18

Gelatine in Cream or Milk

To 20 cc. of milk or cream in a beaker add 20 cc. of acid mercuric nitrate and about 40 cc. of H_{2}O. Let stand for a few minutes and filter. Filtrate will be cloudy if gelatine is present.

Add 1/2 cc. of a dilute solution of picric acid—a heavy yellow precipitate indicates gelatine.

Acid Mercuric Nitrate.—1 part by weight of Hg, 2 parts HNO_{3} (sp. gr. 1.42). Dilute 25 times with water.

Experiment No. 19

Testing for Oleomargarine

Apply the following tests to two samples of the material:

Boiling or Spoon Test.—Melt the sample to be tested—a piece about the size of a chestnut—in a large spoon, hastening the process by stirring with a splinter. Then, increasing the heat, bring to as brisk a boil as possible and stir thoroughly, not neglecting the outer edges. Oleomargarine and renovated butter boil noisily, sputtering like a mixture of grease and water, and produce no foam, or but very little. Genuine butter boils with less noise and produces an abundance of foam.

Waterhouse Test.—Into a small beaker pour 50 cc. of sweet milk. Heat nearly to boiling and add from 5 to 10 gms. of butter or oleomargarine. Stir with a glass rod until fat is melted. Then place the beaker in cold water and stir the milk until the temperature falls sufficiently for the fat to congeal. At this point the fat, if oleomargarine, can easily be collected into one lump by means of the rod; while if butter, it will granulate and cannot be collected.

(From Farmers' Bul. 131, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture.)

1. Name two simple tests for distinguishing butter and oleomargarine. 2. Describe these tests. 3. Why do butter and oleomargarine respond differently to these tests? 4. Are these tests based upon chemical or physical properties of the fats?

Experiment No. 20

Testing for Watering or Skimming of Milk

a. Fat Content of Milk by Means of Babcock Test.—Measure with pipette into test bottle 17.6 cc. of milk. Sample should be carefully taken and well mixed. Measure with cylinder 17.5 cc. commercial H{2}SO{4} and add to milk in test bottle. (See Fig. 25.) Mix acid and milk by rotating the bottle. Then place test bottles in centrifugal machine and whirl 5 minutes. Add sufficient hot water to test bottles to bring contents up to about the 8th mark on stem. Then whirl bottles 2 minutes longer and read fat. Read from extreme lowest to highest point. Each large division as 1 to 2 represents a whole per cent, each small division 0.2 of a per cent.

b. Determining Specific Gravity by Means of Lactometer.—Pour 150 cc. of milk into 200 cc. cylinder. Place lactometer in milk and note depth to which it sinks as indicated on stem. Note also temperature of milk. For each 10 deg. above 60 deg. F. add 1 to the lactometer number, in order to make the necessary correction for temperature. For example, if milk has sp. gr. of 1.032 at temperature of 70 deg., it will be equivalent to sp. gr. of 1.033 at 60 deg. Ordinarily milk has a sp. gr. of 1.029 to 1.034. If milk has sp. gr. less than 1.029, or contains less than 3 per cent fat, it may be considered watered milk. If the milk has a high sp. gr. (above 1.035) and a low content of fat, some of the fat has been removed.

(For extended direction for milk testing see Snyder's "Dairy Chemistry.")

Experiment No. 21

Boric Acid in Meat

Cut into very small pieces 5 gms, of meat, removing all the fat possible. Place in an evaporating dish with 20 to 25 cc. of water to which a few drops of HCl have been added and warm slightly. Dip a piece of turmeric paper in the meat extract and dry. A rose-red color of the turmeric paper after drying (turned olive by a weak ammonia solution) is indicative of boric acid.

1. How may meat be tested for boric acid? 2. Why is HCl added to the water? 3. Why is the water containing the meat warmed slightly? 4. What is the appearance of the turmeric paper after being dipped in the meat extract and dried? 5. What change takes place when it is moistened with ammonia, and why?

Experiment No. 22

Microscopic Examination of Cereal Starch Grains

Make a microscopic examination and drawings of wheat, corn, rice, and oat starch grains, comparing them with the drawings of the different starch grains on the chart. If the material is coarse, pulverize in a mortar and filter through cloth. Place a drop or two of the starchy water on the slide, cover with a cover glass, and examine.

Experiment No. 23

Identification of Commercial Cereals

Examine under the microscope two samples of cereal breakfast foods, and by comparison with the wheat, corn, and oat starch grains previously examined tell of what grains the breakfast foods are made and their approximate food value.

Experiment No. 24

Granulation and Color of Flour

Arrange on glass plate, in order of color, samples of all the different grades of flour. Note the differences in color. How do these differences correspond with the grades of the flour? Examine the flour with a microscope, noting any coarse or dark-colored particles of bran or dust. Rub some of the flour between the thumb and forefinger. Note if any granular particles can be detected.

Experiment No. 25

Capacity of Flour to absorb Water

Weigh out 15 gms. of soft wheat flour into an evaporating dish; then add from burette a measured quantity of water sufficient to make a stiff dough. Note the amount of water required for this purpose. Repeat the operation, using hard wheat flour.

1. How may the absorptive power of a flour be determined? 2. To what is it due? 3. Why do some flours absorb more water than others?

Experiment No. 26

Acidity of Flour

Weigh into a flask 20 gms. of flour and add 200 cc. distilled water. Shake vigorously. After letting stand 30 minutes, filter and then titrate 50 cc. of the filtrate against standard KOH solution, using phenolphthalein as indicator, 1 cc. of the alkali equals 0.009 gms. lactic acid. Calculate the per cent of acid present.

1. How may the acidity of a flour be determined? 2. The acidity is expressed in percentage amounts of what acid? 3. What per cent of acidity is found in normal flours? 4. What does a high acidity of a flour indicate?

Experiment No. 27

Moist and Dry Gluten

Weigh 30 gms. of flour into a porcelain dish. Make the flour into a stiff dough. After 30 minutes obtain the gluten by washing, being careful to remove all the starch and prevent any losses. Squeeze the water from the gluten as thoroughly as possible. Weigh the moist gluten and calculate the per cent. Dry the gluten in the water oven and calculate the per cent of dry gluten.

Experiment No. 28

Gliadin from Flour

Place in a flask 10 gms. of flour, 30 cc. of alcohol, and 20 cc. of water. Cork the flask and shake, and after a few minutes shake again. Allow the alcohol to act on the flour for an hour, or until the next day. Then filter off the alcohol solution and evaporate the filtrate to dryness over the water bath. Examine the residue; to a portion add a little water; burn a small portion and observe odor.

1. Describe the appearance of the gliadin. 2. What was the result when water was added? 3. When burned, what was the odor of the gliadin, and what does this indicate? 4. What is gliadin?

Experiment No. 29

Bread-making Test

Make a "sponge" by mixing together:

12 gm. sugar, 12 gm. yeast (compressed), 4 gm. salt, 175 cc. water (temp. 32 deg. C.).

Let stand 1/2 hour at a temperature of 30 deg. C. In a large bowl, mix with a knife or spatula 7.7 gms. of lard with 248.6 gms. of flour. Then add 160 cc. of the "sponge," or as much as is needed to make a good stiff dough, and mix thoroughly, using the spatula. With some flours as small a quantity as 150 cc. of sponge may be used. If more moisture is necessary, add H_{2}O. Keep at temperature of 30 deg. C. Allow the dough to stand 50 minutes to first pulling, 40 minutes to second pulling, and 30 to 50 minutes to the pan. Let it rise to top of pan and then bake for 1/2 hour in an oven at a temperature of 180 deg. C. One loaf of bread is made of patent flour of known quality as a standard for comparison, and other loaves of the flours to be tested. Compare the loaves as to size (cubic contents), color, porosity, odor, taste, nature of crust, and form of loaf.

Experiment No. 30

Microscopic Examination of Yeast

On a watch glass mix thoroughly a very small piece of yeast with about 5 cc. of water and then with the stirring rod place a drop of this solution on the microscopical slide, adding a drop of very dilute methyl violet solution. Cover with the cover glass and examine under the microscope. The living active cells appear colorless while the decayed and lifeless ones are stained. Yeast cells are circular or oval in shape. (See Fig. 46.)

(Adapted from Leach, "Food Inspection and Analysis.")

Experiment No. 31

Testing Baking Powders for Alum

Place about 2 gms. of flour in a dish with 1/2 gm. baking powder. Add enough water to make a dough and then 2 or 3 drops of tincture of logwood and 2 or 3 drops of ammonium carbonate solution. Mix well and observe; a blue color indicates alum. Try the same test, using flour only for comparison.

1. How do you test a baking powder for alum? 2. What difference in color did you observe in the test with the baking powder containing alum and in that with the flour only? 3. Why is the (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3} solution used?

Experiment No. 32

Testing Baking Powders for Phosphoric Acid

Dissolve 1/2 gm. of baking powder in 5 cc. of H{2}O and 3 cc. HNO{3}. Filter and add 3 cc. ammonium molybdate. Heat gently. A yellow precipitate indicates phosphoric acid.

1. How do you test a baking powder for phosphoric acid? 2. What is the yellow precipitate obtained in this test?

Experiment No. 33

Testing Baking Powders for Ammonia

Dissolve 1/2 gm. of material in 10 cc. water; filter off any insoluble residue and to the filtrate add 2 or 3 cc. NaOH and apply heat. Test the gas given off with moistened turmeric paper. If NH_{3} is present, the paper will be colored brown. Do not allow the paper to come in contact with the liquid or sides of the test tube. (Perform the tests on two samples of baking powder.)

1. How do you test a baking powder for ammonia? 2. Why do you add NaOH? 3. Why must you be careful not to let the turmeric paper touch the sides of the test tube or the liquid?

Experiment No. 34

Vinegar Solids

Into a weighed aluminum or porcelain dish pour 10 cc. of vinegar. Weigh and then evaporate over boiling water. To drive off the last traces of moisture dry in the water oven for an hour. Cool and weigh. Calculate the per cent of solids. Observe the appearance of the solids. Test both samples and compare.

1. How may the per cent of solids in vinegar be determined? 2. Describe the appearance of the solids from the good and from the poor sample of vinegar. 3. What is the legal standard for vinegar solids in your state?

Experiment No. 35

Specific Gravity of Vinegar

Pour 170 cc. vinegar into 200 cc. cylinder. Place a hydrometer for heavy liquids (sp. gr. 1 to 1.1) in the cylinder. Note the depth to which it sinks and the point registered on the scale on the stem. Note temperature of vinegar. Record specific gravity of vinegar.

1. What effect would addition of water to vinegar have upon its specific gravity? 2. What effect would addition of such material as sugar have upon specific gravity? 3. Why should the specific gravity of vinegar be fairly constant? 4. What would be the weight of 1000 cc. of vinegar calculated from the specific gravity?

Experiment No. 36

Acidity of Vinegar

Into a small beaker pour 6 cc. of vinegar and 10 cc. of water and a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator. Run in standard KOH solution from a burette until a faint pink tinge remains permanently. Note the number of cubic centimeters of KOH solution required to neutralize the acid. Divide this number by 10, which will give approximately the per cent of acetic acid.

1. How may the per cent of acidity of vinegar be determined? 2. Why was phenolphthalein used? 3. Why was KOH used? 4. What acids does vinegar contain? 5. What is the legal requirement in this state for acetic acid in vinegar? 6. How did the acidity you obtained compare with this legal requirement?

Experiment No. 37

Deportment of Vinegar with Reagents

To 10 cc. of vinegar in a test tube add 8 or 10 drops of lead sub-acetate and shake. Observe the precipitate. Lead sub-acetate precipitates mainly the malic acid which is always present in cider vinegar.

1. How may the presence of malic acid in a vinegar be detected? 2. Describe the precipitate. 3. What does malic acid in a vinegar indicate?

Experiment No. 38

Testing Mustard for Turmeric

Place 1 gm. of ground mustard on a small watch glass and moisten slightly with water. Add 2 or 3 drops of NH_{4}OH, stirring well with a glass rod. A brown color indicates turmeric present in considerable quantity.

Test a sample of good mustard and one adulterated with turmeric and compare the results.

Experiment No. 39

Examination of Tea Leaves

Soak a small amount of tea and unroll 8 or 10 of the leaves. Make a drawing of a tea leaf. Observe the proportion of stems in each of three samples of tea; also the relative proportion of large and small leaves. Observe if the leaves are even as to size and of a uniform color.

Experiment No. 40

Action of Iron Compounds upon Tannic Acid

Make an infusion of tea by placing 3 gms. of tea in 100 cc. of hot water and stirring well. Filter off some of the infusion and test 5 cc. with ferrous sulphate solution made by dissolving 1 gm. FeSO{4} in 10 cc. H{2}O and filtering. Note the result.

1. What change in color did you observe when the ferrous sulphate solution was added to the tea infusion? 2. What effect would waters containing iron have upon the tea infusion?

Experiment No. 41

Identification of Coffee Berries

Examine Rio, Java, and Mocha coffee berries. Describe each. Note the characteristics of each kind of coffee berry.

Experiment No. 42

Detecting Chicory in Coffee

Fill a beaker with water and place about a teaspoonful of ground coffee on the surface. If much of the ground material sinks and it imparts a dark brown color to the lower portion of the liquid, it is an indication of the presence of chicory. Pure coffee floats on water. Chicory has a higher specific gravity than coffee.

1. How may the presence of chicory in ground coffee be detected? 2. Why does coffee float on the water while chicory sinks? 3. What effect does chicory have upon the color of water?

Experiment No. 43

Testing Hard and Soft Waters

Partially fill a large cylinder with very hard water. This may be prepared by dissolving 0.1 to 0.2 gm. calcium chloride in 500 cc. of ordinary water. Add to this a measured quantity of soap solution. Mix well and notice how many cubic centimeters of soap solution must be used before a permanent lather is formed, also notice the precipitate of "lime soap." Repeat this experiment, using either rain or distilled water, and compare the cubic centimeters of soap solution used with that in former test. Repeat the test, using tap water.

Soap Solution.—Scrape 10 gms. of castile soap into fine shavings and dissolve in a liter of alcohol, dilute with 1/3 water. Filter if not clear and keep in a tightly stoppered bottle.

1. Why is more soap required to form a lather with hard water than with soft water? 2. What is meant by "lime soap"? Describe its appearance. 3. How may hard waters be softened for household purposes?

Experiment No. 44

Solvent Action of Water on Lead

Put 1 gm. of clean bright lead shavings into a test tube containing 10 cc. of distilled water. After 24 hours decant the clear liquid into a second test tube, acidify slightly with HCL, and add a little hydrogen sulphid water. A black or brownish coloration indicates lead in solution.

(Adapted from Caldwell and Breneman, "Introductory Chemical Practice.")

Under what conditions may lead pipes be objectionable?

Experiment No. 45

Suspended Matter in Water

Place a drop of water on the microscopical slide, cover with cover glass, and examine with the microscope. Note the occurrence and appearance of any suspended matter in the water.

Experiment No. 46

Organic Matter in Water

Pour into the evaporating dish 100 cc. H_{2}O and evaporate to dryness over the sand bath. Ignite the solids. If the solids blacken when ignited, the water contains organic matter.

Experiment No. 47

Deposition of Lime by Boiling Water

Boil for a few minutes about 200 cc. of water in a flask. After the water is cool, note any sediment of lime or turbidity of the water due to expelling the carbon dioxid.

1. What is meant by a "hard" water? 2. What do the terms "temporary" and "permanent" hardness of water mean? 3. What acts as a solvent of the lime in water? 4. Why does boiling cause the lime to be deposited?

Experiment No. 48

Qualitative Tests for Minerals in Water

Test for Chlorids.—To 10 cc. of H_{2}O add a few drops of HNO_{3} and 2 cc. of AgNO_{3}. A white precipitate indicates the presence of chlorids, usually in the form of sodium chlorid.

Test for Sulphates.—To 10 cc. of water add 2 cc. of dilute HCl and 2 cc. of BaCl_{2}. A cloudiness or the formation of a white precipitate indicates the presence of sulphates.

Test for Iron.—If a brown sediment is formed in water exposed to the air for some time, it is probably iron hydroxid. To 10 cc. of the water add a few drops of HNO{3}, heat, and then add 1/2 cc. of NH{4}CNS. A red color indicates the presence of iron.

Test for CaO and MgO.—To 10 cc. of H{2}O add 5 cc. NH{4}OH. If a precipitate forms, filter it off, and to the filtrate add 3 cc. NH{4}Cl and 5 cc. (NH{4}){2}C{2}O{4}. The precipitate is CaC{2}O{4}, and the filtrate contains the magnesia. Filter and add 5 cc. Na{3}PO{4} to precipitate MgNH{4}PO{4}.

1. How would you test a water to detect the presence of organic matter? 2. Name some mineral impurities often found in water. 3. Describe the test for chlorids; for sulphates; for iron; for lime; for magnesium. 4. Of the two classes of impurities found in water, which is the more harmful? 5. Name three ways of purifying waters known to be impure, and tell which is the most effectual.

Experiment No. 49

Testing for Nitrites in Water

To 50 cc. of water in a small beaker add with a pipette 2 cc. of naphthylamine hydrochloride and then 2 cc. of sulphanilic acid. Stir well and wait 20 minutes for color to develop. A pink color indicates nitrites.

REAGENTS USED

Sulphanilic Acid.—Dissolve 5 gm. in 150 cc. of dilute acetic acid; sp. gr. 1.04.

Naphthylamine Hydrochloride.—Boil 0.1 gm. of solid [Greek: a]-amidonaphthaline (naphthylamine) in 20 cc. of water, filter the solution through a plug of absorbent cotton, and mix the nitrate with 180 cc. of dilute acetic acid. All water used must be free from nitrites, and all vessels must be rinsed out with such water before tests are applied.

1. Would a water showing the presence of nitrites be a safe drinking water? Why? 2. What are nitrites? 3. What does the presence of nitrites indicate? 4. Are small amounts of nitrites, when not associated with bacteria, injurious?



REVIEW QUESTIONS

CHAPTER I

GENERAL COMPOSITION OF FOODS

1. To what extent is water present in foods? 2. What foods contain the most, and what foods the least water? 3. How does the water content of some foods vary with the hydroscopicity of the air? 4. How may changes in water content of foods affect their weight? 5. Why is it necessary to consider the water content of foods in assigning nutritive values? 6. How is the dry matter of a food determined? 7. Why is the determination of the water in a food often a difficult process? 8. What is the ash or mineral matter of a food? 9. How is it obtained? 10. What is its source? 11. Of what is the ash of plants composed? 12. What part in plant life do these ash elements take? 13. Name the ash elements essential for plant growth. 14. Which of the mineral elements take the most essential part in animal nutrition? 15. In what form are these elements usually considered most valuable? 16. Why is sodium chloride or common salt necessary for animal life? 17. How do food materials differ in ash content? 18. Define organic matter of foods. 19. How is it obtained? 20. Of what is it composed? 21. Into what is the organic matter converted when it is burned? 22. Give the two large classes of organic compounds found in food materials. 23. Name the various subdivisions of the non-nitrogenous compounds. 24. What are the carbohydrates? 25. Give their general composition. 26. What is cellulose? 27. Where is it found? 28. What is its function in plants? 29. What is its food value? 30. In what way may cellulose be of value in a ration? 31. In what way may it impart a negative value to a ration? 32. What is starch? 33. Where is it mainly found in plants? 34. Give the mechanical structure of the starch grain. 35. Why is starch insoluble in cold water? 36. How do starch grains from different sources differ in structure? 37. What effect does heat have upon starch? 38. Define hydration of starch. 39. Under what conditions does this change take place? 40. What value as a nutrient does starch possess? 41. What is sugar? 42. How does it resemble and how differ in composition from starch? 43. What are the pectose substances? 44. How are they affected by heat? 45. What food value do they possess? 46. What is nitrogen-free-extract? 47. How is it obtained? 48. How may the nitrogen-free-extract of one food differ from that of another? 49. What are the fats? 50. How do they differ in composition from the starches? 51. Why does fat when burned or digested produce more heat than starch or sugar? 52. Name the separate fats of which animal and vegetable foods are composed. 53. Give some of the physical characteristics of fat. 54. What is the iodine absorption number of a fat? 55. How does the specific gravity of fat compare with that of water? 56. Into what two constituents may all fats be separated? 57. What is ether extract? 58. How does the ether extract in fats vary in composition and nutritive value? 59. What are the organic acids? 60. Name those most commonly met with in foods. 61. What nutritive value do they possess? 62. What dietetic value? 63. What value are they to the growing plant? 64. What organic acids are found in animal foods? 65. What are the essential oils? 66. How do they differ from the fixed oils, or fats? 67. What property do the essential oils impart to foods? 68. What food value do they possess? 69. What dietetic value? 70. What are the mixed compounds? 71. How may a compound impart a negative value to a food? 72. What is the nutritive value of the non-nitrogenous compounds, taken as a class? 73. Why is it necessary that nitrogenous and non-nitrogenous compounds be blended in a ration? 74. What are the nitrogenous compounds? 75. How do they differ from the non-nitrogenous compounds? 76. Name the four subdivisions of the nitrogenous compounds. 77. What is protein? 78. What is characteristic as to its nitrogen content? 79. What are some of the derivative products that can be obtained from the protein molecule? 80. How does the protein content of animal bodies compare with that of plants? 81. Name the various subdivisions of the proteins. 82. What is albumin, and how may it be obtained from a food? 83. What is globulin, and how is it obtained from a food? 84. Give some examples of globulins. 85. What are the albuminates, and how are they affected by the action of acids and alkalies? 86. What are the peptones, and how do they differ from the albumins? 87. How are the peptones produced from other proteids? 88. What are the insoluble proteids? 89. Give an example. 90. Which of the proteids are found to the greatest extent in foods? 91. Why may proteids from different sources vary in their nutritive value? 92. What general change do the proteids undergo during digestion? 93. What is crude protein? 94. How is the crude protein content of a food calculated? 95. Why is the nitrogen content of a food more absolute than the crude protein content? 96. What food value do the proteins possess? 97. Why may proteins serve so many functions in the body? 98. Why is protein necessary as a nutrient? 99. What is the effect of an excess of protein in the ration? 100. What is the effect of a scant amount of protein in a ration? 101. What are the albuminoids? 102. Name borne materials that contain large amounts of albuminoids. 103. What food value do the albuminoids possess? 104. What are the amids? 105. How are they formed in plants? 106. What is their source in animals? 107. What general changes does the element nitrogen undergo in plant and animal bodies? 108. What is the food value of the amids? 109. What are the alkaloids? 110. What is their food value? 111. What effect do some alkaloids exert upon the animal body? 112. How may they be produced in animal foods? 113. What general relationship exists between the various nitrogenous compounds? 114. Why is it essential that the animal body be supplied with nitrogenous food in the form of proteids? 115. Name the cycle of changes through which the element nitrogen passes in plant and animal bodies.

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