In the same way man has upset his pristine animal mode of living and needs to find scientific ways to restore the equilibrium. Most of the present-day problems of hygiene arise from introducing, uncompensated, the effects of certain devices of civilization. The inventions of civilization have done so much for man that he is apt to unduly glorify them and to overlook the injurious by-products. These by-products are often of prodigious significance to the race. The invention of houses introduced the problem of house hygiene; the invention of clothing, the problem of clothing hygiene; that of cooking, the problem of food hygiene; that of division of labor, the problem of industrial hygiene; and so on. To make these statements more concrete, we may consider some of them in more detail.
[Sidenote: Houses Artificial]
The invention of houses has made it possible for men to live in all climates, yet this indoor living is responsible for much disease. The houses give comfortable shelter and warmth and protect us from the elements and from wild animals. But the protection has been overdone. Like his cousin, the anthropoid ape, man is biologically an outdoor animal. His attempt at indoor living has worked him woe, but so gradually and subtly has it done so that only recently have we come to realize the fact. At first, dwellings were really outdoor affairs, caves, lean-tos, tents, huts with holes in the roof and the walls. These holes served to ventilate, though they were not intended for that purpose. The hole in the roof was to let out the smoke and the holes in the walls to let in the light. Gradually the roof-hole developed into a chimney with an open fireplace, which, in turn, gradually changed into a small flue for stoves whereupon it almost ceased to serve any ventilating function. The stove in turn has largely gone and is replaced in many cases by the hot-water or steam radiator, without any attempt at ventilation. The holes in the wall gave way, after the invention of glass, to windows which let in the light without letting in the air. Weather-strips, double windows, vestibule-doors, interior rooms, completed the process of depriving man of his outdoor air, shutting him into a cell in which he now lives—a sickened but complaisant prisoner—often twenty hours of the twenty-four. Tuberculosis, one of the worst scourges of mankind, is primarily a house disease. It is prevalent as indoor living is prevalent, and reaches its maximum in the tenement quarter of a great city.
[Sidenote: Effects on Different Races]
Only by generations of natural selection could we expect to make man immune to the evils of bad air. The robust Indian and the Negro, whose races, until the last generation or two, roamed in the open, fell easy prey to tuberculosis as soon as they adopted the white man's houses and clothes. The Anglo-Saxons who have withstood the influence of indoor living for several generations have, probably by the survival of the fittest, become a little better able to endure it, while the Jews, a race which has lived indoors longer than any other existing race, are now, probably by the same law of survival, the least liable to tuberculosis, except when exposed to especially unfavorable conditions of life.
[Sidenote: Compensation for Civilization]
But we, of this generation, can not afford to wait for natural selection to fit the race to an indoor environment; hence the supreme importance to us of air hygiene. We must compensate for the construction of our houses by insisting on open windows, or forced drafts, or electric fans, or open-air outings, or sleeping porches, or the practise of deep breathing, or all of these things.
[Sidenote: Clothing Artificial]
In the same way, clothing has protected our bodies from the cold but enervated or constricted them as well. The aboriginal tribes, even in cold climates, seldom used clothing. The Eskimo is an exception. The tribes toward the South Pole in similarly cold climates often have little more clothing than a blanket which they hang over their shoulders toward the wind. The weak, pale skin—to whose lack of adaptability we owe the chilling preceding a cold—the bald head, the distorted foot, the corns upon it, the cramped waist, are among the results of clothing ourselves wrongly. Hence we are discovering the need of restoring, as far as we can, the original conditions by making our clothes more light, more loose, and more porous, and, when possible, by taking the "barefoot cure," or the air bath.
[Sidenote: Cooking Artificial]
We come next to foods, and note that civilization has invented cooking and artificial foods. These inventions have greatly widened the variety of man's diet, but the foods of civilization are largely responsible for the decay of our teeth and the abuse of our digestive and eliminating organs.
[Sidenote: Soft Foods Artificial]
Judging from man's teeth and digestive apparatus as well as his general kinship to the anthropoid ape, it is reasonable to believe that, before fire was discovered, man was primarily a frugivorous animal, whose ordinary diet consisted of fruits, nuts, and tender shoots. While man still uses these fruits, nuts, and salads, his chief reliance is on prepared food, bread, butter, meat, and cooked vegetables. The diet of our progenitors must have been largely one requiring chewing, consisting, as it did, of hard fruits and stalks and perhaps also grains and flesh. Observation of manlike apes shows that they chew their food more thoroughly than man. Doubtless nuts constituted a considerable part of primitive food and required cracking by the teeth. The work we now do in flour-mills or the kitchen or with the knife and fork, was then done with the teeth. We even have our cook mash our potatoes and make puddings and pap of our food after it reaches the kitchen. Having already shirked most of the task of mastication by softening and cutting our food before it reaches our mouths, we shirk the rest of it by washing it down with water, or worse. An Italian dentist, who has had a wide range of observation, says that the knife and fork have committed "unpardonable crimes" by robbing the front teeth of their work of cutting. He sometimes prescribes for loose teeth the task of cutting a pound of bread daily. Whether any of it is swallowed or not is not important, but he insists that it must be cut by the teeth.
[Sidenote: Concentrated Food Artificial]
The deplorable lack of residue in modern food is one of the consequences of civilized life, for the bulky foods have been crowded out by concentrated foods, and, in many cases, the concentrated foods have been formed by getting rid of residue. Instead of chewing the sugar-cane, we use sugar, a concentrated extract which leaves no residue. We crush the juices from our fruits and throw away the pulp. We take the bran out of our grain and with it the vitamins essential to health. The bulky foods—fruits and fibrous vegetables—are often dropped from our menus.
[Sidenote: Hurry Artificial]
The hurry habit, another unfortunate by-product of civilized life, is one of the chief promoters of indigestion. In civilization we live by the clock. We schedule our trains and crowd our meal-time to catch them. We make engagements in neglect of the requirements of digestion. We have, in consequence, as one of the institutions of civilization, the "quick-lunch counter." At first we bolted a meal purposely and consciously. Later we formed the habit of food-bolting, and it now seems quite natural.
[Sidenote: Use of Flesh Food]
[Sidenote: Misled Appetites]
To the door of the hurry habit may also be laid the excessive use of flesh foods. Carnivorous animals bolt their food. Frugivorous animals, to which class the human race properly belongs, eat slowly. But when, through the perversions of civilized life, frugivorous man is forced to eat as fast as the carnivores, he instinctively adopts a similar diet. As someone has expressed it "when we eat as fast as a dog, we naturally crave the food of a dog." Our apelike progenitors had few, if any, flesh foods and only those which they could catch with the hand and eat raw. Our eliminating organs, the liver and the kidneys, have been framed to meet the demands of man's natural diet, but not adapted to handle the diet of civilized men in the excessive use of flesh foods and the use of alcohol. These organs are, fortunately or unfortunately, provided with a large factor of safety and can stand a great deal of abuse, but the cumulative effect of this abuse, especially when combined with an unhygienic life in general, sooner or later leads to disaster. Our tastes have also been perverted. The appetite is very likely to be innocently misled by the delicacies which civilization has invented, as well as by the tricks of cooking, seasoning, and preparing. For this reason, we can not trust, as thoroughly as we would like, the ordinary leadings of taste. The solution of this problem of nutrition, like the solution of the housing problem, must be sought by retaining the advantageous food customs which we now find about us and substituting scientific customs for the disadvantageous ones.
[Sidenote: Other Evils of Civilization]
It would be impossible to enumerate all the inventions of civilization which have brought us difficult problems of individual hygiene. We shall name only a few more. The invention of chairs, though adding to human convenience, has tended to produce wrong posture, from which spinal, nervous and digestive disturbances follow. The invention of the alphabet and of printing has made possible the accumulation of knowledge, but has promoted eye-strain with a great train of attendant evils. The device of division of labor has created much wealth, but destroyed the normal balance of mental and physical work, recreation and rest. From this follow occupational diseases of overstrain, bad posture, industrial poisons, and a craving for narcotics. A combination of conditions has lessened the opportunities for prompt discharge of the body waste, and so led to dulling of the reflex which promotes defecation. We are only just beginning to realize how serious are the consequences.
[Sidenote: "Remedies" that are Worse than the Evils]
We have described many of the unhygienic practises common to-day as direct results of upsetting Nature's equilibrium. Others are indirect results. These latter practises may be described as attempts to remedy the evils of the former, the "remedies," however, being often worse than the diseases. Much of our drugging, some of our wrong food habits and not a little of our immorality are simply crude and unscientific attempts to compensate for disturbances or deviations from a normal life. We wake ourselves up, as it were, with caffein, move our bowels with a cathartic, induce an appetite with a cocktail, seek rest from the day's fatigue and worries in nicotin, and put ourselves to sleep with an opiate. In these practises we are evidently trying in wrong ways to compensate respectively for insufficient sleep, insufficient peristalsis, indigestion, overfatigue, and insomnia—evils due, as previously explained, to upsetting Nature's balance, between work, play, rest and sleep.
So also our overeating is largely an unscientific effort to compensate for overconcentration of diet,—that is, an effort to get bulk. Again, too much protein is in large measure due to the need of compensating for rapid eating, for as has been remarked, protein is the one kind of food which can be eaten fast with impunity.
Again, a large part of our moral derelictions is due to an unbalanced life from which amusements are largely omitted. The "bad" boy in the city streets is usually following his instinct for amusement, of which the lack of playgrounds has deprived him. Dissipations of many kinds are explained in a similar way. It is largely because workmen are so often drudges and lack normal recreations that they seek amusement in the concentrated form they find in saloons, gambling places, dives and dance halls.
Finally those economic and social conditions of civilization which have resulted in deferring marriage beyond the best physiological age, lie behind prostitution and its terrible train of consequences including the venereal diseases.
The worst of it is that these wrong remedies, instead of helping, aggravate the disease. They become part of a vicious circle, which continues in an endless round.
[Sidenote: Shortened Human Life]
The combined effects of all the unhygienic modes of living are undoubtedly greatly to shorten human life. Most other mammals live about five times the growing period. In man, this would mean that the normal life-span should be about a century and a quarter, an age which is now reached only in one case out of millions.
[Sidenote: No Return to Nature]
Yet it would be foolish, even if it were possible, to attempt a complete "return to Nature" by abolishing all the ways and conventions of civilization. This would be throwing away our social inheritance and returning to barbarism. We must go forward, not backward. Just as the cure for the evils of Democracy is said to be more Democracy; so the cure for the evils of civilization must be more civilization. The equilibrium of Nature having been upset by civilization, science, one of the great products of civilization, must now work out the remedies. Just as the waste of the soil which civilization has brought is to be compensated by that great product of civilization, scientific agriculture, so the waste of vital resources is to be compensated by scientific hygiene. The saving of civilization depends on following not those who repudiate it, like Thoreau, but those who make use of it, like Pasteur. What the world needs is not to abolish houses, but to ventilate them; not to go naked, but to devise better clothes, which have all the advantages and none of the disadvantages of those we now wear; not to return to the diet of the anthropoid apes, but to remodel that which we have; not to give up chairs, but to improve the form of chairs; not to abandon reading, but to employ corrective eyeglasses and clear printing; not to abrogate division of labor, but to shorten the hours of labor and provide wholesome recreations and special compensating advantages when needed. When, in future centuries, these come to be reckoned among the great triumphs of civilization, we may expect human life to be longer and perhaps stronger than in any primitive state of Nature, just as where modern scientific forestry has been applied we find longer lived and better trees than ever grew in Nature's jungles.
Section VI—The Fields of Hygiene
[Sidenote: Public Versus Individual Hygiene]
The object of this book is primarily to instruct the individual as to what he can do to maintain his own individual health. But individual hygiene is only one particular branch of hygiene, and it is well for the individual, partly out of public spirit, partly in self-defense, to have some idea of the other important branches, namely, public hygiene, the hygiene practised by the health officer, semipublic hygiene, the hygiene of schools, institutions, and industrial establishments, and race hygiene or eugenics, the most important of all.
All these branches are so closely related that it is impossible to mark any exact dividing-line. But, in a general way, there is a broad distinction between eugenics, which is the hygiene of future generations, and the other two, which relate to the present generation, as also between these two themselves. Thus public hygiene is that which is practised by the government for its citizens, while individual hygiene is that which is practised by the citizens for themselves. Public hygiene consists chiefly in efforts by the government to maintain a wholesome environment in which to live, including good outdoor air—without smoke or foul odors—clean streets, pure water, good sewers, quarantine, and legal regulations concerning houses, schools, prisons, hospitals, and other public institutions, foods sold in markets, and conditions of employment. It is chiefly useful in preventing acute or infectious diseases, such as typhoid fever, scarlet fever, measles, whooping-cough, small-pox, yellow fever, and diphtheria, and in preventing accidents and occupational diseases. Individual hygiene is chiefly useful in preventing the chronic or degenerative diseases, that is, diseases of nutrition and of circulation, such as heart and kidney affections, nervous prostration, insanity.
Public hygiene has made much progress during recent years. In consequence, the number of deaths from the acute or infectious diseases has been greatly diminished. Health officers are beginning to demonstrate the truth of Pasteur's words, "It is within the power of man to rid himself of every parasitic disease."
It is this work which has reduced the general death-rate in civilized countries and sometimes cut it in two, as at Panama. The United States Public Health Service, on invitation of the Peruvian Government, recently cut the death-rate in two in one of Peru's disease-ridden cities.
Individual hygiene, on the other hand, has been greatly neglected, especially in the United States, and, doubtless largely as a consequence, the death-rates from the chronic or degenerative diseases are increasing rapidly. A further consequence is that, in the United States, while the death-rate in the early years of life (when infectious diseases do most of the killing) has been decreasing, the death-rate in later life (when the chronic diseases do most of the killing) is increasing. In Sweden, on the other hand, where individual hygiene is more generally applied, the death-rate is declining at all times of life. (See "Signs of Increase of the Degenerative Diseases," SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES.)
Both public and individual hygiene are being invoked in the fight against tuberculosis, a disease at once infectious and chronic, due to germs and to wrong methods of living.
[Sidenote: Cooperation Necessary]
No matter how thoroughly an individual attempts to care for his own health, he will find it almost impossible to avoid infections, at times, without the organized help of the community in which he lives. A man may do his best to keep his windows open, to breathe deeply, to eat hygienically, to hold his activities within the limits of overfatigue, to screen his house against flies and leave no tin cans about his kitchen door to breed mosquitoes; but if the city in which he lives has no good air for him to breathe, if his city's water supply is contaminated, if neighboring malarial swamps are not drained or covered with oil, if flies alight on the food before it comes to his own house, if the food contains disease germs or dangerous preservatives, or if his next-door neighbor visits him and leaves infection behind him, mere personal defenses will hardly be adequate.
Even in so private a matter as moving the bowels, sometimes the fault lies partly with circumstances beyond the control of the individual. Unfortunately in most of our cities and small towns "Comfort Stations" are rare or unknown, and when they are available they are often in such an insanitary condition as to be a source of danger through the spread of communicable disease. Constipation, as we have seen, is a far more serious matter than it is sometimes thought to be.
It is therefore incumbent on the individual to contribute his share to the hygienic work of society as a whole, in particular to take an active interest in health legislation and administration. A man can not live to the best advantage in a life isolated from all social obligations, any more than could Robinson Crusoe, who was unable to launch his canoe in the ocean, after he had been at great pains to construct it, because he had no one to help him. Each man should take part in the great social hygienic struggle, if he is to reap the highest rewards in his own personal hygienic struggle. And he can do a great deal if he will be patient and persistent. If, for instance, he would always insist on suitable air conditions in public buildings, electric cars, theaters, and churches, and encourage others to do so, it would not take long to make air reform general.
[Sidenote: The Consumer's Duty]
In fact, it is the common public, constituting the consumer, who has it in his power to bring about most of the necessary reforms in public hygiene. When the consumer really values hygienic environment, the producer will supply it. The great improvement in recent years in drinking water was brought about through the appreciation, by the consumer, of the danger from impure water. His complaints produced the change. Hotels found it profitable to provide and advertise pure water. So also the education of the public as to the dangers of a common public drinking cup led to the invention of bubbling fountains and cheap individual cups and to the introduction of these conveniences in railway stations and other public places.
We need to concern ourselves particularly with the character of our public water supply, air supply and food supply, the number of bacteria in milk, the fitness for human consumption of the meat, fowl, fish, and shell-fish sold in the public markets, and the use of adulterants and preservatives in canned and bottled goods.
[Sidenote: Quacks and Quackery]
Quacks and quackery should be vigorously fought by laymen as well as physicians. Quacks live by lying and misleading advertisements. Every one should cooperate to encourage the movement by which newspapers and magazines are giving up quack and immoral advertisements and the advertisements of alcoholic beverages. Especially should we refuse to patronize the quack advertiser. When no one is deceived by him, he will cease to advertise. A more immediate method is to change from the newspaper containing such advertising to one which does not. We should also appeal to the editors to reform their advertising, as many of them are now doing.
Vaccination is now a known preventive against smallpox, typhoid fever, and other germ maladies. Its use should be advocated and the ignorant prejudice against it should be overcome.
[Sidenote: Social Evil]
Last but not least, the individual should cooperate in the great movement against the social evil.
As soon as an individual becomes interested in caring for his own health and for the health of his family, his interest will not cease at individual hygiene; he will wish to improve the efficiency of the public health service by increased appropriations, improved equipment and personnel; and to cooperate with the health officer.
Race hygiene or eugenics, which has been mentioned as the third and most important branch of hygiene, aims to conserve the health of future generations, through the action of those now living. Hygiene (individual and public) teaches us how to create for ourselves healthful conditions of living, but on every side we see evidences of the fact that we cannot entirely control conditions of health through hygiene only. Not all maladies by any means can be attributed to unnatural or unhygienic conditions of living. It is true that if followed out faithfully, the rules of hygiene will enable a man to live out his maximum natural life-span, with the maximum of well-being, and to run no risk of allowing any inherent weakness to be brought out. But some persons, even if they followed what is very nearly the normal code for the human being, would scarcely be able to avoid dire physical and mental fates. In short, we find that besides the hygienic factor in life which we may call environment, there is something else on which the health of the individual depends. This something else is heredity, or "the nature of the breed." Back of all the individual can do by hygiene lies his inheritance. To change this the individual can do nothing, but the parents of the individual can affect his inheritance, and we as parents can affect the inheritance of our offspring.
[Sidenote: Trustees of the Racial Germ-plasm]
First, we can carry through life uninjured the essential germ plasm which has been entrusted to our care. We should never forget that this germ plasm, which we receive and transmit, really belongs, not to us, but to the race; and that we have no right, through alcoholic or other unhygienic practises, to damage it; but that, on the contrary, we are under the most solemn obligation to keep it up to the highest level within our power. We are the trustees of the racial germ plasm that we carry.
[Sidenote: Wise Combinations of Germinal Traits]
Second, we can affect the life of our offspring by our choice in marriage. The basis of the development of desirable or undesirable tendencies or traits lies, of course, in the mating from which the individual springs. On the kind of combinations of germinal traits that are made by marriage depends whether or not undesirable traits shall reappear in the offspring. For instance, a man may inherit a defect from his father because his father married a certain type of woman. Had the father selected a different type, the children might not have inherited the father's defect. The importance of choice in marriage results from certain laws of inheritance, which make it clear that by proper combinations of individuals certain bad traits may be entirely "bred out."
[Sidenote: Choice in Marriage]
As soon as men and women acquire the knowledge that their choices in marriage largely determine whether or not their physical and mental faults and virtues will reappear in children, they feel a sacred responsibility in that act of choosing. A little conscious knowledge of what kind of combinations of traits bring about their reappearance in offspring can not help but modify a person's taste, and thus automatically direct the choice of a mate, which choice will still be, and rightfully, an instinctive one. Upon the wisdom with which choices in marriage are now made depends in large degree the health and efficiency of all the individuals who will constitute society in the coming generations. As the science of eugenics gathers a greater wealth of evidence and subjects it to vigorous analysis, its ability to guide the race to higher levels will become more positive and far-reaching. This can be done without surrendering the general principle of individual freedom. It will not reduce but increase the number of natural love-marriages. The errors of crude and superficial or overenthusiastic eugenists should not obscure the enormous possibilities of the science for the human race. Eugenic knowledge is, therefore, not only a personal advantage but a social necessity.
[Sidenote: Social Progress]
For society as a whole, a thoroughgoing eugenic program must include:
(1) The prevention of reproduction by the markedly unfit, such as the feeble-minded, by sterilization of the most unfit and by segregating the remainder in public institutions.
(2) The enactment of wise marriage laws.
(3) The development of an enlightened sentiment against improper marriages and the putting at the disposal of individuals contemplating marriage the data accumulated and principles worked out by eugenic students.
The Eugenics Record Office of Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N. Y., is now engaged in collecting such material.
For us of the present generation, hygiene is of immediate concern; but if we are to build for future generations, hygiene must give way to, or grow into, eugenics. The accomplishment of a true eugenic program will be the crowning work of the health movement and the grandest service of science to the human race. (For further comments on this subject see "Eugenics" in SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES.)
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON SPECIAL SUBJECTS
NOTES ON FOOD
[Sidenote: Balancing the Diet]
It will help to balance the ration and to avoid an excess of protein and also to avoid a deficiency of either fat or carbohydrate, if we take a bird's-eye view of the various common foods in respect to the protein, fat and carbohydrate they contain. For this purpose the following table has been constructed.
[Sidenote: Common Foods Classified]
COMMON FOODS CLASSIFIED -+ -+ -+ Poor in Rich in Very rich in Fat. Fat. Fat. -+ -+ -+ Very high in White of Eggs Protein Cod Fish Lean Beef Chicken Veal -+ -+ -+ High in Shell-fish Most Fish Protein Skim Milk Most Meats Lentils Most Fowl Peas Whole Egg Beans Cheese -+ -+ -+ Moderate or Most Vegetables Peanuts Fat Meats Deficient in Bread Milk Yolk of Eggs Protein Potatoes Cream Soups Most Nuts Fruits Most Pies Cream Sugar Doughnuts Butter -+ -+ -+
The foods given in the uppermost compartment are those "very high" in protein (above 40 per cent. of their total calories, or food value, being protein). Those in the two compartments next below are merely "high" in protein (20 to 40 per cent.), while the lowest three compartments contain those "moderate or deficient" in protein (zero to 20 per cent.).
The compartment farthest to the right contains a list of those foods "very rich in fat." The two compartments next to the left contain those "rich in fat," and the three compartments to the extreme left contain those "poor in fat."
With reference to carbohydrates (starch or sugar), we can say that the foods in the lower left compartment are very rich in carbohydrate. Those in the two neighboring compartments (the one beginning "shell-fish" and the one beginning "peanuts") are moderate, and those in the remaining compartments are those poorest in carbohydrate.
Thus, practically, the nearer the name of any food is to the upper corner of this triangular table, the more protein that food contains; the nearer it is to the right hand corner, the more fat; and the nearer to the remaining corner (lower left), the more carbohydrate (starch and sugar).
[Sidenote: Ideal Food Proportions]
An ideal proportion of the three food elements is to be had only in the middle compartment of the lowest row. But it is by no means necessary or advisable to confine one's diet to the few foods which happen to fall in that compartment, provided foods chosen from other compartments balance each other. Thus, fruit and nuts balance each other, the one being at the left and the other at the right of the ideal compartment. In the same way, potatoes and cream balance each other, as do bread and butter. Instinctively these combinations have been chosen, especially bread and butter. This combination is, however, slightly too low in protein, and a better balance is obtained by adding a little from the compartment vertically above the ideal. In this way we obtain the familiar meat-, egg-, or cheese-sandwich, constituting of itself a fairly well-balanced meal.
In short, in order to maintain a diet correct as to protein, it is only necessary to make our main choices from the lowest row and, in case the foods so chosen are near the bottom, to supplement these by a moderate use from the row above and a still more sparing use of those in the top compartment.
The following more detailed and specific table of food values will prove helpful to those who desire intelligently to balance their diet or to provide balanced menus for their families. A very little attention to this subject will enable one to acquire sufficient knowledge of dietetic needs to successfully govern the diet in a general way without weighing or measuring the food. In the following table the number of calories available in ordinary food portions is stated. Such a table should not, of course, be memorized, but an occasional reference to it will enable one soon to acquire a working knowledge of the food values of the main articles in the dietary.
TABLE OF FOOD VALUES
THE WEIGHT (IN GRAMS, OUNCES AND ROUGH MEASURE) OF A PORTION CONTAINING 100 CALORIES OF EACH FOOD AND THE NUMBER OF CALORIES IN THE 100 IN THE FORM OF PROTEIN, FAT AND CARBOHYDRATE.[A] -+ + -+ -+ "Portion" Wgt. of 100 Percent of Name of Food Containing Calories 100 Calories + -+ -+ -+ + - Roughly Pro- Fat Carbo- Described Gram Ounce tein hydrate - VEGETABLES -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Artichokes, as purchased, average, canned 430 15. 14 0 86 *Asparagus, as purchased, average, canned 540 19. 33 5 62 *Asparagus, as purchased, average, cooked 206 7.19 18 63 19 *Beans, baked, canned Small side dish 75 2.66 21 18 61 *Beans, Lima, canned Large side dish 126 4.44 21 4 75 *Beans, string, cooked Five servings 480 16.66 15 48 37 *Beets, edible portion, cooked Three servings 245 8.7 2 23 75 *Cabbage, edible portion 310 17. 20 8 72 *Carrots, edible portion, average, fresh 215 7.6 10 8 82 Carrots, cooked Two servings 164 5.81 10 34 56 *Cauliflower, as purchased, average 312 11. 23 15 62 *Celery, edible portion, average 540 19. 24 5 71 Corn, sweet, cooked One side dish 99 3.5 13 10 77 *Cucumbers, edible portion, average 565 20. 18 10 72 *Egg plant, edible portion, average 350 12. 17 10 73 Lentils, cooked 89 3.15 27 1 72 *Lettuce, edible portion, average 505 18. 25 14 61 *Mushrooms, as purchased, average 215 7.6 31 8 61 *Onions, fresh, edible portion, average 200 7.1 13 5 82 *Onions, cooked Two large servings 240 8.4 12 40 48 *Parsnips, edible portion, One and a half average servings 152 5.3 10 7 83 Parsnips, cooked 163 5.74 10 34 56 *Peas, green, canned Two servings 178 6.3 25 3 72 *Peas, green, cooked One serving 85 3. 23 27 50 Potatoes, baked One good sized 86 3.05 11 1 88 *Potatoes, boiled One large sized 102 3.62 11 1 88 *Potatoes, mashed (creamed) One serving 89 3.14 10 25 65 *Potatoes, steamed One serving 101 3.57 11 1 88 *Potatoes, chips One-half serving 17 .6 4 63 33 *Potatoes, sweet, cooked Half of average potato 49 1.7 6 9 85 *Pumpkins, edible portion, average 380 13. 15 4 81 Radishes, as purchased 480 17. 18 3 79 Rhubarb, edible portion, average 430 15. 10 27 63 *Spinach, cooked, as Two ordinary purchased servings 174 6.1 15 66 19 *Squash, edible portion, average 210 7.4 12 10 78 *Succotash, canned, as Ordinary serving purchased, average 100 3.5 15 9 76 *Tomatoes, fresh, as Four average purchased, average tomatoes 430 15. 15 16 69 *Tomatoes, canned 431 15.2 21 7 72 *Turnips, edible portion, Two large average servings 246 8.7 13 4 83 Vegetable oysters 273 9.62 10 51 39 - FRUITS (FRESH OR COOKED) -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Apples, as purchased Two apples 206 7.3 3 7 90 Apples, baked 94 3.3 2 5 93 Apples, sauce Ordinary serving 111 3.9 2 5 93 *Apricots, edible portion, average 168 5.92 8 0 92 Apricots, cooked Large serving 131 4.61 6 0 94 *Bananas, yellow, edible portion, average One large 100 3.5 5 5 90 *Blackberries, as purchased, average 170 5.9 9 16 75 Blueberries 128 4.6 3 8 89 *Blueberries, canned, as purchased 165 5.8 4 9 87 Cantaloupe Half ordinary serving 243 8.6 6 0 94 *Cherries, edible portion, average 124 4.4 5 10 85 *Cranberries, as purchased, average 210 7.5 3 12 85 *Grapes, as purchased, average 136 4.8 5 15 80 Grape fruit 215 7.57 7 4 89 Grape juice Small glass 120 4.2 0 0 100 Gooseberries 261 9.2 5 0 95 *Lemons 215 7.57 9 14 77 Lemon juice 246 8.77 0 0 100 Nectarines 147 5.18 4 0 96 Olives, ripe About seven olives 37 1.31 2 91 7 *Oranges, as purchased, average One very large 270 9.4 6 3 91 Oranges, juice Large glass 188 6.62 0 0 100 *Peaches, as purchased, average Three ordinary 290 10. 7 2 91 Peaches, sauce Ordinary serving 136 4.78 4 2 94 Peaches, juice Ordinary glass 136 4.80 0 0 100 *Pears One large pear 173 5.40 4 7 89 Pears, sauce 113 3.98 3 4 93 *Pineapples, edible portion, average 226 8. 4 6 90 Raspberries, black 146 5.18 10 14 76 Raspberries, red 178 6.29 8 0 92 *Strawberries, as purchased, average Two servings 260 9.1 10 15 75 *Watermelon, as purchased, average 760 27. 6 6 88 - COOKED MEATS -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - +Beef, round, boiled (fat), 1099+ Small serving 36 1.3 40 60 00 +Beef, round, boiled (lean), 1206+ Large serving 62 2.2 90 10 00 +Beef, round, boiled (med.), 1188+ Small serving 44 1.6 60 40 00 +Beef, 5th right rib, roasted, 1538+ Half serving 18.5 .65 12 88 00 +Beef, 5th right rib, roasted, 1616+ Small serving 32 1.2 25 75 00 +Beef, 5th right rib, Very small roasted, 1615+ serving 25 .88 18 82 00 +Beef, ribs, boiled, 1169+ Small serving 30 1.1 27 73 00 +Beef, ribs, boiled, 1170+ Very small serving 25 .87 21 79 00 *Calves foot jelly, as purchased 112 4. 19 00 81 *Chicken, as purchased, canned One thin slice 27 .96 23 77 00 *Lamb chops, boiled, edible portion, average One small chop 27 .96 24 76 00 *Lamb, leg, roast Ordinary serving 50 1.8 40 60 00 +Mutton, leg, boiled, 1184+ Large serving 34 1.2 35 65 00 +Pork, ham, boiled (fat), 1174+ Small serving 20.5 .73 14 86 00 +Pork, ham, boiled, 1192+ Ordinary serving 32.5 1.1 28 72 00 +Pork, ham, roasted (fat), 1484+ Small serving 27 .96 19 81 00 +Pork, ham, roasted (lean), 1511+ Small serving 34 1.2 33 67 00 *Turkey, as purchased, canned Small serving 28 .99 23 77 00 +Veal, leg, boiled, 1182+ Large serving 67.5 2.4 73 27 00 - CAKES, PASTRY, PUDDING AND DESSERTS -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Cake, chocolate layer, as Half ordinary purchased square piece 28 .98 7 22 71 *Cake, gingerbread, as Half ordinary purchased square piece 27 .96 6 23 71 *Cake, sponge, as purchased Small piece 25 .89 7 25 68 Custard, caramel 71 2.51 19 10 71 Custard, milk Ordinary cup 122 4.29 26 56 18 Custard, tapioca Two-thirds ordinary 69.5 2.45 9 12 79 *Doughnuts, as purchased Half a doughnut 23 .8 6 45 49 *Lady fingers, as purchased 27 .95 10 12 78 *Macaroons, as purchased 23 .82 6 33 61 Pie, apple, as purchased One-third ordinary piece 38 1.3 5 32 63 *Pie, cream, as purchased One-fourth ordinary piece 30 1.1 5 32 63 *Pie, custard, as purchased One-third ordinary piece 55 1.9 9 32 59 *Pie, lemon, as purchased One-third ordinary piece 38 1.35 6 36 58 *Pie, mince, as purchased One-fourth ordinary piece 35 1.2 8 38 54 *Pie, squash, as purchased One-third ordinary piece 55 1.9 10 42 48 Pudding, apple sago 81 3.02 6 3 91 Pudding, brown betty Half ordinary serving 56.6 2. 7 12 81 Pudding, cream rice Very small serving 75 2.65 8 13 79 Pudding, Indian meal Half ordinary serving 56.6 2. 12 25 63 Pudding, apple tapioca Small serving 79 2.8 1 1 98 Tapioca, cooked Ordinary serving 108 3.85 1 1 98 - FRUITS (DRIED) -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Apples, as purchased, average 34 1.2 3 7 90 Apricots, as purchased, average 35 1.24 7 3 90 *Dates, edible portion, average Three large 28 .99 2 7 91 *Dates, as purchased 31 1.1 2 7 91 *Figs, edible portion, average One large 31 1.1 5 0 95 *Prunes, edible portion, average Three large 32 1.14 3 0 97 *Prunes, as purchased 38 1.35 3 0 97 *Raisins, edible portion, average 28 1. 3 9 88 *Raisins, as purchased 31 1.1 3 9 88 - CEREALS -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Bread, brown, as purchased, Ordinary thick average slice 43 1.5 9 7 84 *Bread, corn (johnnycake) as purchased, average Small square 38 1.3 12 10 72 *Bread, white, home made, as Ordinary thick purchased slice 38 1.3 13 6 81 Corn flakes, toasted Ordinary cereal dishful 27 .97 11 1 88 *Corn meal, granular, average 27 .96 10 5 85 *Corn meal, unbolted, edible portion, average 26 .92 9 11 80 *Crackers, graham, as purchased Two crackers 23 .82 9 20 71 *Crackers, oatmeal, as purchased Two crackers 23 .81 11 24 65 *Hominy, cooked Large serving 120 4.2 11 2 87 *Macaroni, average 27 .96 16 2 83 *Macaroni, average, cooked Ordinary serving 110 3.85 14 15 71 *Oatmeal, average, boiled One and a half serving 159 5.6 18 7 75 *Popcorn, average 24 .86 11 11 78 *Rice, uncooked 28 .98 9 1 90 *Rice, boiled, average Ordinary cereal dish 87 3.1 10 1 89 *Rice, flakes Ordinary cereal dish 27 .94 8 1 91 *Rolls, Vienna, as purchased, average One large roll 35 1.2 12 7 81 *Shredded wheat One biscuit 27 .94 13 4.5 82.5 *Spaghetti, average 28 .97 12 1 87 *Wheat flour, entire wheat average 27 .96 15 5 80 *Wheat flour, graham, average 27 .96 15 5 80 *Wheat flour, patent roller process, family and straight grade spring wheat, average 27 .97 12 3 85 *Zwieback Size of thick slice bread 23 .81 9 21 70 - DAIRY PRODUCTS -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Butter, as purchased Ordinary pat or ball 12.5 .44 .5 99.5 00 *Buttermilk, as purchased One and a half glass 275 9.7 34 12 54 *Cheese, American, pale, as One and a half purchased cubic in 22 .77 25 73 2 *Cheese, cottage, as purchased Four cubic in 89 3.12 76 8 16 *Cheese, full cream, as One and a half purchased cubic in. 23 .82 25 73 2 *Cheese, Neufchatel, as One and a half purchased cubic in. 29.5 1.05 22 76 2 *Cheese, Swiss, as One and a half purchased cubic in. 23 .8 25 74 1 *Cheese, pineapple, as One and a half purchased cubic in. 20 .72 25 73 2 *Cream One quarter ordinary glass 49 1.7 5 86 9 Kumyss 188 6.7 21 37 42 *Milk, condensed, sweetened, as purch. 30 1.06 10 23 67 *Milk, condensed, unsweetened (evap. cream) as purchased 59 2.05 24 50 26 *Milk, skimmed, as One and a half purchased glasses 255 9.4 37 7 56 *Milk, whole, as purchased Small glass 140 4.9 19 52 29 Whey, as purchased Two glasses 360 13 15 10 75 - SWEETS AND PICKLES -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Catsup, tomato, as purchased, average 170 6. 10 3 87 *Honey, as purchased 4 teaspoonfuls 30 1.05 1 0 99 *Marmalade (orange peel) 28.3 1. .5 2.5 97 *Molasses, cane 35 1.2 .5 0 99.5 *Olives, green, edible portion Seven olives 32 1.1 1 84 15 *Olives, ripe, edible portion Seven olives 38 1.3 2 91 7 *Pickles, mixed, as purchased 415 14.6 18 15 67 *Sugar, granulated 3 teaspoonfuls or one and a half lumps 24 .86 0 0 100 *Sugar, maple 4 teaspoonfuls 29 1.03 0 0 100 *Sirup, maple 4 teaspoonfuls 35 1.2 0 0 100 - NUTS -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Almonds, edible portion, average About eight 15 .53 13 77 10 *Beechnuts 14.8 .52 13 79 8 *Brazil nuts, edible Three ordinary portion size 14 .49 10 86 4 *Butternuts 14 .50 16 82 2 *Cocoanuts 16 .57 4 77 19 *Chestnuts, fresh, edible portion, average 40 1.4 10 20 70 *Filberts, edible portion, average Ten nuts 14 .48 9 84 7 *Hickory nuts 13 .47 9 85 6 *Peanuts, edible portion, average Thirteen double 18 .62 20 63 17 *Pecans, polished, edible portion About eight 13 .46 6 87 7 *Pine nuts (pignolias), edible portion About eighty 16 .56 22 74 4 *Walnuts, California, edible portion About six 14 .48 10 83 7 - MISCELLANEOUS -+ + -+ -+ -+ + - *Eggs, hen's, boiled One large egg 59 2.1 32 68 00 *Eggs, hen's whites 181 6.4 100 0 00 *Eggs, hen's, yolks Two yolks 27 .94 17 83 00 *Omelet 94 3.3 34 60 6 *Soup, beef, as purchased, average 380 13. 69 14 17 *Soup, bean, as purchased, average Very large plate 150 5.4 20 20 60 *Soup, cream of celery, as purch., average Two plates 180 6.3 16 47 37 *Consomme, as purchased 830 29. 85 00 15 *Clam chowder, as purchased Two plates 230 8.25 17 18 65 -+ + -+ -+ -+ + -
[A] Abstracted from A Graphic Method of Practical Dietetics, Irving Fisher, Journal of A. M. A., Vol. xlviii, pp. 1316-1324.
[*] Chemical Composition of American Food Materials. Atwater and Bryant. U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin, No. 28.
[+] Experiments on Losses in Cooking Meats. (1900103, Grindley, U. S. Department of Agriculture Bulletin, No. 141.)
[+] Laboratory number of specimen, as per Experiments on Losses in Cooking Meat.
[Sidenote: Cost of Ready to Serve Foods]
The following table, adapted from one compiled by Gephart and Lusk ("Analysis and Cost of Ready to Serve Foods"), shows in convenient form the relative energy values and cost of the more commonly used articles of food.
A brief glance at this table will show how easily one might slowly starve on very expensive food, and yet how easily the energy food needed can be secured at a very low cost.
It would, of course, be a great mistake to regulate the diet solely with regard to fuel value. Digestibility, as well as protein, mineral and vitamin requirements, must also be considered. Nevertheless, the main requirement is for fuel, and this, as the table shows, can be secured at a surprizingly low cost.
=========================================================================== No. of Cost of One Name of Food. Calories in Order "Quick One Order.[B] Lunch" Restaurant. - - - Napoleon 418.6 $0.05 Crullers 416.6 .05 Cabinet pudding and vanilla sauce 416.6 .05 Cocoanut pie 357 .05 CD Roast beef sandwich with roll 357 .05 Bath buns 357 .05 Bread custard pudding 357 .05 Pineapple pie 357 .05 Corn muffins 357 .05 Apple pie 357 .05 New England pudding with vanilla sauce 312.5 .05 Chocolate spiced cakes. 312.5 .05 Walnut layer cake with marshmallow icing 312.5 .05 Milk crackers 312.5 .05 Bread pudding with vanilla sauce 312.5 .05 Pumpkin pie 312.5 .05 D Lamb croquettes and mashed potatoes 833.3 .15 Coffee cake 277.7 .05 Rhubarb pie 277.7 .05 D German meat cakes and French fried potatoes 833.3 .15 Old-fashioned molasses cake 277.7 .05 Lemon pie 277.7 .05 CD Vienna roast with French fried potatoes 833.3 .15 Butter cakes 277.7 .05 Minced ham sandwich 277.7 .05 Pork and Boston beans 833.3 .15 Cornmeal cakes with maple cane sirup 500 .10 D Ham croquettes 500 .10 Cold rice pudding 277.7 .05 Ham sandwich with roll 250 .05 Banana layer cake 250 .05 CD Creamed chipped beef on toast 833.3 .15 Cocoa 250 .05 CD Roast beef cutlet with tomato sauce 833.3 .15 CD German meat cakes with lyonnaise potatoes 833.3 .15 CD Swiss cheese sandwich 250 .05 C Boston baked beans 500 .10 D Vienna roast, spaghetti and potatoes 625 .15 Chocolate cornstarch with cream 227.2 .05 Wheat cakes with maple cane sirup 500 .10 Milk crackers and milk 500 .10 CD American cheese sandwich 227.2 .05 C New York baked beans 500 .10 Hot corn bread 416.6 .10 CD Country sausage 227.2 .05 Indian pudding with maple sauce 227.2 .05 CD Minced tongue sandwich with tea biscuits 227.2 .05 Cream roll 227.2 .05 D Beef cakes with brown gravy and macaroni 625 .15 C New York beans, on the side 227.2 .05 Graham crackers 227.2 .05 D Broiled ham 833.3 .20 D Roast beef hash, browned 625 .15 Oyster pie 625 .15 CD Minced chicken sandwich 227.2 .05 Apple tapioca pudding 227.2 .05 Potato salad 416.6 .10 Chocolate layer cake 208.3 .05 CD Breaded veal cutlet and tomato sauce 833.3 .20 Egg plant fried in butter 625 .15 Buckwheat cakes with maple cane sirup 417.6 .10 D Roast beef croquettes with macaroni 625 .15 D Fried bacon with French fried potatoes 833.3 .20 D Sardine sandwich 208.3 .05 CD Minced ham sandwich with olives 208.3 .05 CD Ham and New York Beans 625 .15 Vanilla cornstarch with cream 208.3 .05 CD Roast beef cutlet and mashed potatoes 625 .15 D Lamb cutlet and mashed potatoes 625 .15 Cocoanut cake 208.3 .05 Cream cheese walnut sandwich 208.3 .05 C New York baked beans with tomato sauce 416.6 .10 D Ham and Boston beans 625 .15 D Liver and onions with French fried potatoes 833.3 .20 CD Beef stew 625 .15 CD Pork and New York beans 625 .15 CD Ham sandwich 192.3 .05 Rice croquette with bacon 625 .15 Baked apple with cream 416.6 .10 D Frankfurters and potato salad 625 .15 Baked beans with macaroni 625 .15 Cup of coffee (containing cream and sugar) 192.3 .05 D Mince pie 417.6 .10 CD Lamb stew 625 .15 CD Broiled salt mackerel with mashed potatoes 833.3 .20 Cherry pie 357 .10 Pound cake 357 .10 D Chicken cutlet and mashed potatoes 625 .20 CD Shredded wheat and milk 357 .10 Cream tapioca pudding 192.3 .05 Soda crackers and milk 357 .10 Strawberry pie 357 .10 Chocolate eclair 192.3 .05 CD Baked lamb pie (individual) 625 .15 CD Corned beef sandwich 192.3 .05 D Broiled bacon 833.3 .20 Rice cakes with maple cane sirup 625 .15 D Cold ham 500 .15 D Roast beef croquettes and spaghetti 500 .15 CD Chipped beef and scrambled egg 833.3 .20 D Minced ham with scrambled eggs 833.3 .20 Peach pie 357 .10 D Baked macaroni and cheese 357 .10 Huckleberry pie 357 .10 French toast with maple cane sirup. 625 .15 CD Corned beef and New York beans 500 .15 Blackberry pie 357 .10 CD Veal pot pie with dumplings 500 .15 CD Creamed codfish on toast 500 .15 D Vienna roast with stewed tomatoes 500 .15 CD Tomato omelet 625 .20 D Small oyster fry 625 .20 Hot rice with cream 500 .15 D Plain oyster fry with bacon 625 .20 CD Hamburger steak 625 .20 D Corned beef hash, browned in pan 500 .15 D Corned beef hash, steamed 500 .15 Cream 500 .15 CD Chicken wings on toast 625 .20 D Country sausage and French fried potatoes 500 .15 CD Corned beef and Boston beans 500 .15 CD Two fried eggs 500 .15 CA Ham omelet 625 .20 CD Plain omelet 500 .15 CA Fried liver and mashed potatoes 500 .15 CD Creamed chipped beef 500 .15 D Large oyster fry 833.3 .25 Apple fritters with fruit sauce 312.5 .10 D Fish cakes with tomato sauce 500 .15 French fried potatoes, extra order 312.5 .10 Chocolate cornstarch with whipped cream 156.25 .05 Shredded wheat and cream 416.6 .15 D Chicken croquette and French fried potatoes 500 .15 CD Corned beef hash with poached egg 625 .20 CD Ham and eggs 833.3 .25 D Ham and potato salad 625 .20 CD Baked shad and dressing 625 .20 CD Hamburger steak with Spanish sauce 625 .20 Charlotte russe 156.25 .05 CD Creamed eggs on toast 625 .20 D Bacon and eggs 833.3 .25 Strawberry fruit jelly with whipped cream 156.25 .05 CD Buckwheat cakes with country sausage 625 .20 D Oyster sandwich 312.5 .10 C Chicken giblets on toast 625 .20 Hot rice with butter 312.5 .10 Pimento olive cheese sandwich 156.25 .05 CD Liver and bacon with lyonnaise potatoes 833.3 .25 CD Corned beef hash, browned, with two poached eggs 833.3 .25 Buttered toast 312.5 .10 CD Liver and bacon 833.3 .25 CD Chicken hash 416.6 .15 D Two scrambled eggs 416.6 .15 CD Milk 277.7 .10 Apple sauce with whipped cream 147.05 .05 Hot rice with poached egg 416.6 .15 CD Corned beef with potato salad 416.6 .15 Fish cakes with poached egg 625 .20 CD Cold roast beef 416.6 .15 D Hot rice with milk 277.7 .10 CD Small steak 833.3 .30 Baked apple 138.8 .05 Baked apple with ice cream 277.7 .10 D Two lamb chops 833.3 .30 D Chicken salad sandwich 277.7 .10 CD Corned beef hash, steamed, with poached egg 500 .20 C Boston beans on side 131.57 .05 Tomato sandwich 131.57 .05 D Lamb chops, breaded, with mashed potatoes 500 .20 CD Maple flakes with milk 277.7 .10 CD Corned beef 416.6 .15 CD Bulgarzoon 131.57 .05 D Spanish omelet with French fried potatoes 625 .25 Baked apple custard with whipped cream 250 .10 Boiled rice, side order 131.57 .05 CD Fried egg sandwich 250 .10 CD Onion omelet 500 .20 CD Baked weak fish with dressing 500 .20 CD Sirloin steak 1250 .50 Fresh cooked oatmeal with cream 416.6 .15 CD Fish cakes with macaroni 500 .20 Sliced bananas with cream 250 .10 C Macaroni, side order 125 .05 CD Roast sirloin of beef and mashed potatoes 500 .20 D Tomato omelet with potatoes 625 .25 CD Two boiled eggs 357 .15 CD Fish cakes with spaghetti 500 .20 CD Macaroni omelet and tomato sauce 625 .25 CD Small steak with onions 833.3 .35 CD Fish cake sandwich 227.2 .10 CD Egg salad 500 .20 CD Parsley omelet 500 .20 Green split pea soup 227.2 .10 Vanilla ice cream 227.2 .10 CD Tenderloin steak with onions 1250 .55 CD Cornflakes and milk 227.2 .10 Strawberry tart 227.2 .10 CD Tuna fish salad 500 .25 CD Sirloin steak with onions 1250 .55 Pineapple fruit jelly with whipped cream 108.69 .05 CD Cup custard 227.2 .10 CD Roast beef with potato salad 500 .25 CD Tenderloin steak 1250 .60 D Milk toast 312.5 .15 Strawberry cornstarch with whipped cream 104.16 .05 Strawberry ice cream 208.3 .10 CD Clam chowder 416.6 .20 C Chicken soup 312.5 .15 CD Crab meat salad 416.6 .20 Vegetable soup 192.3 .10 Stewed rhubarb 92.59 .05 CD Creamed chicken on toast 357 .20 Strawberries with cream 277.7 .15 Strawberry short cake 277.7 .15 CD Chicken omelet 416.6 .20 CD Deviled crab 277.7 .20 Sliced bananas 89.28 .05 CD Spaghetti and cheese 178.57 .10 CD Fried ham 416.6 .25 D Minced chicken sandwich with lettuce 166.66 .10 C Bean soup with croutons 166.66 .10 CD Hot roast beef sandwich 250 .15 CD Club sandwich 416.6 .25 CD Sliced chicken sandwich 156.25 .10 CD Poached eggs on toast 500 .20 Strawberries with ice cream 192.3 .15 C Cream of wheat 125 .10 Blackberries and cream 113.63 .10 Stewed corn 52.08 .05 C Creamed asparagus on toast 192.3 .20 Watermelon 125 .15 C Tomato soup with rice 73.52 .10 Sliced pineapple 35.21 .05 Grape Fruit 78.12 .15 CD Raw oysters 55.55 .15 Sliced tomatoes with lettuce 50 .15 C Sliced tomatoes 30.48 .10 Tomatoes and lettuce with dressing 53.19 .20 Cantaloupe 36.23 .15 Champagne[E] 357 1.00 -
[B] These values cover the whole portion as served, including bread and butter.
[C] Contains 15 per cent. or over of heat in protein.
[D] Contains the protein of meat, milk, eggs or cheese.
[E] Not purchased in the restaurant.
[Sidenote: The Minimal Cost of Food]
Professor Graham Lusk has very kindly contributed the following comments and additional table, derived from this material:
"The above are analyses of 350 different samples of foods purchased over the counters of a company which maintains a chain of restaurants in New York City, and obtained without knowledge on the part of these restaurants that the analyses were contemplated.
"One may reliably assume that for the man of ordinary size, who lives without doing any special muscular exercise, the fuel requirement of the body each day amounts to 2,500 calories of heat. Translated into common terms, this is the quantity of heat which would be required to raise about 25 quarts of water from the freezing to the boiling point. Miss Cauble, a special investigator of the Association for the Improvement of the Condition of the Poor, kindly estimated the cost at wholesale prices of the ingredients of different portions sold in the restaurants. These are given in Table 9 beginning on page 64 of the pamphlet from which the above table was derived. The data enable one to construct a new table which gives the estimated wholesale cost of 2,500 calories in the various familiar forms of food sold in the restaurant. This represents the minimum cost of fuel for the support of an adult during twenty-four hours without taking into consideration labor, fuel or rent which, in the case of the restaurant, must be included in the cost of the foods when they are eaten. It represents the minimal cost of food in the home.
"It appears from the table given below that the cost of 2,500 calories in the wholesale market varies from $.04 in the case of boiled rice to $.61 for shad. About half of the dishes can be obtained at wholesale at a price less than $.25 for 2,500 calories, or less than a cent per hundred calories, a cost which is the standard striven for in school lunches. The table is given on the next page.
ESTIMATED WHOLESALE COST OF THE UNCOOKED INGREDIENTS OF 2500 CALORIES CONTAINED IN STANDARD FOODS ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR INCREASING COST. Apple tapioca pudding $.04 Rice, boiled (side order) .04 Bath buns .06 Pie, apple .07 Pie, rhubarb .08 Apple, baked .09 Pie, strawberry .09 Cocoa .09 Crullers .10 *Fish cakes with tomato sauce .13 Muffins, corn .13 *Lamb croquette and mashed potatoes .14 *Beans, Boston baked .15 *Beef, corned .15 Pie, lemon .15 Chicken wings on toast .16 Napoleon .16 *Salad, potato .16 Toast, buttered .16 Cream roll .17 *Beef, creamed, chipped, on toast .18 Cakes, butter .19 *Roast, Vienna, and spaghetti and potatoes .19 Pudding, tapioca, creamed .20 Sandwich, oyster .20 *Veal cutlet, breaded and tomato sauce .20 *Beef, corned, hash browned in pan .21 *Liver and bacon .21 *Roast, Vienna, with French fried potatoes .21 *Stew, lamb .21 *Beans, New York, baked .22 Cakes, buckwheat, with maple cane sirup .22 Coffee, cup of (contained cream and sugar) .22 Pudding, bread, with vanilla sauce .24 *Beef, corned, hashed, steamed .25 Oatmeal, fresh cooked, with cream .25 *Stew, beef .25 Pie, oyster .26 Potatoes, French fried, extra order .26 *Sandwich, ham .26 *Beef, creamed, chipped .27 *Sandwich, corned beef .27 *Beef, corned, hashed, steamed, with poached egg .28 *Mackerel, broiled salt, with mashed potatoes .28 Milk .29 Pudding, rice, cold .29 *Rice, hot, with poached egg .29 Soup, bean, with croutons .29 *Sandwich, minced chicken .30 Cornstarch, chocolate, with cream .31 Ice cream, strawberry .31 *Omelet, ham .32 Sandwich, cream cheese walnut .32 *Omelet, plain .33 Cornstarch, vanilla, with cream .34 *Omelet, onion .34 *Oyster fry, small .34 *Eggs, fried (2) .35 *Sandwich, fried egg .35 Sausage, country .35 *Chicken croquette and French fried potatoes .36 *Eggs, creamed, on toast .36 *Omelet, parsley .37 *Omelet, Spanish, with French fried potatoes .37 *Sandwich, tomato .39 *Eggs, scrambled (2) .40 *Lamb chops (2) .40 Sandwich, club .40 *Salad, tuna fish .41 Custard .43 *Sandwich, chicken, sliced .43 *Steak, tenderloin .43 *Ham, fried .44 *Sandwich, roast beef, hot .44 Strawberries with cream .44 Toast, milk .45 *Eggs, boiled (2) .47 *Omelet, chicken .47 *Sandwich, minced chicken with lettuce .49 *Eggs, poached on toast (2) .59 *Shad, baked, and dressing .61
[*] These orders contained bread and butter, which are figured in the food values. Of the orders containing bread the fractional part of the nutritional energy of the order from this source averaged 43.7 per cent. of the total.
"Contemplation of these results may be made after the housekeeper has carefully gone through the monthly hills for food, divided the cost of the total food by the number of days in the month and then divided this figure by the number of people in the family, counting children between five and fifteen years of age at two-thirds of an adult.
"It would be interesting to know whether the cost of food for the adult as determined in this fashion was $.25, $.50 or $1.00 per day. Wherever the higher values are reached it is certain that extravagant profits are paid to middlemen or great waste exists in the kitchen.
"The theme might still further be elaborated, but the essential data for those interested in food economics can be obtained from the table itself. Wholesale prices are used for the reason that retail prices are subject to great variation. The fluctuation of retail prices does not make it feasible to give their equivalents for the wholesale list, but the relationship can be judged by noting the equivalents for the extremes. In this table, for example, the retail price of 2500 calories of rice would be about 13 cents as against 4 cents wholesale, and for shad about $1.50, retail as against 61 cents wholesale."
CALORIES OF FOOD CONSUMED DAILY[F]
[F] Skandinavisches Archiv fuer Physiologie XXXI. Band. 1., 2 u. 3. Heft, Leipzig, Verlag Von Veit & Comp., 1914.
The following table is derived from data produced by Becker and Hamalainen of the University of Helsingfors, Finland, from actual experiment with individuals alternately resting and working at their respective trades while in the "respiration calorimeter."
- - - - During During Total Rest Work Calories - + per Day Occupation Age Height Wgt. Calories Calories Calories (8 Hrs. Ft.-Ins. Lbs. per Hour per Hour per Hour Work. per Lb. 16 Hrs. of Body Rest) Weight + - - - MEN - - - Shoemaker 56 5-0 145 73 .50 172 2544 Shoemaker 30 5-8 143 87 .60 171 2760 Tailor 39 5-5 141 72 .50 124 2144 Tailor 46 5-101/2 161 102 .63 135 2712 Bookbinder 19 6-0 150 87 .58 164 2704 Bookbinder 23 5-41/2 143 85 .59 163 2664 Metalworker 34 5-4 139 81 .58 216 3024 Metalworker 27 5-5 130 99 .76 219 3336 Painter 25 5-11 154 104 .67 231 3512 Painter 27 5-8 147 111 .79 230 3616 Joiner 42 5-7 154 81 .50 204 2928 Joiner 24 5-51/2 141 85 .60 244 3312 Stone-worker 27 5-11 156 90 .57 408 4704 Stone-worker 22 5-8 141 85 .60 366 4288 Sawyer 42 5-5 167 86 .50 501 5384 Sawyer 43 5-5 143 84 .59 451 4952 - - - WOMEN - - - Hand-sewer 53 5-3 139 75 .54 83 1864 Hand-sewer 35 5-6 143 64 .45 88 1728 Machine-sewer 53 5-3 139 75 .54 103 2024 Machine-sewer 19 5-3 110 64 .58 119 1976 Wash-woman 43 5-3 125 75 .60 285 3480 Wash-woman 19 5-3 110 64 .58 186 2512 Waitress 43 5-3 125 75 .60 228 3024 Waitress 19 5-3 110 64 .58 143 2168 Bookbinder 22 5-4 105 70 .65 98 1904 Bookbinder 22 5-3 112 61 .54 127 1992 - - -
For example, for sawyers (an active occupation), the heat production and consequent requirement in calories worked out as follows:
During rest 84 calories x 16 h. 1344 During work 451 calories x 8 h. 3608 —— Total calories 4952
The tailor (sedentary occupation) showed the following heat production and calorific requirement:
72 calories x 16 h. 1152 124 calories x 8 h. 992 —— Total calories 2144
These figures show the wide variation in food requirements according to age, weight and occupation.
[Sidenote: Basal Metabolism]
Francis G. Benedict and his co-workers at the Nutrition Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Prof. Graham Lusk of Cornell University, have also made a large number of experiments to ascertain what is termed the basal metabolism or heat production of the body at perfect rest, and also that under varying degrees of activity. The results are closely in agreement with the above.
Benedict has lately produced evidence to show that the basal metabolism, or heat production, at rest is not governed entirely by such factors as body weight and body surface, but by the amount and activity of the active protoplasmic cells of the body—the cells that compose the organs and muscles and blood. The condition of these cells when the measurements are taken (which may be influenced by age, sleep, previous muscular exercise and diet) materially affects the amount of heat production and the requirements in energy food. Such experiments show why a man must literally burn up his own body, if he takes in no fuel in the form of food. Benedict's views also account for the higher energy requirement of men as compared to women, who, as a rule, have more fat and less muscular tissue than men.
[Sidenote: Diet and Endurance]
We have quoted Rubner (vide page 38) as condemning the very old popular idea that meat is very "strengthening." Actual experiments on this point have shown exactly the opposite to be the case. Meat eating and a high-protein diet instead of increasing one's endurance, have been shown, like alcohol, to actually reduce it.
An experiment was made by one of the authors to determine this question. The experiment consisted of endurance tests made on 49 persons representing the two types of dietetic habits. The persons experimented upon constituted three classes: first, athletes accustomed to high-protein and full-flesh dietary; second, athletes accustomed to a low-protein and non-flesh dietary; third, sedentary persons accustomed to a low-protein and non-flesh dietary. The subjects consisted of Yale students and instructors, a Connecticut physician, and several other physicians and nurses. All of the low-protein and non-flesh subjects except one had abstained from flesh foods for periods of 4 to 20 years, and 5 of them had never eaten such foods.
The experiments furnished a severe test of the claims of the flesh-abstainers. Two comparisons were planned, one between flesh-eating athletes and flesh-abstaining athletes, and the other between flesh-eating athletes and flesh-abstaining sedentary workers. The results would indicate that the users of low-protein and the non-flesh dietaries have far greater endurance than those who are accustomed to the ordinary American diet.
In the absence of any exact mechanical method of measuring endurance, simple endurance tests were employed, such as holding the arms horizontally as long as possible and deep knee bending. The tests were made before witnesses.
The comparison for arm holding shows a great superiority on the side of the flesh-abstainers. Only 2 of the 15 flesh-eaters succeeded in holding their arms out over a quarter of an hour, whereas 22 of the 32 abstainers surpassed that limit. None of the flesh-eaters reached half an hour, but 15 of the 32 abstainers exceeded that limit. Of these 9 exceeded an hour, 4 exceeded 2 hours and 1 exceeded 3 hours.
In respect to deep knee bending, if we take the number 325 for reference, we find that, of the 9 flesh-eaters only 3 surpassed this figure, while of the 21 abstainers, 17 surpassed it. Only 1 of the 9 flesh-eaters reached 1,000 as against 6 of the 21 abstainers. None of the former surpassed 2,000 as against 2 of the latter.
Similar results have been found in other investigations. It is probable that the inferiority of meat-eaters in staying power is due primarily to high protein, not to meat per se.
In 1906, nine Yale students under the direction of one of the authors experimented with Mr. Horace Fletcher's method of thorough mastication and instinctive eating. The experiment began with an endurance test on January 14, and consisted mainly of two parts, each of which lasted about ten weeks.
The object of the first half of the experiment was to test the claims which have been made as to the effects upon endurance of thorough mastication combined with implicit obedience to appetite. Our conclusion in brief is that these claims, so far as they relate to endurance, are justified.
The method may be briefly expressed in two rules.
1. Mastication.—Thorough mastication of all food up to the point of involuntary swallowing, with the attention directed, however, not on the mechanical act of chewing, but on the tasting and enjoyment of the food; liquid foods to be sipped and tasted, not drunk down like water. There should be no artificial holding of food in the mouth beyond the time of natural swallowing, even if, as is to be expected at the start, that swallowing is premature. It is not intended to "count the chews," or to hold the food forcibly in the front of the mouth, or to allow the tongue muscles to become fatigued by any unnatural effort or position, or in any other way to make eating a bore. On the contrary, every such effort distracts one from the natural enjoyment of food. Pavlov has shown that without such attention and enjoyment of the taste of food, the secretion of gastric juice is lessened. The point of involuntary swallowing is thus a variable point, gradually coming later and later as the practise of thorough mastication proceeds, until the result is reached that the food remains in the mouth without effort and becomes practically tasteless. Thus the food, so to speak, swallows itself, and the person eats without thought either of swallowing or of not swallowing it; swallowing is put into the same category of physiological functions as breathing, which ordinarily is involuntary.
2. Following instinct.—Never to eat when not hungry, even if a meal (or more than one, for that matter) is skipped. And when a meal is taken, not to be guided by the quantity of food offered, or by past habit, or by any theories as to the amount of food needed. The natural taste or appetite is alone consulted, and the subject selects, from the food available, only those kinds and amounts which are actually craved by the appetite. After practise, the appetite gradually becomes more definite and discriminating in its indications.
During the second half of the experiment the two rules above mentioned were continued in force, but a third rule was added, namely, when the appetite was in doubt, to give the benefit of that doubt to low-protein and non-flesh foods. In other words, the influence of suggestion was invoked to hasten the change which had been inaugurated by arousing the natural appetite. Suggestion was introduced merely because the experiment was limited in time. In no case was it allowed to override the dictates of appetite.
Careful records of the amount of food taken and the constituents in (1) protein, (2) fats and (3) starches and sugars, were kept for each man for each day. In order to avoid weighing the food at the table and the annoyance which such a procedure involves, the food was all weighed in the kitchen and served in definite portions of known food value. From the records thus supplied, it was easy, by means of a "mechanical diet indicator" devised for the purpose, to find the proportions of food elements. The first result of the experiment was a reduction in the amount of protein consumed.
During the first four weeks, the men consumed an average of from 2,760 to 3,030 calories per day, of which 120 to 240 were in the flesh foods, such as meats, poultry, fish and shell-fish, and that 2.4 to 2.7 calories of protein were ingested for each pound of body-weight. Translating Professor Chittenden's figures for the physiological requirement of ingested protein, we find it to be from 1.3 to 1.7 calories per pound of body-weight. Thus the men were at this time consuming nearly double the Chittenden allowance. During the last four weeks of the experiment all these magnitudes were lower. The per capita calories ranged from 2,220 to 2,620, of which only 40 were in flesh foods, and the protein had fallen to 1.4 to 1.9 calories per pound of body-weight, which corresponds closely to the Chittenden standard.
Gymnasium tests were made at the beginning, middle and end of the experiment. These tests were of two kinds—tests of strength and tests of endurance.
During the first period there was a slight increase in strength (from an average "total" strength of 1,076 to 1,118), and during the second period a slight fall to 995, which is about 12 per cent. from the mid-year's 1,118, and about 8 per cent. from the original 1,076. Thus the strength of the men remained nearly stationary throughout the experiment.
It is fortunate that the strength of the men remained so nearly stationary; for it demonstrates the more clearly that the increase in endurance which will be shown below was an increase in endurance per se, and not in any degree due to an increase in strength. Strength and endurance are entirely distinct and should be separately measured. The strength of a muscle is measured by the utmost force which it can exert once; its endurance by the number of times it can repeat a given exertion well within its strength.
After much consideration and consultation it was decided not to place reliance on the ordinary ergographs as a means of measuring endurance. Instead, seven simple gymnastic tests of physical endurance were employed, and one of mental endurance. The seven physical tests were:
(1) Rising on the toes as many times as possible.
(2) Deep knee bending, or squatting as far as possible and rising to the standing posture, repeating as often as possible.
(3) While lying on the back, raising the legs from the floor to a vertical position and lowering them again, repeating to the point of physical exhaustion.
(4) Raising a 5-lb. dumb-bell (with the triceps) in each hand from the shoulder up to the highest point above the head, repeating to the point of physical exhaustion.
(5) Holding the arms from the sides horizontally for as long a time as possible.
(6) Raising a dumb-bell (with the biceps) in one hand from a position in which the arm hangs down, up to the shoulder and lowering it again, repeating the motion to the point of physical exhaustion. This test was taken with four successive dumb-bells of decreasing weight, viz., 50, 25, 10 and 5 lbs. respectively.
(7) Running on the gymnasium track at a speed to suit the subject, to as great a distance as possible.
The mental test consisted of adding specified columns of figures as rapidly as possible, the object being to find out whether the rapidity of performing such work tended to improve during the experiment.
PERCENTAGE OF IMPROVEMENT IN ENDURANCE (EXACT OR UNDERSTATED) OF EIGHT MEN.
AVERAGE. B Lq. Lw. M P R T W Jan.-Mar. 33+ 36 50 — 26 18+ 66+ 33 Jan.-June 84+ 84+ 181 29 56+ 89+ 80+ 107+
The figures of this table show an undoubted increase in endurance, both for the first half and more especially for the whole period of the experiment.
Three methods of estimating the increase of endurance between January and June were used. These may be put together in the following table:
PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF ENDURANCE, JANUARY TO JUNE, BY THREE METHODS.
AVERAGE SIX TESTS. B E Lq. Lw. M P R T W 85 13 194 95 212 56+ 73 66 109
OMITTING DOUBTFUL CASES "" 84 ... 84+ 181 29+ 56+ 89+ 80+ 107+
"PURE" ENDURANCE OF BICEPS. ... ... 62 ... 50 ... 170 200 100+
The first line of this table tells us the average of the recorded improvement in endurance shown for each man. The average of these averages is 101 per cent. for the entire club, and is probably within the truth; for most of the individual figures which go to make up this result are understatements, not overstatements.
The second line shows the average improvement in tests in which there is no doubt that the figure is at least not too high, though it may be too low. The average of these is 89 per cent., and is therefore certainly too low an estimate of the average improvement for the eight men who improved at all.
The third line shows the increase of pure endurance (that is, endurance considered apart from strength) for the five men for whom the figures were available. The average of these is 116 per cent.
We are quite safe in saying, therefore, that the average improvement of the eight men who improved was 90 per cent.
The phenomena observed during the experiment may be summarized as a slight reduction of total food consumed, a large reduction of the protein element, especially of flesh foods, a lessened excretion of nitrogen, a reduction in the odor, putrefaction, fermentation and quantity of the feces, a slight loss of weight, a slight loss of strength, an enormous increase of physical endurance, a slight increase in mental quickness. These phenomena varied somewhat with different individuals, the variations corresponding in general to the varying degree in which the men adhered to the rules of the experiment.
That we are correct in ascribing the results, especially in endurance, to dietetic causes alone, cannot reasonably be doubted when it is considered that no other factors of known significance were allowed to aid in this result.
While the results of the present experiment lean toward "vegetarianism," they are only incidentally related to its propaganda. Meat was by no means excluded; on the contrary, the subjects were urged to eat it if their appetite distinctly preferred it to other foods.
The sudden and complete exclusion of meat is not always desirable, unless more skill and knowledge in food matters are employed than most persons possess. On the contrary, disaster has repeatedly overtaken many who have made this attempt. Pavlov has shown that meat is one of the most and perhaps the most "peptogenic" of foods. Whether the stimulus it gives to the stomach is natural, or in the nature of an improper goad or whip, certain it is that some stomachs which are accustomed to this daily whip have failed, for a time at least, to act when it was withdrawn.
Nor is it necessary that meat should be permanently abjured, even when it ceases to become a daily necessity. The safer course, at least, is to indulge the craving whenever one is "meat hungry," even if, as in many cases, this be not oftener than once in several months. The rule of selection employed in the experiment was merely to give the benefit of the doubt to the non-flesh food; but even a slight preference for flesh foods was to be followed.
Adami, J. G.: Autointoxication and Sub-Infection, British Medical Journal, January 24, 1914, p. 177; Jour. A. M. A., XII, No. 9, p. 701.
Benedict, F. G., and Carpenter, Thorne M.: The Metabolism and Energy Transformation of Healthy Man During Rest, Carnegie Institution of Washington, D. C., 1910.
Benedict, F. G.: The Nutritive Requirements of the Body, Amer. Jour. of Physiology, 1906, XVI, pp. 409-437.