There is a list of books on Freemasonry in Petzholdt's Bibliotheca Bibliographica, pp. 468-474. Mr. Folkard printed privately a Catalogue of Works on Freemasonry in the Wigan Free Library in 1882, and in the Annals of the Grand Lodge of Iowa, Vol. IX. Part I. (1883) is a Catalogue of Works on this subject in the Library of the Grand Lodge of Iowa.
Future Life.—Catalogue of Works relating to the Nature, Origin, and Destiny of the Soul, by Ezra Abbot. Appended to W.R. Alger's Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life. Philadelphia, 1864. 8vo. Reprinted, New York, 1871.
Geography.—See Voyages and Travels.
Health.—Catalogue of the International Health Exhibition Library. Division I. Health. Division II. Education. London, 1884. 8vo.
Heraldry.—Thomas Moule's valuable Bibliotheca Heraldica Magnae Britanniae was published in 1822. There is a "List of the principal English and Foreign Text-Books on Heraldry" at the end of The Handbook of Heraldry, by J.E. Cussans, London, 1869.
History (General).—BRUNET (J.C.). Table Methodique en forme de Catalogue raisonne, Histoire. Paris, 1865. 8vo.
—— OETTINGER (E.M.). Historisches Archiv. Archives historiques, contenant une classification de 17,000 ouvrages pour servir a l'etude de l'histoire de tous les siecles et de toutes les nations. Carlsruhe, 1841. 4to.
(Great Britain and Ireland.)—Bishop Nicholson's English, Scotch, and Irish Historical Libraries, 1776, will still be found useful. Mr. Mullinger's portion of the Introduction to the Study of English History (1881) gives the latest information on the subject. Sir Duffus Hardy's "Descriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to the History of Great Britain and Ireland to the end of the reign of Henry VIII." is an invaluable book, but is unfortunately incomplete.
(France.)—LELONG (J.). Bibliotheque Historique (1768-78, 5 vols, folio). "Les Sources de l'Histoire de France," by A. Franklin, was published in 1877.
History (Germany.)—Bibliographical Essay on the Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum, by A. Asher, was published in 1843.
(Holland.)—NIJHOFF. Bibliotheca Historico-Neerlandica. La Haye, 1871.
(Italy.)—LICHTENTHAL (P.). Manuale Bibliografico del Viaggiatore in Italia. Milano, 1844. A Catalogue of Sir Richard Colt Hoare's Collection of Books relating to the History and Topography of Italy was printed in 1812. The Collection was presented to the British Museum by Hoare in 1825.
(Portugal.)—FIGANIERE. Bibliographia Historica Portugueza. Lisboa, 1850.
(Spain.)—MUNOZ Y ROMERO. Diccionario bibliografico-historico ... de Espana. Madrid, 1858.
Language.—See Dictionaries, Philology.
Law.—Mr. Stephen R. Griswold contributed an article on Law Libraries to the U.S. Report on Libraries (pp. 161-170). He writes, "Law books may be classified generally as follows: Reports, Treatises, Statute Law. The practice of reporting the decisions of the Judges began in the reign of Edward I., and from that time we have a series of judicial reports of those decisions. In the time of Lord Bacon, these reports extended to fifty or sixty volumes. During the two hundred and fifty years that have passed since then, nothing has been done by way of revision or expurgation; but these publications have been constantly increasing, so that at the close of the year 1874 the published volumes of reports were as follows: English, 1350 volumes; Irish, 175 volumes; Scotch, 225 volumes; Canadian, 135 volumes; American, 2400 volumes. With respect to treatises (including law periodicals and digests), and without including more than one edition of the same work, it is safe to say that a fair collection would embrace at least 2000 volumes. The statute law of the United States, if confined to the general or revised statutes and codes, may be brought within 100 volumes. If, however, the sessional acts be included, the collection would amount to over 1500 volumes. It is thus seen that a fairly complete law library would embrace more than 7000 volumes, which could not be placed upon its shelves for less than $50,000."
Law.—There is a useful list of legal bibliographies in the "Hand-list of Bibliographies in the Reading-room of the British Museum" (pp. 40-44). Clarke's Bibliotheca Legum, which was compiled by Hartwell Horne (1819), is a valuable work. Marvin's Legal Bibliography, which was published at Philadelphia in 1847, contains 800 pages. The Catalogue of the Law Library in the New York State Library (1856), forms a useful guide to the subject, and Herbert G. Sweet's "Complete Catalogue of Modern Law Books" is one of the latest catalogues of authority.
Mathematics.—A really good bibliography of Mathematics is still wanting. The following books, however, all from Germany, are useful.
Mathematics.—MURHARD (F.W.A.). Bibliotheca Mathematica. Lipsiae, 1797-1804. 4 vols.
—— ROGG (J.). Handbuch der Mathematischen Literatur. Tuebingen, 1830.
—— SOHNCKE (L.A.). Bibliotheca Mathematica. 1830-54. Leipsic, 1854.
—— ERLECKE (A.). Bibliotheca Mathematica. Halle-a.-S., 1873.
—— Professor De Morgan's Arithmetical Books (1847) is a model of what a good bibliography ought to be.
Medical.—Dr. Billings contributed a chapter on "Medical Libraries in the United States" to the U.S. Report on Public Libraries (pp. 171-182), in which he wrote—"The record of the researches, experiences, and speculations relating to Medical Science during the last four hundred years is contained in between two and three hundred thousand volumes and pamphlets; and while the immense majority of these have little or nothing of what we call 'practical value,' yet there is no one of them which would not be called for by some inquirer if he knew of its existence." The writer added a list of works of reference which should be in every Medical Library.
There have been a specially large number of Medical Bibliographies, from Haller's works downwards. James Atkinson's Medical Bibliography (1834, A and B only), is an amusing book, but of little or no utility. The most useful books are Dr. Billings's Index Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (Washington, 1880) and the Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society (3 vols. 1879), by B.R. Wheatley. Neale's Medical Digest (1877) forms a convenient guide to the medical periodicals. The two great French dictionaries—Raige-Delorme and A. Dechambre, Dictionnaire Encyclopedique des Sciences Medicales (4 series, commenced in 1854, and still in progress); Jaccoud, Nouveau Dictionnaire de Medecine et de Chirurgie Pratiques (1864, and still in progress)—contain very valuable references to the literature of the various subjects. Of special subjects may be mentioned H. Haeser's Bibliotheca Epidemiographica (1843), John S. Billings's Bibliography of Cholera in the Report of the Cholera Epidemic of 1873 in the United States (1875, pp. 707-1025), Beer's Bibliotheca Ophthalmica (1799), Dr. E.J. Waring's Bibliotheca Therapeutica (1878-79, 2 vols. 8vo.), and Bibliography of Embryology, in Balfour's Embryology, vol. ii.
Meteorology.—A full bibliography of books and papers upon Meteorology is being prepared at the United States Signal Office, and it is reported that 48,000 titles are now in the office. There have been several articles on this subject in Symons's Meteorological Magazine, the last being in the number for December, 1885.
Mineralogy.—DANA (J.D.). Bibliography of Mineralogy. 1881. 8vo.
Mining.—Wigan Free Public Library Index Catalogue of Books and Papers relating to Mining, Metallurgy, and Manufactures. By Henry Tennyson Folkard, Librarian. Southport, 1880. Roy. 8vo.
Motion (Perpetual).—Perpetuum Mobile; or, search for Self-Motive Power during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, illustrated from various authentic sources in papers, essays, letters, paragraphs, and numerous Patent Specifications, with an Introductory Essay. By Henry Dircks, C.E. London, 1861. Sm. 8vo. Second Series. London, 1870. Sm. 8vo.
Music.—ENGEL (C.). The Literature of National Music. London, 1879. 8vo.
—— Catalogue of the Library of the Sacred Harmonic Society. A new edition [by W.H. Husk]. London, 1872. 8vo.
—— RIMBAULT (F.). Bibliotheca Madrigaliana, a Bibliographical Account of the Musical and Poetical Works published in England during the 16th and 17th centuries, under the titles of Madrigals, Ballets, Ayres, Canzonets, etc. London, 1847. 8vo.
There are bibliographies of the subject in F.L. Kilter's History of Music, London, 1876, and F. Clement, Histoire generale de la Musique Religieuse. Paris, 1861.
Natural History.—Dryander's Catalogue of Sir Joseph Banks's Library, now in the British Museum, is the most famous bibliography of this subject, although made so many years ago. It consists of 5 vols. 8vo. (1798-1800). Vol. 1, General Writers; Vol. 2, Zoology; Vol. 3, Botany; Vol. 4, Mineralogy; Vol. 5, Supplement.
Natural History.—ENGELMANN (W.). Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis. Leipzig, 1846.
—— ZUCKOLD (E.A.). Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis, Physico-Chemica et Mathematica. Goettingen, 1852.
—— See Zoology.
Philology.—MARSDEN (W.) Bibliotheca Marsdenia, Philologica et Orientalis. London, 1827. 4to.
—— ENGELMANN (W.). Bibliotheca Philologica. Leipzig, 1853.
—— See Dictionaries.
Political Economy.—MCCULLOCH (J.R.) The Literature of Political Economy, London, 1845.—This is a very valuable work up to the date of publication, but a good bibliography of the subject is still a desideratum. The late Professor Stanley Jevons proposed to draw up a Handy Book of the Literature for the Index Society, but, to the great loss of bibliography, was prevented by other work from undertaking it. He contributed a list of Selected Books in Political Economy to the Monthly Notes of the Library Association (Vol. 3, No. 7).
Poor.—A Catalogue of Publications in the English Language on subjects relative to the Poor will be found in Eden's State of the Poor, vol. iii. pp. ccclxvii—ccclxxxvi.
Printing.—BIGMORE (E.C.), and WYMAN (C.W.H.). A Bibliography of Printing, with Notes and Illustrations. London, 1880. 4to.
—— The Literature of Printing. A Catalogue of the Library illustrative of the History and Art of Typography, Chalcography, and Lithography, by R.M. Hoe. London, 1877. 8vo.
The following is a list of some of the bibliographies of the productions of the chief printers:
Aldus.—Annales de l'Imprimerie des Alde ou Histoire des trois Manuce et de leurs editions. Par Ant. Aug. Renouard. Paris, an XII. Seconde edition. Paris, 1825. 8vo. 3 vols.
Caxton.—The Life and Typography of William Caxton, England's first Printer, with evidence of his typographical connection with Colard Mansion, the Printer at Bruges. Compiled from original sources by William Blades. London, 1861-63. 2 vols. 4to. A condensed edition was published under the following title: The Biography and Typography of William Caxton, England's first Printer. By William Blades. Second edition. London, 1882. 8vo.
Elzevirs.—Willems (A.). Les Elzevier. Histoire et Annales Typographiques. Bruxelles, 1880. 8vo.
—— C. Pieters. Annales de l'Imprimerie des Elsevier. Gand, 1858. 8vo.
Plantin.—La Maison Plantin a Anvers. Par L. Degeorge. Deuxieme edition, augmentee d'une liste chronologique des ouvrages imprimes par Plantin a Anvers de 1555 a 1589. Bruxelles, 1878. 8vo.
Stephens.—Annales de l'Imprimerie des Estienne, ou Histoire de la Famille, des Estienne et de ses editions. Par A.A. Renouard. Paris, 1837-38. 8vo. 2 parts.
Privately Printed Books.—The second edition of John Martin's Bibliographical Catalogue of Privately Printed Books was published in 1854, and a newer work on this important subject is much required. Mr. W.P. Courtney has been engaged in the production of such a work for some years, and the labour could not be in better hands.
Proverbs.—The Bibliographie Paremiologique of Pierre Alexandre Gratet-Duplessis (1847), is one of the most elaborate and carefully compiled bibliographies ever published. Sir William Stirling Maxwell printed privately a catalogue of his collection of books of proverbs, in which were specially marked those unknown to Duplessis, or those published since the issue of his catalogue.
Science.—An article on the Scientific Libraries in the United States was contributed by Dr. Theodore Gill to the U.S. Report on Public Libraries (pp. 183-217). It contains an account of the various periodical records of work in the various departments of science.
Shorthand.—Thomas Anderson's History of Shorthand, London (1882), contains Lists of Writers on Shorthand in different languages.
Theology.—There is an article on Theological Libraries in the United States, in the U.S. Report on Public Libraries (pp. 127-160). The following extract contains some particulars respecting these.—"There are reported twenty-four libraries, which contain from 10,000 to 34,000 volumes; and these twenty-four libraries belong to ten different denominations. Three Baptist, two Catholic, two Congregational, three Episcopal, one Lutheran, two Methodist, seven Presbyterian, one Reformed (Dutch), one Reformed (German), and two Unitarian. And, if we include those libraries which contain less than 10,000 volumes, the list of different denominations to which they belong is extended to fifteen or sixteen."
A considerable number of Bibliographies of Theology will be found in the British Museum Hand-list. Darling's Cyclopaedia Bibliographica (1854-59), Malcom's Theological Index (Boston, 1868), and Zuchold's Bibliotheca Theologica (Goettingen, 1864), may be specially mentioned.
Topography.—Gough's British Topography (2 vols. 4to. 1780) is an interesting and useful book, and Upcott's Bibliographical Account of the principal works relating to British Topography, 3 vols. 8vo. (1818), forms one of the best specimens of English bibliography extant.
Topography.—Mr. J.P. Anderson's Book of British Topography (1881) is an indispensable book. Mr. Robert Harrison has prepared for the Index Society an Index of Books on Topography, arranged in one alphabet of places, which has not yet been published. Mr. W.H.K. Wright contributed a paper on "Special Collections of Local Books in Provincial Libraries" to the Transactions of the First Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 1878 (pp. 44-50). Another paper on the same subject, by Mr. J.H. Nodal, appears in the Transactions of the Second Annual Meeting of the Library Association, 1879 (pp. 54-60), entitled "Special Collections of Books in Lancashire and Cheshire," and in the Appendix (pp. 139-148) is a full account of these collections in Public Libraries and private hands.
An indication of some of the chief bibliographies of particular counties and places is here added—
Cornwall: Boase & Courtney, 1874-82. 3 vols. A model bibliography.
Devonshire: J. Davidson, 1852.
" Plymouth (Three Towns' Bibliotheca), R.N. Worth, 1872-73.
Dorsetshire: C.H. Mayo, privately printed, 1885.
Gloucestershire: Bibliotheca Gloucestrensis, J. Washbourn, 1823-25.
Gloucestershire: Collectanea Glocestriensia, J.D. Phelps, 1842.
Hampshire: Bibliotheca Hantoniensis, H.M. Gilbert, 1872?
" List of Books, Sir W.H. Cope, 1879.
Herefordshire: J. Allen, jun., 1821.
Kent: J. Russell Smith, 1837.
Lancashire: H. Fishwick, 1875.
Man (Isle of): W. Harrison, 1876.
Norfolk: S. Woodward and W.C. Ewing, 1842.
Nottinghamshire: S.F. Creswell, 1863.
Sussex: G.S. Butler, 1866.
Yorkshire: Rt. Hon. John Smythe, Pontefract, 1809.
" E. Hailstone, 1858.
" W. Boyne, 1869.
Trade and Finance.—Catalogue of Books, comprising the Library of William Paterson, Founder of the Bank of England, in vol. iii. of the Collection of his "Writings, edited by Saxe Bannister," (3 vols. 8vo. London, 1859).
—— Enslin und Engelmann. Bibliothek der Handlungswissenschaft 1750-1845. Leipzig, 1856.
Trials.—The Catalogue of the Library of the Philosophical Institution of Edinburgh (1857) contains (pp. 297-319) a very useful list of trials in an alphabet of the persons tried. The table is arranged under name, charge, date of trial, and reference.
Voyages and Travels.—Locke's Catalogue and character of most books of Voyages and Travels is interesting on account of Locke's notes. (Locke's Works, 1812, 10 vols. 8vo., vol. x. pp. 513-564.)
There are catalogues of books of travels in Pinkerton's collection (1814), and Kerr's collection (1822).
—— Boucher de la Richaderie, Bibliotheque Universelle des Voyages, Paris, 1808. 6 vols. 8vo.
—— Engelmann (W.). Bibliotheca Geographica. Leipzig, 1858.
Zoology.—Agassiz's Bibliographia Zoologicae et Geologicae, published by the Ray Society, 1848-54, was a useful book in its day, but it is of no value bibliographically, and the titles being mostly taken at second-hand, the work is full of blunders.
—— Carus and Engelmann's Bibliotheca Zoologica, Leipzig 1861, forms a Supplement to the Bibliotheca Historico-Naturalis of Engelmann.
* * * * *
A large number of bibliographies of particular authors have been published in this country and abroad, and it may be useful here to make a note of some of these.
Ariosto, Orlando Furioso: Ulisse Guidi, Bologna, 1861, 1868. G.J. Ferrazzi, Bassano, 1881.
Boccaccio: M. Landau, Napoli, 1881.
Burns: J. Mackie, Kilmar, 1866.
Calderon: E. Dorer, Leipzig, 1881.
Camoens: Adamson's Life of Camoens, vol. 2, 1820.
Cervantes: E. Dorer, Leipzig, 1881.
Corneille: E. Picot, Paris, 1876.
Dante: Bibliografia Dantesca, Prato, 1845-46. C.U.J. Chevalier, 1877. G.A. Scartazzini, Dante in Germania, 1881. J. Petzholdt, Dresden, 1880.
Goethe: S. Hirzel, 1878.
Luther: E.G. Vogel, Halle, 1851. J. Edmands, Philadelphia, 1883.
Manzoni: A. Vosmara, Milano, 1875.
Moliere: P. Lacroix, Paris, 1875.
Montaigne: J.F. Payer, Paris, 1837.
Persius: J. Tarlier, Bruxelles, 1848.
Petrarch: Marsand, Milano, 1826.
" A. Hortis, Trieste, 1874.
" G.J. Ferrazzi, Bassano, 1877. C.U.J. Chevalier, Montpeliard, 1880.
Rabelais: J.C. Brunet, Paris, 1852.
Schiller: L. Unflad, Muenchen, 1878.
Tasso: G.J. Ferrazzi, Bassano, 1880.
Voltaire: G. Bengesco, Paris, 1882.
* * * * *
Browning: F.J. Furnivall, Browning Society, 1881-2.
Carlyle: R.H. Shepherd, 1882.
Defoe: M. Stace, 1829; Wilson, 1830; Lee, 1862.
Dickens: R.H. Shepherd, 1881.
" J. Cook, Paisley, 1879.
Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, Charles Lamb: A. Ireland, 1868.
Ruskin: R.H. Shepherd, 1882.
Shakespeare: J. Wilson, 1827; J.O. Halliwell, 1841; Moulin, 1845; Sillig and Ulrici, 1854; H.G. Bohn, 1864; F. Thimm, 1865-72; K. Knortz, 1876; Unflad, 1880; Justin Winsor (Poems); Birmingham Memorial Library Catalogue (J.D. Mullens).
Shelley: H.B. Forman, 1886.
Tennyson: R.H. Shepherd, 1879.
Thackeray: R.H. Shepherd, 1881.
Wycliffe: J. Edmands, 1884.
Dr. Garnett commenced a MS. list of such special bibliographies as he came across in Treatises on the different subjects. This list is added to and kept in the Reading Room for use by the Librarians. I was allowed the privilege of referring to this very useful list.
A large amount of important information is to be found in the publications of the numerous Societies formed for the purpose of supplying to their subscribers valuable works which are but little likely to find publishers. These publications have in a large number of instances added to our knowledge of history and literature considerably. The Societies have much increased of late years, but no record of the publications is easily to be obtained, since the full account given in Bohn's Supplement to Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual.
The earliest of Publishing Societies was the Dilettanti Society, instituted in London in 1734, which issued some fine illustrated volumes of classical travel. A long period of time elapsed without any societies of a similar character being formed.
The Roxburghe Club formed in the year 1812 in commemoration of the sale of the magnificent library of John third Duke of Roxburghe (died March 19, 1804). It was chiefly intended as a Social Club, and a long list of bibliographical toasts was run through at the banquets. The publications were not at first of any great literary value, although some of them were curious and interesting. After a time competent editors were employed, and some important works produced. Sir Frederick Madden's editions of "Havelok the Dane" was issued in 1828, of the Romance of "William and the Werwolf" in 1832, and of the old English version of "Gesta Romanorum" in 1838. The valuable "Manners and Household Expenses of England in the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Centuries," edited by T. Hudson Turner, was presented to the Club by Beriah Botfield in 1841; Payne Collier's edition of the "Household Books of John Duke of Norfolk, and Thomas Earl of Surrey, 1481-1490," was issued in 1844, and his "Five Old Plays illustrative of the Early Progress of the English Drama" in 1851; the Rev. Joseph Stevenson's edition of "The Owl and the Nightingale, a Poem of the Twelfth Century," was issued in 1838, and his edition of "The Ayenbite of Inwyt" in 1855; John Gough Nichols's edition of the "Literary Remains of King Edward the Sixth" appeared in 1857 and 1858 (2 vols.), and Dr. Furnivall's edition of Henry Lonelich's "Seynt Graal" in 1863-1864.
Several years elapsed before the second great Printing Club was founded. In 1823 The Bannatyne Club was started in Edinburgh, chiefly by Sir Walter Scott, for the purpose of printing works illustrative of the History, Antiquities and Literature of Scotland. It derives its names from George Bannatyne (born Feb. 22, 1545, died 1607). A long series of books have been issued by the Club to its members, many of which are of great interest. The Catalogue of the Abbotsford Library was presented in 1839 to the members "by Major Sir Walter Scott, Bart., as a slight return for their liberality and kindness in agreeing to continue to that Library the various valuable works printed under their superintendence." In the same year appeared Sir Frederick Madden's edition of Sir Gawayne. Bishop Gawin Douglas's "Palace of Honour" was printed in 1827, and his translation of Virgil's "AEneid" in 1839 (2 vols.). The Club was closed in 1867.
The Maitland Club, which derived its name from Sir Richard Maitland of Lethington (born in 1496, died March 20, 1586), was instituted in Glasgow in 1828. A volume containing "The Burgh Records of the City of Glasgow, 1573 to 1581," was presented to the Club in 1832-34; the Poems of Drummond of Hawthornden in 1832; Robert Wodrow's "Collection upon the Lives of the Reformers and most eminent Ministers of the Church of Scotland" in 1834-45 (2 vols.). Dauncey's Ancient Scottish Melodies in 1838. Sir Bevis of Hamtoun in the same year, the Metrical Romance of Lancelot du Lak in 1839; Wodrow's Analecta, or Materials for a History of Remarkable Providences, in 1842-3 (4 vols.). Henry Laing's Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Seals, in 1850. The Club was closed in 1859.
The Abbotsford Club was founded in honour of Sir Walter Scott in 1834, by Mr. W.B.D.D. Turnbull. The first book (issued in 1835) was a volume of "Ancient Mysteries from the Digby MS."; "Arthur and Merlin, a Metrical Romance," was printed in 1838; "Romances of Sir Guy of Warwick and Rembrun his Son," in 1840; "The Legend of St. Katherine of Alexandra," in 1841; "Sir Degaree, a Metrical Romance of the end of the nineteenth century," in 1849. The Club was closed in 1866.
These Printing Clubs were select in their constitution, and the books being printed for the members in small numbers, they are difficult to obtain and their price is high.
With the foundation of the Camden Society an entirely new system was adopted, and the general body of book lovers, poor as well as rich, were appealed to with great success, and valuable books were supplied to the subscribers at a price which would have been impossible without such means. The Camden Society is entitled to this honour on account of the general interest of its publications, but the Surtees Society was actually the first to inaugurate the new system. The subscription fixed was double that which the founders of the Camden Society adopted, but it was, perhaps, a bolder step to start a Society, appealing to a somewhat restricted public with a two guinea subscription, than to appeal to the whole reading public with a subscription of one pound. Before saying more of the Surtees and Camden Societies, it will be necessary to mention some other printing clubs which preceded them.
The Oriental Translation Fund was established in 1828, with the object of publishing Translations from Eastern MSS. into the languages of Europe. When the issue of books was discontinued, the stock of such books as remained was sold off, and many of these can still be obtained at a cheap rate.
The Iona Club was instituted in 1833, for the purpose of investigating the History, Antiquities, and early Literature of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, but little has been done in the way of publication. The first book was "Collectanea de Rebus Albanicis," and the second, "Transactions of the Club," vol. i. in 4 parts. A second volume was announced, but never appeared.
The Surtees Society was founded at Durham in 1834 for the publication of inedited Manuscripts, illustrative of the moral, the intellectual, the religious, and the social condition of those parts of England and Scotland included on the East, between the Humber and the Frith of Forth, and on the west, between the Mersey and the Clyde, a region which constituted the ancient kingdom of Northumberland. The Society is named after Robert Surtees, of Mainforth, author of the "History of the County Palatine of Durham." Although founded more than fifty years ago, the Society is still flourishing, and carried on with the same vigour as of old. The series of publications is a long one, and contains a large number of most important works. The second book issued was "Wills and Inventories, illustrative of the History, Manners, Language, Statistics, etc., of the Northern Counties of England, from the Eleventh Century downwards" (Part 2 was issued in 1860); the third, "The Towneley Mysteries or Miracle Plays"; the fourth, "Testamenta Eboracensia: Wills illustrative of the History, Manners, Language, Statistics, etc., of the Province of York, from 1300" (vol. 1). The second volume of this series was issued in 1855. "Anglo-Saxon and Early English Psalter" was issued in 1843-44 (2 vols.); "The Durham Household Book; or, the Accounts of the Bursar of the Monastery of Durham, from 1530 to 1534," in 1844.
The Camden Society, instituted in 1838, has issued to its subscribers a large number of books of the greatest interest on historical and literary subjects. The set of publications is so well known that it is not necessary to enumerate titles here. Among the most valuable are the several volumes devoted to the correspondence of certain old families, such as the "Plumpton Correspondence" (1839), "Egerton Papers" (1840), "Rutland Papers" (1842), and "Savile Correspondence" (1858). The Romances and Chronicles must also be mentioned, and the remarkable edition of the oldest English Dictionary, "Promptorium Parvulorum," which was fully and learnedly edited by the late Mr. Albert Way. A second series was commenced in 1871, which is still continued.
The same year which saw the foundation of the Camden Society also gave birth to The English Historical Society. Sixteen works of considerable value were issued, but the greatest of these is the grand "Codex Diplomaticus AEvi Saxonici" of the late J. Mitchell Kemble (1845-48).
The Spalding Club, named after John Spalding, Commissary Clerk of Aberdeen, and founded at Aberdeen in 1839 for the printing of the Historical, Ecclesiastical, Genealogical, Topographical, and Literary Remains of the North-Eastern Counties of Scotland, was formed on the model of the exclusive clubs; but being affected by the more democratic constitution of the later printing societies, its subscription was fixed at one guinea. Amongst the most interesting of the Club's publications are the "Sculptured Stones of Scotland" (1856), "Barbour's Brus" (1856), and the "Fasti Aberdonensis: Selections from the Records of the University and King's College of Aberdeen from 1494 to 1854" (1854).
The year 1840 saw the foundation of three very important Societies, viz. the Parker, the Percy, and the Shakespeare.
The Parker Society took its name from the famous Archbishop of Canterbury, Martin Parker, and its objects were (1) the reprinting, without abridgment, alteration or omission, of the best works of the Fathers and early Writers of the Reformed English Church published in the period between the accession of Edward VI. and Queen Elizabeth; (2) the printing of such works of other writers of the Sixteenth Century as may appear desirable (including under both classes some of the early English Translations of the Foreign Reformers), and (3) the printing of some MSS. of the same authors hitherto unpublished. The Society was an enormous success, and at one time the list contained seven thousand members; but owing to the multitude of copies printed, and the somewhat dry character of the books themselves, many of them can now be obtained at a ridiculously small sum, the price of a complete set usually averaging little more than a shilling a volume. When the series was completed, a valuable General Index to the whole was compiled by Mr. Henry Gough, 1855.
The Percy Society took its name from Bishop Percy, author of the "Reliques of Ancient English Poetry" (born 1729, died 1811), and was founded for the purpose of bringing to light important but obscure specimens of Ballad Poetry, or Works illustrative of that department of Literature. The Society was dissolved in 1853, but during the thirteen years of its existence it produced a singularly interesting series of publications. The number of separate works registered in Bohn's Appendix to Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual is 94, besides "Quippes for Upstart Newfangled Gentlewomen by Stephen Gosson," which was suppressed, and "Rhyming Satire on the Pride and Vices of Women Now-a-days, by Charles Bansley," 1540, which was reprinted in 1841, but not issued. The set is much sought after, and fetches a good price.
The Shakespeare Society was founded in 1840, to print books illustrative of Shakespeare and of the literature of his time, and a very valuable collection of works was issued to the subscribers during the term of its existence. It was dissolved in 1853, and the remaining stock was made up into volumes and sold off. There was much for the Society still to do; but the controversy arising out of the discovery of the forgeries connected with John Payne Collier's name made it difficult for the Shakespearians to work together with harmony.
In this same year the Musical Antiquarian Society was founded, and during the seven years of its existence it issued books of Madrigals, Operas, Songs, Anthems, etc., by early English composers.
In the following year (1841), the Motett Society was founded for the publication of Ancient Church Music. Five parts only, edited by Dr. Rimbault, were issued.
In 1841 the Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts was founded, and a series of works in Syriac, Arabic, Sanscrit, and Persian was distributed to the subscribers until 1851, when the Society was dissolved.
The Wodrow Society was instituted in Edinburgh in 1841, for the publication of the early writers of the Reformed Church of Scotland, and named after the Rev. Robert Wodrow. Among its publications are, "Autobiography and Diary of James Melvill," "Correspondence of the Rev. R. Wodrow" (3 vols.), "History of the Reformation in Scotland, by John Knox" (2 vols.). The Society was dissolved in 1848.
The AElfric Society was founded in 1842 for the publication of those Anglo-Saxon and other literary monuments, both civil and ecclesiastical, tending to illustrate the early state of England. The publications, which were not numerous, were edited by Benjamin Thorpe and J.M. Kemble, and the Society was discontinued in 1856.
The Chetham Society, founded at Manchester in 1843, for the publication of Historical and Literary remains connected with the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester, was named after Humphrey Chetham (born 1580, died 1653). The Society, which still flourishes, has now produced a very long series of important works, and the volumes, which are not often met with, keep up their price well.
The Sydenham Society for reprinting Standard English Works in Medical Literature, and for the Translation of Foreign Authors, with notes, was founded in 1843. After printing a number of important works, the Society was dissolved in 1858, and was succeeded by The New Sydenham Society.
The Spottiswoode Society was founded at Edinburgh in 1843, for the revival and publication of the acknowledged works of the Bishops, Clergy, and Laity of the Episcopal Church of Scotland, and rare, authentic, and curious MSS., Pamphlets and other Works illustrative of the Civil and Ecclesiastical State of Scotland. It takes its name from John Spottiswoode, the first duly consecrated Scottish Archbishop after the Reformation (born 1566, died 1639.) The late Mr. Hill Burton gives an amusing account of the foundation of this Society in his delightful Book-Hunter. He writes: "When it was proposed to establish an institution for reprinting the works of the fathers of the Episcopal Church in Scotland, it was naturally deemed that no more worthy or characteristic name could be attached to it than that of the venerable prelate, who by his learning and virtues had so long adorned the Episcopal Chair of Moray and Ross [Robert Jolly], and who had shown a special interest in the department of literature to which the institution was to be devoted. Hence it came to pass that, through a perfectly natural process, the Association for the purpose of reprinting the works of certain old divines was to be ushered into the world by the style and title of the JOLLY CLUB. There happened to be amongst those concerned, however, certain persons so corrupted with the wisdom of this world, as to apprehend that the miscellaneous public might fail to trace this designation to its true origin, and might indeed totally mistake the nature and object of the institution, attributing to it aims neither consistent with the ascetic life of the departed prelate, nor with the pious and intellectual object of its founders. The counsels of these worldly-minded persons prevailed. The Jolly Club was never instituted,—at least as an association for the reprinting of old books of divinity,—though I am not prepared to say that institutions, more than one so designed may not exist for other purposes. The object, however, was not entirely abandoned. A body of gentlemen united themselves together under the name of another Scottish prelate, whose fate had been more distinguished, if not more fortunate, and the Spottiswoode Society was established. Here, it will be observed, there was a passing to the opposite extreme, and so intense seems to have been the anxiety to escape from all excuse for indecorous jokes or taint of joviality, that the word Club, wisely adopted by other bodies of the same kind, was abandoned, and this one called itself a Society." The publications were discontinued about 1851.
The Calvin Translation Society was established at Edinburgh in 1843, and its work was completed in 1855, by the publication of twenty-two Commentaries, etc., of the great reformer in fifty-two volumes.
The Ray Society was founded in 1844 for the publication of works on Natural History (Zoology and Botany), and a large number of valuable books, fully illustrated, have been produced, many of them translations from foreign works. Many of the later publications are more elaborately coloured than the earlier ones.
The Wernerian Club was instituted in 1844 for the republication of standard works of Scientific Authors of old date.
The Handel Society was founded at London in 1844, for the purpose of printing the Works of Handel in full score. Sixteen volumes were issued, and in 1858 the Society was dissolved, the German Handel Society resuming the publication.
The Hanserd Knollys Society was instituted in 1845 for the publication of the works of early English and other Baptist writers, and one of these was an edition of Bunyan's Pilgrim Progress from the text of the first edition. The Society was dissolved about 1851.
The Caxton Society was instituted in 1845 for the publication of Chronicles and other writings hitherto unpublished, illustrative of the history and miscellaneous literature of the middle ages. This Society was formed on a somewhat original basis. The members were to pay no annual subscription, but they engaged to purchase one copy of all books published by the Society. The expense of printing and publishing to be defrayed out of the proceeds of the sale, and the money remaining over to be paid to the editors.
The Cavendish Society was instituted in 1846 for the promotion of Chemical Science by the translation and publication of valuable works and papers on Chemistry not likely to be undertaken by ordinary publishers. During its last years the Society existed for the publication of Gmelin's voluminous "Handbook of Chemistry," and when this work was completed, with a general Index, the Society ceased to exist.
The Ecclesiastical History Society was instituted in 1846, and one of its early publications was the first volume of Wood's "Athenae Oxoniensis," edited by Dr. Bliss, but this only contained the life of Anthony Wood himself. The Society was dissolved in 1854, after publishing the Book of Common Prayer according to a MS. in the Rolls Office, Dublin (3 vols.), and sundry other works.
The Hakluyt Society, named after Richard Hakluyt (born 1553, died 1616), was founded at the end of 1846 for the purpose of printing the most rare and valuable Voyages, Travels and Geographical Records, from an early period of exploratory enterprise to the circumnavigation of Dampier. The first two volumes ("Sir Richard Hawkins's Voyage into the South Sea, 1593," and "Select Letters of Columbus") were issued in 1847, and the Society still flourishes. Between 1847 and 1885 the Society has presented to its members an important series of books of travel, at the rate of about two volumes a year for an annual subscription of one guinea.
The Palaeontographical Society was founded in 1847 for the purpose of figuring and describing a stratigraphical series of British Fossils. The annual volumes consist of portions of works by the most eminent palaeontologists, and these works are completed as soon as circumstances allow, but several of them are still incomplete.
The Arundel Society is so important an institution that it cannot be passed over in silence, although, as the publications chiefly consist of engravings, chromolithographs, etc., it scarcely comes within the scope of this chapter. The Society takes its name from Thomas Howard Earl of Arundel, in the reigns of James I. and Charles I., who has been styled the "Father of vertu in England." It was founded in 1849, and its purpose is to diffuse more widely, by means of suitable publications, a knowledge both of the history and true principles of Painting, Sculpture, and the higher forms of ornamental design, to call attention to such masterpieces of the arts as are unduly neglected, and to secure some transcript or memorial of those which are perishing from ill-treatment or decay. The publications of the Society have been very successful, and many of them cannot now be obtained.
Most of the societies above described have appealed to a large public, and endeavoured to obtain a large amount of public support; but in 1853 was formed an exclusive society, with somewhat the same objects as the Roxburghe Club. The Philobiblon Society was instituted chiefly through the endeavours of Mr. R. Monckton Milnes (the late Lord Houghton) and the late Mons. Sylvain Van de Weyer. The number of members was at first fixed at thirty-five, but was raised in 1857 to forty, including the patron and honorary secretaries. The publications consist chiefly of a series of Bibliographical and Historical Miscellanies, contributed by the members, which fill several volumes. Besides these there are "The Expedition to the Isle of Rhe by Lord Herbert of Cherbury," edited and presented to the members by the Earl of Powis; "Inventaire de tous les meubles du Cardinal Mazarin," edited and presented by H.R.H. the Duke d'Aumale; "Memoires de la Cour d'Espagne sous la regne de Charles II., 1678-82," edited and presented by William Stirling (afterwards Sir William Stirling Maxwell); "The Biography and Bibliography of Shakespeare," compiled and presented by Henry G. Bohn; "Analyse des Travaux de la Societe des Philobiblon de Londres," par Octave Delepierre.
The Ossianic Society was instituted at Dublin in 1853 for the preservation and publication of manuscripts in the Irish Language, illustrative of the Fenian period of Irish history, etc., with literal translations and notes.
The Warton Club was instituted in 1854 and issued four volumes, after which it was dissolved.
The Manx Society was instituted at Douglas, Isle of Man, in 1858, for the publication of National Documents of the Isle of Man.
All the Societies mentioned above are registered in Henry Bohn's Appendix to Lowndes's Bibliographer's Manual, and lists of the publications up to 1864 are there given. Most of them are also described in Hume's "Learned Societies and Printing Clubs of the United Kingdom" (1853). Since, however, the publication of these two books, a considerable number of important Printing Societies have been formed, and of these a list is not readily obtainable, except by direct application to the respective Secretaries.
The newly printed General Catalogue of the British Museum in the Reading Room however contains a full list of the publications of the various Societies under the heading of Academies.
The foundation of the Early English Text Society in 1864 caused a renewed interest to be taken in the publications of the Printing Clubs. The origin of the Society was in this wise. When the Philological Society undertook the formation of a great English Dictionary, the want of printed copies of some of the chief monuments of the language was keenly felt. Mr. F.J. Furnivall, with his usual energy, determined to supply the want, and induced the Council of the Philological Society to produce some valuable texts. It was found, however, that these publications exhausted much of the funds of the Society, which was required for the printing of the papers read at the ordinary meetings, so that it became necessary to discontinue them. Mr. Furnivall, then, in conjunction with certain members of the Philological Society, founded the Early English Text Society. The Society possessed the inestimable advantage of having among its founders Mr. Richard Morris (afterwards the Rev. Dr. Morris), who entered with fervour into the scheme, and produced a large amount of magnificent work for the Society. Dr. Furnivall put the objects of the Society forward very tersely when he said that none of us should rest "till Englishmen shall be able to say of their early literature what the Germans can now say with pride of theirs—'every word of it is printed, and every word of it is glossed.'"
The Society prospered, and in 1867 an Extra Series was started, in which were included books that had already been printed, but were difficult to obtain from their rarity and price.
One hundred and twenty-six volumes have been issued between 1864 and 1884, eighty-two volumes of the Original Series and forty-four of the Extra Series, and there can be no doubt that the publications of the Society have had an immense influence in fostering the study of the English language. The prefaces and glossaries given with each work contain an amount of valuable information not elsewhere to be obtained.
These books throw light upon the growth of the language, and place within the reach of a large number of readers works of great interest in the literature of the country. The greatest work undertaken by the Society is the remarkable edition of "William's Vision of Piers the Plowman," which Prof. Skeat has produced with an expenditure of great labour during nearly twenty years. The last part, containing elaborate notes and glossary, was issued in 1884.
The subjects treated of are very various. There is a fair sprinkling of Romances, which will always be amongst the most interesting of a Society's publications. Manners and Customs are largely illustrated in a fair proportion of the Texts, as also are questions of Social and Political History. Perhaps the least interesting to the general reader are the Theological Texts, which are numerous, but the writers of these were thoroughly imbued with the spirit of their times, and although they are apt to be prosy, they are pretty sure to introduce some quaint bits which compensate for a considerable amount of dulness. These books help us to form a correct idea of the beliefs of our forefathers, and to disabuse our minds of many mistaken views which we have learnt from more popular but less accurate sources.
The Ballad Society grew out of the publication, by special subscription, of Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript, edited by F.J. Furnivall and J.W. Hales. This was issued in connection with the Early English Text Society (but not as one of its Texts), through the energy of Mr. Furnivall, who had many difficulties to overcome before he was able to get permission to print the manuscript, which had been very faithfully guarded from the eyes of critics. He had to pay for the privilege, and in the end the old volume was sold to the nation, and it now reposes among the treasures of the British Museum. When this useful work was completed, Mr. Furnivall was anxious to follow it by a reprint of all the known collections of Ballads, such as the Roxburghe, Bagford, Rawlinson, Douce, etc., and for this purpose he started the Ballad Society in 1868. He himself edited some particularly interesting "Ballads from Manuscripts," and an elaborate account of Captain Cox's Ballads and Books in a new edition of Robert Laneham's Letter on the Entertainment at Kenilworth in 1575. The veteran Ballad illustrator, Mr. William Chappell, undertook to edit the "Roxburghe Ballads," and produced nine parts, when the Rev. J.W. Ebsworth took the work off his hands. Mr. Ebsworth had previously reproduced the "Bagford Ballads," and he is now the editor-in-chief of the Society. The following is a short list of the publications of the Society: Nos. 1, 2, 3, 10, "Ballads from Manuscripts"; Nos. 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13, 18, 19. "The Roxburghe Ballads," edited by Wm. Chappell; No. 7, "Captain Cox, his Ballads and Books"; No. 11, "Love Poems and Humourous Ones"; Nos. 14, 15, 16, 17, "The Bagford Ballads." No. 20, "The Amanda Group of Bagford Ballads;" Nos. 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, "The Roxburghe Ballads," edited by the Rev. J.W. Ebsworth. No. 26 completes the fifth volume of the "Roxburghe Ballads." There are two more volumes to come, and then Mr. Ebsworth will undertake "The Civil War and Protectorate Ballads." Much of the work on these volumes is done, and they only await an increase in the subscription list. It is to be hoped that when the good work done by the Ballad Society is better known, the editor will not be kept back in his useful course by the want of funds for printing. Mr. Ebsworth's thorough work is too well known to need praise here, but it may be noted that his volumes contain a remarkable amount of illustration of the manners of the time not to be obtained elsewhere. The value of this is the more apparent by the system of arrangement in marked periods which the editor has adopted.
The Chaucer Society was founded in 1868 by Mr. Furnivall, "to do honour to Chaucer, and to let the lovers and students of him see how far the best unprinted Manuscripts of his Works differed from the printed texts." For the Canterbury Tales, Mr. Furnivall has printed the six best unprinted MSS. in two forms—(1) in large oblong parts, giving the parallel texts; (2) in octavo, each text separately. The six manuscripts chosen are—The Ellesmere; The Lansdowne (Brit. Mus.); The Hengwrt; The Corpus, Oxford; The Cambridge (University Library); The Petworth. Dr. Furnivall has now added Harleian 7334 to complete the series. The Society's publications are issued in two series, of which the first contains the different Texts of Chaucer's Works, and the second such originals of and essays on these as can be procured, with other illustrative treatises and Supplementary Tales.
The Spenser Society was founded at Manchester in 1867 for the publication of well-printed editions of old English authors in limited numbers. The chief publication issued to subscribers was a reprint, in three volumes folio, of the works of John Taylor, the Water-poet, from the original folio. The other publications are in small quarto, and among them are the works of John Taylor not included in the folio, the works of Wither, etc.
The Roxburghe Library was a subscription series, commenced by Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt in 1868, with the same objects as a publishing society. It was discontinued in 1870. The following is a list of the publications:—"Romance of Paris and Vienne"; "William Browne's Complete Works," 2 vols.; "Inedited Tracts of the 16th and 17th Centuries (1579-1618)"; "The English Drama and Stage under the Tudor and Stuart Princes, 1543-1664"; "George Gascoigne's Complete Poems," 2 vols.; "Thomas Carew's Poems."
The Harleian Society was founded in 1869. Their chief publication has been the late Colonel Chester's magnificently edited Registers of Westminster Abbey. Other Registers published are those of St. Peter's, Cornhill; St. Dionis Backchurch; St. Mary Aldermary; St. Thomas the Apostle; St. Michael, Cornhill; St. Antholin, Budge Lane; and St. John the Baptist, on Wallbrook. Of the other publications there are Visitations of Bedfordshire, Cheshire, Cornwall, Cumberland, Devon, Essex, Leicestershire, London 1568, 1633, Nottingham, Oxford, Rutland, Somersetshire, Warwickshire, and Yorkshire, and Le Neve's Catalogue of Knights.
The Hunterian Club was founded at Glasgow in 1871, and named after the Hunterian Library in the University. Among the publications of the Club are a Series of Tracts by Thomas Lodge and Samuel Rowlands; the Poetical Works of Alexander Craig; Poetical Works of Patrick Hannay; Sir T. Overburie's Vision by Richard Niccols, 1616. The printing of the famous Bannatyne Manuscript, compiled by George Bannatyne, 1568, was commenced by the Society in 1873, and the seventh part, which completed this invaluable collection of Scottish Poetry, was issued in 1881.
The Folk Lore Society was founded by the late Mr. W.J. Thoms (inventor of the term Folk Lore) in 1878, and during the seven years of its existence it has done much valuable work, chiefly through the energetic direction of Mr. G.L. Gomme, the Hon. Sec. (now Director). The object of the Society is stated to be "the preservation and publication of Popular Traditions, Legendary Ballads, Local Proverbial Sayings, Superstitions and Old Customs (British and Foreign), and all subjects relating to them." The principal publication of the Society, the Folk Lore Record, now the Folk Lore Journal, was at first issued in volumes, and afterwards in monthly numbers. It is now a quarterly. The other publications are:—Henderson's Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties of England and the Borders, a new edition; Aubrey's Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaisme; Gregor's Notes on the Folk-Lore of the North-east of Scotland; Comparetti's Book of Sindibad and Pedroso's Portuguese Folk Tales; Black's Folk Medicine; Callaway's Religious System of the Amazulu.
The year 1873 saw the formation of several publishing Societies.
The New Shakspere Society was founded by Dr. F.J. Furnivall, for the reading of papers, which have been published in a Series of Transactions, and also for the publication of collations of the Quarto Plays, and works illustrating the great Dramatist's times. Among the latter works are Harrison's Description of England, Stubbes's Anatomie of Abuses, Dr. Ingleby's Shakespeare's Centurie of Prayse, etc.
The English Dialect Society was founded at Cambridge by the Rev. Professor Skeat. Its objects are stated to be (1) to bring together all those who have made a study of any of the Provincial Dialects of England, or who are interested in the subject of Provincial English; (2) to combine the labours of collectors of Provincial English words by providing a common centre to which they may be sent, so as to gather material for a general record of all such words; (3) to publish (subject to proper revision) such collections of Provincial English words that exist at present only in manuscript; as well as to reprint such Glossaries of provincial words as are not generally accessible, or are inserted in books of which the main part relates to other subjects; and (4) to supply references to sources of information which may be of material assistance to word-collectors, students, and all who have a general or particular interest in the subject. The publications are arranged under the following Series: A, Bibliographical; B, Reprinted Glossaries; C, Original Glossaries; D, Miscellaneous. In 1875 the Society was transferred to Manchester, and Mr. J.H. Nodal became Honorary Secretary.
The Palaeographical Society was formed for the purpose of reproducing Specimens of Manuscripts, and it has produced a Series of Facsimiles of Ancient Manuscripts, edited by E.A. Bond and E.M. Thompson, Part 1 being issued in 1873.
At the end of the year 1877 The Index Society was founded for the purpose of producing (1) Indexes of Standard Works; (2) Subject Indexes of Science, Literature and Art; and (3) a General Reference Index. The publications were commenced in 1878, and the First Annual Meeting was held in March, 1879, the Earl of Carnarvon being the first President. The first publication was "What is an Index?" by H.B. Wheatley. Among the important books issued by the Society may be mentioned Solly's "Index of Hereditary Titles of Honour"; Daydon Jackson's "Guide to the Literature of Botany" and "Literature of Vegetable Technology," and Rye's "Index of Norfolk Topography."
The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies was founded in 1879 for the following objects: (1) To advance the study of the Greek language, literature, and art, and to illustrate the history of the Greek race in the ancient, Byzantine, and Neo-Hellenic periods, by the publication of memoirs and inedited documents or monuments in a Journal to be issued periodically. (2) To collect drawings, facsimiles, transcripts, plans, and photographs of Greek inscriptions, MSS., works of art, ancient sites and remains, and with this view to invite travellers to communicate to the Society notes or sketches of archaeological and topographical interest. (3) To organise means by which members of the Society may have increased facilities for visiting ancient sites and pursuing archaeological researches in countries which, at any time, have been the sites of Hellenic civilization. Five volumes of the Journal have been issued.
The Topographical Society of London was formed in 1880. The Inaugural Meeting was held at the Mansion House, and the first Annual Meeting at Drapers' Hall on Feb. 3, 1882, with the Lord Mayor (Sir John Whitaker Ellis), President, in the chair. The following reproductions have been issued to subscribers:—Van der Wyngaerde's View of London, ab. 1550, 7 sheets; Braun & Hogenberg's Plan of London, 1 sheet; Visscher's View of London, 4 sheets.
The Browning Society was founded by Dr. Furnivall in 1881, and besides papers read at the meetings, the Society has issued Dr. Furnivall's "Bibliography of Browning."
The Wyclif Society was founded also by Dr. Furnivall in 1882, for the publication of the complete works of the great Reformer.
The Pipe Roll Society was established in 1883, and in 1885 the first three volumes of its publications have been issued to the members. These are—Vol. 1, Pipe Rolls, 5 Hen. II.; Vol. 2, 6 Hen. II.; Vol. 3, Introduction.
The Oxford Historical Society was formed in 1884, and four handsome volumes have been issued for that year and 1885. These are—1, "Register of the University of Oxford" (vol. 1, 1449-63, 1505-71), edited by the Rev. C.W. Boase; 2, "Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne" (vol. 1, July 4, 1705-March 19, 1707), edited by C.E. Doble, M.A. Both these volumes are supplied with temporary Indexes. 3, "The Early History of Oxford, 727-1100," by James Parker; 4, "Memories of Merton College," by the Hon. George C. Brodrick; 5, "Collectanea." First Series. Edited by C.R.L. Fletcher.
The Middlesex County Record Society was formed in 1885 "for the purpose of publishing the more interesting portions of the old County Records of Middlesex, which have lately been arranged and calendared by order of the Justices." Nothing has been published as yet, but Mr. Cordy Jeaffreson is engaged upon the first two volumes, one of which will be issued shortly.
The Rev. Dr. A.B. Grosart has himself printed by subscription more works of our Old Writers than many a Society, and therefore it is necessary to mention his labours here, although a complete list of them cannot be given. The chief series are: "The Fuller Worthies Library," 39 volumes; "The Chertsey Worthies Library," 14 vols. 4to., and "The Huth Library."
The idea of a Child's Library is to a great extent modern, and it is not altogether clear that it is a good one, except in the case of those children who have no books of their own. It is far better that each child should have his own good books, which he can read over and over again, thus thoroughly mastering their contents.
It is a rather wide-spread notion that there is some sort of virtue in reading for reading's sake, although really a reading boy may be an idle boy. When a book is read, it should be well thought over before another is begun, for reading without thought generates no ideas.
One advantage of a Child's Library should be that the reader is necessarily forced to be careful, so as to return the books uninjured. This is a very important point, for children should be taught from their earliest years to treat books well, and not to destroy them as they often do. We might go farther than this and say that children should be taught at school how to handle a book. It is really astonishing to see how few persons (not necessarily children) among those who have not grown up among books know how to handle them. It is positive torture to a man who loves books to see the way they are ordinarily treated. Of course it is not necessary to mention the crimes of wetting the fingers to turn over the leaves, or turning down pages to mark the place; but those who ought to know better will turn a book over on its face at the place where they have left off reading, or will turn over pages so carelessly that they give a crease to each which will never come out.
For a healthy education it is probably best that a child should have the run of a library for adults (always provided that dangerous books are carefully excluded). A boy is much more likely to enjoy and find benefit from the books he selects himself than from those selected for him.
The circumstances of the child should be considered in the selection of books; thus it is scarcely fair when children are working hard at school all day that they should be made to read so-called instructive books in the evening. They have earned the right to relaxation and should be allowed good novels. To some boys books of Travels and History are more acceptable than novels, but all children require some Fiction, and, save in a few exceptional cases, their imaginations require to be cultivated.
It will soon be seen whether children have healthy or unhealthy tastes. If healthy, they are best left to themselves; if unhealthy, they must be directed.
It is easy for the seniors to neglect the children they have under them, and it is easy to direct them overmuch, but it is difficult to watch and yet let the children go their own way. We are apt, in arranging for others, to be too instructive; nothing is less acceptable to children or less likely to do them good than to be preached at. Moral reflections in books are usually skipped by children, and unless somewhat out of the common, probably by grown-up persons as well. Instruction should grow naturally out of the theme itself, and form an integral part of it, so that high aims and noble thoughts may naturally present themselves to the readers.
One of the chapters in the United States Libraries' Report is on "School and Asylum Libraries" (pp. 38-59), in which we are informed that New York was the pioneer in founding school libraries. "In 1827 Governor De Witt Clinton, in his message to the legislature, recommended their formation; but it was not till 1835 that the friends of free schools saw their hopes realized in the passage of a law which permitted the voters in any school district to levy a tax of $20 to begin a library, and a tax of $10 each succeeding year to provide for its increase."
Another chapter in the same Report is on "Public Libraries and the Young" (pp. 412-418), in which Mr. Wm. J. Fletcher advocates the use of the library as an addition to the school course. He writes, "It only remains now to say that, as we have before intimated, the public library should be viewed as an adjunct of the public school system, and to suggest that in one or two ways the school may work together with the library in directing the reading of the young. There is the matter of themes for the writing of compositions; by selecting subjects on which information can be had at the library, the teacher can send the pupil to the library as a student, and readily put him in communication with, and excite his interest in, classes of books to which he has been a stranger and indifferent."
A very interesting book on this subject is entitled "Libraries and Schools. Papers selected by Samuel S. Green. New York (F. Leypoldt), 1883." It contains the following subjects: "The Public Library and the Public Schools;" "The Relation of the Public Library to the Public Schools"; "Libraries as Educational Institutions"; "The Public Library as an Auxiliary to the Public Schools"; "The Relation of Libraries to the School System"; and "A Plan of Systematic Training in Reading at School."
"Books for the Young, a Guide for Parents and Children. Compiled by C. M. Hewins. New York (F. Leypoldt), 1882," is an extremely useful little book. It contains a valuable list of books arranged in classes. Certain marks are used to indicate the character of the books, thus the letter (c) indicates that the book is especially suitable for children under ten, (b) that it is especially suitable for boys, and (g) that it is especially suitable for girls.
Prefixed are eight sensible rules as to how to teach the right use of books.
Perkins's "Best Reading" contains a good list of books for children (pp. 299-303).
The children's books of the present day are so beautifully produced that the elders are naturally induced to exclaim, "We never had such books as these," but probably we enjoyed our books as well as our children do theirs. What a thrill of pleasure the middle-aged man feels when a book which amused his childhood comes in his way: this, however, is seldom, for time has laid his decaying hand upon them—
"All, all are gone, the old familiar faces."
The children for whom Miss Kate Greenaway and Mr. Caldecott draw and Mrs. Gatty and Mrs. Ewing wrote are indeed fortunate, but we must not forget that Charles and Mary Lamb wrote delightful books for the young, that Miss Edgeworth's stories are ever fresh, and that one of the most charming children's stories ever written is Mrs. Sherwood's Little Woodman.
A short list of a Child's Library is quoted in the Library Journal (vol. viii. p. 57) from the Woman's Journal. The family for whom it was chosen consisted of children from three to twelve, the two eldest being girls. The books are mostly American, and but little known in this country—
Snow-bound. Illustrated. Whittier. Life of Longfellow. Kennedy. A Summer in the Azores. Baker. Among the Isles of Shoals. Celia Thaxter. The boys of '76. Coffin. The boys of '61. Coffin. Story of our Country. Higginson. Sir Walter Raleigh. Towle. Child's History of England. Dickens. Tales from Shakespear. Lamb. Tales from Homer. Church. The Wonder-book. Illustrated. Hawthorne. Young folks' book of poetry. Campbell. Poetry for childhood. Eliot. Bits of talk about home matters. H.H. The Seven Little Sisters. Andrews. Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates. Dodge. Room for one more. Mary T. Higginson. King Arthur for boys. Lanier. Doings of the Bodley family. Scudder. Mother-play and Nursery-rhymes. Children's Robinson Crusoe. The four-footed lovers. Mammy Tittleback and her family. H.H. The Little Prudy books. Six volumes.
The editor of the Library Journal remarks on the list, "Guest's Lectures on English History is better than Dickens's, and the 'Prudy' children are so mischievous, so full of young Americanisms, and so far from being 'wells of English undefiled,' that they are not always good companions for boys and girls. I have known a child's English spoiled by reading the Prudy books."
Some of the old-fashioned children's books have been reprinted, and these will generally be found very acceptable to healthy-minded children, but some of the old books are not easily met with. No Child's Library should be without a good collection of Fairy Tales, a careful selection of the Arabian Nights, or Robinson Crusoe. Gulliver's Travels is very unsuited for children, although often treated as a child's book. Berquin's Children's Friend, Edgeworth's Parent's Assistant and the Aikins's Evenings at Home, will surely still amuse children, although some may think their teaching too didactic. It is only by practical experience that we can tell what children will like. Sandford and Merton is, I believe, usually considered as hopelessly out of date, but I have found young hearers follow my reading of it with the greatest interest. The Pilgrim's Progress will always have as great a fascination for the young as it must have for their elders; but there is much preaching in it which must be skipped, or the attention of the hearers will flag.
ONE HUNDRED BOOKS.
In the Fourth Chapter of this Volume two lists of selected books are given, viz. The Comtist's Library, and a list of one hundred good novels. Since that chapter was written and printed, much public attention has been drawn to this branch of our subject by the publication of Sir John Lubbock's list of books which he recommended to the members of the Working Men's College, when he lectured at that place on "Books." The comments by eminent men, which have appeared in the Pall Mall Gazette, have also attracted attention, and it seems desirable that some note on this list should appear in these pages.
The list issued by the Pall Mall Gazette is as follows:
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations. Epictetus, Encheiridion. Confucius, Analects. Aristotle, Ethics. Mahomet, Koran.
THEOLOGY AND DEVOTION.
Apostolic Fathers, Wake's Collection. St. Augustine, Confessions. Thomas a Kempis, Imitation Pascal, Pensees. Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Butler, Analogy. Jeremy Taylor, Holy Living and Holy Dying. Keble, Christian Year. Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress.
Aristotle, Politics. Plato, Phaedo and Republic. AEsop, Fables. Demosthenes, De Corona. Lucretius. Plutarch. Horace. Cicero, De Officiis, De Amicitia, and De Senectute.
Homer, Iliad and Odyssey. Hesiod. Virgil. Niebelungenlied. Malory, Morte d'Arthur.
Mahabharata and Ramayana (epitomised by Talboys Wheeler). Firdausi, Shah-nameh (translated by Atkinson). She-king (Chinese Odes).
AEschylus, Prometheus, The House of Atreus, Trilogy, or Persae. Sophocles, OEdipus, Trilogy. Euripides, Medea. Aristophanes, The Knights.
Herodotus. Thucydides. Xenophon, Anabasis. Tacitus, Germania. Gibbon, Decline and Fall. Voltaire, Charles XII. or Louis XIV. Hume, England. Grote, Greece.
Bacon, Novum Organum. Mill, Logic and Political Economy. Darwin, Origin of Species. Smith, Wealth of Nations (selection). Berkeley, Human Knowledge. Descartes, Discourse sur la Methode. Locke, Conduct of the Understanding. Lewes, History of Philosophy.
Cook, Voyages. Darwin, Naturalist in the Beagle.
POETRY AND GENERAL LITERATURE.
Shakspeare. Milton. Dante. Spenser. Scott. Wordsworth. Pope. Southey. Longfellow. Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield. Swift, Gulliver's Travels. Defoe, Robinson Crusoe. The Arabian Nights. Don Quixote. Boswell, Johnson. Burke, Select Works. Essayists—Addison, Hume, Montaigne, Macaulay, Emerson. Moliere. Sheridan. Carlyle, Past and Present and French Revolution. Goethe, Faust and Wilhelm Meister. Marivaux, La Vie de Marianne.
Selections from—Thackeray, Dickens, George Eliot, Kingsley, Scott, Bulwer-Lytton.
It must be borne in mind by the reader that this list, although the one sent round for criticism by the editor of the Pall Mall Gazette, is not really Sir John Lubbock's. This will be found on p. 240. Sir John Lubbock's address was not given in full, and the list drawn up by the Pall Mall, from the reports in the daily papers, contained in fact only about 85 books.
It seems necessary to allude particularly to this imperfect list, because it is the only one upon which the critics were asked to give an opinion, and their criticisms are peculiarly interesting, as they give us an important insight into the tastes and opinions of our teachers. In itself it is almost impossible to make a list that will be practically useful, because tastes and needs differ so widely, that a course of reading suitable for one man may be quite unsuitable for another. It is also very doubtful whether a conscientious passage through a "cut-and-dried" list of books will feed the mind as a more original selection by each reader himself would do. It is probably best to start the student well on his way and then leave him to pursue it according to his own tastes. Each book will help him to another, and consultation with some of the many manuals of English literature will guide him towards a good choice. This is in effect what Mr. Bond, Principal Librarian of the British Museum, says in his reply, to the circular of the editor of the Pall Mall Gazette. He writes "The result of several persons putting down the titles of books they considered 'best reading' would be an interesting but very imperfect bibliography of as many sections of literature;" and, again, "The beginner should be advised to read histories of the literature of his own and other countries—as Hallam's 'Introduction to the Literature of Europe,' Joseph Warton's 'History of English Poetry,' Craik's 'History of English Literature,' Paine's History, and others of the same class. These would give him a survey of the field, and would quicken his taste for what was naturally most congenial to him."
There probably is no better course of reading than that which will naturally occur to one who makes an honest attempt to master our own noble literature. This is sufficient for the lifetime of most men without incursions into foreign literature. All cultivated persons will wish to become acquainted with the masterpieces of other nations, but this diversion will not be advisable if it takes the reader away from the study of the masterpieces of his own literature.
Turning to the comments on the Pall Mall Gazette's list, we may note one or two of the most important criticisms. The Prince of Wales very justly suggested that Dryden should not be omitted from such a list. Mr. Chamberlain asked whether the Bible was excluded by accident or design, and Mr. Irving suggested that the Bible and Shakespeare form together a very comprehensive library.
Mr. Ruskin's reply is particularly interesting, for he adds but little, contenting himself with the work of destruction. He writes, "Putting my pen lightly through the needless—and blottesquely through the rubbish and poison of Sir John's list—I leave enough for a life's liberal reading—and choice for any true worker's loyal reading. I have added one quite vital and essential book—Livy (the two first books), and three plays of Aristophanes (Clouds, Birds, and Plutus). Of travels, I read myself all old ones I can get hold of; of modern, Humboldt is the central model. Forbes (James Forbes in Alps) is essential to the modern Swiss tourist—of sense." Mr. Ruskin puts the word all to Plato, everything to Carlyle, and every word to Scott. Pindar's name he adds in the list of the classics, and after Bacon's name he writes "chiefly the New Atlantis."
The work of destruction is marked by the striking out of all the Non-Christian Moralists, of all the Theology and Devotion, with the exception of Jeremy Taylor and the Pilgrim's Progress. The Nibelungenlied and Malory's Morte d'Arthur (which, by the way, is in prose) go out, as do Sophocles and Euripides among the Greek Dramatists. The Knights is struck out to make way for the three plays of Aristophanes mentioned above. Gibbon, Voltaire, Hume, and Grote all go, as do all the philosophers but Bacon. Cook's Voyages and Darwin's Naturalist in the Beagle share a similar fate. Southey, Longfellow, Swift, Hume, Macaulay, and Emerson, Goethe and Marivaux, all are so unfortunate as to have Mr. Ruskin's pen driven through their names. Among the novelists Dickens and Scott only are left. The names of Thackeray, George Eliot, Kingsley, and Bulwer-Lytton are all erased.
Mr. Ruskin sent a second letter full of wisdom till he came to his reasons for striking out Grote's "History of Greece," "Confessions of St. Augustine," John Stuart Mill, Charles Kingsley, Darwin, Gibbon, and Voltaire. With these reasons it is to be hoped that few readers will agree.
Mr. Swinburne makes a new list of his own which is very characteristic. No. 3 consists of "Selections from the Bible: comprising Job, the Psalms, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Ezekiel, Joel; the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Luke, the Gospel and the First Epistle of St. John and Epistle of St. James." No. 12 is Villon, and Nos. 45 to 49 consist of the plays of Ford, Dekker, Tourneur, Marston, and Middleton; names very dear to the lover of our old Drama, but I venture to think names somewhat inappropriate in a list of books for a reader who does not make the drama a speciality. Lamb's Selections would be sufficient for most readers.
Mr. William Morris supplies a full list with explanations, which are of considerable interest as coming from that distinguished poet.
Archdeacon Farrar gives, perhaps, the best test for a favourite author, that is, the selection of his works in the event of all others being destroyed. He writes, "But if all the books in the world were in a blaze, the first twelve which I should snatch out of the flames would be the Bible, Imitatio Christi, Homer, AEschylus, Thucydides, Tacitus, Virgil, Marcus Aurelius, Dante, Shakespeare, Milton, Wordsworth. Of living authors I would save first the works of Tennyson, Browning and Ruskin."
Another excellent test is that set up by travellers and soldiers. A book must be good when one of either of these classes decides to place it among his restricted baggage. Mr. H.M. Stanley writes, "You ask me what books I carried with me to take across Africa. I carried a great many—three loads, or about 180 lbs. weight; but as my men lessened in numbers, stricken by famine, fighting and sickness, they were one by one reluctantly thrown away, until finally, when less than 300 miles from the Atlantic, I possessed only the Bible, Shakespeare, Carlyle's Sartor Resartus, Norie's Navigation, and Nautical Almanac for 1877. Poor Shakspeare was afterwards burned by demand of the foolish people of Zinga. At Bonea, Carlyle and Norie and Nautical Almanac were pitched away, and I had only the old Bible left." He then proceeds to give a list of books which he allowed himself when "setting out with a tidy battalion of men."
Lord Wolseley writes, "During the mutiny and China war I carried a Testament, two volumes of Shakespeare that contained his best plays, and since then, when in the field, I have always carried: Book of Common Prayer, Thomas a Kempis, Soldier's Pocket Book.... The book that I like reading at odd moments is 'The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius.'" He then adds, for any distant expedition, a few books of History (Creasy's "Decisive Battles," Plutarch's "Lives," Voltaire's "Charles XII.," "Caesar," by Froude, and Hume's "England"). His Fiction is confined to Macaulay's "History of England" and the "Essays."
Mr. Quaritch remarks that "Sir John's 'working man' is an ideal creature. I have known many working men, but none of them could have suggested such a feast as he has prepared for them." He adds, "In my younger days I had no books whatever beyond my school books. Arrived in London in 1842, I joined a literary institution, and read all their historical works. To read fiction I had no time. A friend of mine read novels all night long, and was one morning found dead in his bed." If Mr. Quaritch intends this as a warning, he should present the fact for the consideration of those readers who swell the numbers of novels in the statistics of the Free Libraries.
Looking at the Pall Mall Gazette's list, it naturally occurs to us that it would be a great error for an Englishman to arrange his reading so that he excluded Chaucer while he included Confucius. Among the names of modern novelists it is strange that Jane Austen and Charlotte Bronte should have been omitted. In Sir John Lubbock's own list it will be seen that the names of Chaucer and Miss Austen occur. Among Essayists one would like to have seen at least the names of Charles Lamb, De Quincey, and Landor, and many will regret to find such delightful writers as Walton and Thomas Fuller omitted. We ought, however, to be grateful to Sir John Lubbock for raising a valuable discussion which is likely to draw the attention of many readers to books which might otherwise have been most unjustly neglected by them.
The following is Sir John Lubbock's list. It will be seen that several of the books, whose absence is remarked on, do really form part of the list, and that the objections of the critics are so far met.
* * * * *
Marcus Aurelius, Meditations. Epictetus. Confucius, Analects. Le Bouddha et sa Religion (St.-Hilaire). Aristotle, Ethics. Mahomet, Koran (parts of).
* * * * *
Apostolic Fathers, Wake's collection. St. Augustine, Confessions. Thomas a Kempis, Imitation. Pascal, Pensees. Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus. Comte, Cat. of Positive Philosophy (Congreve). Butler, Analogy. Jeremy Taylor, Holy Living and Holy Dying. Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress. Keble, Christian Year.
* * * * *
Aristotle, Politics. Plato's Dialogues—at any rate the Phaedo and Republic. Demosthenes, De Corona. Lucretius. Plutarch. Horace. Cicero, De Officiis, De Amicitia, De Senectute.
* * * * *
Homer, Iliad and Odyssey. Hesiod. Virgil. Niebelungenlied. Malory, Morte d'Arthur.
* * * * *
Maha-Bharata, Ramayana, epitomized by Talboys Wheeler in the first two vols. of his History of India. Firdusi, Shah-nameh. Translated by Atkinson. She-king (Chinese Odes).
* * * * *
AEschylus, Prometheus, House of Atreus, Trilogy, or Persae. Sophocles, OEdipus, Trilogy. Euripides, Medea, Aristophanes, The Knights.
* * * * *
Herodotus. Xenophon, Anabasis. Thucydides. Tacitus, Germania. Livy. Gibbon, Decline and Fall. Hume, England. Grote, Greece. Carlyle, French Revolution. Green, Short History of England. Bacon, Novum Organum. Mill, Logic and Political Economy. Darwin, Origin of Species. Smith, Wealth of Nations (part of). Berkeley, Human Knowledge. Descartes, Discours sur la Methode. Locke, Conduct of the Understanding. Lewes, History of Philosophy.
* * * * *
Cook, Voyages. Humboldt, Travels. Darwin, Naturalist in the Beagle.
* * * * *
Shakespeare. Milton, Paradise Lost, and the shorter poems. Dante, Divina Commedia. Spenser, Faerie Queen. Dryden's Poems. Chaucer, Morris's (or, if expurgated, Clarke's or Mrs. Haweis's) edition. Gray. Burns. Scott's Poems. Wordsworth, Mr. Arnold's selection. Heine. Pope. Southey.
* * * * *
Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield. Swift, Gulliver's Travels. Defoe, Robinson Crusoe. The Arabian Nights. Cervantes, Don Quixote. Boswell, Johnson. Burke, Select Works (Payne). Essayists:—Bacon, Addison, Hume, Montaigne, Macaulay, Emerson. Moliere. Sheridan.
Voltaire, Zadig. Carlyle, Past and Present. Goethe, Faust, Wilhelm Meister. White, Natural History of Selborne. Smiles, Self Help.
* * * * *
Miss Austen, either Emma or Pride and Prejudice. Thackeray, Vanity Fair and Pendennis. Dickens, Pickwick and David Copperfield. George Eliot, Adam Bede. Kingsley, Westward Ho! Bulwer-Lytton, Last Days of Pompeii. Scott's Novels.
 The whole of the correspondence has been reissued as a Pall Mall "Extra" No. 24, and threepence will be well laid out by the purchaser of this very interesting pamphlet.
Abbotsford Club, 187.
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, Indecent books turned out, 18.
AElfric Society, 195.
Arundel Society, 200.
Authors, Bibliographies of particular, 181.
Ballad Society, 206.
Bannatyne Club, 186.
Bibliographies (General), 141-159.
—— (Special), 160-183.
Bindings in Charles I.'s Cabinet, 29.
Book Collectors, 23.
Books, One Hundred, 227-244.
Booksellers, Use of, 58.
Bossange (Hector), Ma Bibliotheque Francaise, 7.
Burton's Book Hunter, 2, 53, 196.
Buy, How to, 57-72.
Calvin Translation Society, 197.
Camden Society, 190.
Catalogues of Public Libraries, 141.
Cavendish Society, 199.
Caxton Society, 198.
Chaucer Society, 28.[TN 208]
Chetham Society, 195.
Child's Library, 217-226.
Comte's Positivist Library, 131.
Dibdin's Library Companion, 2.
Dilettanti Society, 184.
Durie's Reformed Librarie Keeper, 13.
Early English Text Society, 203.
Ecclesiastical History Society, 199.
Edwards (Edward), Report on Formation of Manchester Free Library, 4. —— Memoirs of Libraries, 5, 63. —— Libraries and Founders of Libraries, 29, 44.
English Dialect Society, 212.
English Historical Society, 191.
Fiction in Public Libraries, 81.
Folk Lore Society, 210.
Franklin's foundation of the Philadelphia Library, 77.
George III.'s list of books, 14.
Goodhugh's Library Manual, 3.
Hakluyt Society, 200.
Handel Society, 198.
Hanserd Knollys Society, 198.
Harleian Society, 209.
Hellenic Studies, Society for the promotion of, 213.
Hunterian Club, 210.
Index Society, 213.
Iona Club, 189.
Johnson's (Dr.) List of Books, 15.
Libraries, How men have Formed them, 23-56.
—— (Cathedral), 75.
—— (Monastic), 25.
—— (Private), 89-140.
—— (Public), 73-88.
—— United States Report on, 20, 75, 220.
Louis XVI., his books during his captivity, 43.
Lubbock's (Sir John), List of Books, 227-244.
Maitland Club, 187.
Manx Society, 202.
Middlesex County Record Society, 215.
Motett Society, 194.
Musical Antiquarian Society, 194.
Napoleon's Libraries, 44.
Naude, Gilbert [TN Gabriel], 9.
Novels, One Hundred Good, 138.
—— in Public Libraries, 81.
Oriental Texts, Society for the Publication of, 194.
Oriental Translation Fund, 189.
Ossianic Society, 202.
Oxford Historical Society, 215.
Palaeographical Society, 213.
Palaeontographical Society, 200.
Parker Society, 192.
Percy Society, 193.
Perkins's Best Reading, 8.
Philobiblon Society, 201.
Pipe Roll Society, 215.
Positivist Library, 131.
Printers, Bibliographies of celebrated, 176.
Ray Society, 198.
Reference, Books of, 91-129.
Roxburghe Club, 185.
Roxburghe Library, 209.
Sales, How to Buy at, 63.
Shakespeare Society, 193.
Shakspere (New) Society, 211.
Societies (Publishing), 184-216.
Spalding Club, 191.
Spenser Society, 209.
Spottiswoode Society, 195.
Stevens (Henry), "My English Library," 6. —— his paper on Mr. James Lenox, 55, 64.
Surtees Society, 189.
Sydenham Society, 195.
Topographical Bibliographies, 179.
Topographical Society of London, 214.
Warton Club, 202.
Wernerian Club, 198.
Wodrow Society, 194.
Wyclif Society, 215
Transcriber's Note Inconsistent spelling retained.