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How to Form a Library, 2nd ed
by H. B. Wheatley
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In considering this question one naturally asks if the masterpieces of our great authors, which every one should read, are to be mixed up with the worthless novels constantly being published in the condemnation of Fiction; but, to some extent, both Mr. Cowell and Mr. Kay answer this. The first of these gentlemen writes: "As to the better class novels, which are so graphic in their description of places, costumes, pageantry, men, and events, I regret to say that they are not the most popular with those who stand in need of their instructive descriptions. I could generally find upon the library shelves 'Harold,' 'The Last of the Barons,' 'Westward Ho!' 'Hypatia,' 'Ivanhoe,' 'Waverley,' 'Lorna Doone,' etc., when not a copy of the least popular of the works of Mrs. Henry Wood, 'Ouida,' Miss Braddon, or Rhoda Broughton were to be had." Mr. Kay corroborates this opinion in his paper.

Most of us recognize the value of honest fiction for children and the overwrought brains of busy men, but the reading of novels of any kind can only be justified as a relaxation, and it is a sad fact that there is a large class of persons who will read nothing but novels and who call all other books dry reading. Upon the minds of this class fiction has a most enervating effect, and it is not to be expected that ratepayers will desire to increase this class by the indiscriminate supply of novels to the Free Libraries. Some persons are so sanguine as to believe that readers will be gradually led from the lower species of reading to the higher; but there is little confirmation of this hope to be found in the case of the confirmed novel readers we see around us.

The librarian who, with ample funds for the purpose, has the duty before him of forming a Public Library, sets forward on a pleasant task. He has the catalogues of all kinds of libraries to guide him, and he will be able to purchase the groundwork of his library at a very cheap rate, for probably at no time could sets of standard books be bought at so low a price as now. Many books that are not wanted by private persons are indispensable for a Public Library, and there being little demand for them they can be obtained cheap. When the groundwork has been carefully laid, then come some of the difficulties of collecting. Books specially required will not easily be obtained, and when they are found, the price will probably be a high one. Books of reference will be expensive, and as these soon get out of date, they will frequently need renewal.

FOOTNOTES:

[15] Library Journal, vol. ii. p. 70.



CHAPTER IV.

PRIVATE LIBRARIES.

Treating of private libraries, it will be necessary to consider their constitution under two heads, according as they are required in town or country. In London, for instance, where libraries of all kinds are easily accessible, a man need only possess books on his own particular hobby, and a good collection of books of reference; but in the country, away from public libraries, a well-selected collection of standard books will be necessary.

1. Town.

Every one who loves books will be sure to have some favourite authors on special subjects of study respecting which he needs no instruction farther than that which is ready to his hand. Books on these subjects he will need, both in town and country, if he possesses two houses. Some collectors make their town house a sort of gathering-place for the accessions to their country libraries. Here a class is completed, bound, and put in order, and then sent to the country to find its proper place in the family library.

This is an age of books of reference, and as knowledge increases, and the books which impart it to readers become unwieldy from their multitude, there are sure to be forthcoming those who will reduce the facts into a handy form. I have gathered in the following pages the titles of some of the best books of reference which are to be obtained. Many, if not all of these, are to be found in that magnificent library of reference—the Reading Room of the British Museum. In some cases where the books are constantly being reprinted, dates have been omitted. There are, doubtless, many valuable works which I have overlooked, and some Text-books I have had to leave out owing to the exigencies of space, but I trust that the present list will be found useful.

Abbreviations.—Dictionnaire des Abreviations Latines et Francaises usitees dans les inscriptions lapidaires et metalliques, les manuscrits et les chartes du Moyen Age. Par L. Alph. Chassant. Quatrieme edition. Paris, 1876. Sm. 8vo.

Anthropology.—Notes and Queries on Anthropology, for the use of Travellers and Residents in Uncivilized Lands. Drawn up by a Committee appointed by the British Association. London, 1874. Sm. 8vo.

Antiquities.—Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Edited by Dr. William Smith. Roy. 8vo.

—— Dictionnaire des Antiquites Grecques et Romaines d'apres les textes et les Monuments ... Ouvrage redige ... sous la direction de Ch. Daremberg et Edm. Saglio. Paris, 1873. 4to.

—— The Life of the Greeks and Romans described from Antique Monuments, by E. Guhl and W. Koner, translated from the third German edition by F. Hueffer. London, 1875. 8vo.

—— Gallus or Roman Scenes of the Time of Augustus. By W.A. Becker, translated by F. Metcalfe. London.

—— Charicles: Illustrations of the Private Life of the Ancient Greeks. By W.A. Becker, translated by F. Metcalfe. London.

Antiquities.—Archaeological Index to remains of antiquity of the Celtic, Romano-British and Anglo-Saxon Periods. By John Yonge Akerman. London, 1847. 8vo.

—— Introduction to English Antiquities. By James Eccleston. London, 1847. 8vo.

—— The English Archaeologist's Handbook. By Henry Godwin. Oxford, 1867. 8vo.

Architecture.—A Dictionary of the Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages.... By John Britton. London, 1838.

—— History of Architecture in all countries, from the earliest times to the present day. By James Fergusson. London, 1865-76. 4 vols. 8vo.

—— Nicholson's Dictionary of the Science and Practice of Architecture, Building, Carpentry, etc. New edition, edited by Edward Lomax and Thomas Gunyon. London. 2 vols. 4to.

—— An Encyclopaedia of Architecture, historical, theoretical, and practical. By Joseph Gwilt, revised by Wyatt Papworth. New edition. London, 1876. 8vo.

—— The Dictionary of Architecture, issued by the Architectural Publication Society. A to Oz. 4 vols. Roy. 4to. (In progress.)

—— A Glossary of Terms used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, and Gothic Architecture. Fifth edition, enlarged. Oxford, 1850. 3 vols. 8vo.

—— An Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture and Furniture.... By J.C. Loudon. London, 1833. 8vo.

Arts, Manufactures, etc.—Ure's Dictionary of Arts, Manufactures, and Mines, containing a clear exposition of their Principles and Practice. By Robert Hunt, assisted by F.W. Rudler. Seventh edition. London, 1875. 3 vols. 8vo.

—— Spons' Encyclopaedia of the Industrial Arts, Manufactures, and Commercial Products. London, 1879. 8 vols. Roy. 8vo.

—— History of Physical Astronomy. By Robert Grant. London [1852]. A most valuable book, but now out of print and scarce.

—— An Historical Survey of the Astronomy of the Ancients. By G. Cornewall Lewis. London, 1862. 8vo.

Bible.—Dictionary of the Bible, comprising its Antiquities, Biography, Mythology, and Geography. By Dr. William Smith. Roy. 8vo.

—— A Biblical Cyclopaedia or Dictionary of Eastern Antiquities, Geography, Natural History, Sacred Annals and Biography, Theology and Biblical Literature, illustrative of the Old and New Testaments. Edited by John Eadie, D.D., LL.D. Twelfth edition. London, 1870. 8vo.

—— The Bible Atlas of Maps and Plans to illustrate the Geography and Topography of the Old and New Testaments and the Apocrypha, with Explanatory Notes by Samuel Clark, M.A. Also a complete Index of the Geographical Names ... by George Grove. London, 1868. 4to.

Bible. See Concordances.

Bibliography.—See Chapters V. and VI.

Biography.—Mr. Chancellor Christie contributed a very interesting article to the Quarterly Review (April, 1884) on Biographical Dictionaries, in which he details the history of the struggle between the publishers of the Biographie Universelle and Messrs. Didot, whose Dictionary was eventually entitled Nouvelle Biographie Generale. The new edition of the Biographie Universelle (45 vols. Imp. 8vo. Paris, 1854) is an invaluable work. Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary (32 vols. 8vo. 1812-17) is a mine of literary wealth, from which compilers have freely dug. Rose's (12 vols. 8vo. 1848) was commenced upon a very comprehensive plan, but the lives were considerably contracted before the work was completed. It is, however, a very useful work. L.B. Phillips's "Dictionary of Biographical Reference" contains 100,000 names, and gives the dates of birth and death, which in many instances is all the information the consulter requires, and should more be required, he is referred to the authority. This book is quite indispensable for every library. There are several national Biographical Dictionaries, and at last a thoroughly satisfactory Biographia Britannica is in course of publication by Messrs. Smith & Elder. The "Dictionary of National Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen," has reached the fifth volume, and extends to Bottisham.

—— Robert Chambers's Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen (Glasgow, 1835-56. 5 vols. 8vo.) will be found useful.

Biography.—Dr. William Allen's "American Biographical Dictionary" was published at Boston in 1857.

—— Biographie Nouvelle des Contemporains ... Par A.V. Arnault [etc.]. Paris, 1820-25. 20 vols. 8vo. Mr. Edward Smith points this book out to me as specially valuable for information respecting actors in the French Revolution.

—— Handbook of Contemporary Biography. By Frederick Martin. London, 1870. Sm. 8vo.

—— Men of the Time: a Dictionary of Contemporaries. Eleventh edition. Revised by Thompson Cooper. London, 1884. Sm. 8vo. A volume of 1168 pages should contain a fair representation of the men of the day, and yet it is ludicrously incomplete. The literary side is as much overdone as the scientific side is neglected. This is not the place to make a list of shortcomings, but it will probably astonish most of our readers to learn that such eminent Men of the Time as Sir Frederick Abel, Sir Frederick Bramwell, and the late Dr. W.B. Carpenter are not mentioned. As this book has as a high reputation, the editor should thoroughly revise it for a new edition.

—— Men of the Reign. A Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Characters of both Sexes, who have died during the reign of Queen Victoria. Edited by T. Humphry Ward. (Uniform with "Men of the Time.") London, 1885.

Biography.—Dictionnaire Universel des Contemporains.... Par G. Vapereau. Cinquieme edition. Paris, 1880. 8vo.

—— Supplement. Oct. 1881.

—— Biographie Nationale des Contemporains, redigee par une Societe de Gens de Lettres sous la direction de M. Ernest Glaeser. Paris, 1878. Royal 8vo.

—— Dictionnaire General de Biographie Contemporaine Francaise et Etrangere. Par Ad. Bitard. Paris, 1878. 8vo.

—— To this list of Contemporary Biography may be added the Indexes of Obituary Notices published by the Index Society.

(Bishops.)—Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, or a Calendar of the principal Ecclesiastical Dignitaries in England and Wales, and of the chief officers in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, from the earliest time to the year 1715. Compiled by John Le Neve. Corrected and continued from 1715 to the present time by T. Duffus Hardy. Oxford, 1854. 3 vols. 8vo.

—— Fasti Ecclesiae Hibernicae. The Succession of the Prelates and Members of Cathedral Bodies in Ireland. By Henry Cotton, D.C.L. Dublin, 1847-60. 5 vols. 8vo.

(Lawyers.)—Lives of the Chief Justices of England. By John Lord Campbell. Second edition. London, 1858. 3 vols. 8vo.

—— Lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England. By John Lord Campbell. Fourth edition. London, 1856. 10 vols. Sm. 8vo.

(Scientific Men.)—Poggendorff (J.C.). Biographisch-Literarisches Handwoerterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, enthaltend Nachweisungen ueber Lebensverhaeltnisse und Leistungen von Mathematikern, Astronomen, Physikern, Chemikern, Mineralogen, Geologen u.s.w. aller Voelker und Zeiten. Leipzig, 1863. Roy. 8vo.

* * * * *

(Cambridge.)—Athenae Cantabrigienses. By Charles Henry Cooper, F.S.A., and Thompson Cooper. Cambridge, 1858-61. Vol. I. 1500-1585. Vol. II. 1586-1609. 8vo.

—— Graduati Cantabrigienses, 1760-1856. Cura Josephi Romilly, A.M. Cantabrigiae, 1856.

—— Graduati Cantabrigienses, 1800-1884. Cura Henrici Richardo Luard, S.T.P. Cantabrigiae, 1884.

(Oxford.)—Athenae and Fasti Oxonienses. By Ant. a Wood. New edition, with Notes, Additions, and Continuation by the Rev. Dr. P. Bliss. 4 vols. 4to. 1813-20.

—— Catalogue of all Graduates in the University of Oxford, 1659-1850. Oxford, 1851. 8vo.

(Dublin.)—A Catalogue of Graduates who have proceeded to degrees in the University of Dublin from the earliest recorded Commencements to July, 1866, with Supplement to December 16, 1868. Dublin, 1869. 8vo. Vol. II. 1868-1883. Dublin, 1884. 8vo.

(Eton.)—Alumni Etonenses, or a Catalogue of the Provosts and Fellows of Eton College and King's College, Cambridge, from the Foundation in 1443 to the Year 1797. By Thomas Harwood. Birmingham, 1797. 4to.

(Westminster.)—The List of the Queen's Scholars of St. Peter's College, Westminster, admitted on that Foundation since 1663, and of such as have been thence elected to Christ Church, Oxford, and Trinity College, Cambridge, from the Foundation by Queen Elizabeth, 1561, to the present time. Collected by Joseph Welch. A new edition ... by an old King's Scholar. London, 1852. Roy. 8vo.

* * * * *

Botany.—An Encyclopaedia of Trees and Shrubs; being the Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum abridged.... By J.C. Loudon. London, 1842. 8vo.

—— Loudon's Encyclopaedia of Plants ... New edition corrected to the present time. Edited by Mrs. Loudon. London, 1855. 8vo.

—— The Vegetable Kingdom; or the structure, classification and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system. By John Lindley, Ph.D., F.R.S. Third edition. London, 1853. 8vo.

—— International Dictionary of Plants in Latin, German, English and French, for Botanists, and especially Horticulturists, Agriculturists, Students of Forestry and Pharmaceutists, by Dr. William Ulrich. Leipzig, 1872. 8vo.

Botany.—Topographical Botany: being Local and Personal Records towards shewing the distribution of British Plants traced through 112 counties and vice-counties of England, Wales and Scotland. By Hewett Cottrell Watson. Second edition, corrected and enlarged. London, 1883. 8vo.

The need of an authoritative list of Botanical names must be frequently felt by a large number of writers, those who have but little knowledge of the science even more than Botanists themselves. The following work will be found useful for this purpose, but there is reason to hope that a much larger and more exhaustive list will shortly be published, as Mr. Daydon Jackson, Secretary of the Linnean Society, is, we believe, now engaged upon such a work. "Nomenclator Botanicus seu Synonymia Plantarum Universalis.... Autore Ernesto Theoph. Steudel; editio secunda, Stuttgartiae et Tubingae, 1841." Royal 8vo.

Cards.—Facts and Speculations on the Origin and History of Playing Cards. By William Andrew Chatto. London, 1848. 8vo.

—— A Descriptive Catalogue of Playing and other Cards in the British Museum, accompanied by a Concise General History of the Subject, and Remarks on Cards of Divination and of a Politico-Historical Character. By William Hughes Willshire, M.D. Printed by order of the Trustees, 1876. Royal 8vo.

Chemistry.—A Dictionary of Chemistry and the allied Branches of other Sciences, founded on that of the late Dr. Ure. By Henry Watts. 1863-68. 5 vols. 8vo. Supplement, 1872. Second Supplement, 1879. Third Supplement, 1879-81. 2 vols.

—— Handbook of Modern Chemistry, Inorganic and Organic, for the use of Students. By Charles Meymott Tidy, M.B., F.C.S. London, 1878. 8vo.

—— Handbook of Chemistry. By L. Gmelin. Trans. by H. Watts. London, 1848-67. 17 vols. 8vo.

—— Industrial Chemistry, based upon the German edition of Payen's "Precis de Chimie Industrielle," edited by B.H. Paul. London, 1878.

—— A Treatise on Chemistry. By [Sir] H.E. Roscoe and C. Schorlemmer. London. 8vo.

Coins.—A Numismatic Manual. By John Yonge Akerman, F.S.A. London, 1840. 8vo.

—— The Silver Coins of England arranged and described by E. Hawkins. London, 1841. 8vo.

—— The Gold Coins of England arranged and described, being a sequel to Mr. Hawkins's Silver Coins of England, by his grandson, Robert Lloyd Kenyon. London, 1880. 8vo.

Commerce.—A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation. By the late J.R. McCulloch. Latest edition by A.J. Wilson. London, 1882. 8vo.

—— History of British Commerce, 1763-1870. By Leone Levi. London, 1872. 8vo.

Concordances.

Aristophanes.—A Complete Concordance to the Comedies and Fragments of Aristophanes. By Henry Dunbar, M.D. Oxford, 1883. 4to.

Bible.—A complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. By Alexander Cruden, M.A. London, 1737. 4to. Second edition 1761, third edition 1769; this is the last corrected by the author. Most of the Concordances published since are founded upon Cruden.

—— An Analytical Concordance to the Holy Scriptures, or the Bible presented under distinct and classified heads of topics. Edited by John Eadie, D.D., LL.D. London and Glasgow, 1856. 8vo.

Homer.—A Complete Concordance to the Iliad of Homer. By Guy Lushington Prendergast. London, 1875. 4to.

—— A Complete Concordance to the Odyssey and Hymns of Homer, to which is added a Concordance to the parallel passages in the Iliad, Odyssey and Hymns. By Henry Dunbar, M.D. Oxford, 1880. 4to.

Milton.—A Complete Concordance to the Poetical Works of Milton. By Guy Lushington Prendergast, Madras Civil Service. Madras, 1857. 4to. Originally published in 12 parts.

—— A Complete Concordance to the Poetical Works of John Milton. By Charles Dexter Cleveland, LL.D. London, 1867. Sm. 8vo.

The Rev. H.J. Todd compiled a verbal Index to the whole of Milton's Poetry, which was appended to the second edition of his life of the Poet (1809).

Pope.—A Concordance to the Works of Alexander Pope. By Edwin Abbott, with an Introduction by Edwin A. Abbott, D.D. London, 1875. Royal 8vo.

Shakespeare.—The Complete Concordance to Shakspere: being a verbal Index to all the passages in the dramatic works of the Poet. By Mrs. Cowden Clarke. London, 1845. Royal 8vo.

—— Shakespeare-Lexicon: a Complete Dictionary of all the English words, phrases and constructions in the works of the poet. By Dr. Alexander Schmidt. (Berlin and London), 1874. 2 vols. royal 8vo.

—— A Concordance to Shakespeare's Poems: an Index to every word therein contained. By Mrs. Horace Howard Furness. Philadelphia, 1874.

—— A Handbook Index to the Works of Shakespeare, including references to the phrases, manners, customs, proverbs, songs, particles, etc., which are used or alluded to by the great Dramatist. By J.O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. London, 1866. 8vo. Only fifty copies printed.

Tennyson.—A Concordance of the entire works of Alfred Tennyson, P.L., D.C.L., F.R.S. By D. Barron Brightwell. London, 1869. 8vo.

Tennyson.—Concordance to the works of Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate. London, 1870. "The Holy Grail," etc., is indexed separately.

—— An Index to "In Memoriam." London, 1862.

* * * * *

Costume.—A Cyclopaedia of Costume or Dictionary of Dress, including Notices of Contemporaneous Fashions on the Continent.... By James Robinson Planche, Somerset Herald. London, 1876-79. 2 vols. 4to. Vol. I. Dictionary. Vol. II. General History of Costume in Europe.

Councils.—Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to Great Britain and Ireland. Edited after Spelman and Wilkins, by Arthur West Haddan, B.D., and William Stubbs, M.A. Oxford, 1869. Vol. II. Part I. 1873. Vol. III. 1871. 8vo.

—— England's Sacred Synods. A Constitutional History of the Convocations of the Clergy from the earliest Records of Christianity in Britain to the date of the promulgation of the present Book of Common Prayer, including a List of all Councils, Ecclesiastical as well as Civil, held in England in which the Clergy have been concerned. By James Wayland Joyce, M.A. London, 1855. 8vo.

Dates.—See History.

Dictionaries.

(English.)—One of the most useful English Dictionaries is the "Imperial Dictionary" by Ogilvie, which has been edited with great care by Charles Annandale.[16] The vocabulary is very full, the etymology is trustworthy, and the definitions are clear and satisfactory. The engravings which are interspersed with the text are excellent, and greatly add to the utility of the Dictionary.

For years preparations have been made for a Standard English Dictionary, and at last the work has been commenced under the able editorship of Dr. James A.H. Murray. In 1857, on the suggestion of Archbishop Trench, the Philological Society undertook the preparation of a Dictionary, "which by the completeness of its vocabulary, and by the application of the historical method to the life and use of words, might be worthy of the English language and of English scholarship." The late Mr. Herbert Coleridge and Dr. Furnivall undertook the editorship, and a large number of volunteers came forward to read books and extract quotations. Mr. Coleridge died in the midst of his work, and upon Dr. Furnivall devolved the entire editorship in addition to his other onerous duties as Secretary of the Philological Society. He projected the admirable system of sub-editing, which proved so successful. As the work proceeded several of the most energetic and most competent workers undertook to sub-edit the materials already collected, each one taking a separate letter of the alphabet. Some two million quotations were amassed, but still the man was wanting who would devote his life to forming the Dictionary from these materials. In course of time Dr. Murray came forward, and in 1878 he prepared some specimens for submission to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, who agreed to publish the Dictionary. The first part was published in 1884, and the second in 1885.[17] It is hoped that in future it will be possible to issue a part every six months. At present the alphabet is carried down to Batten. This is one of the most magnificent pieces of work that has ever been produced in any country, and it is an honour to every one concerned. To the Philological Society who conceived it, to Dr. Murray and his staff who have devoted so much labour and intellect to its production, and to the Clarendon Press who have published it to the world. It is, moreover, an honour to the country which now possesses a well-grounded hope of having, at no distant day, the finest Historical Dictionary ever produced.

In this connection the Encyclopaedic Dictionary, now in course of publication by Messrs. Cassell, should be mentioned as a valuable work.

Up to a few years ago it was impossible to obtain any satisfactory etymological information on English words from our Dictionaries. Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood partly removed this reproach by the publication of his very valuable "Dictionary of English Etymology" in 1859,[18] but in this work Mr. Wedgwood only dealt with a portion of the vocabulary.

Professor Skeat commenced the publication of his indispensable "Etymological Dictionary of the English Language" (Clarendon Press) in 1879, and in 1884 he produced a second edition. In 1882 Professor Skeat published "A Concise Etymological Dictionary," which is something more than an abridgment, and a book which should find a place in all libraries of reference.

A Glossarial Index to the Printed English Literature of the Thirteenth Century. By H. Coleridge. London, 1859. 8vo. This was one of the earliest publications which grew out of the preparations for the great Philological Society's Dictionary. Stratmann's Dictionary of the Old English Language (third edition, Krefeld, 1878) is an indispensable work. A new edition, prepared by Mr. H. Bradley, is about to be issued by the Clarendon Press.

Of single volume Dictionaries, Mr. Hyde Clarke's "New and Comprehensive Dictionary of the English Language as spoken and written" in Weale's Educational Series (price 3s. 6d.) is one of the most valuable. I have time after time found words there which I have searched for in vain in more important looking Dictionaries. Mr. Clarke claims that he was the first to raise the number of words registered in an English Dictionary to 100,000.

The Rev. James Stormonth's "Dictionary of the English Language, Pronouncing, Etymological, and Explanatory," is a work of great value. It is so well arranged and printed that it becomes a pleasure to consult it.

Those who are interested in Dialects will require all the special Dictionaries which have been published, and these may be found in the Bibliography now being compiled by the English Dialect Society, but those who do not make this a special study will be contented with "A Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs, and Ancient Customs, from the Fourteenth Century, by J.O. Halliwell" (fifth edition, London, 1865, 2 vols. 8vo.), which is well-nigh indispensable to all. Nares's Glossary (1822-46, new edition, by J.O. Halliwell and T. Wright, 2 vols. 8vo. 1859) is also required by those who make a study of Old English Literature.

The following is a short indication of some of the most useful working Dictionaries:

Arabic.—Lane.

Greek.—Liddell & Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, both in 4to. and in abridged form in square 12mo.

Latin.—The Clarendon Press publish a Latin Dictionary founded on Andrews's edition of Freund, and edited by C.T. Lewis and C. Short, which is of great value. Smith's Dictionary, both the large edition and the smaller one, and that of Riddle are good.

French.—The Dictionaries of Fleming and Tibbins, and Spiers, keep up their character, but for idioms the International French and English Dictionary of Hamilton and Legros is the best. For smaller Dictionaries Cassell's is both cheap and good. Bellows's Pocket Dictionary has obtained considerable fame, but those who use it need a good eyesight on account of the smallness of the type. It is, however, beautifully printed. The Standard French Dictionaries of that language alone are the noble work of Littre and the excellent Dictionary of Poitevin (2 vols. 4to.). For early French Godefroy's elaborate work, which is now in progress, must be consulted.

German.—Fluegel's German and English Dictionary still holds its own, but Koehler's Dictionary is also excellent. Hilpert's and Lucas's Dictionaries, both good ones, are now out of print. Of Standard German Dictionaries Grimm's great work is still in progress. Sanders's Dictionary is also of great value.

Danish and Norwegian.—The Dictionary by Ferrall, Repp, Rosing and Larsen is good.

Dutch.—Calisch (2 vols. 8vo. 1875).

Hebrew.—Fuerst, Gesenius.

Icelandic.—Vigfusson.

Italian.—Baretti's Dictionary still keeps up its character, but Millhouse's work is also good.

Portuguese.—Vieyra.

Russian.—Alexandrow.

Sanscrit.—Monier Williams. Boehtlingk and Roth.

Pali.—Childers.

Spanish.—Neumann and Baretti, and also Velasquez.

Swedish.—Oman.

* * * * *

Drama.—Biographia Dramatica; or a Companion to the Playhouse ... originally compiled in the year 1764 by David Erskine Baker, continued thence to 1782 by Isaac Reed, and brought down to the end of November, 1811 ... by Stephen Jones. London, 1812. 3 vols. 8vo.

—— A Dictionary of Old English Plays existing either in print or in manuscript, from the earliest times to the close of the seventeenth century; by James O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. London, 1860. 8vo.

Drugs.—Pharmacographia: a History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin met with in Great Britain and British India. By Friedrich A. Flueckiger, Ph.D., and Daniel Hanbury, F.R.S. Second edition. London, 1879. 8vo.

Ecclesiology.—Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical Theology. Edited by the Rev. J.H. Blunt, M.A. Second edition. London, 1872. Imp. 8vo.

—— Dictionary of Christian Antiquities. By William Smith, LL.D., and Professor S. Cheatham. London, 1876-80. 2 vols. royal 8vo.

—— Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought. Edited by the Rev. John Henry Blunt, M.A. London, 1874. Imp. 8vo.

—— Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume, compiled from Ancient Authorities and Examples. By A. Welby Pugin, Architect.... Enlarged and revised by the Rev. Bernard Smith, M.A. Third edition. London, 1868. 4to.

—— A Glossary of Liturgical and Ecclesiastical Terms. Compiled and arranged by the Rev. Frederick George Lee, D.C.L. London, 1877. Sq. 8vo.

—— See Ritual.

Encyclopaedias.—The Encyclopaedia Britannica, or a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature. Ninth edition. Edinburgh, 1875. 4to. Now in course of publication.

—— Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, or Universal Dictionary of Knowledge.... London, 1815-41. 26 vols. 4to.

—— Chambers's Encyclopaedia. 10 vols. royal 8vo.

—— Dictionary of Science, Literature, and Art. By W.T. Brande. 1842. New edition, edited by the Rev. J.W. Cox. London, 1866-67. 3 vols. 8vo.

Encyclopaedias.—Rees's Cyclopaedia (39 vols., plates 6 vols. 1820, 4to.) can be bought excessively cheap, and is well worth a place in a library where room can be found for it, as many of its articles have never been superseded.

—— Grand Dictionnaire Universel du XIX^e Siecle Francais, Historique, Geographique, Mythologique, Bibliographique, Litteraire, Artistique, Scientifique, etc.... Par Pierre Larousse. Paris, 1866-76. 15 vols. 4to. Supplement, tome 16, 1878.

—— Dictionnaire Universel des Sciences, des Lettres et des Arts ... redige avec la collaboration d'Auteurs speciaux par M.N. Bouillet ... douzieme edition. Paris, 1877. 8vo.

Geography.—A General Dictionary of Geography, descriptive, physical, statistical, historical, forming a complete Gazetteer of the World. By A. Keith Johnston. New edition. London, 1877. 8vo.

—— The Library Cyclopaedia of Geography, descriptive, physical, political and historical, forming a New Gazetteer of the World. By James Bryce, M.A. and Keith Johnston. London, 1880. Royal 8vo.

—— Index Geographicus, being a List alphabetically arranged of the principal places on the Globe, with the countries and sub-divisions of the countries in which they are situated and their latitudes and longitudes. Compiled specially with reference to Keith Johnston's Royal Atlas, but applicable to all modern atlases and maps, Edinburgh, 1864. Roy. 8vo.

Geography.—Etymologisch-Geographisches Lexikon. Separat-Ausgabe des lexikalischen Theils der Nomina Geographica von Dr. J.J. Egli. Leipzig, 1880. Royal 8vo.

—— Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, by various writers, edited by Dr. W. Smith. London, 1852. 2 vols. 8vo.

(Scotland.)—Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland. A Survey of Scottish Topography, statistical, biographical and historical. Edited by Francis H. Groome. Edinburgh, 1884. Vol. 1, roy. 8vo.

(France.)—Santini. Dictionnaire General ... des Communes de France et des Colonies. Paris. 8vo.

—— Dictionnaire des Postes de la Republique Francaise. 6^e edition. Rennes, 1881. Roy. 8vo.

(Italy.)—Il Libro de Comuni del Regno d'Italia. Compilato sopra elementi officiali da Achille Moltedo. Napoli, 1873. Roy. 8vo.

(United States.)—The National Gazetteer, a Geographical Dictionary of the United States.... By L. de Colange, LL.D. London, 1884. Roy. 8vo.

(India.)—Cyclopaedia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial, Industrial, and Scientific.... Edited by Edward Balfour.... Second edition. Madras, 1871-73. 5 vols. Roy. 8vo. Third edition. London, 1885. 3 vols. The first edition was published in 1858, and two Supplements in 1862.

Geology.—A Catalogue of British Fossils: comprising the Genera and Species hitherto described, with references to their geological distribution.... By John Morris, F.G.S. Second edition. London, 1854. 8vo.

Geology.—Principles of Geology. By Sir Charles Lyell. 10th edition. London, 1867-8. 2 vols. 8vo.

—— Manual of Elementary Geology. By Sir Charles Lyell. London, 1865. 8vo.

History.—Blair's Chronological and Historical Tables from the Creation to the present times.... [Edited by Sir Henry Ellis.] Imp. 8vo. London, 1844.

—— Atlas Universel d'Histoire et de Geographie contenant 1^e la Chronologie.... 2^e la Geneologie.... 3^e la Geographie.... Par M.N. Bouillet. Deuxieme edition. Paris, 1872. 8vo.

—— Dictionnaire Universel d'Histoire et de Geographie contenant 1^e l'Histoire proprement dite.... 2^e la Biographie Universelle.... 3^e la Mythologie.... 4^e la Geographie ancienne et moderne. Par M.N. Bouillet ... ouvrage revu et continue par A Chassang. Nouvelle edition (vingt-cinquieme), avec un Supplement. Paris, 1876. 8vo.

—— The Map of Europe by Treaty, showing the various political and territorial changes which have taken place since the General Peace of 1814, with numerous maps and notes. By Edward Hertslet, C.B. London, 1875. Vol. 1, 1814-1827; vol. 2, 1828-1863; vol. 3, 1864-1875.—This work shows the changes which have taken place in the Map of Europe by Treaty or other International arrangements. It contains a List of Treaties, etc., between Great Britain and Foreign Powers for the maintenance of the Peace of Europe and for the Settlement of European Questions, 1814-75.

History.—Moniteur des Dates, contenant un million des renseignements biographiques, genealogiques et historiques. Par Edouard Oettinger. Dresde, 1866-68. 6 thin vols. 4to. Tomes 7, 8, 9, Supplement commence par E.M. Oettinger considerablement augmente ... par Dr. Hugo Schramm. Leipzig, 1873-1882.

—— Haydn's Dictionary of Dates and Universal Information relating to all Ages. 16th edition, by Benjamin Vincent. London.

—— The Manual of Dates. A Dictionary of Reference of the most important facts and events in the History of the World. By George H. Townsend. Fifth edition entirely remodelled and edited by Frederick Martin. London, 1877. 8vo.

—— Encyclopaedia of Chronology, Historical and Biographical. By B.B. Woodward, B.A., and William L.R. Gates. London, 1872. 8vo.

—— The Dictionary of Chronology, or Historical and Statistical Register. Compiled and edited by William Henry Overall, F.S.A. London, 1870. 8vo.

—— The Anniversary Calendar, Natal Book, and Universal Mirror; embracing anniversaries of persons, events, institutions, and festivals, of all denominations, historical, sacred and domestic, in every period and state of the world. London, 1832. 2 vols. 8vo.

History.—An Epitome of the Civil and Literary Chronology of Rome and Constantinople, from the death of Augustus to the death of Heraclius. By Henry Fynes Clinton, M.A. Edited by the Rev. C.J. Fynes Clinton, M.A. Oxford, 1853. 8vo.

—— Fasti Romani: the Civil and Literary Chronology of Rome and Constantinople, from the death of Augustus to the death of Justin II. [to the death of Heraclius]. By Henry Fynes Clinton, M.A. Oxford, 1845-50. 2 vols. 4to.

—— Fasti Hellenici: the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the earliest accounts to the death of Augustus. By Henry Fynes Clinton, M.A. Oxford, 1834-51. 3 vols. 4to.

—— Descriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to the History of Great Britain and Ireland to the end of the reign of Henry VII. By Thomas Duffus Hardy. London, 1862-71. Vol. I. From the Roman Period to the Norman Invasion. Vol. II. A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1200. Vol. III. A.D. 1200 to A.D. 1327.

—— The Dictionary of English History. Edited by Sidney J. Low, B.A., and F.S. Pulling, M.A. London, 1884. 8vo.

—— Introduction to the Study of English History. By Samuel R. Gardiner, Hon. LL.D., and J. Bass Mullinger, M.A. London, 1881. 8vo. The Second part by Mr. Mullinger is devoted to Authorities, and is a model of what such a work should be.

History.—Handy-Book of Rules and Tables for Verifying Dates with the Christian Era ... with Regnal years of English Sovereigns from the Norman Conquest to the present time, A.D. 1066 to 1874. By John J. Bond. London, 1875. Sm. 8vo.

—— The Annals of England: an Epitome of English History, from contemporary writers, the Rolls of Parliament and other Public Records. Library Edition. Oxford and London, 1876. 8vo. Contains some valuable information as to the sources of history in the Appendix.

—— The Representative History of Great Britain and Ireland, being a History of the House of Commons and of the Counties, Cities, and Boroughs of the United Kingdom from the earliest period. By T.H.B. Oldfield. London, 1816. 6 vols. 8vo.

—— An Index to "The Times," and to the topics and events of the year 1862. [By J. Giddings.] London, 1863. 8vo.

—— An Index to "The Times," and to the topics and events of the year 1863. By J. Giddings. London, 1864. 8vo.

—— Index to "The Times" Newspaper, 1864, to September, 1885. London. 410.

—— Annals of our Time, from the accession of Queen Victoria, 1837, to the Peace of Versailles, 1871. By J. Irving. London, 1871. 8vo. Supplement (Feb. 1871-July, 1878). London, 1879. 8vo.

(France.)—Dictionnaire Historique de la France.... Par Ludovic Lalanne. Paris, 1872. 8vo.

* * * * *

Insurance.—The Insurance Cyclopaedia, being a Dictionary of the definition of terms used in connexion with the theory and practice of Insurance in all its branches; a Biographical Summary ... a Bibliographical Reportery.... By Cornelius Walford. London, vol. 1, 1871, to vol. 6. Royal 8vo.

Language.—See Dictionaries, Philology.

Law.—The Law-Dictionary, explaining the rise, progress, and present state of the British Law.... By Sir Thomas Edlyne Tomlins; fourth edition by Thomas Colpitts Granger. London, 1835. 2 vols. 4to.

—— Wharton's Law-Lexicon, forming an Epitome of the Law of England ... seventh edition by J.M. Lely, M.A. London, 1863. Royal 8vo.

—— A Law Dictionary, adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America and of the several States of the American Union.... By John Bouvier. Fourteenth edition. Philadelphia, 1870.

—— The Lawyer's Reference Manual of Law Books and Citations. By Charles C. Soule. Boston, 1883. 8vo.

—— Ancient Law; its connection with the early history of Society, and its relation to modern ideas. By H.S. Maine. London, 1861. 8vo.

Law.—Lectures in Jurisprudence. By John Austin. Third edition, revised and edited by R. Campbell. London, 1869. 3 vols. 8vo.

—— Justice of the Peace and Parish Officer. By R. Burn. The 30th edition was published in 1869. The 13th edition of Archbold's Justice of the Peace appeared in 1878.

—— Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. Student's edition.

Literature.

(English.)—Cyclopaedia of English Literature. Edited by Robert Chambers. Edinburgh, 1843. New edition by Robert Carruthers. Edinburgh. 2 vols. Royal 8vo.

—— Dictionary of English Literature, being a Comprehensive Guide to English Authors and their Works. By Davenport Adams. London, n.d. Sq. 8vo.

—— Professor Henry Morley's English Writers, his Tables of English Literature, and his volumes of Selections, entitled Library of English Literature, will be found of great value.

(American.)—Cyclopaedia of American Literature: embracing personal and critical Notices of Authors, and selections from their writings.... By Evert A. Duyckinck and George L. Duyckinck. Edited to date by M. Laird Simons. Philadelphia, 1877. 2 vols. Imp. 8vo.

—— The Poets and Poetry of Europe, with Introductions and Biographical Notices, by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. London, 1855. Roy. 8vo.

(Polish.)—Bentkowskiego (F.). Historya Literatury Polskiey. Warszawie, 1814. 2 vols. 8vo.

(Russian.)—Otto (Friedrich). History of Russian Literature, with a Lexicon of Russian Authors. Translated from the German by George Cox. Oxford, 1839. 8vo.

(Spanish.)—Ticknor (George). History of Spanish Literature. New York, 1849. 3 vols. 8vo.

(Classical.)—A History of Latin Literature from Ennius to Boethius. By George Augustus Simcox, M.A. London, 1883. 2 vols. 8vo.

—— A History of Roman Classical Literature. By R.W. Browne, M.A. London, 1884. 8vo.

—— A History of Roman Literature. By W.S. Teuffel, translated by Wilhelm Wagner, Ph.D. London, 1873. 2 vols. 8vo.

—— Bibliographical Clue to Latin Literature. Edited after Dr. E. Huebner, with large additions by the Rev. John E.B. Mayor. London, 1875. 12mo.

—— Guide to the Choice of Classical Books. By Joseph B. Mayor. Third edition, with Supplementary List. London, 1885.

* * * * *

Manuscripts.—Guide to the Historian, the Biographer, the Antiquary, the man of literary curiosity, and the collector of autographs, towards the verification of Manuscripts, by reference to engraved facsimiles of handwriting. [By Dawson Turner.] Yarmouth, 1848. Roy. 8vo. A most valuable alphabetical Index of the names of celebrated men, with references to the books where specimens of their writing can be found.

Mathematics.—Dictionnaire des Mathematiques appliques.... Par H. Sonnet. Paris, 1867. Roy. 8vo.

Mechanics.—Knight's American Mechanical Dictionary.... By Edward H. Knight. London and New York, 1874-77. 3 vols. royal 8vo.

—— Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts, Mechanical and Chemical, Manufactures, Mining and Engineering. Edited by Charles Tomlinson. London, 1866. 3 vols. roy. 8vo.

Medical.—The Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology. Edited by Robert B. Todd, M.D., F.R.S. London, 1835-59. 5 vols, in 6, royal 8vo.

—— A Dictionary of Practical Medicine.... By James Copland. London, 1858. 3 vols. 8vo.

—— An Expository Lexicon of the terms, ancient and modern, in Medical and General Science; including a complete Medico-Legal Vocabulary.... By R.G. Mayne, M.D. London, 1860. 8vo.

—— Cooper's Dictionary of Practical Surgery and Encyclopaedia of Surgical Science. New edition brought down to the present time by Samuel A. Lane. London, 1872. 2 vols, royal 8vo.

—— Medical Lexicon: a Dictionary of Medical Science ... by Robley Dunglison, M.D., LL.D. A new edition enlarged and thoroughly revised by Richard J. Dunglison, M.D. Philadelphia, 1874. Roy. 8vo.

Monograms.—Dictionnaire des Monogrammes, marques figurees, lettres initiales, noms abreges, etc., avec lesquels les Peintres, Dessinateurs, Graveurs et Sculpteurs ont designe leurs noms. Par Francois Brulliot. Nouvelle edition. Munich, 1832-34. 3 parts. Imp. 8vo.

Music.—General History of the Science and Practice of Music. By Sir John Hawkins. London, 1776. 5 vols. 4to.

—— History of Music from the earliest ages to the present period. By Charles Burney. London, 1776-89. 4 vols. 4to.

—— Biographie Universelle des Musiciens et Bibliographie generale de la musique. Par F.J. Fetis. Deuxieme edition. Paris, 1860-65. 8 vols. roy. 8vo.

—— Supplement et Complement, publies sous la direction de M. Arthur Pougin. Paris, 1878-80. 2 vols. roy. 8vo.

—— Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Edited by [Sir] G. Grove. London, 1878. 8vo. In progress.

Mythology.—Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, edited by Dr. W. Smith. 1845-48. 3 vols. 8vo.

Natural History.—Dictionary of Natural History Terms, with their derivations, including the various orders, genera, and species. By David H. McNicoll, M.D. London, 1863. Sm. 8vo.

Natural History.—See Botany, Zoology.

Painters.—A General Dictionary of Painters.... By Matthew Pilkington, A.M. A new edition, corrected and revised by R. A. Davenport. London, 1852. 8vo.

—— A Catalague Raisonne of the Works of the most eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Painters, ... to which is added a Brief Notice of the Scholars and Imitators of the Great Masters of the above schools. By John Smith. London, 1829-42. 9 parts. Roy. 8vo.

—— The Picture Collector's Manual, adapted to the Professional Man and the Amateur; being a Dictionary of Painters ... together with an alphabetical arrangement of the Scholars, Imitators, and Copyists of the various masters, and a Classification of Subjects. By James R. Hobbes. London, 1849. 2 vols. 8vo.

Peerage.—Courthope's "Historical Peerage," founded on Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas's "Synopsis of the Peerage," is an indispensable work, but it only refers to English Titles. Mr. Solly's "Index of Hereditary Titles of Honour" contains the Peerage and Baronetage of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

—— The Official Baronage of England, 1066 to 1885, by James E. Doyle (vols. 1-3. 4to.), has just appeared.

Peerage.—Of the current peerages, Burke's, Dod's, Debrett's, and Foster's, all have their points of merit.

Periodicals.—Catalogue of Scientific Serials of all countries, including the Transactions of Learned Societies in the Natural, Physical and Mathematical Sciences, 1633-1876. By Samuel H. Scudder. Library of Harvard University, 1879. 8vo.—In this valuable list of periodicals, which is arranged geographically according to countries with an alphabet under each country, transactions and journals are joined together in the same arrangement. At the end there are an Index of Towns, an Index of Titles, and an Index of Minor Subjects.

—— An Index to Periodical Literature. By Wm. Fred. Poole. New York. Roy. 8vo. 1st ed. 1843; 2nd ed. 1848; 3rd ed. 1882.

—— Catalogue of Scientific Papers (1800-1863). Compiled and published by the Royal Society of London. London, 1867-72. 6 vols. 4to. (1864-73.) Vol. 7, 1877; Vol. 8, 1879.—Vol. 1, A-Clu; Vol. 2, Coa-Gra; Vol. 3, Gre-Lez; Vol. 4, Lhe-Poz; Vol. 5, Pra-Tiz; Vol. 6, Tka-Zyl; Vol. 7, A-Hyr; Vol. 8, I-Zwi.

—— The celebrated Dr. Thomas Young published in the second volume of his Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts (1807) a most valuable Catalogue of books and papers relating to the subject of his Lectures, which is classified minutely, and occupies 514 quarto pages in double columns. In Kelland's new edition (1845) the references are abridged and inserted after the several lectures to which they refer.

Philology.—Max Mueller's "Lectures on the Science of Language"; Marsh's "Lectures" and "Origin and History of the English Language"; Abp. Trench's "English. Past and Present"; "Select Glossary."

Physics.—Elementary Treatise on Natural Philosophy. By A. P. Deschanel. 8vo.

—— Elementary Treatise on Physics. By A. Ganot, edited by E. Atkinson. Sm. 8vo.

Plate.—Old English Plate, ecclesiastical, decorative, and domestic, its makers and marks. By Wilfred Joseph Cripps, M.A., F.S.A. Second edition. London, 1881. 8vo.

Plays.—See Drama.

Pottery.—Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain of the Renaissance and Modern periods, with historical notices of each Manufactory.... By William Chaffers. Fourth edition. London, 1874. Roy. 8vo.

Prices.—History of Prices from 1793 to 1856. By Thomas Tooke and William Newmarch. London, 1838-57. 6 vols. 8vo.

Prints.—An Introduction to the Study and Collection of Ancient Prints. By William Hughes Willshire, M.D. Edin. Second edition, revised and enlarged. London, 1877. 2 vols. 8vo.

—— The Print Collector, an Introduction to the Knowledge necessary for forming a Collection of Ancient Prints. By J. Maberly, ... Edited with Notes, an Account of Contemporary Etching and Etchers, and a Bibliography of Engraving. By Robert Hoe, jun. New York, 1880. Sq. 8vo.

—— Etching and Etchers. By P.G. Hamerton. New edition. London, 1876. 8vo.

Printing.—Typographia or the Printers' Instructor: including an Account of the Origin of Printing.... By J. Johnson, Printer. London, 1824. 2 vols. 8vo.

—— A Dictionary of the Art of Printing. By William Savage. London, 1841. 8vo.

Proverbs.—A Hand-Book of Proverbs, comprising an entire republication of Ray's Collection of English Proverbs ... and a complete alphabetical Index ... in which are introduced large additions collected by Henry G. Bohn, 1857. London, 1872.

—— A Polyglot of Foreign Proverbs, comprising French, Italian, German, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, and Danish, with English translations and a general Index. By Henry G. Bohn. London, 1867.

—— English Proverbs and Proverbial Phrases collected from the most authentic sources, alphabetically arranged and annotated. By W. Carew Hazlitt. London, 1869. 8vo. Second edition. London, 1882. Sm. 8vo.

Quotations.—Many Thoughts of Many Minds: being a Treasury of References, consisting of Selections from the Writings of the most celebrated Authors. Compiled and analytically arranged by Henry Southgate. Third edition. London, 1862. 8vo. Second Series. London, 1871. 8vo.

Quotations.—Noble Thoughts in Noble Language: a Collection of Wise and Virtuous Utterances in Prose and Verse, from the writings of the known good and the great unknown. Edited by Henry Southgate. London. 8vo.

—— Prose Quotations from Socrates to Macaulay, with Indexes. By S. Austin Allibone. Philadelphia, 1876. Roy. 8vo.

—— Poetical Quotations from Chaucer to Tennyson, with copious Indexes. By S. Austin Allibone. Philadelphia, 1875. Roy. 8vo.

—— A Dictionary of Quotations from the English Poets. By Henry G. Bohn. London, 1867. Sq. 8vo. Second edition. London. Sm. 8vo.

—— An Index to Familiar Quotations, selected principally from British Authors, with parallel passages from various writers, ancient and modern. By J.C. Grocott. Liverpool, 1863. Sm. 8vo.

—— Familiar Quotations: being an attempt to trace to their source passages and phrases in common use. By John Bartlett. Author's edition. London, Sm. 8vo.

—— Words, Facts and Phrases, a Dictionary of Curious, Quaint, and Out-of-the-Way Matters. By Eliezer Edwards. London, 1882. Sm. 8vo.

Quotations.—The Reader's Handbook of Allusions, References, Plots and Stories, with their appendices. By the Rev. E. Brewer, LL.D.... Third edition. London, 1882. Sm. 8vo.

—— Dictionary of Phrase and Fable.... By the Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D. Twelfth edition. London, no date.

—— A Dictionary of Latin and Greek Quotations, Proverbs, Maxims and Mottos, Classical and Mediaeval, including Law Terms and Phrases. Edited by H.T. Riley, B.A. London, 1880. Sm. 8vo.

Receipts.—Cooley's Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts and Collateral Information in the Arts, Manufactures, Professions and Trades ... designed as a comprehensive Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia.... Sixth edition, revised and greatly enlarged by Richard V. Tuson. London, 1880. 2 vols. 8vo.

Records.—Handbook of the Public Record Office. By F.S. Thomas, Secretary of the Public Record Office. London, 1853. Roy. 8vo.

—— Index to the Printed Reports of Sir Francis Palgrave, K.H., the Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records, 1840-1861. London, 1865. By John Edwards and Edward James Tabrum. In one alphabet.

Ritual.—Hierurgia; or, Transubstantiation, Invocation of Saints, Relics and Purgatory, besides those other articles of Doctrine set forth in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass expounded; and the use of Holy Water, Incense, and Images [etc.] Illustrated. By D. Rock, D.D. Second edition. London, 1851. 8vo.

Ritual.—Hierurgia Anglicana; or, Documents and Extracts illustrative of the Ritual of the Church in England after the Reformation. Edited by Members of the Ecclesiological, late Cambridge Camden Society. London, 1848. 8vo.

Sports.—An Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports, or complete account (historical, practical, and descriptive) of Hunting, Shooting, Fishing, Racing, etc., etc. By Delabere P. Blaine. A new edition. London, 1840. 8vo.

Taxes.—A Sketch of the History of Taxes in England from the earliest times to the present day. By Stephen Dowell. London, 1876. 8vo. Vol. 1 to the Civil War 1642.

Theology.—See Ecclesiology.

Topography.—A Topographical Dictionary of England.... By Samuel Lewis. Seventh edition. London, 1849.

—— A Topographical Dictionary of Wales.... By Samuel Lewis. Fourth edition. London, 1849. 2 vols. 4to.

—— A Topographical Dictionary of Ireland.... By Samuel Lewis. Second edition. London, 1842. 2 vols. 4to.

—— See Geography.

Wills.—An Index to Wills proved in the Court of the Chancellor of the University of Oxford, and to such of the records and other instruments and papers of that Court as relate to matters or causes testamentary. By the Rev. John Griffiths, M.A., Keeper of the Archives. Oxford, 1862. Roy. 8vo. In one alphabet, with a chronological list appended.

Zoology.—Nomenclator Zoologicus, continens Nomina Systematica Generum Animalium tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita, adjectis auctoribus, libris in quibus reperiuntur, anno editionis, etymologia et familiis, ad quas pertinent, in singulis classibus. Auctore L. Agassiz.... Soliduri, 1842-46. 4to.

—— Nomenclator Zoologicus, continens Nomina Systematica generum animalium tam viventium quam fossilium, secundum ordinem alphabeticum disposita sub auspicis et sumptibus C.R. Societatis Zoologico-Botanicae conscriptus a Comite Augusto de Marschall [1846-1868]. Vindobonae, 1873. 8vo.

2. Country.

A library in a large country house should contain a representative collection of English literature, and also a selection of books of reference from the previous list. Standard Authors, in their best editions, County Histories, Books of Travel, Books on Art, and a representative collection of good novels, will of course find a place upon the shelves. A book such as Stevens's My English Library will be a good guide to the foundation of the library, but each collector will have his special tastes, and he will need guidance from the more particular bibliographies which are ready to his hand, and a note of which will be found in Chapter V. Room will also be found for sets of Magazines, such as the Gentleman's, the Edinburgh, and the Quarterly, and for the Transactions of such Societies as the owner may be member of. The issues of Publishing Societies form quite a library of themselves, and an account of these will be found in Chapter VII.

We have seen on a previous page how Napoleon wished to form a convenient travelling library, in which everything necessary could be presented in a comparatively small number of handy volumes. Few men are like Napoleon in the wish to carry such a library about with them; but where space is scarce there are many who find it necessary to exercise a wise spirit of selection. This, however, each man must do for himself, as tastes differ so widely.

Auguste Comte succeeded in selecting a library in which all that it is necessary for a Positivist to know is included in 150 volumes, but this result is obtained by putting two or more books together to form one volume.

POSITIVIST LIBRARY FOR THE 19TH CENTURY.

150 Volumes.

I. Poetry. (Thirty Volumes.)

The Iliad and the Odyssey, in 1 vol. without notes.

AEschylus, the King OEdipus of Sophocles, and Aristophanes, in 1 vol. without notes.

Pindar and Theocritus, with Daphnis and Chloe, in 1 vol. without notes.

Plautus and Terence, in 1 vol. without notes.

Virgil complete, Selections from Horace, and Lucan, in 1 vol. without notes.

Ovid, Tibullus, Juvenal, in 1 vol. without notes.

Fabliaux du Moyen Age, recueillies par Legrand D'Aussy.

Dante, Ariosto, Tasso, and Petrarch, in 1 vol. in Italian.

Select Plays of Metastasio and Alfieri, also in Italian.

I Promessi Sposi, by Manzoni, in 1 vol. in Italian.

Don Quixote, and the Exemplary Novels of Cervantes, in Spanish, in 1 vol.

Select Spanish Dramas, a collection edited by Don Jose Segundo Florez, in 1 vol. in Spanish.

The Romancero Espagnol, a selection, with the poem of the Cid, 1 vol. in Spanish.

Select Plays of P. Corneille.

Moliere, complete.

Select Plays of Racine and Voltaire, in 1 vol.

La Fontaine's Fables, with some from Lamotte and Florian.

Gil Blas, by Lesage.

The Princess of Cleves, Paul and Virginia, and the Last of the Abencerrages, to be collected in 1 vol.

Les Martyres, par Chateaubriand.

Select Plays of Shakespeare.

Paradise Lost and Lyrical Poems of Milton.

Robinson Crusoe and the Vicar of Wakefield, in 1 vol.

Tom Jones, by Fielding, in English, or translated by Cheron.

The seven masterpieces of Walter Scott—Ivanhoe, Waverley, the Fair Maid of Perth, Quentin Durward, Woodstock (Les Puritains), the Heart of Midlothian, the Antiquary.

Select Works of Byron, Don Juan in particular to be suppressed.

Select Works of Goethe.

The Arabian Nights.

II. Science. (Thirty Volumes.)

Arithmetic of Condorcet, Algebra, and Geometry of Clairaut, the Trigonometry of Lacroix or Legendre, to form 1 vol.

Analytical Geometry of Auguste Comte, preceded by the Geometry of Descartes.

Statics, by Poinsot, with all his Memoirs on Mechanics.

Course of Analysis given by Navier at the Ecole Polytechnique, preceded by the Reflections on the Infinitesimal Calculus by Carnot.

Course of Mechanics given by Navier at the Ecole Polytechnique, followed by the Essay of Carnot on Equilibrum and Motion.

Theory of Functions, by Lagrange.

Popular Astronomy of Auguste Comte, followed by the Plurality of Worlds of Fontenelle.

Mechanical Physics of Fischer, translated and annotated by Biot.

Alphabetical Manual of Practical Philosophy, by John Carr.

The Chemistry of Lavoisier.

Chemical Statics, by Berthollet.

Elements of Chemistry, by James Graham.

Manual of Anatomy, by Meckel.

General Anatomy of Bichat, preceded by his Treatise on Life and Death.

The first volume of Blainville on the Organization of Animals.

Physiology of Richerand, with notes by Berard.

Systematic Essay on Biology, by Segond, and his Treatise on General Anatomy.

Nouveaux Elements de la Science de l'Homme, par Barthez (2nd edition, 1806).

La Philosophie Zoologique, par Lamarck.

Dumeril's Natural History.

The Treatise of Guglielmini on the Nature of Rivers (in Italian).

Discourses on the Nature of Animals, by Buffon.

The Art of Prolonging Human Life, by Hufeland, preceded by Hippocrates on Air, Water, and Situation, and followed by Cornaro's book on a Sober and Temperate Life, to form 1 vol.

L'Histoire des Phlegmasies Chroniques, par Broussais, preceded by his Propositions de Medecine, and the Aphorisms of Hippocrates (in Latin), without commentary.

Les Eloges des Savans, par Fontenelle et Condorcet.

III. History. (Sixty Volumes.)

L'Abrege de Geographie Universelle, par Malte Brun.

Geographical Dictionary of Rienzi.

Cook's Voyages, and those of Chardin.

History of the French Revolution, by Mignet.

Manual of Modern History, by Heeren.

Le Siecle de Louis XIV., par Voltaire.

Memoirs of Madame de Motteville.

The Political Testament of Richelieu, and the Life of Cromwell, to form 1 vol.

History of the Civil Wars of France, by Davila (in Italian).

Memoirs of Benvenuto Cellini (in Italian).

Memoirs of Commines.

L'Abrege de l'Histoire de France, par Bossuet.

The Revolutions of Italy, by Denina.

The History of Spain, by Ascargorta.

History of Charles V., by Robertson.

History of England, by Hume.

Europe in the Middle Ages, by Hallam.

Ecclesiastical History, by Fleury.

Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by Gibbon.

Manual of Ancient History, by Heeren.

Tacitus (Complete), the Translation of Dureau de la Malle.

Herodotus and Thucydides, in 1 vol.

Plutarch's Lives, translation of Dacier.

Caesar's Commentaries, and Arrian's Alexander, in 1 vol.

Voyage of Anacharsis, by Barthelemy.

History of Art among the Ancients, by Winckelmann.

Treatise on Painting, by Leonardo da Vinci (in Italian).

Memoirs on Music, by Gretry.

IV. Synthesis. (Thirty Volumes.)

Aristotle's Politics and Ethics, in 1 vol.

The Bible.

The Koran.

The City of God, by St. Augustine.

The Confessions of St. Augustine, followed by St. Bernard on the Love of God.

The Imitation of Jesus Christ, the original, and the translation into verse, by Corneille.

The Catechism of Montpellier, preceded by the Exposition of Catholic Doctrine, by Bossuet, and followed by St. Augustine's Commentary on the Sermon on the Mount.

L'Histoire des Variations Protestantes, par Bossuet.

Discourse on Method, by Descartes, preceded by the Novum Organum of Bacon, and followed by the Interpretation of Nature, by Diderot.

Selected Thoughts of Cicero, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, Pascal, and Vauvenargues, followed by Conseils d'une Mere, by Madame de Lambert, and Considerations sur les Moeurs, par Duclos.

Discourse on Universal History, by Bossuet, followed by the Esquisse Historique, by Condorcet.

Treatise on the Pope, by De Maistre, preceded by the Politique Sacree, by Bousset.

Hume's Philosophical Essays, preceded by the two Dissertations on the Deaf, and the Blind, by Diderot, and followed by Adam Smith's Essay on the History of Astronomy.

Theory of the Beautiful, by Barthez, preceded by the Essay on the Beautiful, by Diderot.

Les Rapports du Physique et du Moral de l'Homme, par Cabanis.

Treatise on the Functions of the Brain, by Gall, preceded by Letters on Animals, by Georges Leroy.

Le Traite sur l'Irritation et la Folie, par Broussais (first edition).

The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte (condensed by Miss Martineau), his Positive Politics, his Positivist Catechism, and his Subjective Synthesis.

Paris, 3 Dante 66 (Tuesday, 18th July, 1854). AUGUSTE COMTE, (10 rue Monsieur le Prince).



This is an interesting list as having been compiled with special thought by a celebrated man, but in many of its details it is little likely to find acceptance with the general reader. It seems rather odd to an Englishman to find the Princess of Cleves included, while Shakespeare is only to be found in a selection of his plays. It is not Comte's fault that science has not stood still since 1854, and that his selection of books is rather out of date.

A list of a hundred good novels is likely to be useful to many, but few lists would be open to more criticism, for readers differ more as to what constitutes a good novel than upon any other branch of literature. The following list was contributed by Mr. F.B. Perkins to the Library Journal (vol. i. p. 166). The titles are very short, and they are put down in no particular order. Most of us will miss some favourite book, but two people, Mr. Perkins says, have agreed on this list within four or five items. He says he was tempted to add a few alternatives, as Amadis de Gaul, Morte d'Arthur, Paul and Virginia, Frankenstein, Rasselas, etc.

Don Quixote. Gil Blas. Pilgrim's Progress. Tale of a Tub. Gulliver. Vicar of Wakefield. Robinson Crusoe. Arabian Nights. Decameron. Wilhelm Meister. Vathek. Corinne. Minister's Wooing. Undine. Sintram. Thisdolf. Peter Schlemihl. Sense and Sensibility. Pride and Prejudice. Anastasius. Amber Witch. Mary Powell. Household of Sir T. More. Cruise of the Midge. Guy Mannering. Antiquary. Bride of Lammermoor. Legend of Montrose. Rob Roy. Woodstock. Ivanhoe. Talisman. Fortunes of Nigel. Old Mortality. Quentin Durward. Heart of Midlothian. Kenilworth. Fair Maid of Perth. Vanity Fair. Pendennis. Newcomes. Esmond. Adam Bede. Mill on the Floss. Romola. Middlemarch. Pickwick. Chuzzlewit. Nickleby. Copperfield. Tale of Two Cities. Dombey. Oliver Twist. Tom Cringle's Log. Japhet in Search of a Father. Peter Simple. Midshipman Easy. Scarlet Letter. House with the Seven Gables. Wandering Jew. Mysteries of Paris. Humphry Clinker. Eugenie Grandet. Knickerbocker's New York. Charles O'Malley. Harry Lorrequer. Handy Andy. Elsie Venner. Challenge of Barletta. Betrothed (Manzoni's). Jane Eyre. Counterparts. Charles Auchester. Tom Brown's Schooldays. Tom Brown at Oxford. Lady Lee's Widowhood. Horseshoe Robinson. Pilot. Spy. Last of the Mohicans. My Novel. On the Heights. Bleak House. Tom Jones. Three Guardsmen. Monte Christo. Les Miserables. Notre Dame. Consuelo. Fadette (Fanchon). Uncle Tom's Cabin. Woman in White. Love me little love me long. Two Years Ago. Yeast. Coningsby. Young Duke. Hyperion. Kavanagh. Bachelor of the Albany.

FOOTNOTES:

[16] The Imperial Dictionary of the English Language: a Complete Encyclopaedic Lexicon, Literary, Scientific, and Technological. By John Ogilvie, LL.D. New edition. Carefully revised and greatly augmented, edited by Charles Annandale, M.A. London, 1882-83. 4 vols. Imp. 8vo.

[17] A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles, founded mainly on the materials collected by the Philological Society. Edited by James A.H. Murray, LL.D., with the assistance of many Scholars and Men of Science. Oxford, Clarendon Press. Royal 4to.

[18] A second edition appeared in 1871-72.



CHAPTER V.

GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

A good collection of bibliographies is indispensable for a public library, and will also be of great use in a private library when its possessor is a true lover of books. One of the most valuable catalogues of this class of books is the "Hand-List of Bibliographies, Classified Catalogues, and Indexes placed in the Reading Room of the British Museum for Reference" (1881). It is not intended to give in this chapter anything like a complete account of these books, as a separate volume would be required to do justice to them. Here it will be sufficient to indicate some of the foremost works in the class. The catalogues of some of our chief libraries are amongst the most valuable of bibliographies for reference. The Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution is one of the handsomest ever produced.[19] Unfortunately the cost of production was too great for the funds of the Institution, and the elaborate Catalogue of Tracts was discontinued after the letter F.

The London Library being a specially well-selected one, the catalogue (which is a good example of a short-titled catalogue) is particularly useful for ready reference.[20]

The Royal Institution Library is very rich in British Topography, and the catalogue forms a convenient handbook.[21]

The Catalogue of the Patent Office Library is by no means a model, but the second volume forms a good book of reference.[22] Many other catalogues might be mentioned, but these will be sufficient for our present purpose. There is great want of a good Handbook of Literature, with the prices of the different books. Until this want is supplied good booksellers' catalogues will be found the most trustworthy guides. Pre-eminent among these are the catalogues of Mr. Quaritch, and the "Catalogue of upwards of fifty thousand volumes of ancient and modern books," published by Messrs. Willis and Sotheran in 1862. Mr. Quaritch's catalogues are classified with an index of subjects and authors.[23] A previous General Catalogue was issued in 1874, and a Supplement 1875-77 (pp. iv. 1672). Now Mr. Quaritch is issuing in sections a new Catalogue on a still larger scale, which is of the greatest value.

For the study of early printed books, Hain,[24] Panzer,[25] and Maittaire's[26] books are indispensable.

For general literature Brunet's Manual[27] stands pre-eminent in its popularity. It has held its own since 1810, when it was first published in three volumes, demy octavo. Graesse's Tresor[28] is less known out of Germany, but it also is a work of very great value. Ebert's work[29] is somewhat out of date now, but it still has its use. Watt's Bibliotheca[30] is one of the most valuable bibliographies ever published, chiefly on account of the index of subjects which gives information that cannot be found elsewhere. The titles were largely taken from second-hand sources, and are in many instances marred by misprints. Every one who uses it must wish that it was brought down to date, but it is scarcely likely that any one will sacrifice a life to such labour as would be necessary. Moreover, the popular feeling is somewhat adverse to universal bibliographies, and it is thought that the literature of his own country is sufficiently large a subject for the bibliographer to devote his time to.

English literature has not been neglected by English bibliographers, although a full bibliography of our authors is still a crying want. Complete lists of the works of some of our greatest authors have still to be made, and it is to be hoped that all those who have the cause of bibliography at heart will join to remedy the great evil. It would be quite possible to compile a really national work by a system of co-operation such as was found workable in the case of the Philological Society's Dictionary of the English Language. Sub-editors of the different letters might be appointed, and to them all titles could be sent. When the question of printing arose, it would be well to commence with the chief authors. These bibliographies might be circulated, by which means many additions would be made to them, and then they could be incorporated in the general alphabet. In such a bibliography books in manuscript ought to be included, as well as printed books. Although there is little doubt that many books still remain unregistered, we are well supplied with catalogues of books made for trade purposes. Maunsell[31] was the first to publish such a list, and in 1631 was published a catalogue of books issued between 1626 and 1631.[32] William London[33] published his Catalogue in 1658, and Clavell's his in 1696.[34] Bent's Catalogue, published in 1786, went back to 1700,[35] and this was continued annually as the London Catalogue. The British and English Catalogues[36] followed, and the latter is also published annually.[37]

For early printed books, Ames and Herbert's great work[38] is of much value, but information respecting our old literature has increased so much of late that a new history of typographical antiquities is sadly needed. Mr. Blades has done the necessary work for Caxton, but the first English printer's successors require similar treatment.

William Thomas Lowndes, the son of an eminent bookseller and publisher, and himself a bookseller, published in 1834 his Bibliographer's Manual[39] which has remained the great authority for English Literature. It had become very scarce when Henry Bohn, in 1857, brought out a new edition with additions in a series of handy volumes, which is an indispensable book of reference, although it is far from being the complete work that is required.

Allibone's Dictionary[40] contains much that is omitted in Lowndes's Manual, but it is more literary than bibliographical in its scope. The well-selected criticisms appended to the titles of the several books are of considerable interest and value to the reader. Mr. W.C. Hazlitt's Handbooks[41] are exceedingly valuable as containing information respecting a class of books which has been much neglected in bibliographical works. The compiler has been indefatigable for some years past in registering the titles of rare books as they occurred at public sales.

Mr. Collier's account of rare books,[42] founded on his Bridgewater Catalogue (1837), is of great use for information respecting out-of-the-way literature, as also is Mr. Corser's descriptive Catalogue of Old English Poetry.[43]

Accounts of books published in Gaelic,[44] in Welsh,[45] and in Irish,[46] have been published. The works of American authors are included in Allibone's Dictionary, referred to under English literature, but special books have also been prepared, such as Truebner's Guide,[47] Stevens's American Books in the British Museum,[48] and Leypoldt's great book, the American Catalogue.[49] Catalogues of Books on America, such as those of Obadiah Rich, have also been compiled, but these are more properly special bibliographies. France has always stood in a foremost position in respect to bibliography, and she alone has a national work on her literature, which stands in the very first rank—this is due to the enthusiastic bibliographer Querard.[50] A better model as to what a national bibliography should be could not well be found. The catalogue of current literature, which bears the name of O. Lorenz, is also an excellent work.[51]

German literature has been, and is, well registered. Heyse,[52] Maltzahn,[53] Heinsius,[54] and Kayser,[55] have all produced valuable works. Heinsius published his original Lexicon in 1812, and Kayser his in 1834, and Supplements to both of these have been published about every ten years. A more condensed work was commenced by A. Kirchhoff in 1856, containing the catalogue of works published from 1851 to 1855; a second volume of the next five years appeared in 1861, and since Kirchhoff's death Hinrichs has published a volume every five years. The Leipzig Book-fairs have had their catalogues ever since 1594, and the half-yearly volumes now bearing the name of Hinrichs,[56] which have been published regularly since 1798, and to which the Fair catalogues succumbed in 1855, may be considered as their legitimate successors.

The Literature of Holland is well recorded by Campbell[57] and Abkoude,[58] and for Belgium there is the Bibliographie de Belgique.[59] Italy can boast of a Gamba[60] and a Bertocci,[61] and a public office publishes the Bibliografia Italiana.[62]

Spain is fortunate in possessing a splendid piece of bibliography in the great works of Antonio.[63] Some years ago, when I was occupied in cataloguing one of the chief collections of Spanish books in this country, I was in the daily habit of consulting these Bibliothecas, and while comparing the books themselves with the printed titles, I seldom found a mistake. Hidalgo's[64] work and the Boletin[65] show that at the present time bibliography is not neglected in that country.

The works of Barbosa Machado[66] and Silva[67] show that Portugal is not behind the sister kingdom in the love for bibliography.

Bibliographies of other countries might be mentioned here, but space will not permit. There is one branch of general bibliography to which special attention has been paid for a long period of years. O. Placcius published his Theatrum Anonymorum et Pseudonymorum at Hamburgh in 1674 (2nd ed. 1708). Villani continued the record of pseudonymous literature by publishing at Parma, in 1689, a small volume entitled La Visiera alzata. J.C. Mylius published his Bibliotheca Anonymorum et Pseudonymorum at Hamburgh in 1740.

Barbier's great work on the Anonymous in French Literature was first published in 1806-8, the second edition appeared in 1822-27, and the third in 1872-78, as a continuation to the second edition of Querard's Les Supercheries Litteraires. Querard's work is more curious than useful, because the author has entered into minute questions of authorship which do not really belong to the domain of bibliography. Manne's volume (1834) is not of much value. Lancetti published an octavo volume on Pseudonyms in Italian (1836), but Barbier's work was not worthily imitated in any other country until Mr. Paterson commenced the publication of the very valuable work of the late Mr. Halkett.[68]

FOOTNOTES:

[19] A Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution, systematically classed. [London] 1835. 5 vols. royal 8vo. Vol. 1 (1835), General Library; vol. 2 (1840), Tracts and Pamphlets arranged in alphabetical order as far as the letter F. (never completed); vol. 3 (1843), General Library, Additions; vol. 4 (1852), Additions from 1843 to 1852.

[20] Catalogue of the London Library, 12, St. James's Square, S.W. With Preface, Laws and Regulations, List of Members and Classified Index of Subjects. By Robert Harrison. Fourth edition. Sold at the Library, 1875, royal 8vo. pp. 1022.

—— Supplemental Volume, 1875-1880, sold at the Library, 1881, royal 8vo. pp. 219.

[21] A New Classified Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Institution of Great Britain with Indexes of Authors and Subjects, and a list of Historical Pamphlets, Chronologically arranged. By Benjamin Vincent. London. Sold at the Royal Institution. 1857, 8vo. pp. xvii.-928.

—— Vol. II., including the Additions from 1857 to 1882. London. Sold at the Royal Institution. 1882. 8vo. pp. xvii.-388.

[22] Catalogue of the Library of the Patent Office, arranged alphabetically. In two volumes: vol. 1, Authors; vol. 2, Subjects. London. Published and Sold at the Commissioners of Patents Sale Department. 1881-83. Royal 8vo.

[23] A General Catalogue of Books, offered for sale to the public at the affixed prices. By Bernard Quaritch London, 15, Piccadilly, 1880. 8vo. pp. x.-2395.

[24] 1457-1500. HAIN (L.). Repertorium Bibliographicum in quo libri omnes ab arte typographica inventa usque ad annum MD typis expressi, ordine alphabetico vel simpliciter enumerantur vel adcuratius recensentur. Stuttgartiae, 1826-38. 2 vols. 8vo.

[25] 1457-1536. PANZER (G.W.). Annales Typographici ab artis inventae origine ad annum 1536. Norimbergae, 1793-1803. 11 vols. 4to.

[26] 1457-1664. MAITTAIRE (M.). Annales Typographici ab artis inventae origine ad annum 1664, cum Supplemento Michaelis Denisii. Hag. Com. et Viennae, 1719-89. 7 vols in 11 parts.

[27] BRUNET (J.C.). Manuel du Libraire, cinquieme edition. Paris, 1860-65. 6 vols. 8vo. Supplement par P. Deschamps et G. Brunet. Paris, 1878-80, 2 vols. Royal 8vo.

[28] GRAESSE (J.G.T.). Tresor de Livres rares et precieux ou Nouveau Dictionnaire Bibliographique. Dresde, 1859-69. 7 vols. 4to.

[29] EBERT (F.A.). Allgemeines bibliographisches Lexikon. Leipzig, 1821-30. 2 vols. 4to.

—— A General Bibliographical Dictionary, from the German [by A. Brown]. Oxford, 1837. 4 vols. 8vo.

[30] WATT (R.). Bibliotheca Britannica: a General Index to British and Foreign Literature. In two parts, Authors and Subjects. Edinburgh, 1824. 4 vols. 4to.

[31] Before 1595. MAUNSELL (A.). Catalogue of English printed Books. London, 1595. 4to. Part 1, Divinitie. Part 2, Sciences Mathematicall.

[32] 1626-1631. A Catalogue of certaine Bookes which have been published and (by authoritie) printed in England both in Latine and English, since the year 1626 until November, 1631. London, 1631. 4to.

[33] Before 1658. LONDON (WILLIAM). A Catalogue of the most vendible Books in England, orderly and alphabetically digested. With a Supplement. 1658-60. 4to.

[34] 1666-1695. CLAVELL (R.). General Catalogue of Books printed in England since the dreadful Fire of London, 1666. Fourth edition. London, 1696. Folio.

[35] 1700-1786. A General Catalogue of Books in all Languages, Arts, and Sciences, printed in Great Britain and published in London. London (W. Bent), 1786. 8vo.

1811. London Catalogue of Books. London (W. Bent), 1811. 8vo.

1810-1831. London Catalogue of Books. London (W. Bent), 1831. 8vo.

1816-1851. London Catalogue of Books. London (Hodgson), 1851. 8vo. Classified Index. London (Hodgson), 1853.

1831-1855. London Catalogue of Books. London (Hodgson), 1855.

[36] 1837-52. The British Catalogue. Sampson Low, 1853. And Index. 2 vols. 8vo.

[37] 1835-1880. The English Catalogue of Books. Sampson Low. And Indexes. 8vo. Continued annually.

[38] 1471-1600. AMES (JOSEPH). Typographical Antiquities: being an Historical Account of Printing in England, with some Memoirs of our Antient Printers, and a Register of the Books printed by them ... with an Appendix concerning Printing in Scotland, Ireland to the same time. London, 1749. 4to. 1 vol. Considerably augmented by W. Herbert. London, 1785-90. 3 vols. 4to. Enlarged by T.F. Dibdin. London, 1810-19. 4 vols. 4to.

[39] LOWNDES (W.T.), The Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature. London, 1834. 4 vols. 8vo. New Edition, by H.G. Bohn. London, 1857-64. 6 vols. Sm. 8vo.

[40] ALLIBONE (S.A.). Dictionary of English Literature, and British and American Authors. Philadelphia, 1859-71. 3 vols. Royal 8vo.

[41] HAZLITT (W. CAREW). Handbook to the Popular, Poetical, and Dramatic Literature of Great Britain, from the Invention of Printing to the Restoration. London (J. Russell Smith), 1867. 8vo.

—— Collections and Notes, 1867-1876. London (Reeves & Turner), 1876. 8vo.

—— Second Series of Bibliographical Collections and Notes on Early English Literature, 1474-1700. London (Bernard Quaritch), 1882.

[42] COLLIER (J.P.). A Bibliographical and Critical Account of the rarest books in the English language, alphabetically arranged. London, 1865. 2 vols. 8vo.

[43] CORSER (T.). Collectanea Anglo-Poetica; or a bibliographical and descriptive Catalogue of a portion of a Collection of Early English Poetry. Manchester (Chetham Society), 1860-79. 9 vols. Sm. 4to.

[44] Gaelic. Bibliotheca Scoto-Celtica; or, an account of all the books which have been published in the Gaelic Language. By John Reid. Glasgow, 1832. 8vo.

[45] Welsh. Cambrian Bibliography: containing an account of the books printed in the Welsh Language; or relating to Wales, from the year 1546 to the end of the 18th century. By W. Rowlands. Llanidloes, 1869. 8vo.

[46] Irish. Transactions of the Iberno-Celtic Society for 1820. Containing a chronological account of nearly four hundred Irish writers ... carried down to the year 1750, with a descriptive Catalogue of such of their works as are still extant. By E. O'Reilly. Dublin, 1820. 4to.

[47] Truebner's Bibliographical Guide to American Literature: a classed list of books published in the United States of America during the last forty years. London, 1859. 8vo.

[48] Catalogue of the American Books in the Library of the British Museum. Christmas, 1856. By H. Stevens. London, 1866. 8vo.

[49] The American Catalogue under the direction of F. Leypoldt. New York, 1880. 2 vols. 4to. Suppl. 1876-84. Compiled under the editorial direction of R.R. Bowker by Miss Appleton. New York, 1885.

[50] QUERARD (J.M.). La France Litteraire, ou Dictionnaire Bibliographique des Savants qui ont ecrit en francais, plus particulierement pendant les XVIII^e et XIX^e siecles. Paris, 1827-64. 12 vols. 8vo.

—— Litterature Francaise contemporaine (1826-49). Continuation de la France Litteraire. Paris, 1842-57. 6 vols. 8vo.

[51] LORENZ (O.). Catalogue de la Librairie Francaise 1840-1865. 4 vols. 1866-1875. 2 vols. 8vo. The Catalogue of Books from 1876 to 1885 is in preparation.

—— Tables des Matieres, 1840-1875. Paris, 1879-80. 2 vols. 8vo.

[52] [HEYSE (C.W.).] Buecherschatz der deutschen National-Litteratur des XVI und XVII Jahrhunderts. Systematisch geordnetes Verzeichniss einer reichhaltigen Sammlung deutschen Buechen. Berlin, 1854. 8vo.

[53] MALTZAHN (W. VON). Deutschen Buecherschatz des sechszehnten, siebenzehnten und achtzehnten bis um die Mitte des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. Jena, 1875. 8vo.

[54] HEINSIUS (W.). Allgemeines Buecher Lexicon, 1700-1815. Leipzig, 1812-56. 14 vols. 4to. 7th Supplement.

[55] KAYSER (C.G.). Index Librorum. Vollstaendiges Buecher-Lexicon, enthaltend alle von 1750 bis zu Ende des Jahres (-1876) in Deutschland ... gedruckten Buecher. Leipzig, 1834-77. 4to.

[56] HINRICHS (J.C.). Verzeichniss der Buecher ... welche in Deutschland vom Januar, 1877, bis zum (December, 1885) neu erschienen oder neu aufgelegt worden sind. Leipzig, 1876-80. 12mo. In progress.

—— Repertorium ueber die nach den ... Verzeichnissen, 1871-75, erschienenen Buecher. Von E. Baldamus. (1876-80.) Leipzig, 1877-82. 12mo.

[57] CAMPBELL (M.F.A.G.). Annales de la Typographie Neerlandaise au XV^e Siecle. La Haye, 1874. 8vo.

—— 1^{er} Supplement. La Haye, 1878. 8vo.

[58] ABKOUDE (J. VAN). Naamregister van de bekendste ... Nederduitsche Boeken ... 1600 tot 1761. Nu overzien en tot het jaar 1787 vermeerderd door R. Arrenberg. Rotterdam, 1788. 4to.

—— Alphabetische Naamlijst van Boeken 1790 tot 1832, Amsterdam, 1835. 4to. 1833-1875. Amsterdam, 1858-78. 3 vols. 4to.

—— Wetenschappelijk Register behoorende bij Brinkman's Alphabetische Naamlijsten van Boeken ... 1850-75 ... bewerkt door R. van der Meulen. Amsterdam, 1878. 4to.

[59] Bibliographie de Belgique. Journal Officiel de la Librairie. Annee 1. Bruxelles, 1876. 8vo.

[60] GAMBA (B.). Serie dei testi di Lingua Italiana e di altri opere importanti nella Italiana letteratura del Secolo XV al XIX. Quarta edizione. Venezia, 1839. 8vo.

[61] BERTOCCI (D.G.). Repertorio bibliografico delle opere stampate in Italia nel Secolo XIX. Vol. I. Roma, 1876. 8vo.

[62] Bibliografia Italiana: Giornale compilato sui documenti communicati dal Ministero dell'Istruzione Pubblica. Anno 1-14. 1867-80. Firenze, 1868-81. 8vo. In progress.

[63] ANTONIO (N.). Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus sive Hispani Scriptores ... ad annum Christi 1500 floruerunt. Matriti, 1788. 2 vols. Folia.

—— Bibliotheca Hispana Nova sive Hispanorum Scriptorum qui ab anno 1500 ad 1684 floruere notitia. Matriti, 1783-1788. 2 vols. Folio.

[64] HIDALGO (D.). Diccionario general de Bibliografia Espanola. Madrid, 1862-79. 6 vols. 8vo.

[65] Boletin de la Libreria. Ano 1. 1873. Madrid, 1874. 8vo. In progress.

[66] BARBOSA MACHADO (D.). Bibliotheca Lusitana, historica, critica e cronologica. Na qual se comprehende a noticia dos authores Portuguezes, e das obras que compuserao. Lisboa, 1741-59. 4 vols. Folio.

[67] SILVA (J.F. DA). Diccionario bibliographico Portuguez. Lisboa, 1858-70. Tom. 1-9. 8vo.

[68] A Dictionary of the Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature of Great Britain, including the works of Foreigners written in or translated into the English Language. By the late Samuel Halkett, and the late Rev. John Laing. Edinburgh (William Paterson), 1882-85. Vols. 1, 2, 3 (to 'Tis).



CHAPTER VI.

SPECIAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

Bibliographies of special subjects are more useful than any other books in the formation of a library. The articles in the new edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica will be found valuable for this purpose, but those who wish for fuller information must refer to Dr. Julius Petzholdt's elaborate Bibliotheca Bibliographica (Leipzig, 1866), or to the Bibliographie des Bibliographies of M. Leon Vallee (Paris, 1885). The late Mr. Cornelius Walford contributed a paper "On Special Collections of Books" to the Transactions of the Conference of Librarians, 1877 (pp. 45-49), in which he specially referred to the subject of Insurance.

In the present chapter I propose to refer to some of the most useful bibliographies, but to save space the full titles will not be given, and this is the less necessary as they can mostly be found in the above books or in that useful little volume we owe to the authorities of the British Museum—"Hand-list of Bibliographies, Classified Catalogues, and Indexes placed in the Reading-room," 1881.

Agriculture.—Weston's Tracts on Practical Agriculture and Gardening (1773), contains a Chronological Catalogue of English Authors, and Donaldson's Agricultural Biography (1854) brings the subject down to a later date. Victor Donatien de Musset-Pathay published a Bibliographie Agronomique in 1810, and Loudon's Encyclopaedia of Agriculture contains the Literature and Bibliography of Agriculture, British, French, German, and American.

Ana.—In Peignot's Repertoire de Bibliographies Speciales (1810) will be found at pp. 211-268, a list of books of Ana, and Gabriel Antoine Joseph Hecart published at Valenciennes, 1821, under the name of J.G. Phitakaer, a bibliography entitled "Anagrapheana." Namur's Bibliographie des Ouvrages publies sous le nom d'Ana was published at Bruxelles in 1839. The late Sir William Stirling Maxwell made a collection of books of Ana, a privately printed catalogue of which he issued in 1860.

Angling.—Sir Henry Ellis printed privately in 1811 a small octavo pamphlet of 21 pages which he entitled "A Catalogue of Books on Angling, with some brief notices of several of their authors," which was an extract from the British Bibliographer. In 1836, Pickering printed a Bibliotheca Piscatoria, which was formed upon Sir Henry Ellis's corrected copy of the above Catalogue. Mr. J. Russell Smith published in 1856 "A Bibliographical Catalogue of English writers on Angling and Ichthyology," which was soon superceded by the following work by Mr. T. Westwood. "A new Bibliotheca Piscatoria, or a general Catalogue of Angling and Fishing Literature." London, 1861 (another edition, edited conjointly with T. Satchell, 1883). Mr. R. Blakey published in 1855, "Angling Literature of all Nations." London, 1855. 12mo. Mr. J.J. Manley, M.A., published in 1883, "Literature of Sea and River Fishing," as one of the Handbooks of the International Fisheries Exhibition.

Architecture.—LACROIX (E.). Bibliographie des Ingenieurs, des Architectes, des Chefs d'Usines industrielles, des Eleves des Ecoles polytechniques et professionnelles et des Agriculteurs. Premiere (—Troisieme) Serie. Paris, 1864-67. 4to.

Assurance (Life).—Lewis Pocock published "A Chronological List of Books and Single Papers" relating to this subject in 1836, a second edition of which was published in 1842.

Astronomy.—Lalande published his valuable "Bibliographie Astronomique" at Paris, 1803. Otto Struve's Catalogue of the Library of the Pulkova Observatory, published at St. Petersburg in 1860, is highly esteemed by astronomers. The first part of the Catalogue of the United States Naval Observatory at Washington, by Prof. E.S. Holden, is devoted to Astronomical Bibliography.

—— HOUZEAU (J.C.) and LANCASTER (A.), Bibliographie generale de l'Astronomie. Bruxelles, 1880. 8vo. In progress.

—— Mr. E.B. Knobel, Secretary of the Royal Astronomical Society, printed in the Monthly Notices of that Society for November, 1876 (pp. 365-392), a very useful short Reference Catalogue of Astronomical Papers and Researches, referring more especially to (1) Double Stars; (2) Variable Stars; (3) Red Stars; (4) Nebulae and Clusters; (5) Proper Motions of Stars; (6) Parallax and Distance of Stars; (7) Star Spectra. Mr. E.S. Holden's "Index Catalogue of Books and Memoirs relating to Nebulae and Clusters of Stars" was printed in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections in 1877.

Bible.—The famous Le Long published at Paris, in 1713, his "Discours historiques sur les principales editions des Bibles polyglottes," and in 1723, in two volumes, folio, his great work "Bibliotheca Sacra." This was edited and continued by A.G. Masch, and published at Halae Magd. in five volumes, quarto. 1774-97. T. Llewelyn published in 1768 "Historical Account of the British or Welsh Versions and editions of the Bible." A privately printed "List of various editions of the Bible" was issued in 1778, which has been attributed to Dr. Ducarel. John Lewis's "Complete History of the several Translations of the Holy Bible and New Testament into English" was published in 1818, and Dr. Henry Cotton's "List of Editions" (Oxford, 1821, 2nd edition, 1852) was intended as an Appendix to that work. Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica was published at Edinburgh in 1824, and Hartwell Horne's Manual of Biblical Bibliography at London in 1839. Bagster's Bible in Every Land (1848), although not strictly bibliographical, must be mentioned here, because it gives under each language a notice of all versions published in that language. Lowndes' British Librarian or Book Collector's Guide. Class I. Religion and its History. London, 1839. 8vo. Parts 1, 2, 3 are devoted to Holy Scriptures, Biblical Commentaries, Biblical Disquisitions, Scripture Biography, Scripture Geography, etc. The work itself was left incomplete Dr. H. Cotton published at Oxford, in 1855, a work entitled "Rhemes and Doway. An Attempt to show what has been done by Roman Catholics for the diffusion of the Holy Scriptures in English." In 1859 J.G. Shea published at New York a "Bibliographical Account of Catholic Bibles, Testaments, and other portions of Scripture translated from the Latin Vulgate, and printed in the United States," and in 1861 E.B. O'Callaghan published at Albany a "List of editions of the Holy Scriptures and parts thereof, printed in America previous to 1860." E. Reuss published at Brunswick, in 1872, a Bibliography of the Greek New Testament. Dr. Isaac Hall printed a Critical Bibliography of American Greek Testaments at Philadelphia in 1883. Mr. Henry Stevens, the eminent bibliographer, is a special authority on Bibles, and his work, entitled "The Bibles in the Caxton Exhibition, 1877, or a bibliographical description of nearly one thousand representative Bibles in various languages, chronologically arranged" (London, 1878), contains some of the information he possesses.

Biography.—Oettinger's Bibliographie Biographique Universelle (1854) is a most useful work, although it is now unfortunately somewhat out of date.

Book-keeping.—B.F. Foster's Origin and Progress of Book-keeping (1852) contains an account of books published on this subject from 1543 to 1852.

Botany.—Pritzel's Thesaurus Literaturae Botanicae (1851, another edition 1872-77) is the Bibliography of the subject, and this work is supplemented by Mr. Daydon Jackson's Index of Botany, published by the Index Society. Trimen's Botanical Bibliography of the British counties, London, 1874. 8vo.

Chemistry.—R. Ruprecht, Bibliotheca Chemica et Pharmaceutica, 1858-70. Goettingen, 1872.

Classics.—Dr. Edward Harwood published his "View of the various editions of the Greek and Roman Classics" in 1790. He was followed in 1802 by Thomas Frognall Dibdin, whose work was much enlarged, and reappeared in several editions; the fourth and best being published in 1827 (2 vols. 8vo.). J.W. Moss published his "Manual of Classical Bibliography" in 1825, 2 vols. 8vo. Henry G. Bohn's General Catalogue, Part II. Section I. 1850, contains a valuable list of Greek and Latin Classics. Engelmann's Bibliotheca Scriptorum Classicorum et Graecorum et Latinorum (1858) is an elaborate work on the subject, and Professor John E.B. Mayor's translation and adaptation of Dr. Huebner's Bibliographical Clue to Latin Literature will be found to be a very useful handbook.

Commerce.—See Trade.

Dialects.—Mr. J. Russell Smith published, in 1839, a useful "Bibliographical List of the Works that have been published towards illustrating the Provincial Dialects of England" (24 pages). When the Rev. Professor Skeat started the English Dialect Society, he at once laid the foundation of an extensive Bibliographical List to include MSS. as well as printed works. This Bibliography is being published by the Society in parts.

Dictionaries.—William Marsden printed privately, in 1796, a valuable "Catalogue of Dictionaries, Vocabularies, Grammars, and Alphabets."

Dictionaries.—Truebner's Catalogue of Dictionaries and Grammars (1872, second edition 1882) is a very useful work. H.B. Wheatley's account of English Dictionaries was published in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1865.

Drama.—A notice of some books in the English Drama will be found in Chapter IV. The Bibliotheque Dramatique de Mons. de Soleinne (1843-44, 5 vols.), with its continuation to 1861, is a splendid Catalogue, in which the books are fully described, with valuable notes and preface.

Earthquakes.—Mr. Robert Mallet's Bibliography of Earthquakes will be found in the British Association Report for 1858, and Mons. Alexis Perrey's Bibliographie Seismique in the Dijon Memoires for 1855, 1856, and 1861.

Electricity.—Sir Francis Ronalds' Catalogue of Books and Papers relating to Electricity, Magnetism, and the Electric Telegraph (1880) contains a large number of titles. O. Salle's Bibliography of Electricity and Magnetism, 1860 to 1883, was published in 1884.

Entomology.—Dr. Hagen's Bibliotheca Entomologica (Leipzig, 1862-63) is a carefully compiled and useful book.

Epigrams.—There is a list of books connected with Epigrammatic Literature appended to The Epigrammatists, by the Rev. Philip Dodd. 8vo. London, 1870.

Fine Art.—The First Proofs of the Universal Catalogue of Books in Art, compiled for the use of the National Art Library and the Schools of Art in the United Kingdom. London, 1870. 2 vols. Sm. 4to. Supplement. London, 1877.

—— Essai d'une Bibliographie de l'Histoire speciale de la Peinture et de la Gravure en Hollande et en Belgique (1500-1875), par J.F. van Someren, Amsterdam, 1882. 8vo.

Freemasonry.—GOWANS (W.). Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry and kindred subjects. New York, 1858. 8vo.

—— HEMSWORTH (H.W.). Catalogue of Books in the Library at Freemasons' Hall, London. Privately printed.

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