Printer errors: A number of printer errors have been corrected. In addition, some punctuation errors have been corrected, but inconsistent hyphenation has been left as in the original.
Table of Contents: The original had a Table of Contents only for Part II (page 127), and it omits one of the sections. For the readers convenience, a full Table of Contents has been provided after the Preface.
HOW TO BECOME RICH
A Treatise on Phrenology Choice of Professions and Matrimony.
PROF. WILLIAM WINDSOR, LL. B., PH. D.
Phrenologist and Anthropologist,
Author of "Science of Creation," "Loma, a Citizen of Venus," Etc., Etc.
Brain is Money; Character is Capital; Knowledge of your Resources is the Secret of Success.
Third Edition Revised.
M. A. Donohue & Company Chicago New York
Copyright, 1898. by Prof. Wm. Windsor, LL. B. All Rights Reserved.
Made in U. S. A.
The unremitting demand made by an indulgent and appreciative public for a printed edition of the lectures delivered by me in my professional capacity, has furnished the motive for the publication of the present edition, comprising the three most popular lectures of my usual course, to mixed audiences. The work has been prepared for the press hurriedly, while under the strain of enormous professional and personal responsibilities, and during the busiest season of a professional practice, which already imposes the burden of fifteen hours per day of incessant labor, which may account for any inaccuracies, typographical or otherwise, which may appear. My lectures on Sexual and Creative Science, delivered to the sexes separately, are now in course of preparation, and will be given to the public in similar form as soon as practicable.
With the hope that this publication may serve to crystallize the doctrines I have so earnestly advocated in years past, and that they may, in this form, reach thousands who have not been able to come under my personal influence, in public lectures,
I am, fraternally, WILLIAM WINDSOR.
Preface. Phrenology. The State of the Health. Quality. Temperament. Electro-magnetic Temperaments. Anatomical Temperaments. Chemical Temperaments. Choice of Professions and Trades. Matrimony. Part II. Professional Interviews. Physiognomy of Matrimony. Some People You Meet. Study in Ancient Skulls. A Phrenological Study. Was Hawes Insane? How Living Heads and Dead Skulls are Measured. Crime and its Causes. A Murderers Mentality. Phrenology in Politics. Definitions of the Faculties of Intelligence. The Phrenological Examination. Examples of Phrenometrical Measurements. Examinations from Photographs. Advertisements The Grand Table of Vitosophy. Eat Some Sand! The Vitosophy Club Lessons. "The Solution of the Problem of Human Life". Donohues Hand Book and Manual of Information There is Money in Poultry
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:—
In presenting the Science of Phrenology to you to-night, I make one request, and hope you will grant it as a personal favor to me, that is, that you will dismiss from your minds everything that you ever heard about Phrenology and listen to my argument with your minds freed from the prejudices, favorable or unfavorable, that may have been created by other lecturers upon the subject, for this reason: There are, I regret to say, in our country, a class of men lecturing upon Phrenology, who have never mastered even the rudiments of the science; who have merely learned the location and nomenclature of the organs of the brain, and who, by flattery and cheap wit, degrade this noble science to the level of mere "bumpology," until the average good citizen who has never investigated the subject has come to look upon the term Phrenologist as signifying one who goes about over the country feeling the bumps on the heads of those who consult him, looking for hills and hollows, depressions and ridges of the cranium, and predicating thereon a delineation of character.
It is my happy privilege to-night to disabuse your minds of this conception, and to present Phrenology in its true light, and I bespeak from you the thoughtful consideration which an honest man may demand from honest thinking men and women in the investigation of a practical science.
I am always able to recognize in my audience, three classes of persons. I can tell them by their phrenological appearances whenever they are before me. The first class is composed of those who have already tested phrenology and found it valuable, who have studied the subject and appropriated its truths, and before whom I need not argue its utility. I shall be able to please the members of my audience who belong to this class, and to lead them further in the paths they have already found pleasant and profitable. I shall unfold some new truths and add to their store of valuable knowledge.
The second class is composed of that large number of intelligent persons, in every community, who have not investigated this subject, who are willing to approach it in a spirit of candor and honest inquiry, anxious to accept anything which is reasonable and good, and equally intent upon rejecting that which is fraudulent and evil, and I invite the careful criticism of this class; and if, in my exposition of this subject, I announce a single proposition which will not bear the closest scrutiny; if I say aught which conflicts with common sense or reason, nay, if you can find one single natural fact to militate against the principles which I announce as fundamental to this science, I will be obliged to the gentleman or lady who will raise the question with me, and I will either prove my position to the satisfaction of this audience or retire from the field forever.
The third class, unfortunately, are always with us, but I do not expect to convince them. They never were known to be convinced of anything. You can easily learn to distinguish an individual of this class by the shape of his head. Here is one I carry for illustration. He argues that the world is flat and does not revolve on its axis once in 24 hours, because, if it did, the water would all be spilled out of the Mississippi river. Life is too short to argue with this class, and I can only promise them that before I leave this platform they will be in the same category that a fellow was once who went to a prayer-meeting slightly intoxicated and fell asleep. Toward the close of the meeting everybody began to get happy, and the preacher called on everybody who wanted to go to Heaven to stand up. Everybody stood up but our intoxicated friend, who was awakened by the uprising. Then the preacher called on everybody who wanted to go to hell to stand up. Our friend by this time comprehended that something was before the house and staggered to his feet. He took one look at the preacher standing at the other end of the church and said: "Parson, (hic) I don't know what the question, is (hic) before the house, but you and I (hic) are in the smallest minority that ever I saw."
So it is with you, my friends. If you don't believe in Phrenology when I dismiss you to-night, remember that you are in the minority in this audience, and a very small minority at that, composed of unprogressive mossbacks and persons of small mental capacity, and if you will call at my rooms to-morrow, I'll tell you to which of these classes you belong.
In the study of scientific topics it is well in the outset to establish definitions. I will, therefore, commence by looking our subject squarely in the face, and establishing a concise definition of Phrenology.
PHRENOLOGY is the science of intelligence. It is derived from two Greek words—Phren intelligence Logos "discourse" or science. But before we can properly understand this definition we must have a definition of the term "Science," which is about as often misused as any word I know.
Science is classified knowledge. The word itself in its etymology signifies what we know about a particular subject. And whenever we learn two facts about any subject, and we differentiate and classify those two facts, we have a science of that subject. Thus we have the science of Astronomy, containing the classified facts that intelligent observers have learned concerning the stars. The science of Mathematics, a classification of knowledge concerning numbers, and the science of Phrenology, which simply means the facts that intelligent observers have collected concerning intelligence, classified and reduced to rules to serve a practical purpose.
Before I leave this term "Science," I wish to draw a distinction between a science and an art. The science is the classified knowledge; the art is the process of turning that knowledge to practical account. The science of Astronomy never discovered a star, the science of Arithmetic never computed the value of a fraction. The sciences are merely icebergs of cold, hard facts piled up in crystallized principles and rules. Art is the warm, living application of these principles and rules to serve the needs of mankind. The art of Astronomy, with the assistance of its handmaiden, the art of Mathematics, astounds the world with its achievements, and holds in one hand the balances with which it weighs the sun, and in the other the chain with which it surveys the distance to the Pleiades.
So with the Science and Art of Phrenology. The science is as absolute as Mathematics. In its principles there are no fallacies. To its rules there are absolutely no exceptions. The Art of Phrenology, on the other hand, is estimative, and the results of its application will depend on the graces, the gifts and the abilities of him who seeks to apply it. As we have brilliant astronomers and poor astronomers, as we have correct mathematicians and incorrect ones, so we may have phrenologists whose discoveries and whose workmanship may command the admiration of the world, those whose talents are of the order of mediocrity, and those who blunder on all occasions.
You have had Phrenology defined to you as the Science of Intelligence, and you naturally ask for a definition of intelligence itself.
Intelligence is the result of the radiation of magnetism from every object in the universe. Magnetism is radiated by different bodies in different degrees of intensity. Man is provided with seven distinct organs of sense, which receive and interpret these radiations. The lowest rate of vibration is received and interpreted by the sense of gender and the next stage by the sense of touch. Above that we have the senses of taste, hearing, sight, smell and clairvoyance. So that the human body is in reality a magnetic musical instrument of seven octaves, each octave constituting a separate sense and each sense subdivided into seven degrees. The radiation of magnetism from exterior objects strikes the human body in these different degrees of vibration and it is the ability of the body to receive these vibrations and of the brain to analyze them, which constitutes the intelligence of the individual. The absence of any organ of sense or the absence of any part of the brain needed in its analysis is accompanied by the corresponding absence or diminution of intelligence. Reasoning therefor from these premises it follows that by inspection of the organization of an individual and by careful examination of his organs of sense and brain capacity we are able to determine how much intelligence he possesses and in what direction it will be projected.
When we study its development and its deterioration, its faculties and their manifestation, we amass a glittering pile of brilliant facts; we classify those facts, reduce them to rules to serve the needs of the human race, and we have the science of Phrenology; and when we apply those rules in the practical delineation of character, we have the Art.
In regard to Phrenology being an exact science, I have shown you that the distinction must be drawn between the principles of the science and the results of their estimative application. The principles of the science are absolute. In his application of them the examiner is hampered by the frailties and fallibilities of the human intellect, just to the same extent that the skilled surgeon or the bright astronomer is subject to the same drawbacks. Would any sensible man decline the services of a skilled surgeon in the hour of need, because surgeons differ in judgment, or, in some cases, make mistakes. Astronomy is regarded as a wonderfully exact science because an eclipse can be computed one hundred years in advance to the fraction of a second, yet astronomers differ in regard to the distance of the sun from the earth to the trifling extent of six million miles. Shall we therefore reject astronomy?
Phrenology is not a fully-developed science. I am glad it is not. I would regret it if a bar should be set to the acquisition of knowledge upon this subject. As long as human intelligence advances, as long as the race improves, as long as men have eyes to see and intellects to comprehend scientific facts, Phrenology will advance. But when you ask me whether Phrenology is sufficiently developed to be of practical value to mankind in its application; when you ask me to compare its development with that of any other science, I answer unhesitatingly that Phrenology is the queen regnant of all sciences, of greater value to the human race than all other sciences combined, because it is the science of humanity itself. Greater than Astronomy because humanity is worth more than all the stars that scintillate in the heavens. Greater than Mathematics, because humanity is better than numbers. Greater than Geology and Zoology, as humanity is above the rocks and animals. Greater than Theology, because it teaches man to know himself, instead of presumptively speculating upon gods and dogmas. Greater than all combined because Phrenology bears upon her resplendent crown the jewels of knowledge, virtue, morality, culture, temperance, wealth and progress, and is pregnant with possibilities of good, beyond the present comprehension of the human imagination.
And when you ask me if Phrenology is developed in the number of practical facts at her command, I answer, that for every principle and rule of Mathematics that are serviceable, I will give you two in Phrenology. For every discovery in Geology, I will give you four in the domain of the mind. For every fact in Zoology, Entomology or Botany that has been of value, I will give you six in the science of humanity. Then you may begin to comprehend the appeal which Phrenology makes to-night to your selfish interests.
I wish now to draw a distinction between Phrenology and Physiognomy, because I don't believe I ever went into any community to lecture in my life, that I did not hear some old fossil say that he believed in the science of Physiognomy, but he didn't take much stock in Phrenology. Now I beseech you, as friends of mine (and after I have lectured to an audience for twenty minutes I always feel that I have so many friends in it that I am personally interested in the welfare of each one) that if you have ever made that remark, you will not expose your ignorance of scientific terms in that way again. I'll excuse you for what you have done heretofore, but if you make that remark after hearing my lectures, I shall feel ashamed of you, just as I always feel humiliated when any friend of mine makes a fool of himself.
PHYSIOGNOMY is the science of external appearances. The etymology of the word signifies the knowledge of nature derived from examination or observation. We may speak of the physiognomy of a landscape, of a country, a state, a continent, or an individual, and by that we mean the external appearance, that which conveys a knowledge of the character of the object to the eye. We judge the character of the thing by its appearances; and in the relation which Physiognomy bears to character-reading, we judge the character of the man by the external appearances. We study the size and form of the body, its color, its texture, its temperament, the expression of the face and the contour of the head, all of which are physiognomical. We draw certain conclusions from this inspection of the physiognomical signs, and these conclusions are phrenological, for every variation of color, form or size indicates a corresponding variation in a particular kind or intelligence possessed by the individual. Physiognomy, therefore, is the grand channel through which we draw our phrenological conclusions, and in this relation physiognomy forms a part of the grand science of Phrenology, inseparable from it, and bearing about the same relation to it that addition does to arithmetic.
There are those who advertise themselves as delineators of character, under the term Physiognomists. I believe that such persons do so because they lack the ability and learning to comprehend Phrenology, and are unable to combat the prejudices of the ignorant. I have never seen a so-called "Physiognomist" who was not an empirical mountebank of the purest stamp, and who did not trim his sails to pander to the silly sentiment which I have just exposed. The delineations of such persons are worse than valueless, because they are pure guess-work. They pursue a shadow while they reject the substance.
Having thus established our definitions, we may proceed to state the principles of Phrenology. And I believe that I can best do so by taking you through the successive steps of a phrenological examination, and by thus practicing the art, illustrate the science.
In forming an estimate of the character of any person, the practical phrenologist proceeds upon the following physiological postulates, which I shall not stop to demonstrate, because they may be regarded as established facts upon which all physiological authorities are agreed, viz:
1. The brain is the keyboard of the body and the central seat of intelligence.
2. The power of the brain depends upon the anatomical and physiological condition of the body which supports it.
3. The character of any object depends upon its physical attributes, viz: Size, weight, color, form, texture, density, etc.
In applying these postulates to a delineation of character before we pass to an examination of the brain itself, we must notice three great modifying conditions. Without taking these modifying conditions into account, a correct estimate of brain-power is impossible. And it is because these modifying conditions have been ignored by many professed teachers of Phrenology, and but poorly expressed by others who did recognize them, that many eminent physiologists have condemned phrenology hastily, as having no sound basis in physiology. The exponents of Phrenology are themselves to blame for this. They have been too content to rest under the imputation of feeling heads for bumps. They have not been sufficiently versed, in many instances, in physiological science to dare to debate the ground with high authorities. I challenge the world to bring one single natural fact to militate against the principles here announced. I will debate the question with any skilled medical, legal or clerical authority, and I claim, without fear of contradiction, that the world does not hold a head whose character will differ from that which Phrenology ascribes to it, when the developments of the brain are measured in the light of these modifying conditions.
When I was lecturing in Indiana in 1885, Gov. Will Cumback of that state, propounded this question:
"Professor, what would you do if you found a man whose head, in the light of Phrenological principles, showed a certain character, and you found on intimate acquaintance and positive proof that he, in fact, possessed a character radically different."
"My dear Governor," I replied, "I would wait until the sun rose in the west, and then watch to see what you would do and follow suit. Such men do not exist, they never have existed, and they never will exist until the order of nature is reversed."
These three great modifying conditions which must be taken into consideration before we estimate the brain itself, are as follows:
1st. The State of the Health. 2nd. The Quality of the Organization. 3rd. The Temperament of the Constitution.
And we will consider them in the order named, therefore first,
THE STATE OF THE HEALTH.
It is a great fact in the constitution of man, that whatever affects the body, affects the manifestations of intelligence, and conversely, whatever affects intelligence affects the body. The body is the harp of a thousand strings, manifesting its intelligence by different degrees of vibration. If either the musician or his instrument is out of order, the music will be discordant. It is not necessary for me to argue that a man must be in perfect health to exhibit perfect mentality. But as perfect health is the exception and not the rule, we rarely find mentality even approximating perfection. We are obliged, in our estimate of the character of men, to allow for various bodily infirmities, in a word, for the eccentricities of disease. These diseases may be inherited or acquired since birth; they may be acute or chronic in their stages; they may be mild or malignant in type; they may produce long, continued illness, terminating in death, or they may be only what we call a temporary indisposition, like that of the country boy, who went to Boston for the first time to see the sights. As he wandered around he became hungry, and, entering a restaurant began to experiment with strange dishes. He ate first a porterhouse steak, then some fried oysters, then a lobster salad, a lot of pickles, ice cream, cake and bologna sausage, drank a bottle of champagne and retired to his lodgings, and dreamed that he was lying on Boston Common, and that the devil was sitting on his stomach, holding Bunker Hill monument in his lap.
If you eat an indigestible meal, you are unable to perform good brain-work after it. If you feed the body on material that will not nourish it, the brain refuses to work. If you are in the clutches of disease, we cannot expect of you a high measure of brain-power; in other words, the manifestations of the mind are weakened by the disorder of its instrument, the body.
The phrenologist, therefore, who essays to read your character, must be able to trace the signs of disease in your appearance. He must needs be an expert Physiologist and Anatomist. He must understand Pathology. He must have the diagnosing skill to detect disease and allow for it in his estimate of your mentality, or his delineation is worth less than nothing; nay, more, he may do you a positive damage, by advising you to adopt a course of life which would be disastrous to your constitution. He must be able to do all this and do it rapidly and with precision. Never trust yourself under the hands of a professed phrenologist unless you are confident of his skill in estimating and diagnosing your physical condition.
The second step in a phrenological examination is the determination of the quality of the organization. Perhaps there is no branch of the science of phrenology which has received such crude treatment at the hands of phrenological writers as this subject of organic quality. Many use the term interchangeably with temperament, some confound it with temperament and hereditary disposition, others recognize it as a distinct modifying condition; but I know of no writer, except myself, who has yet attempted a classification of the subject, or who has dared to recognize its importance as a modifying condition of character.
Quality is the texture of organization, and in this respect must be regarded entirely independently of temperament. The latter is conceded to depend upon the preponderance or relative energy of some part of the system, anatomically or pathologically; but each of the conditions denominated as temperaments may exist, with widely different manifestations of the peculiar conditions we describe as quality, with a corresponding modification of the character of the subject in each case. Hence the necessity of a rational classification, based upon the independent observation of these modifications of quality as a distinct subject, in order to apply it as a distinct step in a phrenological examination.
The trees of the forest present distinct variations of quality, depending on the texture of the wood. The hickory is hard, the ash is brittle, the pine is soft, etc. An examination of the texture of the human organization will disclose variations, different, it is true, but some times strikingly analogous, and no less important in determining the fitness of the individual for particular purposes.
We determine quality by a critical inspection of the general contour of the body, its relative size, the adaptation of its parts to each other, the color and grain of the skin, the relative harmony of the features, the relative brightness of the eyes, the color and texture of the hair, the movements of the body, the tone of the voice, and the rapidity of mental process. To determine quality accurately may sometimes require a series of experiments on the individual, and the success of the examiner will of course depend on his own acuteness of perception and judgment.
Quality is, (1) Strong; (2) Delicate; (3) Responsive. And conversely, (1) Weak; (2) Coarse; (3) Sluggish, and in proportion as these elements unite to form an efficient and powerful organization, we may speak of the quality as "high," or as we find them wanting, we may call the quality "low."
Strong Quality is exhibited by an organization harmoniously constructed, full size, compact and firm. The limbs, trunk and head are generally well formed, the muscles firm, the walk steady, the carriage erect, and the movements generally graceful, but all indicating power. The features of the face are strongly marked and prominent, the lines well marked and the entire structure is definite and established. A hair from the head of such an individual will be harder to break than another from an organization of different quality. It will also be harder to pull from the scalp. The grasp of the hand is steady and firm, indicating muscular power. The eyesight is good and the eye steady and clear, well formed and powerful in range of vision. If the perceptives are large it will be penetrating. The skin is firm to the touch, though the grain may be either fine or coarse. The entire organization is built upon the principle of strength, but the direction in which this strength will be applied will depend upon the temperamental conditions. With the mental temperament well developed, a strong mind will be manifested; with the vital and motive temperaments, strong physical and muscular functions. The relative absence of this quality will be marked by corresponding weakness, and although we may have a pronounced mental temperament, the individual will exhibit but little mental strength, and with a pronounced motive temperament he will be incapable of strong muscular action.
Delicate Quality is denoted by delicacy and refinement of structure. It may or may not be co-existent with strength.
The strands of silk thread are fine and delicate, but also very strong. Other substances are refined and delicate, but possess little of the element of strength.
Delicate quality in the human organization is accompanied by corresponding manifestations. The texture of the skin is close grained, delicate and soft. The hair is fine; the eye is clear and bright, the features smooth and very harmonious. The mental processes are brilliant, facile, rapid; their depth and power, however, depending upon the combination of the element of strength with delicacy. Persons possessing delicate quality are very acute.
Such persons are able to appreciate nice shades of thought and to cultivate the graces in an eminent degree. They are adapted to pursuits requiring delicacy of the senses and acute perception, such as music, painting, manufacturing of delicate articles, etc. In literature they display refined taste, and the head is symmetrical and generally well developed. Those who are low in delicacy lack refinement and grace and should carefully cultivate these qualities.
The relative absence of this element entirely or proportionately unfits the individual for these mental processes requiring delicacy and acuteness. He may possess a well-balanced organization as to temperament and cerebral development, but without the element of delicate quality he will be utterly incapable of those mental processes requiring delicate shades of thought.
The individual who unites the elements of strong and delicate quality will exhibit both power and fineness. He will be able to display more versatility of talent than the individual possessing the element of strength or delicacy alone. Those persons who have displayed great intelligence coupled with brilliancy, have uniformly united both of these elements.
The element of Responsiveness depends upon a certain sensitiveness of texture, resembling the resonance of a well tuned musical instrument, and a certain harmonious adjustment of parts which renders the individual capable of receiving a mental impression promptly and responding to its action. Persons possessing this quality have such delicate sympathy of the entire organization that the mental processes are exceedingly rapid, and the physical manifestations are equally prompt. The movements of the body are quick, the brain is active, the eye bright, intelligent and keen sighted, the expression of the face vivacious, the voice musical, the speech rapid, and the individual often anticipates the thought of those with whom he converses; if you hesitate on a word he will instantly supply it. Such persons are keenly sensitive to surrounding circumstances, easily impressed, and the entire organization seems to vibrate in unison with the impressions made upon it. It is not uncommon to find this condition mistaken by observers for the nervous temperament of the pathological classification. The true distinction lies in the fact that the latter is a diseased condition, resulting in a super-sensitiveness of the nervous system, while responsive quality exists in perfect health, and is a perfectly normal condition of a character frequently resulting in great advantage to the individual, and absolutely essential in many vocations. It is indispensable to the musician, the artist, the poet, etc., and I depend upon it in estimating the capacity of my subjects for various professions and trades, especially those involving the fine arts, literature, and many of the departments of merchandising.
The absence of this responsive element is marked by a general sluggishness of all the mental and physical processes. The movements of the body are slow, and the brain, while it may be capable of strong thought, is correspondingly slow in action. The individual does not yield readily to the strongest impressions, and his conversation will be slow, frequently tedious. Such individuals are incapable of doing anything in a hurry, and when urged by others frequently become confused. Left to their own methods, with plenty of time, they are frequently capable of displaying great strength and delicacy of quality, both in physical and mental manifestations.
The intelligent reader will readily comprehend that the best organization is that in which the elements of strength, delicacy and responsiveness are harmoniously blended.
The relative predominance of each element will in all cases decide the particular class of purposes, vocations, professions or other pursuits to which the subject is best adapted, other things being equal. Quality results from a variety of causes. Like all other personal peculiarities, it is, to a certain extent, hereditary. Children are, to a greater or less extent, certain to inherit the quality of their parents and immediate ancestors. But the inherited quality of offspring is subject to great modifications. It is definitely established that the temporary condition of mind and body of the parents at the moment of conception, materially affects the permanent quality of the offspring. Thus it is possible for parents to transmit to children a much better or much worse permanent condition of quality than they themselves possess. Observation also justifies the belief that children born of loving and affectionate parents surpass in quality those born of incompatible natures. The occupation and surroundings of the parents at the time of conception, and particularly the influences brought to bear upon the mother while the offspring is in utero, produce a lasting effect upon the quality of the latter. Science has long since demonstrated the fact that every part of the human organization is susceptible to educational development. Quality, like every other modifying condition, is susceptible to development in either direction, and the success attending an effort to develop either strength, delicacy or responsiveness of quality in any given individual, will in all cases be commensurate with the intelligence and vigor of the efforts expended to that end.
The study of quality being thus understood, I introduce you now to the most beautiful study in the curriculum of human science, the third step in the phrenological estimate of character, viz.:
By the term Temperament, is meant the preponderance in development of some element or system of organs in the body, to such an extent as to give to the character a distinctive recognizable type, a temper or disposition resulting from the predominance of some one element in the character which modifies and gives tone to all the rest, resulting from its superior development. As a matter of fact, there are as many different temperaments as there are individuals, no two individuals having the same constitution; but science classifies them under distinctive heads, as their developments are approximately the same, or as their developments are in the same general direction, regardless of exact degrees.
THE ELECTRIC TEMPERAMENT exists when electricity dominates over magnetism in the organization. Its characteristics are Gravity, Receptivity, Darkness, and Coldness. This temperament was formerly called the Bilious or Brunette Temperament. It is distinguished by dark, hard, dry skin, dark, strong hair, dark eyes, olive complexion, and usually by a long, athletic form of body. It is remarkable for concentrativeness of design and affections, strong gravity, drawing power and cohesiveness, strong will, resolution, dignity, serious disposition and expression; moderate circulation and coolness of temperature. It is produced by a dry, hot climate, common in southern latitudes and almost universal in tropical natives. Persons of this temperament are better adapted to hot climates because electricity dominates over magnetism, and they do not antagonize the climate by the radiation of magnetism, but rather thrive on the magnetism which they absorb. This temperament is closely analogous to the condition of tropical animals and birds.
THE MAGNETIC TEMPERAMENT exists when magnetism dominates over electricity in the organization. Its characteristics are Vibration, Radiation, Heat, and Light. This temperament was formerly called the Sanguine or Blonde Temperament. It is distinguished by a light colored, warm, moist skin, light colored or red hair, fresh ruddy or florid complexion, light colored or blue eyes, rounded form of body, often plump or corpulent, large chest, square shoulders, indicating a very active heart and vital organs. It is remarkable for versatility of character, jovial disposition, fond of good living and great variety, changeableness, activity, and vivaciousness. The temperature of the body is warm and the circulation very strong. This temperament vibrates between great extremes of disposition, develops great force of radiation and driving power, and is universally characterized by warmth, enthusiasm, and high color. It is produced by the climates of northern and temperate latitudes, and is almost universal in the natives of extreme northern countries. Persons of this temperament are better adapted to cold climates, because magnetism dominates over electricity, consequently they produce more animal heat, and are better able to endure the rigors of a cold climate. The same general conditions are found to exist in birds and animals inhabiting northern latitudes.
The Temperaments are also classed anatomically as:
MOTIVE, where the bones are large and strong and the muscular development is stronger than the nutritive or mental system. Persons of this temperament are active, energetic, and best adapted to out-door pursuits and vigorous employment.
VITAL, in which the nutritive or vital system is most active, large lungs, stomach and blood vessels, and corpulent and plump figure. Persons possessing temperament are inclined to sedentary occupations, and if the brain is large and of good quality, are able to do an immense amount of mental labor without breaking down. They should take systematic exercise and avoid fats and stimulating foods and drinks to obtain the best results.
MENTAL, in which the brain and nerves are most active. The body is not adapted to hard muscular labor, and there is not enough vitality of nutritive power to nourish the brain in the heavy demands made upon it. Such persons incline to mental effort and literary work, and for a time display great brilliancy, but sooner or later collapse, unless this condition is corrected, by regular hours, plenty of sleep, the absence of stimulants and the cultivation of muscular and vital force. This temperament is distinguished by a relatively large head and small body, pyriform face, high, wide forehead, and usually sharp features.
There are three principal fluids which circulate through the body, viz., arterial blood, venous blood, and lymph. As the blood passes out from the heart through the arteries it is strongly charged with magnetism and is very strongly acid in quality. As it returns to the heart through the veins it has expended its magnetism and its acidity has been very much neutralized. The lymph is an alkali fluid, and it circulates through the lymphatic vessels as a reserve force of vital food. The predominance of either of these fluids in the constitution greatly modifies the character and gives rise to the classification of the chemical temperaments. As every cell in the body comes in contact with an acid and an alkali fluid, we may, by estimating the relative quantities of each fluid, arrive at a very accurate judgment of the chemical condition of the body, and these elements are also valuable in estimating the amount of magnetism that will be produced by the organization through chemical action, as every cell by its contact with these fluids is constituted a magnetic battery.
THE ACID TEMPERAMENT exists where arterial blood predominates. It is distinguished by convexity of features and sharpness of angles. The face is usually round in general outline and convex in profile, the forehead prominent at the eyebrows and retreating as it rises, the nose Roman, the mouth prominent, the teeth convex in form and arrangement and sharp, the chin round and sometimes retreating. The body is angular and generally convex in outline, with sharpness at all angles. This temperament is usually accompanied with great activity of mind and vivaciousness of disposition, and sometimes develops great energy and asperity. It is very likely to exhaust itself prematurely.
THE ALKALI TEMPERAMENT exists where lymph is in excess over arterial blood. It is distinguished by concavity of features and obliquity of angles, or rather the absence of angles. The face is usually broad in general outline, and concave in profile, the forehead prominent and wide at the upper part, and medium in development at the eyebrows, the nose concave, the mouth retreating, the teeth flat in form and arrangement, the chin concave and prominent at the point. The body is round and inclined to corpulency, without angles. This temperament is usually well stocked with vitality, but unless actively employed is likely to become dull and overloaded with adipose tissue and lymph.
From the foregoing observations it is evident that the temperaments combine in each individual according to whichever temperament is found to predominate in these three divisions. Thus one man will have an electric-motive-acid temperament, another a magnetic-mental-acid temperament, another a magnetic-vital-alkali, and so on through all the combinations which can be made from the seven elementary temperaments. This blending when finally estimated constitutes the temperament of the individual. The ideal condition would, of course, be a perfect equilibrium of the elements of each division, in which case the individual would be said to have a perfectly balanced temperament.
ELECTRICITY is the genitive passion of Space. It is manifested by the states of gravity, receptivity, coldness, and darkness.
MAGNETISM is the genitive passion of Matter. It is manifested by the states of vibration, radiation, heat, and light.
The eternal affinities which exist between these conditions produce all the phenomena of Growth.
GROWTH is the change which takes place in a structure in obedience to the law of conformity to the changes which take place in its environment.
Man is the most complex organism known to this planet. He stands at the end of a long line of development, extending from the simplest form of mineral, through the vegetable and animal kingdoms, to his own position in the cosmos, and embracing and including in his own structure a representation of every form below him. But when this exceedingly complex structure is analyzed it is found to consist wholly of combinations of the simpler forms which existed before him.
In the light of a rational philosophy, therefore, we are forced to consider man as a creature of growth and subject to exactly the same natural laws as the objects which surround him. Any attempt to regard him as an exception results in the calamities which must always attend presumption and ignorance.
The well balanced temperament, the temperamentum temperatum, of the ancients is an ideal condition in which there is in fact no temperament, all the organs of the body being perfectly in harmony, and exhibiting no preponderance of one over the other. Many persons approximate this condition, but it is difficult to find one in which it is so nearly attained as to make the proper classification of his temperament under the above heads a difficult matter. However desirable such a condition may be from a purely physiological standpoint, the fact remains that all great and powerful natures, the men who have been the leaders in the battles of literature, art, science and war itself, have had well defined and pronounced temperamental conditions of organization.
We have now fully demonstrated that in his scientific delineation of character the professional phrenologist depends upon something more than mere configuration of skull. The great modifying conditions of health, quality and temperament in every case give us the foundation of the character. It will be seen, some medical authorities to the contrary, notwithstanding, that the science of Phrenology has a firm basis on the established principles and known facts of Physiology and Anatomy. Bearing these facts in mind we will now proceed to the discussion of the scientific principles governing the phrenological examination of
SIZE AND CONFIGURATION OF BRAIN, or the theory of the localization in different organs of the brain of the corresponding faculties of the mind.
THE BRAIN is the key-board of the body. It is an error to claim that it is the exclusive organ of intelligence. The brain performs substantially the same function for the body which the key-board does for the piano, or which the central office of the telephone system performs for its various subscribers.
Magnetism received from the exterior of the body is transmitted to the brain where it produces a result. This result in turn is transmitted to various portions of the body. Properly, therefore, intelligence is distributed over the entire body and the amount of intelligence which any individual possesses will be found to be in exact proportion to the size and quality of his body and the perfect adaptation, co-operation and adjustment of its parts.
The brain is an oval mass of soft tissue which completely fills the internal cavity of the skull. It is composed of two substances, a white fibrous substance which forms the internal portion and a gray, cortical tissue which forms the external layer. This gray substance lies in folds or convolutions, the furrows or sulci, dipping deeply into the interior of the brain.
It is found by dissection that the brain of an intellectual man exhibits a larger number of convolutions than one of small intellectual calibre, and that the convolutions are deeper and the layer of gray substance thicker, and in consequence of the increase in number and depth of convolutions there is a wider expanse of surface as well, for the distribution of gray matter. Hence the relative proportion of gray matter in different brains has come to be regarded by physiologists as a test of mental power. Many idiots have large and well formed brains but the convolutions are shallow and few and the gray matter small in quantity and extent of surface. Physicians often ask me how I can estimate the relative quantity of gray matter in a living head without cutting into it. I refer them to the study of quality and temperament which I have clearly expounded in this lecture. Do you ever find hickory leaves growing on a pine tree? Show me the bark of a tree and I'll tell you the quality of the wood within; show me the skin, the hair, the eyes of a man and I'll tell you the quality of every organ in his body as well as the quality of the brain. I recently astonished the superintendent of an insane asylum by pointing out to him that the quality of the hair, the eyes and the skin of idiots was essentially different from the quality of those of more highly endowed persons, and could be told in the dark by a person of educated sensibilities. The quality and texture of the brain being determined, the next step is the consideration of its size.
Other things being equal in all natural objects, size is the measure of power. By the term "other things" in relation to the brain, we mean temperament, quality and health. This simple principle explains why a great many people who carry large heads are endowed with but little intellectual power. Their heads are filled with "sawdust," in other words, a brain of poor quality, supported by a feeble body, or vitiated by excessive temperamental conditions.
Men who carry small and misshapen heads are often brilliant in certain directions, and this limited brilliancy in special lines causes them to be spoken of by superficial observers as men of great ability and apparent exceptions to the phrenological rule. The fact remains, however, that in no case is comprehensive greatness ever exhibited in a head of small dimensions.
Large size of brain, accompanied with robust health, high quality and good temperamental conditions, gives the highest phase of powerful mentality and comprehensive greatness. Small size of brain, with poor health, low quality and erratic temperamental conditions gives the lowest form of mentality and constitutional inferiority. Between these two extremes we may find every conceivable modification and form of human character according to the various combinations of normal and abnormal conditions.
Size of brain then is a measure of power when judged by an enlightened understanding of physiological, anatomical and pathological conditions. The phrenologist goes one step farther and asserts that size of brain in any particular region, judged by the same standards of comparison, is an indication of local power.
Every portion of the body is created for a specific function. You never see with your ears, you do not taste with your eyes, you do not walk with your teeth. There is no waste in nature. Every part has its special duty to perform. The part of the brain which lies in front of the ears has a different function from that which lies behind them. The parietal lobes of the brain are not placed in the skull for the same purposes which the frontal and occipital lobes represent. Every fibre has its function, every convolution its purpose. All that remains for us to do is to compare known forms of heads and note the coincidence of character exhibited by similar developments and the divergences of character accompanying diverse developments. In the past century these observations have been sufficiently successful to locate the general functions of the external portions of the brain which are situated so that observation and comparison are possible. Forty-two general organs are now located with definite certainty, and these have been subdivided with sufficient accuracy so that there are over one hundred localized centres of cerebral development which can be accurately measured and their mental power determined to the advantage of the individual and the benefit of society at large.
The brain is double. It is divided into two hemispheres by the falx cerebri, a partition which follows the middle line of the skull. Each hemisphere contains one organ pertaining to each faculty of the mind. The size of each organ is estimated, not by feeling for bumps or depressions, but by measuring the length of the fibres of the brain from their common center in the medulla oblongata, at the head of the spinal column, and at a point equi-distant from the ears in the interior of the head. From this common centre the fibres of the brain range horizontally and upward in all directions like the branches of a tree. Development of brain fibre laterally gives a wide head, longitudinally, from the medulla oblongata to the forehead and to the occiput, a long head. Development upward raises the crown; and I have in my collection skulls which show by actual measurement a relative difference of over three inches in development of brain fibre to certain localities of brain surface. Viewed in the light of these facts and principles as here expounded, the phrenological position is established, and the childish objections of those who sneer at this beautiful science, fall crumbling to the dust. The last great fact to be considered is this: Exercise of any portion of the body develops it, enlarges it and adds to its strength. Disuse weakens, paralyzes and ultimately destroys. This rule applies to all parts of the body, and to the brain more particularly because the nervous tissue of which the brain is composed is more rapidly used up and renewed than any other portion of the body and hence more susceptible to change. Phrenology solves all problems of education and enables every individual to develop a symmetrical and well formed brain, and with it a harmonious character, by pointing out those portions that are deficient and those that are strong, and thus enabling him to secure a really well trained mind.
By memorizing the different organs and their functions, particularly those in which you are marked as excessive or deficient, and by practicing the observation of your daily conduct and learning to analyze it phrenologically, i. e., to note those occasions when deficient faculties have failed to act, and when predominating faculties have caused you to act hastily or contrary to good judgment, you will soon become painfully aware of your true faults, and by a conscientious action of reason and exercise of self-control will be able to correct them. In the same manner predominating talents may be tested and proved and you will rejoice in the birth of new aspirations, hopes and impulses, in a word you may be, by means of this science, placed in full command of your mental powers and learn to control and direct them as the skillful engineer controls and directs his locomotive.
Concede the fact that these differences in form, quality, temperament and health mean anything, and all that we claim for Phrenology follows logically and as a matter of course. In the light of this demonstration of known facts, it follows that character can be read, and if read, then it can be assigned to the position of its best usefulness in the profession, trade or avocation suitable to the employment of the talents demonstrated to exist. If Phrenology gives the index to your character, as we have proved it does, then it also forms the key to the solution of the problem of matrimony by describing the character which will harmonize with yours in congenial companionship, financial success and the improvement of offspring. It likewise is a trusty guide in the formation of business relations as partners, employers or employees, and directs us in the choice of associates, teachers or companions in social life. It gives to the anxious parent the knowledge of inherited and acquired talents in cherished darlings of the household, and in every relation of life; at every moment of existence it is an advantage, a comfort, an assistance, a thing of beauty and a joy forever.
In this lecture, ladies and gentlemen, I have demonstrated the theory of Phrenology. To-morrow night and on each of the succeeding nights of this course, I shall give you practical applications. To-morrow night I shall lecture on the "Choice of Professions and Trades," illustrating to you the qualities that insure success in Law, Medicine, the Ministry, Journalism and Teaching, in Manufacturing and the various Mechanical Trades, as well as the qualifications for Commercial Life in its various departments, wholesale and retail. I shall follow with my celebrated lecture on Matrimony, in which I shall expound the principles upon which a correct marriage may be consummated, securing amiable association, perfect offspring and financial success, after which I shall separate the sexes and continue the subject of matrimony in its physiological relations, under the head of "Sexual and Creative Science."
Choice of Professions and Trades,
HOW TO BECOME RICH.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:
Every young man and woman of reasonable intelligence is, or ought to be, possessed of a laudable ambition to be self-sustaining. To win a competency, to secure the necessities, to have even the luxuries of life, is perfectly praiseworthy, provided they are obtained in a legitimate manner. Every rational man seeks the occupation, trade or profession which ensures the profitable employment of his best talents, and the science which discloses to the youth at the beginning of his education what those talents are and how they may be developed to perfection in early manhood, and in what profession, trade or occupation he will display the greatest ability, confers upon him the greatest favor within the gift of knowledge, from a financial standpoint. That Phrenology does this, and more, it is the purpose of this lecture to show.
The world is apt to measure a man's success by the amount of money he accumulates. That is properly one element of success, but it is not all. The real criteria of a man's success in business are, 1st, the volume and quality of his work; 2d, the compensation he receives for it; and 3d, the pleasure he derives from it.
Business is legitimate or illegitimate. A legitimate business contributes to the welfare of society, as well as to the support of the individual who follows it. The cobbler who mends shoes and the genius who builds a steamship are equally legitimate, though one contributes only to the comfort of a country neighborhood and the other promotes the welfare of a continent. Both may be successful within the limits of widely different capacities. An illegitimate business promotes temporarily the financial interests of the individual at the expense of the health, morals and wealth of the public. In my public and private examinations I have directed thousands of young men and women into channels of legitimate business. The fact is, there is such a tremendous demand for skilled labor in all departments of legitimate employment that it is difficult to find material to fill it. We hear much of the warfare between capital and labor, and strikes frequently paralyze the channels of legitimate trade, but the cause of the difficulty lies not in any real or imaginary conflict between capital and labor. The solution lies in the fact that every branch of legitimate labor is burdened with incompetent workmen, men who are in wrong occupations, who were never intended by nature for such work as the branches of trade they infest, and the skilled workmen are obliged to carry the load; while capital is often in the hands of those unfit to be trusted with its use, who manipulate it merely as the instrument of oppression and wrong, until the social discord is produced. If men were all graded to their proper vocations, if capital were entrusted only to those of financial skill, and labor, in its various departments, assigned to those of proper qualifications, every man would be employed at a fair remuneration, and the burden of pauperism would fall from the backs of our skilled workmen. There are too many men in the learned professions who would do better at the forge and on the farm. There are preachers who ought to be blacksmiths, and lawyers who would look better and feel better hoeing potatoes. There are those at the anvil and the plow who can succeed better in literature and art.
Young man, it is infinitely more to your credit to be a successful blacksmith, if that is in accordance with your endowment, respected by everybody within a radius of twenty miles because you can shoe a horse better than anybody else, than it is to be starving in an attic as a briefless lawyer, or lounging about the country as a minister of the gospel, eating yellow-legged chicken at the expense of the sisters, when you have no ability to preach.
Whether a man will be able to do good work, to receive lucrative compensation and to derive pleasure from any occupation, will depend on the amount and kind of sense that he possesses. Phrenology measures the amount of sense displayed by each man's brain, determines the kind and quality of his intelligence, and thus estimates his ability in any given trade or profession.
If the brain were a single organ, every man would have the same kind of sense, and men would differ only in the quality and amount of intelligence. But Phrenology proves that the brain consists of a number of organs, each one representing a different variety of intelligence, a different sense, so that we find men varying in volume of brain and amount of intelligence, in the quality of brain and consequent quality of intelligence; and also in the relative development of the different organs of the brain, showing diversity of character in the kind of intelligence or sense, displayed by different individuals. Thus two men may have the same relative volume of brain, similar in quality, and supported by good constitutions, but widely different in development of the organs of the brain. One may be a gifted orator and astute lawyer, but utterly unable to comprehend colors or use the pencil and brush. The other is a talented artist but so deficient in language that he cannot describe his own pictures. Both are successful in their proper vocations, reverse their positions and ignominious failure is the result in both cases.
To constitute a success in any business a man must have capacity, that is, he must have enough of intelligence to meet the demands of the business, and he must have physical strength to support it. A man may have apparently the kind of sense required by a branch of business, and for a time display ability in it, but as the business increases, and its demands become more in volume and intensity, he fails because he has not enough of comprehensive intellect to take it all in. There are also those who have comprehensive greatness of intellect, who are fully capable of understanding all the requirements of a business, but who fail because the body beneath the brain is not sufficient in endurance and nourishment. Dismal failures result, and many useful lives are shortened, because men make the mistake of entering vocations for which they have insufficient mental or physical capacity. A phrenological examination determines beforehand the capacity of the individual and establishes a proper limit, within which he finds success, health, happiness, and the gratification of proper ambition. On the other hand there are many who do not realize how much their capacity is, and consequently remain inert to the great deterioration of body and mind. Nature demands that every man should use his full capacity, and the phrenological examination which reveals to an individual the extent of his usefulness is a magnificent acquisition to him who acts upon it. Action is the natural condition of every part of man. Action develops character, strength and health. Inaction results in paralysis and disease. It is vitally essential that every man should find out his capacity and use it all—no more, no less. This, Phrenology enables him to do.
The question of capacity being thus understood, the next is the quality of organization.
Quality is the inherent grain or texture of the substance. Men differ in quality as much as do the trees of the forest. You do not use the hickory or the oak for the same purposes that you do the pine or the poplar. There are differences also in the grain of metals, in the texture of fabrics. Gold differs essentially from iron as silk does from flax. Men display an infinite variety of quality, from the strong lumberman of the pine forests, with his corded muscles and angular frame, to the delicate young man who presides gracefully over the ribbon counter in the dry goods store.
To illustrate this topic of quality: Riding on the cars one day I noticed a gentleman sitting near me and asked him the rather impertinent question, whether he had not been engaged for many years in handling delicate machinery.
"Ah," said he, smiling, "you are a Phrenologist."
"Yes, sir," I replied, "we have evidently sized each other up."
"Now, before I answer your question," said the gentleman, "tell me why you asked about delicate machinery. Several men of your profession have approached me with similar questions about machinery. There is evidently something in my head which betrays that; but tell me why you drew the distinction in favor of delicate machinery?"
"Why, my dear sir," I replied, "you are a delicate piece of machinery yourself. You would not harmonize with anything else. Your bones are small, your eyesight microscopic, your fingers tapering, your touch as delicate as a woman's, your quality is delicate. You are not the man to handle heavy bars of iron, to repair locomotives, or to build threshing machines. I should say, sir, that watches would be about right for you, certainly nothing heavier than sewing machines and type-writers."
"You are quite right, sir," said he, "I have been a watchmaker for twenty years."
The quality of the man determines the quality of the work he should do. The strong, coarse, sluggish organization is adapted to occupations requiring power and momentum. The refined, delicate, responsive character will succeed best in positions calling for agility, dexterity and sensitiveness. The blacksmith may ruin a watch if he attempts to mend it, while the jeweler would not be a safe man to shoe a valuable horse. There is an eternal fitness of things.
The occupation of an individual should be in harmony with his temperament. The brilliant versatility of the magnetic permits a greater variety of selection to the individual than the positive and concentrative energies of the electric temperament. The latter is dignified, sombre and severe, with a ready inclination to forego comfort and convenience to carry out a cherished object. It works, not better than the magnetic but more willingly. Men of the magnetic temperament succeed best in the cultivation of the social graces, the fine arts, and in those departments of literature that call for brilliancy of imagination, versatility of talent and variety of accomplishment. The leaders of great and successful armies, the powerful statesmen and the literary men of the world, distinguished by fervid genius and concentrative application, have been on the other hand strongly endowed with the electric temperament.
When the motive temperament is in the ascendency, the character is marked by an almost uncontrollable desire for physical exercise. This temperament demands activity of body as well as brain, and the occupation should be such as will combine both. The vital temperament on the other hand is more inclined to sedentary habits, and is capable of doing an immense amount of mental work without breaking down. It seems to thrive best when loaded with responsibilities of a mental character. The mental temperament on the other hand will display great brilliancy of intellect and versatility of talent, but is in constant danger of a physical collapse unless constantly subjected to conditions favorable to recuperation.
To subject a person of the delicately organized and sensitive mental temperament, for a long period of time, to the hardships and privations of an occupation requiring exposure and severe muscular exertion is the height of cruelty and folly. A person of the extreme vital temperament, under the same conditions, would find life a weary burden, though a limited experience in muscular exercise, under conditions favorable to health, would be beneficial to both. On the other hand, the motive temperament, confined in an office or room to books and study, with insufficient exercise, is in much the same condition of misery as a caged bird.
Temperament, quality, and capacity having been duly considered, the ability of an individual in any given direction, depends upon the special development of the organs of the brain. The special sense of each individual is determined by an examination of the special organs of the brain. And it is upon this special development, in the case of every man, that his prerequisites for success depend, namely, the ability to do much good work, the remuneration for his services, and the pleasure derived from the occupation.
I desire to call your attention to some examples of special ability, which are familiar enough to the experience of most of you to be accepted without argument.
There are those who are gifted in the sense of touch above their fellows, who can judge of the quality of goods in the dark. There are others blest with penetrating eyesight. Others with a sense of hearing most acute. Also those with nice discriminating sense of taste and smell. These distinctions for a long time were regarded as the five senses of man, and he was believed to have only those five avenues of perception. Phrenology, however, subdivides these and adds others, vastly increasing the number of the sources of knowledge and the springs of human action.
A great many cases of defective eyesight, so called, are in reality defective brain. The mechanism of the eye may be perfect, the retina and the optic nerve may faithfully perform their duties, but if the brain behind the eye be defective, the comprehension of the object or some of its properties is lost to the intelligence of the individual. Some people are "color blind." Their eyes are good enough, but they don't see colors; they comprehend no difference in the shades of different colored objects exhibited to the view. At the same time they fully comprehend the size, form, distance, etc., of the object. An examination discloses the fact that they are deficient in a portion of the brain just behind the middle of the eyebrow. Give such a man every material and brush of the painter and request him to paint a landscape and the result will be a daub. He has no sense of colors, he has no fitness for that kind of work. At the same time he may be entirely capable of a very creditable performance in drawing a picture with a pencil in white and black because that does not involve his weakness. This particular element of sense may, like all others, be only partially defective, but an examination by a competent phrenologist will disclose its exact state, whatever it may be. I once examined a man and remarked to him that he was thoroughly endowed with the qualities essential to a good locomotive engineer, except that the organ of color was slightly deficient. I remarked, "You will never experience the slightest inconvenience in distinguishing switch-lights and signals when you are in good health and sober, but a slight indigestion, or a glass of liquor, decreasing the power of your brain, would render your vision of colors unreliable and might cause a wreck, hence I advise you to keep out of the business." The man was a railroad engineer, and admitted that he could generally distinguish colors without difficulty, but that his color sense was lost, under the conditions I described.
Those who are large in the organ of color, are artists in its appreciation, for the simple reason that they have more sense in this particular direction. On the other hand, color may be large, but appreciation of form, size, etc., may be deficient. The individual may try to paint a picture and get the colors all right, but if form is deficient his figures will be grotesque in their absurdity; or he may have good sense as to form and color, and get the sizes of his objects all wrong. Mechanical skill depends in a great measure upon these "Perceptive Faculties," as they are called: that is, those portions of the brain that comprehend and give the ideas pertaining to the properties of material objects, such as individuality, form, size, weight, color, etc. The trained eye and hand of the blacksmith are alike directed by these faculties of the mind acting through these organs of the brain, as he moulds a piece of iron to the proper size and form to fit the horse's foot. What folly then to expect good work, in a blacksmith shop, of a man deficient in these special senses requisite in that department of work; and as we study all trades and professions we shall find that aptitude in any line depends on the possession of superior development of the organs of the brain representing the faculties of intelligence most used and depended upon in that business.
There are those who are wonderfully gifted in the organ of calculation, the seat of the special sense of the number of things. One who has this organ large will be able to count rapidly and correctly, to add, subtract or multiply, and he understands the relation of numbers to each other, their properties, and because of his superior sense in this direction he becomes a "lightning calculator" and is regarded as a mathematical prodigy. There are others who have this sense deficient, but they may be superior in development to the mathematical prodigy in a dozen other faculties.
One may be developed in those organs which contribute to talent for music. He may have a sensitive organization, highly responsive in quality, a fair intellect, such an exquisite sense of time and tune, aided by good Constructiveness, Imitation and executive ability that he is able to produce music which charms the listening ear of thousands. If this talent is discovered in time, and he has adequate instruction and advantages, he becomes a magnificent success. Place him in the counting room, the work-shop, or on the farm and he is not in harmony with his surroundings, he is awkward and inefficient, he does poor work and but little of it, and he is regarded by his associates as an inferior person.
Some men are wonderful in their ability to comprehend machinery, and in dexterity in the use of tools, the special sense represented by the organ of Constructiveness. They seem to be perfectly at home with a piece of new and complicated machinery in five minutes, while others will work on the same thing for hours, growing more and more bewildered, and exhibiting little or no mechanical genius whatever, literally making a botch of everything they undertake. When I was lecturing in Austin, Texas, in 1887, several gentlemen came to see me and asked if I would be willing to submit to a test. They said, "We have a man in this city who is unquestionably a genius in a certain direction, and we would like to call him out for a public examination and see if you can locate him." I urged them to do so, at the same time remarking that that was the kind of a man I liked to get hold of. That night when I called for nominations, Mr. Geo. P. Assman was immediately elected. He came forward, and as I measured his head I said, "This man is a genius as a machinist. He has only ordinary ability in other directions, but as a machinist he is a marvel. He has thoughts on machinery far beyond the comprehension of other men, and especially in the practical handling of complicated work." Somebody in the audience sung out at this point "You've got him," and the audience broke into applause. They then informed me that he was a most celebrated locksmith and machinist whose specialty was opening combination locks on valuable safes when the combination was lost by the owners, or when the works were injured by the blasts of burglars. On one occasion he had opened a safe in New Orleans in a few minutes when the trained locksmiths of the safe factory had worked for hours and failed. He was in the right business, was regarded as a genius, and was respected and admired by a whole section of the United States simply because he employed his best element of sense.
Some men have wonderful intellectual development and are specially gifted with the ability to acquire knowledge, but they may be most wonderfully deficient in that kind of executive force which makes use of it. They are largely developed in the frontal lobe of the brain where the intellectual organs reside, but are deficient in the regions of moral and physical energy; while others are largely endowed with ambition, physical and moral energy,—the parietal lobes are large and the head rises high in the crown, and they are able to use all the knowledge they acquire. Their intellectual capacity may be limited, but they are able to put their knowledge to account, and what gems of information they possess are made to glitter by constant use. Men of the first class are always rated at less than their true value of intellectual ability; those of the second class at a greatly over-estimated premium. The first may be compared to capacious barns where knowledge is stored like hay to become musty because it is never used. I have seen hundreds of boys of this character, graduate with great honor in college (where the only criterion applied was the capacity to absorb knowledge as a sponge does water), only to be eclipsed in after years by the boys who graduated at the foot of the class, who were practically in disgrace on Commencement day. In our popular public school and collegiate system, there is too much stuffing of knowledge, and too little attention given to developing the practical sense of the student.
There are special senses which give physical and moral energy, ambition and industry. One man is splendidly equipped with knowledge and is thoroughly posted in regard to how a business should be conducted in all of its practical and theoretical details, but he is afflicted with inertia, he does not move. The unscientific observer says he is lazy, and that is true, but Phrenology analyzes even laziness and finds that it is caused by a lack of sense. Develop the organs of physical and moral energy, which can be easily done, and the character of the man becomes transformed, and he becomes a cyclone of business push and executive ability. Another man may be gifted with energy, but deficient in knowledge and business tact, and he wastes his force in tremendous efforts at the accomplishment of small matters. He puts as much mental force into opening a can of oysters as would suffice to destroy a building. Figuratively speaking he loads a cannon to kill a mosquito, the result is a great waste of energy and vitality. By proper cultivation of knowledge, and adaptation to pursuits employing his splendid energies with large enterprise, a character of this description is brought into harmony with the eternal fitness of things.
There are men endowed with the sense which gives appreciation of values and the knowledge of property to such an extent that they are artists in the manipulation of finances. They accumulate fortunes, and the world admires their accomplishments; and one who has less of this world's goods is accustomed to wish that he had as much sense as Vanderbilt or Gould. The fact may be, that he has more sense in the aggregate than either, but it is not the same kind of sense. Other things being equal, the man with large Acquisitiveness will exhibit more sense in acquiring property, and the man with large Caution and Secretiveness more sense in economizing, than those having these organs small. It is curious to observe the different phases of financial sense in different individuals. One man will be a miser, eager to get and anxious to hold property; another will be close and cautious in taking care of the property he inherits, but will exhibit no special ability in increasing his riches; another displays great ability in making money, but spends it lavishly; while still another may show indifference to the acquisition of property or the care of it. All of these various combinations I have delineated correctly with utter strangers, in thousands of instances. They all depend on the development of the various organs of special sense, and a man may be educated at any period of life, so as to correct his financial sense and make him more successful in accumulating and holding property.
Some men are good collectors, while others fail to exact their just dues. One man will dun his debtors with a persistence and regularity, and with a force and dignity which compels payment even from those who wish to avoid it; while another will be diffident, and often suffer the most humiliating emotions in presenting his demands—in fact, often failing to exact payment from those who are perfectly able and willing to meet the account. Others are careless about paying their debts, and lose financial standing in the community by neglecting their dues, without any desire whatever to avoid payment, while others are punctilious in financial matters to the greatest degree. All of which variety of financial dispositions are the result of development of special combinations of brain organs, and susceptible to material modification by proper influences.
It is as absolutely essential to the success of the man of commerce that he should be well developed in the organs which give the financial instincts, as it is that the artist should be developed in those which give a sense of artistic effect. Hundreds of men go into bankruptcy every year because of deficient development in this respect, being crowded to the wall by the superior strength of men of greater business sagacity. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the young business men of this country that the true road to fortune is in a correct knowledge of adaptation in business and in constantly educating the financial senses.
In my written delineations of character I furnish every applicant with a careful analysis of his business adaptation, showing the exact condition of his financial instincts, as well as all others. I have also composed directions whereby deficient organs may be strengthened by special mental exercises, and I claim that the financial sense can be developed and strengthened as well as any other part of man's nature; and in no part of my professional work have I met with more satisfactory results.
I once examined an utter stranger, and as I proceeded, I said, "You should never enter mercantile life, sir, with your present development. You would be bankrupt within a year, because you would trust everybody, and you cannot collect your small accounts." The gentleman, in great surprise, asked me if I knew anything of his past history personally. "No, sir, I never saw you nor heard of you until you entered my room a moment ago." He then informed me that he had failed in business three times, because he could not collect his small accounts, and that he had over $1500 due him in the city—small items against respectable customers that he had not succeeded in collecting. "Now, sir," he continued excitedly, "I want to know why that is and how you can tell it." I explained to him his deficient organs, and gave him my special rules for the cultivation of financial ability; and after instructing him, I told him to try some of his most collectable accounts according to my rules. I remained in his town a few days longer, and before I left he called on me with a list of over six hundred dollars' worth of claims he had collected, and he was jubilant. "There!" said he, "that is what your examination and chart has been worth to me." And by persistently following my instructions he developed into a very good collector.
A man may be entirely idiotic in the sense which gives the desire for property and the impulse to acquire it (Acquisitiveness), while he exhibits excellent sense in other directions. I once examined a gentleman of high intellectual development who was entirely destitute of this sense, and I remarked to him that he was financially worthless, that he had no sense of value, was indifferent to the acquisition of property and utterly unable to make a living, as he would not be able to ask for money that was due him from a friend who was perfectly willing to pay him. He replied, "All you say is true, sir; my wife supports the family by sewing and washing, and I am unable to command any financial resources whatever."
Subsequently I employed this man, as a matter of charity, to do some work for me, and returning to the city from a brief absence, I found that I owed him five dollars. I met him on the street that night and he informed me that his family were suffering for the necessities of life. Said he, "It was a scramble at our house this morning to get anything for breakfast, and I don't know where the next meal is coming from." My first impulse was, of course, to pay him the money I owed him, but I restrained it and waited to see if he would ask for it. He poured his tale of woe into my sympathizing ear for twenty minutes, and finally turned away and left me without his dues. As he walked away, I called him back and said, "Look here, my friend, do you know you are a fool?"
"Oh, yes, Professor, I found that out long ago. But on what particular point do you find me a fool to-night?"
"Don't you know that I owe you five dollars?"
"Why didn't you ask for it?"
"I don't know," he said in a dazed sort of way, "I simply couldn't; I came to you for it; I told you my circumstances hoping you would pay me, but I couldn't ask you for it."
And he could not. His case was an extreme one; but there are many in the same position. The simple fact is, he did not have financial sense enough to ask for it. I gave him his money and told him if he needed more to come to me and I would help him further, and I did; but the best thing I did for him was to instruct him in the development of financial sense, and I got him far enough along, to enable him to ask for money when due him; but it would be a hopeless task to undertake to make a financier out of such a man. I also examined his oldest boy, and finding that he had inherited his father's weakness, I gave him and his mother special instruction for the development of financial ability. Two years later, when I visited the same city, I found him supporting his mother and the younger children from his own wages; and his mother brought her entire family to me for written examinations, and I found them well dressed and well fed; and the mother, with an expression of gratitude I shall never forget, informed me that the splendid financial energies of her son, were entirely due to the faithful performance of my instructions. And as she paid me a handsome fee for my services, and I looked upon her happy family, I felt that the gratuitous examination I had given the boy two years before had borne good fruit.
I could multiply instances to prove the existence and working of each of the various special senses of the individual, represented by the phrenological organs, but I assume that the foregoing are sufficient for the purposes of the present lecture.
It is a common mistake of parents to suppose that if a child has a special endowment of sense in any particular direction, it will manifest such strong inclinations in that direction, that these natural inclinations may be taken for a guide. Sometimes this is true, but oftener it is not the case, so that the natural inclinations of children are by no means safe guides in the choice of a profession, occupation or trade.
When the circus is in town, the natural inclination of every healthy boy is to be a clown or bareback rider, but it does not follow, that if his inclinations are gratified, it is the best course he can pursue. Some of the most magnificent talents, on the other hand, lie dormant until they are carefully called out and trained by the teacher. There are also periods in the life of every boy and girl when new faculties seem to be awakened, and for a time engage the entire attention; and the watchful parent is apt to mistake one of these periodical outbreaks for the manifestation of a talent deciding the destiny of a child. At one period of a boy's existence he may manifest great fondness for tools and working in machinery; at another, for music; at another, for trading and merchandizing; while comparatively dormant may lie a masterly ability to grapple with the problems of philosophy and science, which in later years marks him as a genius in literature and scientific investigation.
Sometimes a talent manifests itself at an early age, but the parent does not realize its scope and value, or the full character of the child, and he is placed in an occupation far inferior to his actual merit, or the measure of his capacity.
A father brought his son to me exclaiming with pride, "This boy is a genius, and I am going to make a first-class carpenter of him, unless you can suggest something better, and prove that he has talent for it. He can take a pen-knife and a board, and carve out anything he may desire to make. He certainly has a genius for mechanical work."
"Yes," I said, "this boy will make a first-class carpenter; he will succeed well in carving boards and in doing delicate joining, and as a foreman, or as the owner of a planing mill, he will make a good living; his wages may run up to five or ten dollars per day; but such an occupation is beneath his capacity. This boy has, in addition to his mechanical genius, a wonderful endowment of intellectual ability and scientific proclivities; and if you will send him to a first-class medical college and make a surgeon of him, his mechanical skill will have a higher field to display itself and he will carve men at fifty dollars per day."