"Mr. Grady possessed a strong endowment of the magnetic temperament which gives a strong circulation of blood and a great activity of mentality. His height and weight show him to have had sufficient vitality to sustain his brain, and there was just enough of the electric temperament in him to darken his eyes and hair and give him intensity of feeling and action. His quality was exceedingly responsive and delicate, and these attributes are necessary to the class of orators to which he belonged.
"The size of his brain compares favorably with what is known of other intellectual giants, as the following measurements will demonstrate. The actual circumference of the head around the base of the brain was twenty-four inches. The measurement from ear to ear over the top of the head fifteen and a half inches, while the forehead measures from ear to ear over the perceptives twelve and a half inches, and from the same points over the region of sympathy fourteen inches. The massing of the intellect, it will be seen, was in the upper portion of the forehead; and that region shows a remarkable development of benevolence, suavity, causality, comparison and imitation.
"The most remarkable development, however, is in the organ of constructiveness, which gives a lateral expansion to the forehead which is almost enormous. This faculty is necessary to the correlation of thoughts and ideas, the construction of sentences and the formation of schemes and plans. As an inventor, Mr. Grady was superb, and his large sympathy would naturally lead him to the invention of social plans and philanthropic enterprises rather than machinery.
"His large language is indicated by the fullness under the eye. The phrenological organ of language lies above and behind the eye, and when large presses the eyeball forward and downward causing a fullness or sack under the eye which is very prominent in Mr. Grady's portraits. In the power and scope of this feature he had more development than either Webster or Ingersoll.
"His large suavity enabled him to use his language in a way that pleased even his antagonists. Mr. Grady was emphatically combative, as shown by full development behind and between the ears, where the cast measures six inches in diameter, but it was the combativeness which showed itself in force and energy rather than contention. His combativeness was harnessed to his suavity, and he could be forcible and at the same time persuasive.
"These qualities were re-inforced by remarkable firmness, as shown by the measurement over the top of the head, where the development is a half-inch in excess of that of Daniel Webster, and a quarter inch above that of Napoleon Bonaparte. This characteristic is also shown in the projection forward of the lower lip, caused by habitual compression in the exercise of this faculty.
"In this connection, it is interesting to note a comparison of Mr. Grady's head with the measurement of other noted personages. Here is a table which I have compiled, and which you will find entertaining," continued the phrenologist, as he unfolded a paper with the figures herewith reproduced:
_________ Size around Size from ear the head to ear over NAME. at base of top of head brain. at organ of firmness. ____ ___ ___ Henry W. Grady 24 in. 15.5 in. Henry Clay 23.25 " 14.25 " Daniel Webster 25 " 15 " John Quincy Adams 22.5 " 15 " Thomas H. Benton 23 " 15 " Napoleon Bonaparte 23.25 " 15.25 " ___ ___ Average 23.5 in. 15 in. ___ ___ Average of human race 21 in. 14 in. ____ ___ ___
"From these figures," continued Professor Windsor, "we may draw a melancholy conclusion of the power Mr. Grady might have exhibited had he lived to ripen into perfect development. It will be seen at once that only one of these distinguished characters had the advantage of him in size of brain at the base, and that is Daniel Webster, whose character was more remarkable for ponderous greatness than brilliancy, and Mr. Grady's head rises a half inch higher than his in the moral region. Between the two measurements there is a comparative difference of one and a half inches, in the heads of Webster and Grady. That inch and a half marks the difference between the debauched sensuality of the 'Lion of the North' and the moral graces of the 'Apostle of the New South.'
"The extra inch in the basilar circumference of the head of Daniel Webster was due to an enormous development of social propensities which in his case carried him beyond a correct balance and resulted in notorious licentiousness, because there was not enough of the moral sentiments in the crown of the head to control them. Mr. Grady's head, on the other hand, was not remarkable in the development of these propensities. He had enough of amativeness to give him a proper appreciation of women and the delights of sociability, but his love manifested itself more through the intellect than the passions, and his social nature was of that diffusive character which manifests itself in the formation of popular attachment rather than exclusive friendships. There are many men undoubtedly to-day who pride themselves on being among the intimate friends of the deceased who would be surprised to know how many others have reason to entertain the same feeling. When the social propensities are larger than Mr. Grady's, the possessor is likely to form such exclusive attachments that the energies are expended in promoting the interests of individuals rather than those of the masses."
"From your view of the nature of the man, Professor, what would you consider Mr. Grady's chief fault?"
"The lack of self-esteem. That organ is one of the smallest in the whole line of development, and was, unquestionably, his weakness, as it is unfortunately of too many of our best men. He did not comprehend his own importance, nor realize the value of his own personality. This defect is directly chargeable with his illness and death. Had he possessed a larger development of this organ, he would have been more cautious concerning his health and personal exposure. There is a kind of unselfish extravagance in this direction which leads to deplorable results. A more selfish nature will husband its strength and escape calamity. Had he realized his own value sufficiently, he would not have gone to Boston on that fatal trip, and overtaxed his vitality. He did not comprehend the dignity of his character on any occasion. His friends say that he was as genial and approachable as a school boy, and that is what I should expect to find in a head like his. We might have contented ourselves, however, with a more distant manner and a more haughty nature, for the sake of his self-preservation.
"There is profit in the study of human nature. We may contemplate the characters of the great to arouse emulation, of the moderately endowed to suggest improvement, and of the weak to guard against their failures. Phrenology enables us to form correct estimates in each case, to praise without flattery and to criticise without injustice. There is value in the perpetuation of the physical forms of the illustrious dead upon 'storied urn and animated bust,' as well as in polished granite and enduring marble. For while these monuments cannot
'Back to its mansion call the fleeting breath,'
still the inspired features and lines of development bear eloquent testimony to the practicability of human improvement, just as
'Lives of great men all remind us, We can make our lives sublime; And, departing, leave behind us, Footprints in the sands of time.'"
WAS HAWES INSANE?
A Scientist's Theory of a Most Atrocious Crime—What Professor Windsor Says of Hawes' Mental Peculiarities—Insanity Which the Courts Will Soon Recognize.
[From the Birmingham (Ala.) Age-Herald.]
Prof. William Windsor, LL. B., the noted specialist in phrenology and medical jurisprudence, was seen by an Age-Herald reporter at the Caldwell hotel last night, and in answer to interrogatories, made a number of interesting statements concerning the Hawes tragedy.
Professor Windsor has had many years of experience as an expert in the study of insanity in its various phases, and particularly in reference to crimes and their origin. He enjoys a national reputation in his special lines of study, and his conclusions have the weight of scientific authority.
In regard to the subject of discussion, he said: "I have been greatly interested in the case of Dick Hawes ever since the publication of the tragedy, and have made an exhaustive study, both of the man and the circumstances of the case. Of course, in the mass of conflicting statements contained in the evidence, it is impossible to know with definite certainty just how the crime was committed; but the confessions of Hawes and the testimony all agree that the man deliberately planned and executed the murder of his family. Whether he had the bloody work done or accomplished it with his own hands does not concern us so much as the fact that motives and impulses existed in the mind of a husband and father for the destruction of the lives of those he was bound to protect, and that those impulses were sufficiently strong to accomplish the execution of the crime.
"The study of the origin of these motives and impulses are highly interesting, in view of the fact that they point to conditions of society that are potent for the breeding of similar crimes.
"To my mind the key-note to the whole case is found in one of the remarks made by Hawes while standing on the gallows, to-wit: 'I want all you boys to let liquor and vile women alone; see what it has done for me.'
"A careful phrenological estimate of Dick Hawes discloses the fact that he was above an average in appearance, physique and mentality. His brain is massive and of good quality, though uncultivated. It is not lacking in the organs of benevolence, sympathy and agreeableness; in reason, perception or reflection. He had sufficient caution and conscientiousness to understand right and wrong, and the consequences of both. There was enough of the affections and social qualities to make him very attractive to women and children, as his history fully shows, all of which is fully shown by the fact that he discharged the duties of a responsible position for years, and commanded a reasonable degree of respect. Such men do not commit crime while in a normal condition. It is as physically impossible as it is for water to run up hill.
"When the domestic relations of such men are blasted by association with prostitutes or by the unchastity of their own wives, a species of insanity results, which completely reverses the ego or personality of the man. I have observed hundreds of such cases, and have never seen an exception to the rule. In scientific parlance his condition is known as 'reversed amativeness,' or a revolution of character, brought about by an inflamed or abnormal condition of amativeness, the organ of sexual love. As in a normal state this organ electrifies and strengthens every natural affection, making every faculty more exquisitely perfect, so in its inflamed or reversed state it leads to the entire obliteration of every rational sentiment.
"The particular direction in which this obliteration may manifest itself depends largely on the temperament of the individual and the circumstances of the case. In some men it results in paralysis of the energies, changing the character into shiftlessness. In other cases it results in destroying the moral sense, but does not amount to positive viciousness, while on the other hand it may result as it unquestionably did in this case, in absolutely perverting the affections so as to render the man incapable of the natural feelings of a husband and father, and supplying motives which seem to be of the most inhuman character. They are inhuman and unnatural, but in such cases it is not correct to hold the man as responsible for the deplorable results unless it is clearly proved that the mental unbalance was brought about by his own acts, performed in a state of conscious free will. The law clearly recognizes that the drunken man is insane, and holds him responsible for his acts committed while drunk, if he became drunk through his own volition. If the liquor is proved to have been forced down his throat or he has been drugged by some one else and his mental balance dethroned thereby, he is not responsible.
"It is a very nice question to decide in this Hawes case whether the depraved condition alluded to was the result of his own acts or of his domestic troubles. There is no doubt in my mind but that the species of insanity referred to, existed in the mind of Hawes at the time of the tragedy.
"It is a principle in medical jurisprudence that the more atrocious the crime the stronger is the presumption of insanity in the perpetrator. It is a fact wholly creditable to human nature that horrible crimes are rarely, if ever, committed by persons in a normal state of existence. The popular mind is not prepared to receive evidence of insanity in such cases because of the revengeful feeling which naturally animates the minds of men under such circumstances. And there is another difficulty in the way of justice in the fact that this form of insanity is rarely accompanied by such evidences of mania as the uninstructed would demand as necessary to constitute insanity. The perverted state of the affections and the judgment are not necessarily accompanied by the wild ravings and glassy eyes of the lunatic. Emotional insanity of this type is only temporary. It may, also, only affect a few faculties of the mind necessary to the perpetration of the deed, while the mental balance of nine-tenths of the man may remain undisturbed.
"The great fact remains, in any case, that by harlotry, licentiousness and prostitution the grandest intellects are overturned and the most harrowing discords produced in society. As long as society tolerates conditions of ignorance in regard to sexuality, and fosters or permits establishments having for their avowed purpose the excitement of the passions and the obliteration of the virtues, we will continue to have repetitions of tragedies similar to the case of Hawes."
HOW LIVING HEADS AND DEAD SKULLS ARE MEASURED.
An Interview With Prof. William Windsor, LL. B., the Distinguished Phrenologist, Lecturer and Traveler.
[From the Memphis (Tenn.) Appeal.]
For several years the citizens of Memphis have not had an opportunity to hear a discussion of the principles of the science of phrenology, or character reading. The announcement in yesterday's Appeal of the series of entertainments to be given in the Young Men's Hebrew Association Hall, by Prof. Wm. Windsor, LL. B., beginning to-night, prompted a reporter to call at the Gayoso hotel last night, and send his card to the Professor. He was cordially received by the Professor's wife, Mme. Lilla D. Windsor, a lady of elegant presence and charming affability of manner, in their private parlors on the first floor, and agreeably entertained until the Professor dismissed several who had called for professional services.
"The science of phrenology," said Professor Windsor, smiling, after the usual greetings and upon learning the object of the visit, "is very much misunderstood. It is a popular error to suppose that we depend upon an examination of depressions and ridges in the cranium, commonly termed 'bumps,' when, in fact, a phrenological examination is based upon a critical inspection of the entire physiological structure and condition, including comparative development of size and configuration of brain, as I shall demonstrate in the lectures.
"Come this way," said the Professor, leading to another apartment where a uniformed employe was engaged in unpacking several enormous trunks. "Look at these skulls. Here is the skull of a man executed at forty years of age who murdered a family of six persons in Mississippi in 1842. Contrast it with this skull of a harmless old negress who died at the comfortable age of 108, and you will see how much difference there is in heads," and the phrenologist demonstrated by actual measurement that there was over four inches difference in comparative development. He also exhibited to the reporter a number of other crania showing equal diversity of growth.
"I shall exhibit these crania at the free lectures and demonstrate the scientific principle upon which phrenology rests," continued the Professor, as he conducted the reporter through an inspection of the outfit. "Here are the three smallest mummies in the world, besides many other specimens which I use in my physiological lectures to the sexes separately. I also use a number of portraits and diagrams in my lectures on matrimony and physiognomy; but the real demonstration, of the utility of the work is made in public examinations of leading citizens selected by the audience. It is a fact that character can be read, and read correctly, and if this be true, all that I claim for the science in adapting young men, women and children to proper studies, professions, trades, etc., follows logically and as a matter of course. It also follows that if one character can be measured scientifically, a proper choice for associates in matrimony, business partnerships, etc., can be indicated. It is the purpose of the lectures to demonstrate these facts to the satisfaction of the public.
"The first lecture will be devoted to an exposition of scientific principles, the second to the application of these principles in choice of professions and trades, the third to the consideration of matrimony."
"What shade of meaning do you attach to the word 'anthropologist' as used by you, Professor?"
"The word signifies, in its broadest sense, a student of human nature. In its application it includes man in all his physical, mental and social conditions. Phrenology is the science of the mind—mental philosophy. Anthropology is the science of man—human philosophy. To the proper understanding of these great subjects we must look for the solution of all social problems, concerning the mental, moral and physical advancement of the race, or races, as the case may be."
A pleasant half hour was devoted to conversation, when the reporter withdrew. Professor Windsor is a gentleman of genial social qualities, and scholarly in language and appearance. He possesses a magnificent physique, which he claims to have gained by a strict conformity to his rules of diet and habits of living. He weighs 200 pounds, uses no stimulants—tea, coffee or tobacco—and prides himself on being able to sustain fifteen hours per day of professional labor, made necessary by his large practice and business management. He has just closed a successful course of twenty-seven consecutive lectures in Kansas City, and does not seem in the least fatigued. The Kansas City Star, in referring to his closing lecture, speaks of it as one of the finest ever delivered in that metropolis.
CRIME AND ITS CAUSES.
What a Noted Specialist Has to Say of It—Cranial Malformation the Genesis of Much Crime Traced to Other Sources—An Interesting Talk.
[From the Birmingham (Ala.) Age-Herald.]
Prof. William Windsor, of New York, is in the city. He has a reputation that is almost international in his specialty; for, as a phrenologist, his discussion of the physical conditions which lead to crimes, have had a wide notoriety.
Chatting with an Age-Herald reporter last night, he gave a most interesting and instructive talk on the noted crimes that have occurred during the past ten years. Professor Windsor has studied most of the criminals that have become prominent, and in a purely scientific way he has gone back of the outward evidences of criminal depravity to understand the physical and possibly hereditary conditions that brought about the overt acts. His fund of information on this subject is almost an inexhaustible one.
In discussing the Maxwell murder, he said: "I was in Texas at the time of the St. Louis tragedy. A friend of mine sent me a picture of the alleged murderer, with a request that I give my theory of the crime. Like many newspaper cuts, it was decidedly unsatisfactory; but the man who made it had caught enough of the likeness to enable me to know the chief characteristics of Maxwell.
"Explaining the disadvantages under which I labored, I at once wrote to him, and gave my theory of the crime; and when, at last, the matter came out, I found that I was right."
"Do you study every criminal case that comes under your observation?"
"Of course I do. A man who is alive to science can not help doing it. Whenever I hear of a crime and learn the circumstances of its commission, I at once begin to devote my own mind to the combination of mental qualities which could have rendered it possible. Of course it is impossible to understand how some of the terrible acts could have been committed; but you would be surprised to know how much is revealed by seeing either the man or a good portion of him.
"The mental characteristics of criminals have much to do with not only the crimes they commit, but the manner in which they perpetrate their deeds, and in a consideration of what has been accomplished, heredity plays a strong part. Some men are born with an adeptness for crime of a certain character. Let the opportunity arise, and they yield to the stress of circumstance and become guilty men. I have seen a number of noted criminals who would not have been such, except for the unfortunate circumstances that made them do an act which left them notorious."
"How about these bank cashiers who keep skipping off to Canada?" was asked.
"Well, there is one singular fact about them. The men who leave seldom have acquisitiveness well developed. They have not a sense of values, and when they are put in positions of trust, they fail to appreciate how much is entrusted to them."
"Then they go to squandering?"
"Yes, in one way that is true. They fail to appreciate their responsibilities and take chances. Their carelessness soon tells, and before they know it they are involved. This is the story of more than half the defalcations that have been made public during the past decade. It is not that the men were dishonest to begin with, but they did not appreciate the value of the securities that were entrusted to them, and by their laxity allowed themselves to become involved, and then yielded to temptation through a sense of shame. There are not nearly as many men who are criminals per se as the world believes.
"Many of the criminals so called are not responsible for their acts. Their apparent moral obliquity is, in reality, a mental deficiency, for which they are not any more to blame than you or I. I have seen men who had been guilty—yes, even convicted of most heinous crimes, who from the very conformation of their heads revealed certain things that, to say the least, should have been considered in mitigation of their supposed guilt.
"I have made a study of criminals for years, and I think that it is safe to say that in most cases that have come under my observation there were either congenital or hereditary deformities to which the special obliquity could be traced. Such has been the history of crimes in all eras, and one only has to turn to the medical history of the world to see that scientific men have even given greater cognizance to these causes than can ever be brought before juries composed of men whose training has not been such as to enable them to appreciate how much these physical conditions have to do with the commission of crime.
"I see men every day who would be criminals if the stress of circumstances forced them to it, and they would not be entirely responsible for their action. Crime has more origin in the head than the heart, and it is in the study of phrenology that we have the fact revealed."
A MURDERER'S MENTALITY.
Fritz Anschlag, a German Farmer in Los Angeles county, California, in 1888 murdered Charles Hitchcock and wife, a highly respected couple living at Garden Grove in that county, to obtain possession of their farm, for which a deed had been executed to him, but not delivered, awaiting payment. He was tried, convicted, and sentenced to hang, but defeated the law by committing suicide. An interesting feature of his case was the receipt of a letter from his sister in Germany, before his trial, informing him of the fact that she, his parents and all his relatives had utterly disowned him and regarded him with no sympathy whatever. As this was done before he was proven guilty, and upon mere knowledge of the accusation, it is significant in showing that the whole family were as deficient in the social propensities as was Anschlag himself.
A Phrenologist Examines the Murderer's Head.—The Brute Becomes Angry at His Visitors, But Says Nothing—A Report of the Examination.
[From the Los Angeles (Cal.) Express.]
This morning, through the kindness of Jailor Henry Russell, an Express reporter was allowed to enter the cell of Fritz Anschlag, the condemned murderer of Charles Hitchcock and wife, of Garden Grove, to witness an examination of Anschlag's head by Prof. William Windsor, assisted by his wife. Jailor Russell swung open the iron door of the death-watch cell and allowed the reporter and the Professor, accompanied by his wife, to enter, and then followed himself.
As the little party entered the place of confinement, Anschlag looked nervously around, and seeing the visitors, frowned and mumbled some incoherent words in German. The reporter was asked to speak to the murderer in German and make known to him the object of the morning's visit. Anschlag at first was not willing to have his head examined, but when assured it might be for his benefit, he readily consented.
Professor Windsor smoothed back Anschlag's long straight hair from his forehead and running his fingers through the murderer's hair, began to make an examination.
As the professor was going through the preliminary movements, the brute trembled and turned color several times. During the examination Professor Windsor would explain as he went along, and when finished, kindly gave the reporter the following written report:
Anschlag's head measures twenty-two inches around the base of the brain and fourteen inches across the crown. His nature is peculiar in the fact that the organs of the brain which deal with property values, and the ability to make a living by ordinary transactions, are almost entirely idiotic. He shows a fair development of memory and perception, but his ability to reason upon moral questions of right and wrong, property and the rights of others, and the consequences of his own acts, is almost absolutely wanting. He is, in all respects, a moral idiot, and it is a noteworthy fact that the most atrocious crimes are committed by this class of criminal idiots. The great difficulty in his case is in getting the public or a jury to believe that a man may be capable of reasoning on one point and displaying absolutely no power to think correctly on the moral side of the question. The physical fact remains, however, that to give Anschlag correct judgment on any question involving property, ethics or the consequences of his own acts to himself or others, his head would have to be enlarged at least an inch in the occipital region and the posterior part of the crown.
A Scientific Estimate of the Murderer's Brain—What Prof. William Windsor, LL. B., the Eminent Phrenologist, Says of his Mental Caliber—He Calls Him an Idiot—No More Moral Sense Than a Dog—The Fault His Ancestors'.
[From the Los Angeles (Cal.) Tribune].
Prof. William Windsor, LL. B., the phrenologist whose lectures, in Los Angeles, last January, excited such general interest, returned to the city yesterday, en route for San Diego. He visited the jail yesterday and made an examination of Fritz Anschlag, the noted murderer of the Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock. A representative of the Tribune called on Professor Windsor at the St. Elmo and requested him to give the readers of this journal the results of his examination of the man whose atrocious crime has absorbed the attention of the public ever since its committal.
"Anschlag is a moral idiot," said Professor Windsor, in answer to the first interrogatory of the scribe. "He belongs to a class of beings who, from the circumstances of birth and education, are destitute of the requisite amount of sense necessary to form a correct judgment on moral questions as well as many others.
"It is a popular error to suppose that phrenology depends upon 'bumps,' so called, or protuberances or hollows in the conformation of the skull. The conclusions of the phrenologist are based upon estimates of brain fiber, their quality and length from a point in the base of the brain directly between the ears, to the surface. This measurement in different heads will show a comparative difference of three or four inches in many cases, though the heads may be smooth in contour and destitute of 'bumps.' Just look at these two skulls, for instance," placing two ghastly objects on the table, which, by actual measurement, differed more than three inches.
"Does Anschlag's head resemble either of these?"
"Not in all particulars. This," holding up the broader of the two, "is the skull of Andrew J. McCannon, executed in Mississippi, more than forty years ago, for the murder of the Adock family, two adults and three children. It is a case of moral idiocy more pronounced than Anschlag's."
"What distinction do you make, Professor, in the case of Anschlag or this murderer, and a case of total idiocy such as we all recognize?"
"The difference is partly in degree, and partly in the fact that a man may be idiotic in one faculty and have all or a majority of the other faculties in the mind in good working order. Cases of color-blindness furnish a familiar example. Color-blindness is not a defect of the eye, but a defect of the brain. In other words, the party is destitute of the sense of color, and it may be readily detected by a deficiency of brain just above the eye.
"This head of McCannon shows a good development of the base of the brain, giving fine energies and observation, but the entire upper story is taken away. Anschlag, on the other hand, shows a good development in front of the ears, sufficient memory, sympathy and observation to display more than average intelligence on some points. The organs in the back part of the crown and the occipital region generally, are almost destitute of power, and render him incapable of comprehending social relations, his duties towards others, or the consequences of his acts. He can not form a correct judgment in regard to the rights of property, and if he wanted anything he would steal it, without giving a thought to the question of right or wrong. If he were questioned whether it were right or wrong to steal or murder, he would answer 'wrong,' because he has heard others say it was wrong, and he answers from memory alone. If the question could be left entirely to his own judgment, he would be as absolutely incapable of solving it as a man who is color-blind would be incapable of distinguishing shades of color."
"If Anschlag's head was as deficient in all points as he is in the region behind the ears, what would be the result?" inquired the reporter.
"It would be much the same as this," replied the phrenologist, producing a cast of the head of an adult idiot "destitute of all resemblance to the head of a human being, and showing a short development of brain fiber at all points. It is a noteworthy fact that the most revolting crimes are generally committed by the insane and the morally idiotic because their condition renders them incapable of understanding the moral side of the question. A single life or a dozen lives which stand in the way of their accomplishing a purpose, are regarded by them as simply so many obstacles to be overcome, and if, as in Anschlag's case, the organs giving conscientiousness and fear of consequences are weak, they will not hesitate to destroy life to carry out a design."
"Do you consider Anschlag insane within the meaning of the law as to responsibility for crime?"
"He is idiotic in the particulars mentioned, and is incapable of exercising moral responsibility in any case. He is likely to commit homicide upon any occasion which may seem to him to be expedient. I would not hold him responsible more than I would hold a horse, dog, or any other animal incapable of correct reason."
"Where, then, would you fix the responsibility for the murder of the victims?"
"Upon Anschlag's parents and ancestors generally, and upon the condition of society which permits marriages and sexual conditions in parents which can not bring about other than deplorable results. Anschlag's condition is the result of ignorant violation of natural law on the part of his ancestors, dating back for generations. Much could have been done for him by a proper education. That it was not done is merely another unfortunate link in a melancholy chain of calamities."
PHRENOLOGY IN POLITICS.
Some Important Facts in Physiology Which Politicians Do not Take into Account—The Lessons of the Recent Election Considered From a Phrenological Standpoint—Characteristics of Some Leading Men.
[From the Dallas (Texas) News, Nov. 10, 1888.]
"There are some facts which play an important part in politics," said Prof. Wm. Windsor, the phrenologist, to a News representative last night after the professor had dismissed his audience in Hill's business college hall after an interesting lecture on physiognomy, "which politicians, as a rule, do not consider. Of course any man of intelligence who plays long at the game of politics comes to possess a certain kind of shrewdness in judging human nature; but very few of them are able to recognize and define the subtile constitutional influences which predetermine the success or failure of the aspirant for political honors. Such influences, however, exist, and other things being equal, or approximately so, it is entirely possible to select, out of a number of candidates, the ones who will succeed by sheer force of physical attributes. There are men who are by nature qualified to lead in great enterprises, and they owe their success in attracting the support of their followers not so much to the development of intellect and shrewdness as to the strong attachment arising from a large development of the brain back of the ears in those regions which give courage and social fraternity. After many years' careful study of the subject, I am positive in the opinion that a strong preponderance of the electric temperament is of the greatest importance in the constitutional qualifications of a man who assumes the task of a political race in anything of higher moment than a county election. The magnetic temperament seems to be particularly unfortunate in political contests."
"What are the distinguishing characteristics of these temperaments?"
"The electric is the brunette, the magnetic is the blonde. Of the former, General Harrison is a fine example; so were his ancestors, who have played a conspicuous part in history. The electric temperament is dark and swarthy in complexion, angular in configuration, tenacious and strong in texture, and possesses a well-rounded back head, giving large organs of social fraternity, courage, caution and self-reliance. In General Harrison, these traits are somewhat softened by a superabundant vitality, but the traits are all there. John A. Logan was a magnificent type of this temperament. Abraham Lincoln personified it in all its angularity and simplicity. Governor Ross, of this State, is strongly marked with it; while, to come nearer home, your own Barney Gibbs is as good an example of the vital phase of it as Lincoln was of the motive. Nearly all the Presidents of the United States were strongly endowed with this temperament, except Rutherford B. Hayes, who, on the contrary, was a fine example of the magnetic. You will remember that he was a sort of accidental President, anyhow, and that he was the result of a compromise in his own party, in a convention in which several electric temperament candidates had produced a deadlock. You will also remember that his administration was characterized by no act of National importance and that at its close he was relegated to an obscurity such as has never befallen any other ex-President."
"How about the National legislature?"
"Three-fourths of the members of Congress and a greater proportion of the Senate are brunettes. The same rule holds good in State legislatures as far as I have observed. The temperament which stands second best in political preferment is the magnetic mental. Sam J. Tilden, Levi P. Morton and Thomas A. Hendricks represent this type. It owes its success to the depth and intensity of its intellectual development, which frequently creates a demand for its services in great emergencies. It is characterized by brilliancy, integrity and the ability to accumulate a barrel of money, which is also useful in political emergencies."
"If the blonde is a failure in politics, wherein does he find his proper sphere of usefulness?"
"The blonde is an organization of wonderful versatility and commands influence and wins applause in vocations calling for spirit and vigor displayed at short and frequent intervals, rather than for continued tension on the nerves and muscles. He is warm, enthusiastic, generous, impulsive, and deficient in the selfish propensities and in ambition. He loves display and would like to have power, but is inadequate to the continued effort and the endurance necessary to obtain it. He wields a more potent influence in the pulpit, on the rostrum or in journalism. George W. Peck, T. DeWitt Talmage and R. B. Hayes represent three different types of this temperament all possessing these attributes."
"What about Cleveland and Blaine?"
"Cleveland and Blaine are both examples of modified forms of the Magnetic temperament, more marked in Blaine's case than in Cleveland's. The student of politics will do well to observe that the defeat of Blaine in 1884 and of Cleveland in 1888 were both due to defections from their own ranks toward opponents of greater power in the particulars mentioned. Reasoning from purely physiological grounds, I believe Cleveland would have defeated Blaine had he been renominated in 1888. The study of human nature from any standpoint is interesting; doubly so when viewed in the light of great events which 'try men's souls,' in fact, whether they be Presidential elections, the clash of armies or the great discoveries of scientific students."
DEFINITIONS OF THE FACULTIES OF INTELLIGENCE.
Amativeness—Reproductive love; love of the opposite sex, and desire to unite in sexual relations and enjoy its company.
Sexuality—Sexual friendship and fidelity.
Philoprogenitiveness—Parental love; love of offspring and pets.
Friendship—Adhesiveness; gregariousness; love of family; desire for companionship; attachment to friends.
Inhabitiveness—Love of home, place of abode; love of country and offensive and defensive patriotism.
Continuity—The faculty of connection. The ability to comprehend continuousness or interruption; to give undivided and continued attention to one subject, or to interrupt intelligently; application, connectedness.
Vitativeness—The love of life; desire to exist.
Combativeness—Defense; courage; defiance; force of character, energy and indignation.
Executiveness—Executive ability; extermination; thoroughness and severity.
Alternativeness—Desire for food and drink; faculty of discriminating taste.
Acquisitiveness—Desire for property; industry; economy in acquiring property; realization of value.
Secretiveness—Reserve; concealment; policy; conservatism.
Caution—Prudence; solicitude; timidity; fear; apprehension of danger.
Approbativeness—Love of display; the desire to please; ambition to gain admiration and popularity.
Self-esteem—Dignity; governing power; independence; self-love.
Firmness—Stability; perseverance; decision; inflexibility of purpose.
Justice—Righteousness; integrity; circumspection; scrupulousness in matters of duty.
Hope—Belief in future joy; tendency to high expectations.
Faith—Trust and belief. Confidence.
Veneration—Reverence and worship; deference for superiors, and submission to superior power.
Benevolence—The desire to do good; sympathy; philanthropy.
Imitation—The copying faculty. The ability to conform to existing customs, conditions and facts by imitating them.
Sympathy—The power to discern motives, character and qualities in other persons by sympathetic action.
Suavity—Agreeableness; tendency to speak and act in a pleasant manner.
Individuality—Observation and desire to see things, to identify and separate objects.
Form—Observation of the shape of things. Sensitiveness to correctness or the lack of it in shapes.
Size—Power to measure distances, quantities and sizes.
Weight—Perception of the effect of gravity, and sense of the perpendicular.
Color—The discrimination of hues and colors.
Order—Faculty of arrangement; method; system; neatness.
Number—The power to count, enumerate, reckon, etc.; faculty of calculation.
Motion—Ability to comprehend movement. Love of motion, sailing, navigation, riding, dancing, etc.
Experience—The historic faculty; faculty of experience and occurrence.
Locality—Discernment of position, perception of place.
Time—Consciousness of duration; faculty of time, promptness.
Tune—Appreciation of sound; ability to distinguish musical tones.
Constructiveness—Dexterity and ingenuity; ability in construction; faculty of adjustment.
Language—Power of expression and ability to talk; verbal expression; vocabulary.
Causality—The ability to comprehend principles, and to think abstractly; to understand the relation between cause and effect.
Comparison—The analyzing, illustrating and comparing faculty.
Ideality—Love of the beautiful; desire for perfection, refinement.
Sublimity—Love of grandeur and the stupendous; appreciation of the terrific.
Mirthfulness—Wit; humor; love of fun.
THE PHRENOLOGICAL EXAMINATION.
The Phrenological Examination is designed to show in an accurate and scientific manner the size and development of Brain of the person measured, and to furnish a basis upon which an accurate and reliable knowledge of the character may be determined. The measurements can only be correctly made by an expert familiar with the principles of Phrenology. When these measurements are determined according to the system, the Phrenologist is enabled to make a Complete Delineation of the character, describing the amount and kind of sense possessed by the individual, his adaptation to a particular Business, Trade or Profession, where that kind and amount of Intelligence is required, the adaptation in Matrimony or Business Partnership, together with special directions as to faults and how to correct them, health and longevity and how to secure both. The expert must be able to judge the Physiological Condition, Temperament and Organic Quality of the individual with scientific accuracy, and these are important elements in a scientific delineation of character.
Phrenological Examinations are said to be given orally when no record is made of the conclusions of the examiner. A Phrenological Chart is a blank prepared for concise written statements; and the chart filled out is said to constitute a Delineation of Character.
Phrenometrical Measurements are given by means of the Phrenometer, an instrument used for measuring the head, by which the exact form and size of sections of the head can be reproduced upon diagrams prepared for the purpose. This is the most valuable and reliable way of making an examination.
A phrenograph is a written description of the character of an individual, giving all the minute points and shadings of character in the language of the examiner, and its value depends upon the perspicuity and literary expression of the writer not less than upon his skill as a phrenologist.
It must be evident from the foregoing that the value of the service rendered by the phrenologist varies, as in all other professions, according to his education and training, the instruments with which he works, the elaborateness of the product and the adaptation of the phrenologist to his own business.
The public should be warned against patronizing men who practice Phrenology in a way that would bring any business into ridicule. Men who are uneducated, who do not use the latest and best equipments, who have never had any professional training, who do not comprehend professional ethics or dignity, and who do not possess the elements of success in their own characters, are hardly the ones to whom an intelligent man would submit the most important questions concerning his own welfare with the hope of receiving competent advice. But Phrenology has been cursed with this class of quacks, perhaps even more than the profession of medicine. And it is largely due to the stupendous blunders of such pretenders that Phrenology is not recognized more generally by intelligent scientists. Considered in its beauty and simplicity, it certainly offers a more rational and practical system of mental philosophy than has ever been otherwise formulated.
EXAMPLES OF PHRENOMETRICAL MEASUREMENTS.
Sections of base of brain, showing development of physical energy. The dotted lines in Fig. 2 show the deficiency in alimentiveness, executiveness and combativeness.
Profile sections showing development of sympathy and dignity. The dotted line in Fig. 3 shows deficiency in Human Nature and Benevolence.
Two sections of the region of subjective intellect, showing different capacities of two individuals.
EXAMINATIONS FROM PHOTOGRAPHS.
Phrenological examinations can be made from photographs with accuracy, provided the photograph is a correct likeness, and some additional information can be supplied. Owing to obvious difficulties, absolute correctness cannot be guaranteed, but the results are sufficiently valuable to justify the expedient wherever it is impossible to submit the living head.
To obtain satisfactory results the photograph should be cabinet size, and should show the form of the head and face as plainly as possible. Very little can be told from a photograph when a hat is worn, or when the personality is covered with millinery, wigs, bangs, uniforms, etc., etc.
A plain photograph, showing a three-quarter view of the face, is best. Front views and profiles are valuable for some points and worthless for others. When it is possible, a three-quarter view, front and profile may all be submitted with good results.
The forms of examinations and charts from photographs and prices charged for the service are the same as for the living subject, except that the Phrenometer measurements cannot be given from a photograph, and an oral examination cannot be given by mail.
Persons who have already been examined by me and who hold certificates for Forms II, III or IV, may have opinions on Business Partnership or Matrimony at one dollar for short opinions, and five dollars for the elaborate form.
In all other cases prices are as follows:
Business Chart and General Advice $ 5 00 Business Chart and Adaptation in Matrimony 10 00 Adaptation in Matrimony only 5 00 Elaborate Phrenograph on all subjects 25 00
Take the following measurements of the head: Pass a tape measure around the circumference of the base of the brain, passing just above the eyebrows and just above the ears. This is called the basilar circumference. Also measure the distance from the bottom of the orifice of one ear to the corresponding point of the other, over the top of the head at the highest point. This is called the trans-coronal measurement. Then copy and fill out the following blank, and submit with the photograph:
—> Do not cut or mutilate this page. Name of original of photo Address AgeWeightHeight SexColor of hairColor of eyes Basilar circumference of headinches. Trans-coronal measurementinches. Circumference of chest, lungs emptyinches. Circumference of chest, lungs filledinches. Condition of health Amount of education received Present occupation Information most especially desired Number of photographs enclosed To be returned to (Write return address plainly) Form of examination requested Fee enclosed, $ Stamps enclosed for return
When all the above points can be stated it is desirable that it should be done. When it is impossible to do so, the blanks may be filled out in part, and I will in all cases do the best that can be done with information at hand. Address all correspondence on this subject to
DR. WILLIAM WINDSOR, Box 66, St. Paul, Minn.
THE GRAND TABLE OF VITOSOPHY and Supplementary Tables.
Printed in large type on heavy cardboard 10x4 inches, suitable for hanging, containing four pages of valuable information as follows:
The Grand Table of Vitosophy, consisting of seven columns comprising the Conditions of Life, the Seven Senses, the Temperaments, the Vital Organs, the Functions, the Seven Virtues and the Elements of Happiness arranged in juxtaposition with notes and explanations. In two colors.
The Supplementary Tables of Vitosophy, comprising the Vital Organs and their Indicators, the table of Vices and Consequences. The table of Virtues, Results and Attributes, the table of Temperaments and Colors. The Vitosophical Symbols, their Significance and related colors with notes and explanations. Each Symbol on this page is painted by hand, giving its appropriate color.
Contains a large Phrenological Head with names and Symbols of the Phrenological Areas and Names and Definitions of the corresponding Faculties of Intelligence. In two colors.
The Vitosophist's Creed. Beautifully printed in two colors in Old English Text and giving the seven articles of belief of the true vitosophist, expressing rationally his belief in and relation to the subjects of God, Life Eternal, Death, Immortality, Evil and Good, the forces of Nature, the practice of the Virtues and the attainment of Happiness. This is a work of Art and is worthy of a place of honor in the library, study or school room. Mailed flat, to any address, securely packed, postpaid. Price One Dollar.
Address Dr. Wm. Windsor, Box 66, St. Paul, Minn.
EAT SOME SAND!
"Let good digestion wait on appetite, and Health on both." Shakespeare.
FOR TABLE USE Price per Pound 50 Cents Prepared and Sold by
DR. WILLIAM WINDSOR
Box 66, St. Paul, Minn. 583 Riverside Drive, New York 1426 Fourth Ave. Seattle, Wash.
The Fairy Tale of your youth described the "Sand Man" as the good spirit who brought sleep to your eye-lids. Dr. Windsor has brought restful sleep to thousands by producing a good digestion, without which perfect sleep is impossible.
A Tablespoonful of Purified Sand taken after each meal promotes digestion, disinfects the Alimentary Canal, sweetens the Breath and positively cures Indigestion, Constipation, Chronic Diarrhoea, Summer Complaint and all disorders of the Stomach and Bowels.
This Sand is absolutely pure and contains no medication whatever.
Drink liberal quantities of pure water for best results.
THE VITOSOPHY CLUB LESSONS
A Course of Instruction By Mail, Extending Over a Year of Time, Which Makes You Happy, Healthy and Prosperous.
Hundreds of young men and women drag along in comparative poverty and uncongenial occupations and surroundings, because they have never learned how to get away from these conditions. Many others wonder why they never get ahead when they work so faithfully and try so hard. Often the reason of failure is found in some mild form of disease, so mild in fact that it escapes the notice of the sufferer himself. Sometimes it is a wrong personal habit, or some fault of dress or manner which continually destroys the possibility of success.
For a quarter of a century Dr. William Windsor has been the friend and advisor of young men and women in the art of self-improvement. In hundreds of instances of which testimonials are on file, he has in one short interview, set a man on the path of success and a woman in the possession of happiness. He writes a great many long letters to individuals who lay the story of their lives and their struggles before him and solves many of their heart-breaking problems. THE VITOSOPHY CLUB LESSONS are the result of this large experience and are now for the first time presented in the form of a concise course of study in elegantly printed lessons, which are issued in monthly installments of from four to six lessons at a time—a year's issue covering fifty-two lessons—one for each week of the year. Members of the Vitosophy Club make a practice of taking each lesson as a subject of thought and action for one week, carefully conforming conduct and observation to it for self-improvement and experiment, with wonderfully satisfactory results.
LEARN TO READ CHARACTER.
The Elementary and Ethical Lessons Nos. 1 to 27, constitute an excellent elementary instruction in the science of Vitosophy, embracing the basic principles of Genetics, Phrenology and Ethics, and enable the member to acquire a very comprehensive knowledge of the greatest of all educational subjects—Human Character.
The Health Lessons Nos. 28 to 39, cover all the essential instructions necessary to applying the Vitosophical principles of healing, enabling the member to keep himself in perfect Health, and extend his Knowledge to others who ignorantly suffer.
THE LESSONS ON PERSONAL HABITS
inculcate the highest form of personal agreeableness and the conditions essential to success. Read the titles of Nos. 40 to 50 which speak for themselves.
The two Financial Lessons at the close of the series contain information which has directly caused the financial success of many prosperous men and women who gratefully attest the value of Dr. Windsor's advice and counsel.
These Lessons must not be confounded with The Delineation of Character which is furnished by Dr. Windsor in his private interviews with individuals, or by mail from photographs, which is an entirely distinct service. You need the Delineation of your Character to show you your personal weak and strong points, your faults and how to correct them, talents and how to use them; your adaptation in Business, Marriage, Climate and Place of Residence, etc., all of which is based on your personal conditions. Then you should take the Vitosophy Club Lessons to learn the principles of the Science and how to apply them to yourself and others in reading character, healing diseases, and making yourself socially and financially successful.
You can take the Delineation of Character without the Lessons, or the Vitosophy Club Lessons without the Delineation, but you need both and both are essential to your health, your education, your financial success and your personal happiness.
LIST OF VITOSOPHY CLUB LESSONS
This splendid course of instruction is sold at Ten Dollars. Delineations of Character are given at various prices, according to what you require.
I. Elementary and Ethical
1. Vitosophy—The Wise Way of Living. 2. The Vitosophy Club. 3. Phrenology. 4. The Elements of Character. 5. Explanation of the Symbolical Head. 6. The Study of Temperament. 7. How to use the Grand Table of Vitosophy. 8. How to use the Supplementary Tables. 9. How to Cure the Poverty Disease. 10. The Cure of Catarrh. 11. The Seven Symbols of Vitosophy. 12. The Seven Commandments. 13. The Vitosophist's Creed. 14. The Forty-nine Vitosophical Resolutions. 15. Phrenology as an Element in Business Success. 16. Vitosophical Education. 17. Crimes, Criminals and Punishments. 18. The Study of Justice. 19. How Children are Developed into Criminals. 20. Analysis of Love and Friendship. 21. The Value of Song. 22. Dancing as a Means of Physical and Mental Culture. 23. Matrimony or the Selection of Companions. 24. How to Improve Memory. 25. The Conquest of the Vices. 26. The Individual Flavor. 27. Companionship—The Central Fact in Life.
28. How to be Healthy. 29. The Current of Magnetism and How to Control It. 30. Condensed Directions for the Practice of Vitosophy in all Forms of Disease. 31. The Cure of Weak Nutrition. 32. Letter to a Kentucky Editor Afflicted with Indigestion and Constipation. 33. Letter to a Young Lady Supposed to be Afflicted with Tuberculosis. 34. The Cure of Catarrhal Deafness. 35. The Cure of Rheumatism. 36. The Cure of Epilepsy, Fits or Convulsions. 37. The Cure of Consumption. 38. The Cure of Constipation in Infants. 39. Why You Should Eat Sand.
III. Personal Habits.
40. Keeping the Body Clean. 41. The Art of Eating. 42. The Art of Bathing. 43. The Art of Sleeping. 44. The Art of Drinking. 45. The Art of Personal Agreeableness. 46. Improvement of Personal Appearance. 47. Improvement of Personal Manners. 48. The Promotion of Comfort. 49. The Harmony of Colors and Persons. 50. The Care of the Nostrils.
51. Vitosophical Rules for Business Success. 52. The Secret of Salesmanship or Negative and Positive Dollars.
Address Dr. Wm. Windsor, Box 66, St. Paul, Minn.
Just Published! Send in Your Order! The New Vitosophical Text Book
"The Solution of the Problem of Human Life"
According To Vitosophy "The Wise Way of Living"
By WILLIAM WINDSOR, LL.B., Ph. D.
This new and attractive volume of about two hundred pages is a complete revision of the Elementary Text Book, formerly sold exclusively at Dr. Windsor's Class Lectures, to which has been added the complete set of "Vitosophical Health Lessons" which have heretofore been sold at the regular price of ten dollars. The entire work has been reviewed and rearranged, and some parts of the Health Lessons entirely rewritten, bringing the subject matter fully abreast of the latest and best discoveries in the science. It is the design of this work to present a complete elementary instruction in the principles of Vitosophy, especially in its bearings on character study and health culture and the prevention and cure of all forms of disease that do not call for the services of a surgeon.
(SEE NEXT PAGE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter I.—ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES OF VITOSOPHY, Definitions, Genetics, Phrenology, Ethics.
The Temperaments, Explanation of Electric, Magnetic, Alkali, Acid, Vital, Mental, Motive, Organic Quality.
Chapter II.—Definitions of the FACULTIES OF INTELLIGENCE.
Chapter III.—The Seven Conditions of Life. The EARTH and its Uses.
Chapter IV.—WATER, Rules for Drinking and Bathing.
Chapter V.—FOOD, The Vitosophical Law of Diet. Seven Rules for the Selection and Eating of Food.
Chapter VI.—COMPANIONSHIP, its uses and abuses.
Chapter VII.—MAGNETISM. Complete exposition of the Nature of Electricity and Magnetism according to the System of Genetics.
Chapter VIII.—AIR. Correct Principles of Ventilation.
Chapter IX.—LIBERTY. Seven Kinds of Liberty essential to Happiness.
Chapter X.—THE GIFT OF HEALING. A Complete Exposition of the Functions and their Derangements Causing Disease, and the Vitosophical Remedies.
Chapter XI.—NERVOUSNESS. Principal causes and the means of cure and inducement of Dreamless Sleep. Cure of Insomnia.
Chapter XII.—THE CURRENT OF MAGNETISM AND HOW TO CONTROL IT. Simple Rules for the treatment of all Diseases not requiring Surgery.
Price $2.00 Postpaid Address Dr. Wm. Windsor Box 66 St. Paul, Minn.
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In paper cover 50c
For sale by all book and newsdealers or sent postpaid to any address in the United States, Canada or Mexico upon receipt of price in currency, postal or express money order.
M. A. DONOHUE & CO. 701-707 S DEARBORN STREET :: CHICAGO
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