The old gentleman hadn't thought of that, but he wisely acted on my suggestion, and his boy is to-day one of the brightest young surgeons in the state in which he lives, and he carves men, instead of boards, at higher prices.
The ability to command a high grade of compensation for labor of any kind depends largely upon a man's own confidence in his skill, and his ability to perform work rapidly, as well as skillfully. A factory which can turn out double the quantity of work of its competitor, will secure the best contracts and give the greatest satisfaction. In the same way, a man who can do double the quantity of work done by a fellow-workman will, if his labor be equally skillful, be regarded as worth three or four times as much as his slower competitor. The pride and dignity attached to superior accomplishments doubles the value of the service. The best man in any department of work commands his own price, and people are willing to give him the full margin of profits. The best surgeon is always demanded when human life is at stake; the best lawyer when property of great value is involved in litigation. And when a man knows that he is the best in his department of work, whatever it may be, he has that confidence in himself which will enable him to exact good wages. As long as a man realizes that he is inferior, his work is at a discount and he himself deficient in dignity and self-confidence.
An old darkey, who was famed for his skill as a butcher, was employed by a stranger to slaughter a hog. The service being well performed, Pompey demanded five dollars in payment.
"Five dollars!" gasped the astonished owner of the pork, "for slaughtering one hog! outrageous!"
"No, sah," said Pompey with dignity, "I'se only charged you one dollar for de work, sah. De balance am for de know how."
It is absolutely essential, in order that one may rise to eminence in a profession, trade or occupation, that he should select one where he can use his best faculties; because he will be rated as a successful man, a man of mediocre talents, or a complete failure, according to the amount of sense displayed by the faculties he uses in his business. If a young man has an excellent talent for music, an ordinary degree of ability in mathematics, and none in regard to art, he will be a success in the orchestra; he may make a precarious living as a book-keeper; but if he starts a photograph gallery, he will disgust his customers and prove a dismal failure. In the first, he will be respected and admired; in the second, tolerated; in the third, despised.
In my professional experience I have met thousands of men who were admired and respected as master-minds, because they were using strong faculties, the best they had, and the world gave them more than their dues, because they were ranked in mentality at the grade of their strongest faculties, and their weaknesses were overlooked, hidden in fact by the brightness of the few talents they did possess and use to advantage.
I have examined thousands of men of equal ability who were regarded as very ordinary, because they were in walks of life which called forth only the inferior elements of their characters. I have examined thousands of others of equal ability, and many of magnificent endowment, who were limping, staggering and blindly groping down the dismal path of despair, because they were depending on their weakest elements, and the world despised and judged them unjustly, because they were ranked in mentality at the grade of their weakest faculties—their virtues and talents hidden by the fact that they were never used. It has been my happy privilege to place them, for the first time, in possession of the true estimate of their elements of strength and weakness, and to direct them with the absolute certainty of success into paths of usefulness, prosperity and enjoyment.
I might confer a favor upon you, by giving you a letter of introduction to some rich and powerful friend of mine who could aid you in your business, but I confer a greater favor upon you when I give you my written delineation of character. It is an introduction to yourself. For the first time you are made acquainted with your own character. There it stands in bold relief; your talents and how to make the most of them; your faults and how to correct them; your adaptation in business, analyzed in such a manner that every business qualification is described and the reasons given why you will succeed. You are not left in the dark concerning the matter. The business is stated and the reasons given, and the reasons you can test seriatim before you go to any expense in making a change, or in qualifying yourself for the business.
The enjoyment that a man gets from his business is a legitimate part of the profits. It is also one proper criterion of success. A man may accumulate a bank account, but if it is done at the expense of the enjoyment of life, if every task is a burden, and every day's work a monotonous round of dreary duties, he is no better than a slave.
When he uses the strongest faculties of his nature the result is constant gratification. The use of weaker elements is always at the expense of extra effort and pain. The muscular woodsman enjoys the exercise of chopping, and swings his glittering axe with dexterity and pride. Put a college professor at the same task, and he would be clumsy and suffer fatigue and mortification as well, if he escaped without injury to his shins. But in his school-room the professor would display dignity, enjoyment and skill in expounding some intricate problem to admiring pupils. The skillful musician becomes identified with his instrument, and thrills with the melody evoked by his own fingers. The trained accountant becomes wonderfully gifted in mathematical computation, and enjoys his work in like manner. The accountant might find the work of the musician an impossibility, and what little he did accomplish, a vexation; while the confinement of the counting-room, with its prosaic duties, would be the worst form of slavery for the musician, his work inferior, his capacity limited, his situation intolerable but for the meagre salary it might afford.
A bank president called on me with his son, requesting an examination for the latter. As he came in, I saw that he was in a bad humor. Said he, "This boy is a fool. If you can find any talent in him you will succeed better than I have. My desire is, that he should occupy a position in my bank and ultimately become cashier. Our present cashier is a first-class business man and can add up four columns of figures at once, and I have sent this boy to several business colleges with the request that he be taught the same accomplishment. I have spent seven hundred and fifty dollars on this boy's mathematics, and he can't add up one column of figures with any certainty of being correct. If there is any sense in him, I would like to have you find it."
I examined the boy carefully, and I did not find an idiot. I said, "Sir, you are doing this boy an injustice. He has but little mathematical sense, it is true, and he will never be able to add more than one column of figures with speed and correctness. Nature intended him for something different from a bank cashier. Give this boy a good violin, place him under competent instructors, spend seventy-five dollars on his musical education and he will display such magnificent talent that you will be willing to continue."
The old gentleman arose in wrath, and stamped out of the room, and said he didn't want any fiddlers in his family. The next day, however, he came back and apologized. Said he, "I suppose it is better for the boy to be a good violinist than a poor accountant; at all events, I've failed so far, and I'll try your advice to the extent of seventy-five dollars; if he displays talents as a musician, he shall have the best instruction money can obtain."
He kept his word, and placed the boy in a musical conservatory under first-class instructors, and before the seventy-five dollars was expended, the boy was the pride of the institution. He led his classes; graduated with first honors; is to-day the leader of a first-class orchestra and a professor in a leading conservatory; commands better compensation than any accountant in the city, and has an entree into the best society at all times by reason of his accomplishments. He stands to-day a king among his fellows because he is using his strongest faculties. But the best of it lies in the fact that he enjoys his profession; his position is one of dignity and pleasure. Whether he stands before audiences at the head of his orchestra, in the drawing rooms of elite society, or in the solitude of his study, his brain vibrates with the harmony of his own grand usefulness.
I have a friend who holds the position of first book-keeper in a leading bank, and he is master of the situation because he is able to add four columns of figures at once with absolute accuracy. He commands a first-class salary for first-class work, and it is pleasurable to watch the pride, the dignity, and the evident enjoyment with which he performs the duties of his station. On one occasion I went into the bank to settle an account of long standing, and at the request of the cashier, my friend, the book-keeper, made out the account and added it up in his usual quick way. The cashier, being desirous of preventing any possible mistake, said, "Mr. B——, will you please add that up again and see that your figures are correct." The book-keeper was insulted. The idea that he might make a mistake was not to be tolerated. With an expression of lofty dignity that I shall never forget, he handed back the account without looking at it, saying, "The account is correct, sir." And as the cashier laboriously added it one column at a time he found that it was. The book-keeper was master of the situation, and he was able to humiliate anybody who dared to question his work. And as I saw his satisfaction in the discomfiture of the cashier, I said to myself, Verily the enjoyment of a man's business is a legitimate part of the profits.
The enjoyment of my own business is a large share of the profits. I enjoy lecturing, and I enjoy examinations, because I know when I examine a head that I know more about it than the man who wears it, and that what I am about to say will do him more good than anything he ever heard in his life if he will heed it. And when some young man comes up to me in Texas, and shakes hands and thanks me for something he heard me say in a lecture in California, and another shows me his prosperity in Colorado, and draws out a chart I made for him in Missouri, telling him to enter that business, I enjoy it. And when I examine some diffident young lady and encourage her to learn accomplishments and show her the occupation she should follow, and years later I find her succeeding in all of them and developed into a grand self-sustaining woman, a mighty power for good in her neighborhood, I enjoy that. And when I give my professional sanction to the marriage of some brave young man and beautiful young woman, and later I find them surrounded by superb offspring, a good home and every indication of prosperity, and I see that the beauty of the wife has not faded, and that the husband is stronger and braver and more tender than he was, I enjoy that.
Commercial reports show that only a fraction over two per cent. of business enterprises are successful. The rest are failures because they are managed by men who do not possess the kind of sense required.
The question presents itself to every young man and woman at this moment: Will you be a success, or will you join the long, dismal procession of failures? If you really desire to succeed, you should first find out the true measure of your abilities. My delineation of your character is the surest guide, because it is the estimate placed upon your capacity, your quality, your temperament, your special development of sense, by an impartial friend, a skillful critic, guided by the light of science and a conscientious regard for your welfare.
In coming to me for examinations, come prepared to know the truth. I am not here to flatter you, nor am I here to ridicule or abuse your weaknesses. I have for many years enjoyed a magnificent practice, gained by strict candor and honesty with my patrons, who have long since learned that I spare no pains to know the facts, and knowing them I fear no consequences in relating them as they are.
I will tell you every element of your character as nature and circumstances have combined to develop them. I will not flatter you, but I promise you that I will find more good in you than you have ever found in your own organization, and I will tell you how to turn that good to the best practical account. I will describe your business qualities, and analyze them, showing you how to improve and correct them; and if you are in the proper business already, this knowledge will enable you to develop more perfect usefulness and strengthen your confidence for the future. If you are not in the right profession, trade or occupation, the sooner you find it the better, and make use of your opportunities. I will tell you the very best you can do, and prove it to you by reasons seriatim, and convince you that it will be as natural for you to succeed in that business as it is for a cork to swim, and for the same reason, because the law of nature commands that it should be so. Brain is money, character is capital, knowledge of your resources is the secret of success.
I wish to say a word to the ladies at this point. In this lecture I have used the term "man" in its generic sense, as the old preacher did when he announced that his congregation numbered two hundred and fifty brethren, and then qualified it by remarking that the brethren "embraced" the sisters. Phrenology discloses the fact that women have as many varieties of temperament, quality, capacity and size and special development of brain organs, as men. Every woman as well as every man is endowed with a certain line of talents, and when she enters her proper vocation she succeeds at it, no matter what it may be. Women have succeeded wherever men have, as rulers, as leaders of armies, as physicians, lawyers, in the world of commerce, in the shop, the factory, and on the farm. There is a great deal of bosh written and spoken about "woman's sphere." The proper sphere of every individual man or woman is in that line of work for which nature intended them, and for which they are endowed with the proper development of brain and brawn. And, ladies, when you come to me for examinations I shall be just and honest enough to tell you where you belong; and if I can find you something which will take you out of competition with the Negroes and Chinamen I shall certainly do so.
To parents, also, I wish to say that this is the opportunity you must not neglect. You have no right to bring children into the world unless you are willing to promote their welfare and give them the best opportunities to enjoy whatever nature has endowed them with, in the nature of talent. Do not allow the trifling cost of an examination to stand in the way of obtaining this priceless knowledge, which will enable you to direct their growing minds into the channels which promise so much of usefulness, so much of health, happiness and financial prosperity.
Some parents have an idea that children are too young to be examined, and they make this excuse at every age, from one month to twenty years. They seem to doubt our ability to impart valuable information about a child until the character is "developed." They lose sight of the true object of an examination, which is to determine in what direction the child shall be developed. The parent is often the architect of the child's fortunes, but what would we think of an architect who waited until the building was completed before he planned it? When the character is "developed," according to the idea of these people, the greatest advantage of an examination has been lost. We can tell the youth of twenty-one, or the business man of forty, what his talents are, and how they may best be employed, and how they may also be improved to the extent of that limited development which can be made after maturity by persistent effort; but in the case of the young and growing child the information given in time, is a thousand fold more valuable, because it is in that formative, plastic condition where it is like the clay of the potter in the hands of the skillful parent or teacher. And when parents ask me how young a child may receive the benefits of an examination, I answer as soon as you are able to bring them to me, the younger the better; and when you reflect upon the fact that more than half the children die in infancy, the value of competent phrenological advice may be appreciated. In thousands of cases I have warned parents of predispositions to disease in their little darlings, and enabled them to avoid the conditions which, in the absence of my advice, would have certainly destroyed the health and life of the little ones. Moreover, at an early age a defect may be easily overcome, which at a later period would ripen into a permanent deformity, such as defects of vision, color blindness, defects of speech, stammering, stuttering, lisping, defects of walk, and every other defect caused by a deficient development of brain organs.
To know with scientific accuracy the special talents of an individual in early youth, is to make his fortune. Without this knowledge much valuable time is lost by parent, teacher and pupil in useless experiments. With the knowledge which Phrenology imparts, intelligently acted upon, the development of a strong mind, sound body, brilliant accomplishments, splendid talents and successful business, is an assured fact, and the youth enters upon his early manhood fully equipped with everything which will enable him to accomplish a vast volume of good work, achieve financial success, and enjoy that happiness which can only come to the successful man.
Our rooms are open from 10 o'clock A. M. until 6 P. M. The reception room opens at 9, for the accommodation of those who wish to come early and be first served. Take your seat in the reception room, and I will reach you as rapidly as I can. I never hurry my work at the expense of thoroughness, and when I have a subject under my hands I tell him everything which will do him good, no matter how many others may be waiting. When it comes your turn you may expect the same courtesy. But I never waste time, and if you desire to ask any questions please have them written down, and I will answer them promptly and correctly. While you are in the reception room you will be elegantly entertained, and when I reach your case you may expect the best results which scientific knowledge, careful examination, lucid explanation, and a fraternal interest in your welfare can give.
To-morrow night I lecture on the soul-absorbing topic of Matrimony, at the conclusion of which lecture I shall examine several young ladies and select husbands for them from the audience.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN:—
As I stand committed, before the public, as the originator of a system of Matrimonial Selection and Creative Science, you have a right to demand of me that I shall present to you to-night a statement of something practical that will stand the test of your criticism. And I desire to say, in the outset, that in this lecture I shall endeavor to lift my subject above the plane in which it is ordinarily treated. I don't believe I ever announced a lecture on Matrimony, that I did not detect the ripple of a smile on the face of my audience, as if they regarded the whole subject as a huge practical joke, something wonderfully funny, on no account to be considered seriously.
Marriage is in fact a serious and a scientific problem, the solution of which may well engage the attention of the most profound intellects, and may well engage yours, because in its proper solution is embodied the advancement of society, the happiness of its members—nay, more, the salvation of the race itself; and yet it is, of all questions, most neglected. Young ladies and gentlemen reach maturity and marry without the first rudiments of knowledge in regard to the importance of the relation; in most cases in absolute ignorance of all the great physiological facts pertaining to conjugal selection and improvement of offspring, with little or no knowledge of the characters of either themselves or their consorts. The result is, what might be expected, a fruitful harvest of misery, crime, pauperism, disease, and death. Occasionally circumstances produce a happy combination, and the result is a reasonably correct union in spite of ignorance; but such cases are so rare that they are like oases in the desert, and the subject of universal admiration and comment when they occur. The most casual observer notes, that unhappiness is the rule in the married state, and conjugal felicity the exception. A recent discussion of the question, "Is Marriage a Failure?" has brought out so many exhibitions of domestic misery that society is startled into a serious consideration of the question at last.
It is my purpose to show, in this lecture, that there is a sensible solution of this great problem. That whenever we bring to bear upon this question the same amount of scientific thought and reasoning common sense, that we display in all things pertaining to financial values, the results would be fully as satisfactory. I plead for Investigation; I ask for Knowledge; I beg for Candid Thought and Scientific Experimentation.
When I was lecturing in Kansas, some years ago, I had occasion to visit an old friend, a wealthy farmer, who had an interesting family of seven very marriageable daughters. And in conversation with me, the old gentleman expressed himself as greatly concerned about their matrimonial prospects. Knowing that I was investigating the scientific bearings of matrimony, he said to me, that if there was any light which I could throw upon the subject, which would aid him or his daughters in the selection of suitable husbands for them, he would consider himself under obligations to me for life. "But," said the old man, sadly, "it's no use, marriage is a lottery anyhow. If you draw a prize, well and good; if you draw a blank, you must make the best of it. You may lecture from now until doomsday and it won't do any good. When they fall in love, they're going to marry, and they won't listen to reason."
"Well, my friend," I replied, "I should regret to have to entertain or express the opinion of your daughters that you have just uttered. If I did so, I should consider you entirely justifiable in ejecting me from your premises. It is an insult to the intelligence of your daughters to assert that they would not display sense and reason in the selection of a husband, as in anything else, if they had any knowledge upon which to act. Let me ask you a few questions which will prove my position. I want to buy a valuable horse, could your daughters aid me in the selection of the animal?"
"Oh, yes," exclaimed my old friend, with evident pride, "my daughters know all about horses, sir. They have broken the most unruly colts that were ever raised on this farm. They can tell whether a horse is most suitable for draft, speed or breeding purposes, as soon as they look at him. They can tell how much it will take to feed him, and how far he can travel in a day without injury. My daughters are accomplished horsewomen, sir."
"Good," I answered, "valuable knowledge, sir, for young ladies to possess, especially if they expect to become farmer's wives. I also want to buy a valuable farm, could your daughters aid me in the selection of the property?"
"Certainly, sir," said the old gentleman, warming up with the subject, "my daughters have been instructed in all that pertains to scientific agriculture. They can not only select a good farm, from practical experience, but they have had scientific, theoretical training as well, under competent teachers. They can analyze the soil and tell you its chemical constituents, and they know what kind of soil is suitable for every crop you can name."
"Capital, sir; I rejoice to know that your daughters are so well informed, and have had such excellent instruction and advantages. I now wish to select a good man, can your daughters aid me now?"
"Ah!" said my old friend, sadly, "I see, sir, that you have us all at a disadvantage on that question. My daughters have been neglected in that branch of education, and with my sixty years of experience, I must also admit that I am incompetent to aid either you or my daughters in the selection of a man."
Here is the solution of the whole question. While the human race is interested in everything pertaining to literature, the arts, manufacture, commerce, religion, and science, the welfare of the race itself has been sadly overlooked. And the admission of my old farmer friend can well be made by all of you. And what I said to him in concluding our conversation, I now say to you. You have spent many hours in instructing your children in all that was desirable in literature, art, science, commerce, and religion. You have surrounded them with educational advantages; but you have neglected to instruct them on this vital topic of matrimony. You have treated it lightly or with indifference. You have left them in ignorance of the great social and physiological facts which surround it; and then you wonder when they marry upon blind impulse, and you call it lottery. Of course, they can't display judgment when they have no facts to exercise judgment upon. And you feel offended when your child marries contrary to your advice, when you have been exposing your ignorance to that child ever since it was able to comprehend anything. You set yourself up as an authority on this question, when your youngest baby is fully alive to the fact that you are a total ignoramus in regard to it.
For my part, I admire the spirit of the young man or woman who, realizing the discouraging failure of the old folks, starts out on a new line in obedience to one of nature's impulses, independent alike of paternal wrath or criticism. If such a one will consult the dictates of science in shaping and directing the impulse, the marriage will be much more likely to be happy, than those formed in deference to parental wishes, which, in a majority of cases, we regret to say, are dictated by merely prudential if not sordid reasons.
Before we discuss the main issue of our subject to-night, it may be interesting and instructive to ask: Why do people marry, anyhow? Did you ever think about that? There are a number of reasons, and we will discuss some of them.
A great many people marry because it is fashionable. They never stop to reason about it; they simply observe that nearly everybody else marries, and consequently they jump to the conclusion that it is the proper thing to do. Like most devotees of fashion in other things, they find it a very unprofitable investment.
A great many men marry, because they want a servant. That's unprofitable also. Young man, you can hire your washing and ironing done by a Chinaman, and live in a first-class boarding house with much less expense. It don't pay.
Some women marry because they want a home, and they find—a penitentiary. I visited a state prison a few days ago, and I found inside the walls a lot of convicts that were having a much better time than some married people of my acquaintance.
A large number of men and women marry for money. That don't pay either in the long run. Young man, don't marry a hundred thousand dollars with a girl attached, because some of these days you'll find that the money has taken wings and flown away, and you'll have a girl on your hands, and you won't know what to do with her. Right here, I want to say to my friends who are disposed to look upon money as the most valuable of all things, that if you marry according to my instructions you will marry the conditions which produce money. To marry for money, or to marry a person who possesses a fortune for no other reason, is a monstrous wrong, sure to be punished.
Some refined people marry for beauty. The motive is correct as far as it goes, but in practice we find few people competent to judge of beauty, or to use it correctly. The result is, that most people make the mistake of marrying a fragment of beauty only, or they marry beauty which is not of the kind or quality available in their cases. A man falls in love with a pretty hand, a shapely figure, a handsome mouth, or a pair of beautiful eyes, and he finds upon the more intimate acquaintance of marriage that the tout ensemble is far from being what he desired in a wife.
A young lady becomes enamoured of a magnificent specimen of physical manhood, but she finds to her sorrow that, notwithstanding his beauty, his whole character, in fact, is totally inharmonious with her own.
Some young ladies marry in a hurry, because they imagine that good husbands are going to be scarce in the future, and they live to wonder what a supply the market affords in later years. Young ladies, take my advice and be deliberate. There are going to be hundreds of good men after you are all grandmothers.
The real reason why people marry, is because it is natural to do so. It is in accordance with a law of nature. To understand this fully we must study natural history for a few moments. As we observe the various orders of plants and animals, we find that in the lower forms of life, in vegetable or animal, the male and female principles are embodied in one individual; and that individual, being entirely capable of reproducing the species to which he belongs, stands as a perfect representative of that kind or species. We observe, however, that in the higher orders of plants and animals, the male and female principles are separated—are embodied in two separate individuals, and it requires the union of two of these individuals of different sex to reproduce the species, and it takes the two individuals, the male and female, to furnish us with a complete representation of that species.
Man is created in two parts, male and female, man and woman, and it requires the union of these two to reproduce the race, and to furnish us with the perfect specimen of the unit of humanity. The man or woman, considered separately, do not furnish us this complete ideal of humanity, but on the contrary each is incomplete without the other.
The conclusion which I wish you to draw from this argument is: that the old bachelor is only half of a man, which is a correct way of expressing his status in society. Why, my dear sir, you might as well expect to pull across the Atlantic Ocean in a water-logged skiff, with only one oar, and make a successful voyage of it, as to pull across the ocean of life without the help of a good woman. And I have my suspicions of the morals, as well as my contempt for the taste of a man, who can wander through this country and see as many bright eyes, ruby lips, rosy cheeks, and shapely figures, as one may encounter any day in the week, and who does not marry.
Marriage then may be regarded as the natural condition of every mature man and woman. And, because it is natural to marry, there is all the more reason why it should be carefully studied, and why the human race should learn to form marriages in accordance with Natural Law.
When we study Matrimony in the light of Science, we find that it is surrounded and governed by Natural Laws, as inevitable in their consequences as the law of gravitation, and that the marriage relation is happy or unhappy as these laws have been obeyed or broken.
To constitute a perfect marriage, three great objects must be attained. The absence of any one of these from the marriage will cause its ignominious failure. There must be
First.—Such physiological conditions as will insure the improvement of offspring and the perpetuation of the race, for the accomplishment of which object, marriage is primarily established.
Second.—Amiable Companionship and Congenial Association. The married pair must live together, and their mutual interests, as well as the interests of society, demand that the association be pleasant.
Third.—Mutual helpfulness in financial affairs and the maintainance of the establishment.
It is absolutely necessary that all three of these elements should combine to form the perfect marriage. Many good people imagine that if they can only live together in an amiable way, and have no serious quarrels, that they have reached the beau ideal of happiness. There are others who look only to the financial welfare of the union, and if the conditions seem favorable to the production of wealth, they approve of the marriage; but the fact remains that both of these conditions may be present and the marriage still be most unhappy.
When I was lecturing in the State of Indiana, some years ago, I had occasion to discuss this subject with the Mayor of a certain city, who informed me, with great glee, that he had "sold out" a Phrenologist, as he expressed it, on the occasion of his marriage. Said he, "My wife and I were examined the day before we married, by an eminent Phrenologist, who pronounced us totally unfitted for each other, and strongly urged us not to marry. Now, sir, I have lived with that good woman for forty years, and we've never had a quarrel, and we've made a good living into the bargain."
I did not want to hurt the old man's feelings, and I felt that if he could get any comfort out of that marriage, I would be the last one to take it from him, so I kept silent; but when I looked over his family, and I counted five children that were partially idiotic, I thought that the Phrenologist had decidedly the best of the argument.
And suppose you do live with a good woman for forty years and never have a quarrel, is that anything to your credit? Certainly not. The man who couldn't live with a good woman for forty years, and not insult her, ought to be ridden out of town on a rail. And the woman who can't live with a good man, the same length of time, without getting her name on the police court records for smashing a frying-pan over his head, is not fit to move in good society.
It is desirable that the association of man and woman in marriage should be amiable, but that is not all that is to be desired. Neither is the physiological improvement of offspring the sole thing to be considered. The married pair may surround themselves with beautiful children, but if the conditions of the marriage have made them poor, if the parents are unable to educate their children, or to give them the necessities and advantages which are prompted by a laudable ambition, life will be shorn of most of its charms. And, on the other hand, if life is spent in one long scramble for riches, and there is in the union nothing but the elements of sordid wealth, the actual standard of that marriage, as to the true richness of life, will be poor indeed.
These three grand consummations of Amiable Association, Financial Success, and Physiological Improvement are most devoutly to be wished, but how shall they be attained?
Before I proceed to give you my own theory, I want to tear down one or two others. I am nothing if not combative, and believe that the best way to establish truth is to begin by tearing down error. I wish to attack, in the first place, a theory much taught and too generally practiced, that one should seek, in matrimony, a companion as near like himself as possible. It is astonishing to see what a hold this theory has upon the public mind, considering the fact that it never has had any good results to support it. A distinguished Physiologist, in a recent work which has been extensively circulated, uses these words in speaking of a proper selection in matrimony:—
"What should be sought for is a congenial companion. A congenial companion is one who, under any given set of circumstances, will think, feel and act exactly as we would, not for the sake of agreeing with us, but of his own free will, etc."
We consent that a congenial companion should be sought for, but we differ very much from the learned gentleman, just quoted, as to what constitutes a congenial companion. To comply with the conditions he expresses, presupposes that the persons, who are to be congenial companions, must be alike in character, temperament, disposition; for if they differ in any of these, Phrenology proves that they will, under the same combination of circumstances, think, feel and act differently also. We will examine this theory in the light of results and see how it will work.
We will suppose the case of a man of the Bilious Temperament, dark complexion, hair and eyes; Moderate Caution; small Vitativeness, Hope and Self-esteem; large Destructiveness and Acquisitiveness. Such a combination gives a strong tendency to suicide in cases of financial loss. We marry him to a wife exactly like himself, and one day he comes home and informs her that an unlucky speculation has carried away their fortune, and he has resolved upon suicide. His wife, being a person "who, under any combination of circumstances, thinks, feels and acts" exactly as he does, raises no objection. "All right, my love. You take arsenic, and I'll take strychnine," and they go to perdition together. There is not enough vitality in such a marriage to last them over one disaster.
Study this theory to its legitimate conclusion in all cases, and you will find that its results are disastrous. Moreover, it is contrary to nature. It is not because a man is like a woman that she admires him. If this were true, the little emasculated dudes, who cannot raise moustaches, would be more in demand. It is not because a woman is like a man that he loves her. If this were true, the bearded lady in the Dime Museum would be at a premium on the matrimonial market. It is because each is unlike the other, and because each recognizes in the other something, without which nature is incomplete, that love exists, and each is attracted to the other by a force as irresistible as gravitation itself.
But another fellow comes along and proposes to remedy the whole matter with another theory. And he tells you to marry somebody who is your opposite in everything; somebody who, under every combination of circumstances, will think, feel and act differently from your own impulses. And he hopes, by the fact that you will pull one way and your companion another, to establish some sort of an equilibrium that will keep you on your feet. If we follow this theory, like the other, to its legitimate conclusion, we will find the old problem repeating itself, "When an immovable body meets an irresistible body, what is the result?" According to this theory, I should step into this audience and select the most delicate, refined and accomplished lady among you and marry her to a South African cannibal, and I would produce correct results.
The Mormon and the Mohammedan advocate polygamy. The Koran says a man must have four wives in order to always be able to find one in a good humor. There is one answer to polygamy which forever settles the question. The highest orders of animals and men are gifted by nature with an instinct prompting the union, in pairs, for life of the male and female. This instinct is located in the occipital region of the brain, and is called, in Phrenological language, Conjugality. It is large in the lion and the eagle, and in all mating birds and animals. Those animals which associate promiscuously are devoid of this sense. There is no grander example of conjugal fidelity than the eagle, the monarch of birds, building, with his consort, their rugged home on the breast of some beetling crag, and there rearing their offspring and remaining true to each other for a lifetime, and at last, when disabled by age, nourished and fed by the young birds, no doubt impelled to the filial task by respect for their magnificent virtues.
If the sense of conjugality is omitted from the organization of a man or woman, they cannot be held responsible if they fail to conform to its impulses. But let every man or woman, in the possession of a complete brain, conform to the instincts of nature and emulate the virtue of the eagle. Those who practice polygamy, or who associate promiscuously, or are guilty of conjugal infidelity, are, in plain scientific language, deficient in sense—the sense of conjugality.
It being, therefore, the law of nature that man and woman should unite in matrimony, what rule of selection may we establish which, in all cases, shall be productive of agreeable association, financial success and such physiological conditions as will result in the improvement of offspring?
It has been stated that Order is Heaven's first law. With equal force it might be added that Harmony is the first law of nature. The law of Harmony pervades all nature, and men and women have long since learned to recognize it in many departments of study, inferior in dignity and importance to the topic of this lecture. As you have long studied harmony in its application to music, and colors, I introduce the study of harmony to you to-night, but it is harmony in its relation to Humanity in the law of matrimonial selection. There is harmony and discord in music; there is harmony and discord in the science of colors; and in the grand symphony of Humanity, the law is just as applicable; its obedience results in the beauty and accord of domestic felicity, its disobedience furnishes the deformity and discord of society.
All ladies recognize the law of harmony in colors; and in the selection of a dress or bonnet, they try to secure colors that will harmonize with their complexions. They do not all understand the law sufficiently to always conform to it, as I frequently see ladies in my audience who have blundered in this respect, and who wear articles hideously unbecoming. But they all try, and you cannot inflict a greater punishment upon a woman than to compel her to appear in church, or at a lecture, in a costume in which she knows she has violated this law. But, ladies, just think for a moment, if it is a misfortune to have to wear for a season a dress or bonnet which is not becoming to you, what a calamity it is to be compelled to wear a husband who does not harmonize with you, and that for life. And the worst of it is, they never wear out.
Every musician in my audience understands that, in music, if I strike two notes, of the same pitch and quality, I have produced no harmony, I have only intensified the volume of the tone. If I strike a first and third, or a first and fifth, I produce harmony, because the vibrations of those notes, in combination, are such as produce an agreeable sound. If I strike certain other notes, I produce a discord, and the sound is unpleasant. We cannot have harmony without a difference in pitch and quality, but we can have difference in pitch and quality without harmony. To produce perfect music, we must have soprano, alto, tenor and bass to carry all the parts. The tenor and soprano would furnish us a very poor concert, and the alto and bass alone would produce rather monotonous music. But we have studied harmony in music until we have evoked divine results, and our achievements in harmony of colors has beautified the world with transcendent art.
In the Science of Humanity there are certain combinations of constitution which, in matrimonial association, are harmonious. There are certain other combinations which are discordant. The union of harmonious natures results in agreeable association, financial success and perfection of offspring. The attempted union of discordant natures results in domestic misery, divorces by wholesale, pauperism, disease and crime, and worst of all, the perpetuation of all these evils in a deformed, diseased and vicious posterity.
In stating the law of harmonious selection, the general rule is, that the parties should bear a complementary relation to each other. That is to say, there should be such a combination of temperaments, dispositions and appearances, that any departure from the correct ideal of perfect humanity in the one should be supplied by the development of the other, in order that the two organizations, when added together, should constitute a perfect type of Humanity.
The reasonableness of this rule is apparent the moment that its effects upon offspring are comprehended. The child inherits the joint organization of the parents. It can never be better than the sum total of the parental organizations. It may be better or worse than either of these, according to circumstances. It can never be better than both, except as education may develop possibilities as inherited from both. If, therefore, the father is capable of transmitting to the child certain vigorous elements of constitution, which were weak in the mother, and on the other hand the mother endows the child with certain graces of intellect which were deficient in the father, the result is perfection of offspring through complementary association.
The same rule holds good in the matter of amiable association. When each contributes to the other, elements of character necessary to convenience and happiness, the mutual esteem and respect generated by the knowledge of the indispensableness of each to the other's interest, is the surest guard to amiability.
Likewise as to financial affairs. It is easy to understand that the individual will be most successful in the affairs of life, who unites in himself all the elements of a perfect organization. Therefore, in the consummation of all partnerships, matrimonial or purely commercial, the application of this rule unites in the organization every element essential to success.
In the application of this rule, it is necessary to consider, First, the character of the individual under examination; Second, the type of humanity we desire to form; Third, the ideal character necessary to the accomplishment of the end in view.
The error committed by most physiologists, who have experimented with this question, lies in the fact that they have had in mind only one ideal as a perfect type of humanity, and they have tried to grade all their subjects up to this solitary ideal. Humanity, however, presents as many phases as the various climates, occupations, stages of culture, and conditions of life might be expected to produce, in various combination, and we may have a perfect type of humanity, adapted to every climate, to every occupation, to every grade of society, but differing in each. Every individual, under every condition of life, may find his proper complementary associate, adapted to the same conditions of life, but possessing a different character, harmonious with his own.
Nature has not left us in the dark with reference to this question. She surrounds us with every incentive to obey her laws, rewards her obedient children with every pleasure the senses can afford, and punishes the disobedient with pains and penalties too numerous and severe to catalogue. Observation is all that is necessary to teach us the law of harmony. We know that the bright red of the rose is heightened in effect by the dark green of the leaf behind it. We observe that chords in music are agreeable to the ear. And we have only to use the same observation, in respect to matrimony, to distinguish certain combinations that produce all that is rich and grand and beautiful in domestic life, and to know others in which the effect is altogether wrong.
Society has long since learned the distinction between the Brunette and Blonde the Electric and the Magnetic Temperaments. And the fact is also known that it is natural for those of light complexion to admire those of dark, and vice versa. The novelist and the actor recognize this principle, and if the story is well told, and the drama well made up, the hero and the heroine are made to conform to these complexions. The society belle who gives a party, if she be a blonde, invites some dark-eyed lady friend as a foil to her beauty; and the dark-complexioned friend responds cheerfully to the invitation, conscious that her own beauty will be heightened by the contrast. The blonde and brunette are complementary to each other, as far as the temperament is concerned. The Magnetic Temperament is distinguished for its rich arterial circulation and versatility of character, which is deficient in the Electric. The Electric on the other hand, is noted for its strength of bone and muscle and concentrativeness of character, traits deficient in the Magnetic. United, the combination possesses the warmth and versatility of the Blonde with the endurance and power of the Brunette. In the union of the Blonde and Brunette, the law of color is also conformed to, and both appear better than either would apart, or than either would, combined with a person of the same temperament.
To illustrate this principle more completely, I will give a few examples.
I will take first the case of any man who is a complete type of the extreme brunette or Electric Temperament, and marry him to a lady of the same type. At once we see that the law of harmony has been violated. They are too much alike. They look like brother and sister. They are, in fact, physiologically related. They were created under the same general conditions of birth, and have inherited the same peculiarities of constitution. They do not look as well together as either would separately. They possess the same virtues, it is true, but there is an excess of their peculiar good traits, so that they are in danger of becoming vices. Two bodies cannot occupy the same space at the same time; they jostle each other and promote discord. Notice that, in this couple, each possesses the immense base of brain, the narrow pyramidal form of forehead, the serious expression and the indications of dynamic energy peculiar to the Electric Temperament. In this combination there is an absence of versatility, of blandness, agreeableness, sympathy and warmth. All is cold, hard, forcible, unyielding and serious on both sides. The brunette is essentially, a fighting character, the man to fight the battles of his country, of his clients, of his political faction or party. United to such a character as shown in this combination, he would have a wife possessing the same aggressive qualities, and he would return from the battles of the day to find a new conflict awaiting him at his own fireside; and in couples mis-mated in this way, the conflict usually lasts all night, to the great disturbance of the neighborhood.
But if we conform to the law of nature, and unite the brunette to a superbly vitalized blonde, a different effect is produced. Combined with such a character as the brunette her versatility, refinement, warmth and enthusiasm are exactly what he needs to round out the rugged phases of his character, and supply the elements deficient in his constitution. While she in turn needs his executiveness, his dignity, his seriousness and positive elements to balance her tendency to frivolity, and make her accomplishments and versatility valuable. Recognizing, each in the other, characteristics indispensable to happiness, amiable association and financial success is assured, while the offspring is sure to inherit an excellently well balanced organization if other conditions are at all favorable.
Let us now consider the Magnetic Temperament, of which any blonde man furnishes us an excellent example. If we marry him temporarily to a blonde lady, we have produced discord again. They do not look as well together as either would apart. They are too much like brother and sister. There is too much warmth, enthusiasm, versatility and inflammability about this combination. There is not enough of seriousness, dignity, steadfastness and endurance. Their dispositions clash, because every fault in one is aggravated by the same fault in the other. The versatility and genius of the blonde is not assisted by contact with a lady possessing the same characteristics, because he has enough to supply his needs. When we observe marriages of this class, we find results far from satisfactory, and offspring with a decided tendency to insanity, after a succession of such marriages.
What this blonde character demands is just what the brunette possesses, and when we unite the blonde to a lady of the brunette type, we find results that are far more satisfactory. Here again we have followed the law of nature, and harmony is the result—each is the complement of the other. The genius and versatility of the blond are here fortified with executiveness and endurance, while her concentrative and intense nature is vitalized and warmed with the enthusiasm, the geniality and adaptiveness of the Magnetic Temperament.
These four types of character represent the application of the law in persons of relatively the same grade of social position, and surrounded by the same general conditions of life. Between these extreme types of temperamental development, we may find every grade and blending of temperament, but the law remains the same. It requires the trained skill of the professional examiner to determine for each individual the exact type necessary for the complementary character, but this being done, and the description being given correctly, the application of the law becomes an easy task. In my written delineations of character, which many of you have already, and which all should possess, this complementary character is marked out for you with great precision; by following the instruction there given, you have the scientific key to matrimonial happiness.
Persons possessing a predominance of the Mental Temperament should seek consorts having more of the Vital and Motive. Those having an excess of Vitality, a consort more largely endowed with the Mental and Motive. While those endowed with the large bones and strong muscles, peculiar to the Motive Temperament, need the electrifying influence of the Mental, combined with the nourishment of the Vital.
It does not follow that perfect blending of temperamental conditions will produce a happy marriage. This is the physiological foundation always of a correct relation, but there are other considerations quite as likely to produce important modifications. It does not follow from this law, that a blonde heiress should marry her father's coachman, though he may be a perfect type of the brunette. We should not advise a graduate of one of our cosmopolitan universities to marry an uncultivated country maiden, even though their temperaments were perfectly balanced. We expect our subjects to exercise common sense in the application of our advice, and marry with due regard to the purposes of the union socially, financially and physiologically.
A young gentleman or lady may take my written description of the proper complementary character, and in any village of two thousand inhabitants there will presumably be a half dozen eligible persons sufficiently corresponding to the temperamental description. Our candidate will consider the claims of the six with probably the following result: He will reject No. 1, because she is too old; No. 2, because she is too young; No. 3, because she is diseased; No. 4, because she has insufficient culture. He may profitably hesitate a year between Nos. 5 and 6, but ultimately prefer No. 6 for reasons which he has discovered in that time, and marry happily, and with the proud satisfaction of having married intelligently.
"But," says some objector, "you would have marriage reduced to a matter of cold calculation. You leave out all sentiment and love."
Now, hold on, my friend, and we will see whether that is true or not. What is this sentiment, this love, which most people seem to think desirable in matrimony, and which others, we may add, hold in profound contempt. Love is the impulse of desire toward that which gratifies it. A young man loves a young woman because he sees something in her character, her personal beauty, her mental attributes, which gratifies him. For precisely the same reason the young lady reciprocates the sentiment. Now the question simply reduces itself to this: Shall this sentiment, this love, be founded on a complete and accurate knowledge of what is necessary to the complete gratification of the whole nature, or shall it be founded upon mere caprice or whim, the gratification of a mere fragmentary instinct which has never been educated to the comprehension of its true needs? Ponder on these questions for a few moments and you will realize that, instead of eliminating the sentiment of love from the question of matrimonial selection, I have really introduced you to a grander, broader, better ideal of true love than you have ever comprehended before.
This perfect comprehension of the needs of a natural existence culminates in a wonderful attractive force between the sexes. A force as evident to the senses as the force of gravitation when properly studied, but unfortunately too little understood. This force, however, exists—is governed by natural laws and exerts its influence for good or evil between every man and woman in the universe; and the man who marries in ignorance of this force, or who violates its laws, is as foolish as he who tempts the law of gravitation by jumping from the brow of a precipice without calculating the distance to the ground beneath. This force is an emanation from the body according to temperament, it is identical with gravitation in its phenomena, and I introduce it to-night to your consideration under the name of Sexual Magnetism.
I hold in my hand a bar of iron; if I let go, it falls to the ground, impelled by an unseen but very tangible force which you call gravitation. The scientist will tell you that gravitation exists because the earth is a great magnet, attracting to itself all negative bodies which come within the reach of its positive influence. But the principle of magnetic attraction implies, also, the principle of magnetic repulsion. Every child is familiar with the practical results of magnetic attraction, because he feels the force of it every time he falls down, or drops a plaything. But you are not so familiar with magnetic repulsion, yet if, by any combination of circumstances, you could be made positive to the earth instead of negative, you would be repelled from it with exactly as much force as you are now attracted to it, and shot into space to wander among the asteroids.
To illustrate this principle of magnetic attraction and repulsion, I have prepared these two bar magnets, which are simple bars of steel which have been charged with magnetic properties. I mount one of them on a pivot so that it will revolve when subjected to any force. One end of the magnet is called the positive pole, the other the negative pole, because they have been found to exert two different forces. If I present the positive pole of the magnet I hold in my hand to the negative pole of the mounted magnet, they will attract each other, and the mounted magnet will revolve toward the one in my hand. But if I reverse the conditions, and I present the positive pole of this magnet to the positive pole of the mounted magnet, they will repel each other, and the mounted magnet will revolve in the opposite direction with equal force. This beautiful experiment illustrates the repelling force of magnetism as well as its attractive power.
The human body is magnetic in its action. Its every phenomenon is governed by the laws of electricity and magnetism. The human body is a divine instrument upon which the mind plays, is a wonderful magnet, exhibiting all the phenomena of attraction and repulsion. Between certain constitutions there are positive and negative conditions, resulting in a natural attraction, conducive to the highest matrimonial felicity. Between other constitutions there is a natural antagonism, as relentless as the force of gravitation itself, and when companionship is attempted, in violation of this law, nature drives them apart by the most fearful visitation of her penalties in domestic misery, depraved and deformed offspring, pauperism, insanity and crime.
If any of you doubt the existence of this force, I will cite you to an experiment, which most of you have tried. Put your arm around your sister, and you will not be able to notice any very remarkable sensations. But just get your arm around some other fellow's sister, and you will feel like you were struck by lightening in half a minute. That is Sexual Magnetism.
This force exists in different degrees of intensity, according to the constitutions of the parties affected. It may be highly attractive, it may be weakly so; it may be neutralized, it may be weakly antagonistic; it may be violently repulsive in its effects.
The great difficulty with most people is that they are insensible to the effects of this force. The senses may be educated to a keen perception of it, or they may be deadened by disease and sexual depravity.
I am frequently asked if the natural instincts of men and women will not guide aright in the selection of a consort, and my answer is yes, if the instincts of men and women were natural. But when we reflect that the sexual instincts of the present generation are blunted, warped and paralyzed by the sexual sins of a long line of ignorant and depraved ancestors, they cannot be trusted. But they can be educated, and every man of refined sensibilities can, by learning to recognize his true affinity, so educate his sexual instincts that they will be as true as the needle to the pole, and he will learn to so distinguish the conditions of magnetic attraction and repulsion that he will be attracted by that which is favorable to his own constitution, and repelled by that which is unfavorable, as sensitively as these magnets. And every woman of refined sensibilities may reach the same exalted plane of true sexual intelligence.
And when this degree of sexual intelligence is attained, vice is an impossibility. The education of this refined, sensitive sexual instinct renders adultery abhorrent. The true sexual consort once found, the chief joy of existence consists in the perpetuation of mutual attraction. The consort satisfies; the union is complete; harmony is established, and existence itself becomes a grand, sweet symphony of mutual love, respect and adoration.
I respectfully submit the principles here, for the first time expounded, as the foundation of a proper marriage relation, and a solution of the social problem.
I now discuss the important question of age. There are great possibilities of good and evil involved in this branch of the subject, and nature's laws are violated in this as in every other department.
The proper age for the consummation of marriage is maturity. This varies much in different constitutions and in different climates, but is not hard to determine. A general average for the temperate zone would place the proper age at from 22 to 27 in the male, and from 18 to 23 in the female.
There are a thousand arguments against premature marriages, which I shall not stop to discuss in this lecture. You will hear this subject fully discussed in my lectures on Sexual Science, and you will also find it elucidated at length in my "Science of Creation." Those who have neglected to marry until past the ages above given, if in sound health and good character, may consider that they have my consent as soon as they can find a proper complementary consort, according to my full written delineation.
The female should be about three years younger than the male. This rule applies at all stages of life. Under no circumstances should a man marry a woman older than himself. Neither should he marry one more than five years his junior; and three above stated is better, because the female matures three years younger than the male, as a rule, and this allows for both to marry at the same stage of maturity. There are most weighty physiological reasons for the support of this rule, the full discussion of which I reserve until my lectures on Sexual Science. But I will answer one common objection to this rule right here:
It is quite a common belief that, unless a man marries a woman ten years his junior, in a few years his wife will look too old for him. This belief is based upon the fact that most married women break down and look old in a very short time. This is lamentably true, but there is no good reason why it should be so. It is contrary to nature, and whenever a result is contrary to nature, the cause which produces it is a violation of nature's laws; and the violation of nature's laws, which results in the premature decay of American women, is found mainly in improper marriages, wrong sexual conditions, unhygienic habits, and the woful ignorance of both husband and wife in all that pertains to a proper marriage relation. And, ladies, if you will see that your husbands attend my lectures on Sexual Science, I will promise to educate them to that point where they will be able to preserve your beauty. And in my lectures to ladies on the same subject, I shall impart knowledge which will aid you in preserving your charms and also increasing the manliness of your husbands.
There is no part of my professional work that I approach with as great a feeling of responsibility as this sacred question of Matrimony. And when I am consulted by a young man or woman and requested to give my professional sanction to a proposed union, I study the characters of the parties with my most conscientious skill, and in the light of science I approve it or condemn it, regardless of everything but the great laws of nature, which, knowing, I dare not disobey.
It frequently happens that I am obliged to condemn the aspirations of youthful minds, who up to that time have fondly imagined that they are perfectly suited to each other. But I have fearlessly passed an adverse judgment upon thousands of such cases, and in no case have I had cause to regret my decision. But in many cases, when parties have married in defiance of nature's laws, as explained by me, have they had cause to regret it. And many, very many, whom I have advised against improper marriages, have returned to thank me for my counsel.
Some years ago I examined a young Methodist preacher, and when I described his adaptation in matrimony he seemed dejected, and remarked that it did not correspond at all with his sweetheart. I told him he was lucky to find out the truth before it was too late. He then brought the young lady to me for a personal examination, and both requested me to be candid and to give them the benefit of my highest professional skill. I did so. I said to the young man, "You are a preacher, a man of strong magnetic power, upon which you depend for success; your social organs are very large, and you depend on them to attract and hold those with whom you come in friendly contact. You need a wife who will fortify these elements in your character with strong magnetic and social qualities of her own. This lady, on the contrary, will neutralize in a great degree what you already possess. She is cold and exclusive, and, married to her, you would not be as successful as you would be single. Moreover, you are a man of warm, affectionate nature, demanding a great deal of caressing and amative demonstration from your wife. This lady would freeze you out in one week.
"You have, also, some inharmonious similarities. You are argumentative, dogmatic and commanding in disposition, unyielding, inflexible and positive. This lady is like you in these respects, and if you get into an argument, neither would yield a point, and the result would be sure to be domestic discord. The attachment you both feel for each other is merely fraternal. There is not the first element of sexual magnetism in your constitutions."
They were convinced, and broke the engagement then and there. Two years later I found them both happily married to other parties, according to my instructions, and both took occasion to thank me for saving them from a sad mistake.
I once examined a young artist, of great ability in his professional attainments, but greatly deficient in financial qualifications, and as I described to him his proper adaptation in matrimony, his countenance fell, and he informed me that, in most respects, I had described a type of character quite opposite from what his affianced was. He brought the young lady to me, subsequently, with the request that I should be as candid as possible. I found the young lady also gifted in artistic skill, but utterly wanting in physical stamina and business qualifications. I then said, "You are too much alike. You are, in a physiological sense, brother and sister. The offspring of such a marriage would be weak physically and mentally, if you had any, which is doubtful. You are both the embodiment of delicacy and refinement, artistic taste and sensitiveness, without one element of robust physique or business ability. You never made a dollar in your life."
"No," said the young man, "my father supports me."
"Now," I continued, "you have the one element of a pleasant companionship, derived from the same accomplishment, but it is such a companionship as we might look for in a brother and sister. There is nothing in your union which will contribute the wherewith to fight the battle for existence. What you both need, is an organization of executive ability and strength of business qualifications, robust physique and aggressive force for offensive and defensive action, to make your artistic talent effective. You might marry and never quarrel, and as long as your parents contribute to your support, you might exist, but your marriage is wrong in every physiological and scientific sense."
They were also convinced, and broke their engagement, and I have had the pleasure of congratulating both of them upon their marriage, according to correct principles, resulting in complete happiness, financial success and beautiful offspring.
In subsequent lectures, ladies and gentlemen, to the sexes separately, I will elucidate my theory to the full extent of its physiological laws. For the present I have only presented its general principles, but I submit it to your criticism as the only true relation of the sexes, conducive to the improvement of the race, and of its individual members. I submit it as the solution of the great social problem of the age, as the foundation of correct morals, as the guide to health, happiness and that substantial prosperity which rests upon obedience to the laws of nature.
Mankind has long realized that the acme of human enjoyment is reached in the perfect companionship of harmonious association of the sexes.
"Two souls with but a single thought; Two hearts that beat as one."
And in the grand possibilities of existence, I can conceive of no greater joy, I crave no higher destiny than vibrating in harmonious association in one sweet chord of love, with a companion whose nature is in all respects complimentary to my own.
PREFACE TO PART II.
The following interviews, published in various papers during my past professional experience, relate to interesting subjects pertaining to human character, and have been the object of so much favorable criticism from my friends, that I have decided to give them wider circulation in this form. The papers from which these interviews are quoted, are among the leading journals of the United States, and in each case due credit has been given. I also take this opportunity as a quondam journalist to return to my brethren of the press, my sincere thanks for their uniform courtesy, both in reporting my lectures, and in the wide circulation they have given my doctrines in these interviews.
I. Physiognomy of Matrimony.
II. Study in Ancient Skulls—The Cliff Dwellers.
III. A Phrenological Study—Henry W. Grady.
IV. Was Hawes Insane?
V. How Living Heads and Dead Skulls are Measured.
VI. Crime and its Causes.
VII. A Murderer's Mentality—Fritz Anschlag.
VIII. Phrenology in Politics.
PHYSIOGNOMY OF MATRIMONY.
How Mental Characteristics are Displayed in Personal Appearance.
[From the Dallas (Texas) Times.]
"Now," said Prof. Windsor to a representative of the Times last evening at the Opera-house as they took seats commanding a view of the audience, "if you'll pay attention I'll give you some points on matrimony from a phrenological standpoint, illustrated with practical examples from this audience:
"Notice that couple just behind the usher in the middle aisle. The gentleman, as you see, is a brunette, tall, angular, with a prominent Roman nose, and a firm step. He is one of our promising young attorneys, as the papers say. An aggressive executive disposition is written in every line of his face. He is not so noted for legal knowledge as for his ability in handling the facts in the case. Notice his chin, which is rather narrow, round, and projects well forward."
"What does that signify?"
"An intense desire to love. His affections, like the rest of his character, are aggressive and must find expression. His conjugality is large and he will center all his affections on one beloved object.
"Now, notice the lady. She has taken the seat beside him, and the average observer would not detect anything wrong, but I can see from here that she does not enjoy his company. There is no compatibility between them, and if they marry they can expect nothing but misery."
"Upon what evidence do you base these conclusions?"
"Well, her temperament is similar to his, as you will see if you notice her features and complexion; but that isn't all. Notice her position. The lines of her figure are all inclined away from him. She smiles at his conversation, out of politeness, and is not conscious of the fact that she is betraying her dislike by any act; but she is, nevertheless.
"Now notice that couple over there on the left, three seats back of the one we have just observed. You see the lady is a blonde with a wide forehead and a nose which has a regular curve from the root to the tip. That is what we call the celestial nose, because it is always pointing skyward and serves as a perpetual interrogation point. She can ask more questions between the acts than her companion can answer in a fortnight. Her chin is narrow and pointed, which signifies congenial love and a wealth of affection which she is anxious to bestow on somebody. Her companion, you see, is a semi-brunette with a rather wide head. He is one of our prominent retail merchants and the lady is his fiancee."
"What are the prospects for their future happiness?"
"Good. Notice that indentation in the middle of his chin, signifying an intense desire to be loved, a passive form of the passion, but admirably adapted to her equally strong desire to manifest the active form by caresses and endearments. Notice how closely they sit together, the lines of both figures inclining to each other. Why, you couldn't put a piece of tissue paper between their shoulders. His nose is slightly modeled after the Roman type, and as hers curves the other way the circle of adaptability is complete."
"Is the nose reliable as an indication of character?"
"Always. Do you see that gentleman on the front seat with the pug nose? Well, his character is equally undeveloped, as his friends will tell you. The shortness of the organ from root to tip signifies a distressing lack of executive ability.
"The lady beside him is much the better man of the two. She has executive force enough for a whole family, and the fact is betrayed by the strong features, large nose, wide head and firmly set jaws and lips."
"Does the mouth indicate as much character as the nose?"
"Yes, the character is written on every feature. You see that lady on the second row of seats, back of our pug-nosed specimen? When she smiles, her upper lip curls up on one side, and when her countenance is at rest, her upper teeth are slightly exposed. That is the sign of approbativeness, love of applause, compliments, desire to attract attention, etc. You can see the same element of character in the fact that she inclines her head to one side nearly all the time. Her costume is almost loud. Her voice certainly is, for we have heard it at this distance several times."
"Approbativeness is not a very desirable element of character, then."
"That depends upon perversion. In the present instance it is turned to bad account. The young lady is admirably adapted to the stage, and if she would adopt that profession the very faculty of approbativeness would be her most powerful stimulus in ambition to excel.
"Approbativeness is often mistaken for self-esteem. Do you see that gentleman coming down the middle aisle? From his walk you would suppose he owned most of Dallas. He displays a good deal of jewelry and is evidently 'stuck on himself,' as the boys say. He is a well-known lawyer of very moderate talent, and the fact is that self-esteem is very low in his organization, as he is very deficient in dignity. That aggressive display is an effort on his part to supply a deficiency of which he is painfully conscious.
"His wife, who accompanies him, is very modest and apparently unassuming in demeanor, but she has plenty of self-esteem and firmness, and the result is that she is the controlling member of the firm. If it were not for her large benevolence and suavity, which makes her a very agreeable woman, he would be badly henpecked. As it is, she uses more tact than force, but he obeys implicitly, nevertheless."
"What benefits do you claim, Professor, to result from the practice of phrenology as applied to matrimony?"
"Simply the results of knowledge and observation in any direction. If parties will walk into matrimony blindly, without observing or attempting to discover the signs of character, the result is likely to prove disastrous. It is the old story of 'buying a pig in a poke,' to use an ancient Irish expression. In matrimony, as in everything else, the best plan is to make your transaction with your eyes open, and if your eyes are not sufficiently educated to discern the signs of human character, then to avail yourself of professional skill, as you would do in every other department of life."
SOME PEOPLE YOU MEET.
[From the Atlanta (Ga.) Constitution.]
"Is that my picture, or that of the Three-Dollar Shoe Man, you're studying so carefully?"
The speaker was a large, fine-looking specimen of American manhood, who walked into The Constitution office yesterday.
A splendid head, placed firmly upon a Grover Cleveland neck, silken, sandy mustache, and side whiskers cut on the William H. Vanderbilt pattern, and piercing blue eyes, which seemed to look straight through you—these were the striking features of a rather striking face.
Then he introduced himself. It was Professor William Windsor, LL.B., "phrenologist and anthropologist."
"I have been an active practitioner in my line," said the Professor, in answer to a question, "for many years now. For some time before that I studied phrenology and practiced law, but in later years I have devoted all my time to the active practice of that which I have now made my profession. This is the first time I have been to Atlanta, though I am very much of a Southerner. I was born in Kentucky, and my father was a Virginian. He made a fortune on the Mississippi during the war, and after that was over he left the river and moved to Wisconsin, where I was educated. I graduated in law at the University of Wisconsin; but as I lived several years in Texas, I consider that I am very much of a Southerner."
"And as to phrenology?"
"I love it. There is so much to it—so much more than many people imagine. Of course, I am working for money, but above and beyond that is the desire to do good to my fellow-men. How? Why, nobody has a better opportunity of doing good than a conscientious phrenologist, for he can look into a man's character, into the inmost recesses of his heart, as it were."
"Is there anything in palmistry?"
"Oh, yes. There is no reason why character should not be read in any feature. It can be read, I have no doubt, in the feet as well as in the head and the hands, but the trouble would be in getting comparisons. You couldn't very well ask every man you meet to pull off his shoes, that you might study his feet, but every man studies the character of his neighbor as he reads it in his face. He may say he doesn't believe in phrenology, but, unconsciously, perhaps, he practices it."
"You spoke of doing good. Can you give me an instance?"
"Hundreds of them, I am happy to say. By pointing out to people their faults and how to correct them, I know I have done good. This year I was out in Pueblo, Colo., where I had been three years ago. While there, a young man called on me, and brought with him his wife. Upon my last visit I had examined him, and had pointed out several things to him. One was that he was too cautious. He is a young business man, and is one of those fellows who are always afraid to take risks. I told him of this, and then, at his request, told him of the sort of young lady he should marry. Well, he found the girl and married her, and he told me he could point out where he had made seven thousand dollars by following my advice as to risks. That is only one instance; but I believe I have done much good."
"That means the study of human nature. In its application it includes man in all his physical, mental and social conditions. Phrenology is the science of the mind—mental philosophy; anthropology is the science of man—human philosophy. I contend that to the proper understanding of these great subjects we must look for the solution of all social problems."
STUDY IN ANCIENT SKULLS.
What a Specialist in Cranial Architecture Can Read—The Skulls of the Cliff Dwellers[A] Viewed by the Light of Science and Tapers.
[Footnote A: NOTE.—The "Cliff Dwellers" is a name given to an ancient aboriginal race who once inhabited the mountain fastnesses of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado. They had their homes in caverns of almost inaccessible cliffs, and undoubtedly possessed an advanced state of civilization, as evidenced from the pottery, implements, musical instruments, etc., found in the ruins of their homes, as well as what is indicated by the skulls described in this interview. Their dwellings exhibit remarkable constructiveness in the inmates, and in many instances a high power of decorative art.]
[Denver (Col.) Republican.]
At one of his lectures last week at Warren's Academy, Professor William Windsor, LL. B., delineated the character of a skull submitted to him by one of the audience. The Professor recognized it instantly as that of one of the Cliff Dwellers, and proceeded to give a description of the individual to whom the skull belonged. A Republican representative who was present, called on Professor Windsor at the Brunswick yesterday.
"The Cliff Dwellers," said Professor Windsor, "present a most interesting study to the anthropologist. I have examined the collection of relics on Larimer street, and I have here the skull I examined Tuesday evening, as well as two others kindly loaned to me by the proprietors of that collection."
"Can you tell anything of the mental characteristics of the wearers of these skulls, Professor?"
"Oh, yes," said the phrenologist, smiling. "The skull is an absolute index of the character, and, as long as it holds together, is a better monument than 'storied urn or animated bust' to those who have the skill to read it. The skulls of these Cliff Dwellers furnish us with much more accurate information than the other relics, concerning their habits and character.
"For example, one of their striking peculiarities is a decided talent for music. Nearly every skull in the collection shows it. After I had remarked this fact to the proprietor of the exhibit, Mr. McLoyd, showed me a very well-preserved fragment of a flute which is in the collection. The skulls of these people, however, bear a more eloquent testimonial to their musical genius than this fragment of their musical instrument.
"The peculiar form of the Cliff Dweller's skull is produced by some custom of the tribe in binding the infant upon a board or other substance. This is proved by the fact that the flatness of the back head is uniformly at the same angle, and that the upper tables of the skull give evidence of abnormal pressure. There is also in this collection one skull which is an exception, and shows exactly the development we would expect to find in a normal form when such pressure was not applied. The skull is that of a young female, and in outline it is strikingly like that of the ordinary Caucasian skull. In fact, I would pronounce it a Caucasian skull were it not for the structure of the superior maxillary bone, which shows a radical departure from the type of either of the five present races. The Cliff Dwellers are more like the Caucasian than the Indian, and more like the Hindoo than either. That they possessed a higher order of intellect than any Indian tribe of which we have knowledge does not admit of doubt.
"The most striking peculiarity of these skulls is their delicate and yet strong quality. The grain or texture of the bone is much more delicate and fine than the average of Caucasian skulls that belong to the uneducated classes. The illumination of the skull discloses some interesting facts. It is well known to phrenologists that the skull is thinner in those regions that are most constantly used in the mental habits of the individual. The illumination of the skulls of these two youths (here Professor Windsor inserted a lighted taper in each) discloses a nearly uniform thinness of the entire skull, showing that they exercised all the faculties of the mind. The skull of this old warrior, however, presents a different appearance under the same test. You will notice that the illumination is confined to that portion of the skull lying around the base of the brain, and running highest in the forehead. The conclusion to be drawn from this is that the individual who once wore this skull was a man of very practical intellect. The perceptive organs, the knowing and reasoning faculties, executive ability and the social organs of amativeness and friendship, particularly the latter, are all bright and particularly well developed.
"The abnormal width of the Cliff Dweller's skull through the middle section, and the massive, dome-like forehead, is due in a measure to the crowding forward of the brain from the pressure which produced the flattening of the occiput. Any normal head with such a development would show a thinness of the bone in that region, whereas the opacity of the warrior's skull is remarkable in that region. If we may take the skull of this female, which has not been subjected to this pressure, as a type of the race, we are justified in considering the Cliff Dwellers as a people remarkably agreeable in traits of character. All the domestic propensities which form the basis of the family relation, the love of offspring, of friends and neighbors, are remarkably well developed. There is a magnificent moral influence shown in the development of conscientiousness, approbativeness and caution. The latter organ is so large as to suggest cowardice, but these people undoubtedly lived in an age when circumspection and eternal vigilance was the price of existence as well as of liberty.
"I notice that the writer of the article on the Cliff Dwellers in last Sunday's Republican makes the statement that they apparently had neither literature nor religion. He bases his assertions on the fact that he does not find altars or writings among their possessions. But appearances are against him. They apparently had both, from the structure of their skulls. The Cliff Dweller is largely endowed with the artistic and constructive organs of the brain with an unlimited capacity for invention and designing. Savage races far below him in these qualities have literature, and it is unreasonable to suppose that having these qualities both large and active, he did not use them. As to his religion, the single exception to the uniform opacity of the warrior's skull above mentioned in the crown of the head is in the organ of veneration. He did not have enough of spirituality and faith to supply a Methodist camp meeting, but he undoubtedly reverenced the Great Spirit and invoked the patronage of the god which he could comprehend. The other two skulls show as good a development of the religious organs as you will find in a general average of any Sunday-school in Denver. The Cliff Dwellers were undoubtedly religious.
"In physical structure the Cliff Dweller presents a greater variety than is found in any race except the Caucasian. Their warriors were undoubtedly men of great endurance and strong physique with a good size of body. There were also among them types of character delicate in the extreme and possessing but little endurance. As a race they depended on prudence rather than strength for safety. They were shrewd, circumspect and diplomatic. In complexion they were darker than the Caucasian and much lighter than the American Indian. In diet they were almost if not quite exclusively graminivorous, living on grain and eating that raw."
"How do you tell that? Professor," asked the scribe. "Isn't that getting things down very fine for so long a lapse of time?"
"Oh, no; just look at the teeth of all these skulls and you will see that they are worn—even these young skulls which have not developed the wisdom teeth have the molars half worn away. The canine teeth are almost rudimentary in these skulls—in the carnivorous races of men they are very large. The condition of these teeth could only be produced by such a diet. If the Cliff Dweller had subsisted to any extent on meat or had eaten his grain cooked, he would not have worn the teeth one-quarter as much at the age of these younger skulls. Moreover, he did not use tobacco, which also leaves its mark on the skull, in the deterioration of certain organs of the brain, which, to the credit of the Cliff Dwellers, are well developed.
"If it is true that—
'The evil that men do lives after them, The good is oft interred with their bones—'
it is equally true, that by resurrecting the bones we may read the history of both the evil and the good."
A PHRENOLOGICAL STUDY.
Henry W. Grady's Character Analyzed by an Expert. What a Study of the Mask and of Photograph Shows—His Wonderful Brain and its Wonderful Capacity.
"Yes, I have given the character of Henry W. Grady considerable study, as I do in the case of all men who attract public attention by their graces, gifts and accomplishments, or by the lack of those attributes."
The speaker was Professor William Windsor, LL. B., phrenologist and anthropologist, whose lectures last week at the Guard's armory interested the people of Atlanta in the study of human character.
"Mr. Grady has interested me ever since I first heard of him, and I had looked forward to meeting him personally here in Atlanta this winter, ever since my route was mapped out for the season. I feel a sense of personal bereavement in his death, for his characteristics were as vividly impressed upon my mind by the study I had made of the man as others experience from personal contact."
"Perhaps you can tell us something of the character of Mr. Grady as viewed from the standpoint of your science that will be interesting, Professor," suggested a representative of THE CONSTITUTION, and the party of interested gentlemen drew more closely around the philosopher.
"Yes, indeed," answered Professor Windsor, "but to me the contemplation of the character of Mr. Grady, at this time, is too much like viewing the wreck of a grand ship which was freighted with a precious cargo, and trying to estimate the loss. There isn't much comfort in it, except in the fact that a correct estimate of the virtues and accomplishments of such a man, at a time when the community is still shocked at the calamity of his demise, is a powerful incentive to emulation on the part of other and younger men.
"From the phrenological standpoint Mr. Grady's characteristics present an interesting study, while his known accomplishments are a wonderful confirmation of the correctness of the theory upon which we estimate mental power, namely, that size of brain is the measure of power, when temperament, quality and health of body are sufficient to support the brain. Comprehensive greatness is never manifested by a small brain. I have been placed in possession of very accurate measurements of Mr. Grady's head through the courtesy of Mr. Frazee, the Atlanta sculptor who has a cast of the face and forehead made from the body of Mr. Grady, and hence strictly correct in dimensions. I have also had the benefit of numerous photographs, in which the phrenological features are distinctly preserved.