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Home Life in Colonial Days
by Alice Morse Earle
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And may I not enter here a plea for the preservation of the box-edgings of our old garden borders? I know they are almost obsolete—have been winter-killed and sunburned—and are even in sorry disrepute as having a graveyard association, and as being harborers of unpleasant and unwelcome garden visitors. One lover of old ways thus indignantly mourns their passing:—

"I spoke of box-edgings. We used to see them in little country gardens, with paths of crude earth. Nowadays, it has been discovered that box harbours slugs, and we are beginning to have beds with tiled borders, while the walks are of asphalt. For a pleasure-ground in Dante's Inferno such materials might be suitable."

For its beauty in winter alone, the box should still find a place in our gardens. It grows to great size. Bushes of box in the deserted garden at Vaucluse in Newport, Rhode Island, are fifteen feet in height, and over them spread the branches of forest trees that have sprung up in the garden beds since that neglected pleasaunce was planted, over a century ago. The beautiful border and hedges of box at Mount Vernon, the home of Washington, plead for fresh popularity for this old-time favorite.

Our mothers and grandmothers came honestly by their love of gardens. They inherited this affection from their Puritan, Quaker, or Dutch forbears, perhaps from the days when the famous hanging gardens of Babylon were made for a woman. Bacon says: "A garden is the purest of human pleasures, it is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man." A garden was certainly the greatest refreshment to the spirits of a woman in the early colonial days, and the purest of her pleasures—too often her only pleasure.

Quickly, in tender memory of her fair English home, the homesick goodwife, trying to create a semblance of the birthplace she still loved, planted the seeds and roots of homely English flowers and herbs that grew and blossomed under bleak New England skies, and on rocky New England shores, as sturdily and cheerfully as they had sprung up and bloomed by the green hedgerows and door-sides in the home beyond the sea.

In the year 1638, and again in 1663, an English gentleman named John Josselyn came to New England. He published, in 1672, an account of these two visits. He was a man of polite reading and of culture, and as was the high fashion for gentlemen of his day, had a taste for gardening and botany. He made interesting lists of plants which he noted in America under these heads:—

"1. Such plants as are common with us in England.

"2. Such plants as are proper to the country.

"3. Such plants as are proper to the country and have no names.

"4. Such plants as have sprung up since the English planted and kept cattle in New England.

"5. Such Garden-Herbs among us as do thrive there and of such as do not."

This last division is the one that specially interests us, since it is the earliest and the fullest account of the gardens of our forefathers, after they had tamed the rugged shores of the New World, and made them obey the rule of English husbandry. They had "good store of garden vegetables and herbs; lettuce, sorrel, parsley, mallows, chevril, burnet, summer savory, winter savory, thyme, sage, carrots, parsnips, beets, radishes, purslain, beans"; "cabbidge growing exceeding well; pease of all sorts and the best in the world; sparagus thrives exceedingly, musk mellons, cucumbers, and pompions." For grains there were wheat, rye, barley, and oats. There were other garden herbs and garden flowers: spearmint, pennyroyal, ground-ivy, coriander, dill, tansy; "feverfew prospereth exceedingly; white sattin groweth pretty well, and so doth lavender-cotton; gillyflowers will continue two years; horse-leek prospereth notably; hollyhocks; comferie with white flowers; clary lasts but one summer; sweet-bryer or eglantine; celandine but slowly; blood-wort but sorrily, but patience and English roses very pleasantly."

Patience and English roses very pleasantly in truth must have shown their fair English faces to English women in the strange land. Dearly loved had these brier-roses or dog-roses been in England, where, says the old herbalist, Gerard, "children with delight make chains and pretty gewgawes of the fruit; and cookes and gentlewomen make tarts and suchlike dishes for pleasure thereof." Hollyhocks, feverfew, and gillyflowers must have made a sunshine in the shady places in the new home. Many of these garden herbs are now common weeds or roadside blossoms. Celandine, even a century ago, was "common by fences and among rubbish." Tansy and elecampane grow everywhere. Sweet-brier is at home in New England pastures and roadsides. Spearmint edges our brooks. Ground-ivy is a naturalized citizen. It is easy to note that the flowers and herbs beloved in gardens and medicinal waters and kitchens "at home" were the ones transplanted here. "Clary-water" was a favorite tonic of Englishmen of that day.

The list of "such plants as have sprung up since the English planted" should be of interest to every one who has any sense of the sentiment of association, or interest in laws of succession. The Spanish proverb says:—

"More in the garden grows Than the gardener sows."

The plantain has a history full of romance; its old Northern names—Wegetritt in German, Weegbree in Dutch, Viebred in Danish, and Weybred in Old English, all indicating its presence in the much-trodden paths of man—were not lost in its new home, nor were its characteristics overlooked by the nature-noting and plant-knowing red man. It was called by the Indian "the Englishman's foot," says Josselyn, and by Kalm also, a later traveller in 1740; "for they say where an Englishman trod, there grew a plantain in each footstep." Not less closely did such old garden weeds as motherwort, groundsel, chickweed, and wild mustard cling to the white man. They are old colonists, brought over by the first settlers, and still thrive and triumph in every kitchen garden and back yard in the land. Mullein and nettle, henbane and wormwood, all are English emigrants.

The Puritans were not the only flower-lovers in the new land. The Pennsylvania Quakers and Mennonites were quick to plant gardens. Pastorius encouraged all the Germantown settlers to raise flowers as well as fruit. Whittier says of him in his Pennsylvania Pilgrim:—

"The flowers his boyhood knew Smiled at his door, the same in form and hue, And on his vines the Rhenish clusters grew."

It gives one a pleasant notion of the old Quaker, George Fox, to read his bequest by will of a tract of land near Philadelphia "for a playground for the children of the town to play on and for a garden to plant with physical plants, for lads and lassies to know simples, and learn to make oils and ointments."

Among Pennsylvanians the art of gardening reached the highest point. The landscape gardening was a reproduction of the best in England. Our modern country places cannot equal in this respect the colonial country seats near Philadelphia. Woodlands and Bush Hill, the homes of the Hamiltons, Cliveden, of Chief Justice Chew, Fair Hill, Belmont, the estate of Judge Peters, were splendid examples. An ecstatic account of the glories and wonders of some of them was written just after the Revolution by a visitor who fully understood their treasures, the Rev. Manasseh Cutler, the clergyman, statesman, and botanist.

In Newport, Rhode Island, where flowers ever seem to thrive with extraordinary luxuriance, there were handsome gardens in the eighteenth century. A description of Mr. Bowler's garden during the Revolution reads thus:—

"It contains four acres and has a grand aisle in the middle. Near the middle is an oval surrounded with espaliers of fruit-trees, in the centre of which is a pedestal, on which is an armillary sphere with an equatorial dial. On one side of the front is a hot-house containing orange-trees, some ripe, some green, some blooms, and various other fruit-trees of the exotic kind and curious flowers. At the lower end of the aisle is a large summer-house, a long square containing three rooms, the middle paved with marble and hung with landscapes. On the right is a large private library adorned with curious carvings. There are espaliers of fruit-trees at each end of the garden and curious flowering shrubs. The room on the left is beautifully designed for music and contains a spinnet. But the whole garden discovered the desolations of war."

In the Southern colonies men of wealth soon had beautiful gardens. In an early account of South Carolina, written in 1682, we find:—

"Their Gardens are supplied with such European Plants and Herbs as are necessary for the Kitchen, and they begin to be beautiful and adorned with such Flowers as to the Smell or Eye are pleasing or agreeable, viz.: the Rose, Tulip, Carnation, Lilly, etc."

By the middle of the century many exquisite gardens could be seen in Charleston, and they were the pride of Southern colonial dames. Those of Mrs. Lamboll, Mrs. Hopton, and Mrs. Logan were the largest. The latter flower-lover in 1779, when seventy years old, wrote a treatise on flower-raising called The Gardener's Kalendar, which was read and used for many years. Mrs. Laurens had another splendid garden. Those Southern ladies and their gardeners constantly sent specimens to England, and received others in return. The letters of the day, especially those of Eliza Lucas Pinckney, ever interested in floriculture and arboriculture, show a constant exchange with English flower-lovers.

Beverley wrote of Virginia, in 1720: "A garden is nowhere sooner made than there." William Byrd and other travellers, a few years later, saw many beautiful terraced gardens in Virginian homes. Mrs. Anne Grant writes at length of the love and care the Dutch women of the past century had for flowers:—

"The care of plants such as needed peculiar care or skill to rear them, was the female province. Every one in town or country had a garden. Into the garden no foot of man intruded after it was dug in the spring. I think I see yet what I have so often beheld—a respectable mistress of a family going out to her garden, in an April morning, with her great calash, her little painted basket of seeds, and her rake over her shoulders, to her garden of labours. A woman in very easy circumstances and abundantly gentle in form and manners would sow and plant and rake incessantly."

In New York, before the Revolution, were many beautiful gardens, such as that of Madam Alexander on Broad Street, where in their proper season grew "paus bloemen of all hues, laylocks and tall May roses and snowballs intermixed with choice vegetables and herbs all bounded and hemmed in by huge rows of neatly clipped box edgings." We have a pretty picture also, in the letters of Catharine Rutherfurd, of an entire company gathering rose-leaves in June in Madam Clark's garden, and setting the rose-still at work to turn their sweet-scented spoils into rose-water.

A trade in flower and vegetable seeds formed a lucrative and popular means by which women could earn a livelihood in colonial days. I have seen in one of the dingy little newspaper sheets of those days, in the large total of nine advertisements, contained therein, the announcements, by five Boston seedswomen, of lists of their wares.

The earliest list of names of flower-seeds which I have chanced to note was in the Boston Evening Post of March, 1760, and is of much interest as showing to us with exactness the flowers beloved and sought for at that time. They were "holly-hook, purple Stock, white Lewpins, Africans, blew Lewpins, candy-tuff, cyanus, pink, wall-flower, double larkin-spur, venus navelwort, brompton flock, princess feather, balsam, sweet-scented pease, carnation, sweet williams, annual stock, sweet feabus, yellow lewpins, sunflower, convolus minor, catch-fly, ten week stock, globe thistle, globe amaranthus, nigella, love-lies-bleeding, casent hamen, polianthus, canterbury bells, carnation poppy, india pink, convolus major, Queen Margrets." This is certainly a very pretty list of flowers, nearly all of which are still loved, though sometimes under other names—thus the Queen Margrets are our asters. And the homely old English names seem to bring the flowers to our very sight, for we do not seem to be on very friendly intimacy, on very sociable terms with flowers, unless they have what Miss Mitford calls "decent, well-wearing English names"; we can have no flower memories, no affections that cling to botanical nomenclature. Yet nothing is more fatal to an exact flower knowledge, to an acquaintance that shall ever be more than local, than a too confident dependence on the folk-names of flowers. Our bachelor's-buttons are ragged sailors in a neighboring state; they are corn-pinks in Plymouth, ragged ladies in another town, blue bottles in England, but cyanus everywhere. Ragged robin is, in the garden of one friend, a pink, in another it flaunts as London-pride, while the true glowing London-pride has half a dozen pseudonyms in as many different localities, and only really recognizes itself in the botany. An American cowslip is not an English cowslip, an American primrose is no English primrose, and the English daisy is no country friend of ours in America.

What cheerful and appropriate furnishings the old-time gardens had; benches full of straw beeskepes and wooden beehives, those homelike and busy dwelling-places; frequently, also, a well-filled dove-cote. Sometimes was seen a sun-dial—once the every-day friend and suggestive monitor of all who wandered among the flowers of an hour; now known, alas! only to the antiquary. Sentiment and even spirituality seem suggested by the sun-dial, yet few remain to cast their instructive shadow before our sight.

One stood for years in the old box-bordered garden at Homogansett Farm, at Wickford, in old Narragansett. Governor Endicott's dial is in the Essex Institute, at Salem; and my forbear, Jacob Fairbanks, had one dated 1650, which is now in the rooms of the Dedham Historical Society. Dr. Bowditch, of Boston, had a sun-dial which was thus inscribed:—

"With warning hand I mark Times rapid flight From life's glad morning to its solemn night. And like God's love I also show Theres light above me, by the shade below."

Another garden dial thus gives, "in long, lean letters," its warning word:—

"You'll mend your Ways To-morrow When blooms that budded Flour? Mortall! Lern to your Sorrow Death may creep with his Arrow And pierce yo'r vitall Marrow Long ere my warning Shadow Can mark that Hour."

These dials are all of heavy metal, usually lead; sometimes with gnomon of brass. But I have heard of one which was unique; it was cut in box.

At the edge of the farm garden often stood the well-sweep, one of the most picturesque adjuncts of the country dooryard. Its successor, the roofed well with bucket, stone, and chain, and even the homely long-handled pump, had a certain appropriateness as part of the garden furnishings.

So many thoughts crowd upon us in regard to the old garden; one is the age of its flowers. We have no older inhabitants than these garden plants; they are old settlers. Clumps of flower-de-luce, double buttercups, peonies, yellow day-lilies, are certainly seventy-five years old. Many lilac bushes a century old still bloom in New England, and syringas and flowering currants are as old as the elms and locusts that shade them.

This established constancy and yearly recurrence of bloom is one of the garden's many charms. To those who have known and loved an old garden in which,

"There grow no strange flowers every year, But when spring winds blow o'er the pleasant places, The same dear things lift up the same fair faces,"

and faithfully tell and retell the story of the changing seasons by their growth, blossom, and decay, nothing can seem more artificial than the modern show-beds of full-grown plants which are removed by assiduous gardeners as soon as they have flowered, to be replaced by others, only in turn to bloom and disappear. These seem to form a real garden no more than does a child's posy-bed stuck with short-stemmed flowers to wither in a morning.

And the tiresome, tasteless ribbon-beds of our day were preceded in earlier centuries by figured beds of diverse-colored earths—and of both we can say with Bacon, "they be but toys, you may see as good sights many times in tarts."

The promise to Noah, "while the earth remaineth seed-time and harvest shall not cease," when heeded in the garden, brings various interests. The seed-time, the springing-up of familiar favorites, and the cherishing of these favorites through their in-gathering of seeds or bulbs or roots for another year, bring pleasure as much as does their inflorescence.

Another pathetic trait of many of the old-time flowers should not be overlooked—their persistent clinging to life after they had been exiled from the trim garden borders where they first saw the chill sun of a New England spring. You see them growing and blooming outside the garden fence, against old stone walls, where their up-torn roots have been thrown to make places for new and more popular favorites. You find them cheerfully spreading, pushing along the foot-paths, turning into vagrants, becoming flaunting weeds. You see them climbing here and there, trying to hide the deserted chimneys of their early homes, or wandering over and hiding the untrodden foot-paths of other days. A vivid imagination can shape many a story of their life in the interval between their first careful planting in colonial gardens and their neglected exile to highways and byways, where the poor bits of depauperated earth can grow no more lucrative harvest.

The sites of colonial houses which are now destroyed, the trend, almost the exact line of old roads, can be traced by the cheerful faces of these garden-strays. The situation of old Fort Nassau, in Pennsylvania, so long a matter of uncertainty, is said to have been definitely determined by the familiar garden flowers found growing on one of these disputed sites. It is a tender thought that this indelible mark is left upon the face of our native land through the affection of our forbears for their gardens.

The botany tells us that bouncing-bet has "escaped from cultivation"—she has been thrust out, but unresentfully lives and smiles; opening her tender pinky-opalescent flowers adown the dusty roadsides, and even on barren gravel-beds in railroad cuts. Butter-and-eggs, tansy, chamomile, spiked loosestrife, velvet-leaf, bladder-campion, cypress spurge, live-for-ever, star of Bethlehem, money-vine,—all have seen better days, but now are flower-tramps. Even the larkspur, beloved of children, the moss-pink, and the grape-hyacinth may sometimes be seen growing in country fields and byways. The homely and cheerful blossoms of the orange-tawny ephemeral lily, and the spotted tiger-lily, whose gaudy colors glow with the warmth of far Cathay—their early home—now make gay many of our roadsides and crowd upon the sweet cinnamon roses of our grandmothers, which also are undaunted garden exiles.

Driving once along a country road, I saw on the edge of a field an expanse of yellow bloom which seemed to be an unfamiliar field-tint. It proved to be a vast bed of coreopsis, self-sown from year to year; and the blackened outlines of an old cellar wall in its midst showed that in that field once stood a home, once there a garden smiled.

I am always sure when I see bouncing-bet, butter-and-eggs, and tawny lilies growing in a tangle together that in their midst may be found an untrodden door-stone, a fallen chimney, or a filled-in well.

Still broader field expanses are filled with old-country plants. In June a golden glory of bud and blossom covers the hills and fields of Essex County in Massachusetts from Lynn to Danvers, and Ryal Side to Beverly; it is the English gorse or woad-wax, and by tradition it was first brought to this country in spray and seed as a packing for some of the household belongings of Governor Endicott. Thrown out in friendly soil, the seeds took root and there remain in the vicinity of their first American homes. It is a stubborn squatter, yielding only to scythe, plough, and hoe combined.

Chicory or blue weed was, it is said, brought from England by Governor Bowdoin as food for his sheep. It has spread till its extended presence has been a startling surprise to all English visiting botanists. It hurts no one's fields, for it invades chiefly waste and neglected land—the "dear common flower"—and it has redeemed many a city suburb of vacant lots, many a railroad ash heap from the abomination of desolation.

Whiteweed or ox-eye daisy, a far greater pest than gorse or chicory, has been carried intentionally to many a township by homesick settlers whose descendants to-day rue the sentiment of their ancestors.

While the vallied garden of our old neighbors was sweet with blossoms, my mother's garden bore a still fresher fragrance—that of green growing things; of "posies," lemon-balm, rose geranium, mint, and sage. I always associate with it in spring the scent of the strawberry bush, or calycanthus, and in summer of the fraxinella, which, with its tall stem of larkspur-like flowers, its still more graceful seed-vessels and its shining ash-like leaves, grew there in rich profusion and gave forth from leaf, stem, blossom, and seed a pure, a memory-sweet perfume half like lavender, half like anise.

Truly, much of our tenderest love of flowers comes from association, and many are lovingly recalled solely by their odors. Balmier breath than was ever borne by blossom is to me the pure pungent perfume of ambrosia, rightly named, as fit for the gods. Not the miserable weed ambrosia of the botany, but a lowly herb that grew throughout the entire summer everywhere in "our garden"; sowing its seeds broadcast from year to year; springing up unchecked in every unoccupied corner, and under every shrub and bushy plant; giving out from serrated leaf and irregular raceme of tiny pale-green flowers, a spicy aromatic fragrance if we brushed past it, or pulled a weed from amongst it as we strolled down the garden walk. And it is our very own—I have never seen it elsewhere than at my old home, and in the gardens of neighbors to whom its seeds were given by the gentle hand that planted "our garden" and made it a delight. Goethe says, "Some flowers are lovely to the eye, but others are lovely to the heart." Ambrosia is lovely to my heart, for it was my mother's favorite.

And as each "spring comes slowly up the way," I say in the words of Solomon, "Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out"—that the balm and mint, the thyme and southernwood, the sweetbrier and ambrosia, may spring afresh and shed their tender incense to the memory of my mother, who planted them and loved their pure fragrance, and at whose presence, as at that of Eve, flowers ever sprung—

"And touched by her fair tendance gladlier grew."



Index

Abington, church vote in, 286.

Acrelius, Dr., quoted, 146.

Adams, Abigail, garden of, 435.

Adams, John, quoted, 71, 160; Sunday dinner of, 159-160; cider-drinking of, 161.

Adams, John Quincy, Mrs., straw bonnet of, 261.

Adams family, homes of, 22.

Albany, houses at, 9; deer in, 109; beer at, 161; bad boys in, 374-375; first church in, 385; cow-herding in, 399.

Alchymy, 88.

Alewives, in New England waters, 120.

Ambrosia, a flower, 450.

Ames, quoted, 136.

Amherst, sign-board at, 360.

Andirons, 62.

Andover, church vote in, 286; bad boy in, 373.

Annapolis, dress in, 293.

Apostle spoons, 90.

Apples, culture of, 145; plenty in Maryland, 145; modes of cooking, 146; in pies, 146.

Apple-butter, 146-147.

Apple-paring, 146-147.

Apple-sauce, 146-147.

Architecture, of churches, 364 et seq., 385 et seq.

Arkamy, 88.

Axe-helves, 314-315.

Back-bar of fireplace, description, 53.

Bacon, quoted, 431.

Bagging, from coarse flax, 172.

Bake-kettle, 66.

Bake-shops, 147.

Ballots, of corn and beans, 141.

Balsam, as dye, 194.

Baltimore, dress in, 293; taverns in, 359.

Banyan, 294.

Barberry, root as dye, 194.

Basins, 106.

Bass, in New England waters, 120-121.

Bass-viols, in meeting, 378.

Bates of flax, 169.

Batteau, 329.

Batten, of loom, 220-221.

Baxter, 187.

Bayberry, description, 39; candles of, 39; wax of, 40; laws about, 40; soap from, 255.

Bead bags, 263.

Beam. See Warp-beam.

Beaming, in weaving, 218.

Beans, as ballots, 141; mode of cooking, 145.

Bed coverlet. See Coverlet.

Bedstead, alcove, 55; turn-up, 55-56.

Beer, among Dutch, 161.

Bees, called English flies, 111.

Beehives, 442.

Beetling of flax, 172.

Bell, as summons to meeting, 368.

Belt-loom. See Tape-loom.

Bennet, quoted, 123.

Berkeley, Gov., quoted, 111, 360-361.

Berries, 145.

Betty lamps, 43-44.

Beverages. See Drinks.

Bible, references to flax in, 177.

Biddeford, communal privileges in, 390.

Bier, in weaving, 220.

Birch-bark, doors of, 6; plates of, 83; baskets of, cans of, 253, 310.

Birch broom, making of, 301-303; price of, 302.

Blackjacks, 95-96.

Blazing, of trees, 330.

Bleaching, of flax thread, 175; of linen, 234; of straw bonnets, 261.

Bleeding-basins, 86.

Block-houses, 26.

Boards, scarcity of, 76.

Board cloth, 76-77.

Boardman Hill House, 22.

Bobbins, for weaving. See Quills.

Bobs, of flax, 168.

Bombards, 96.

Books of etiquette, 79.

Bore-staff of loom, 224.

Boston, fire-engine in, 19; early houses of, 19, 27; first fork in, 77; pigeons in, 110; fish in, 123; tea in, 164-165; coffee in, 165; chocolate in, 165; spinning schools in, 180; fulling-mill in, 187; dress in, 292-294; coach in, 331; stage-travel from, 350-351; night watch in, 363; meeting-houses in, 364, 366; restrictions of settlement in, 394; cows in, 400.

Bottles, of wood, 82; of pewter, 85; of glass, 92-93; of leather, 95.

Boucher, Jonathan, quoted, 382.

Bouncing-bet, 427, 447.

Bounty coats, 248.

Bouts, in weaving, 218.

Box-borders, a plea for, 430-431.

Boxing, of maple trees, 112.

Boylston, Nicholas, banyan of, 294.

Boys, clothing of, 287-288; wigs of, 297; seats in meeting for, 372 et seq.; misbehavior of, 372-373; in church, 384.

Braid-loom. See Tape-loom.

Bradford, Governor, quoted, 129-130.

Bread, white, 147; rye and Indian, 147

Bread-peel, 67.

Breadtrough, 311.

Breakfast, or bread and milk, 148.

Breaking, of flax, 169-170; of hemp, 170.

Breaking out the winter roads, 412 et seq.

Breweries, in New York, 161.

Brewster, Elder, quoted, 117.

Brick, imported, 21.

British spinning and weaving school, 186.

Broach, 198.

Brooklyn, oysters in, 118-119; salting shad in, 124-125.

Brooms, of broom-corn, 256-257; of birch, 301-304; of hemlock, 304-305.

Broom-corn, 256-257.

Brown University, dress of first graduating class, 183.

Bucking, of flax thread, 175; of linen, 234.

Bull's-eye lamp, 45.

Bun, of flax, 169.

Bunch-thread, 251.

Bundling-mould. See Shingling-mould.

Burlers, in weaving, 252.

Bushnell, Horace, quoted, 246.

Busks, carved, 320.

Butter, price of, 149.

Buttermilk, for bleaching, 175.

Caches, for corn, 138.

Cage, for babies, 372; for bad boys, 385.

Calash, 289.

Calf-keeper, duties of, 400.

Cambridge, cow-herding in, 399.

Campbell, Madam Angelica, coach of, 335.

Candles, cost of, 34; making of, 35-37; materials for, 38-39, 42.

Candle-arms, 42.

Candle-beams, 42.

Candle-box, 38.

Candle-dipping, 36.

Candle-moulds, 36-37.

Candle-prongs, 42.

Candle-rods, 36.

Candle-sticks, 42.

Candle-wood, 32.

Canoes, 323-327.

Canteens, of horn, 321.

Captain of the watch, duties of, 380.

Cards. See Wool-cards.

Carding described, 194-196.

Carding-machines, 206.

Card-setting. See Wool-cards.

Capuchins, 295.

Carolinas, sweet potatoes in, 145; hand-weaving in, 249-251; gardens in, 438-439.

Carpet. See Rag carpet.

Carrots, 145.

Carving, terms in, 104-105; of wood, 320; of horn, 321-322.

Caves, description of, 2; for corn, 138.

Cave-dwellers, 1.

Cedar tops, for dyeing, 251.

Cellar of Dutch houses, 10.

Chain in weaving, 250.

Chair-seats, 310-311.

Chaise of Brother Jonathan, 353.

"Change-work," 417.

Chap-men, 300.

Chargers, 80, 84.

Charleston, flax manufacture in, 182-183; dress in, 293; gardens in, 438-439.

Charlevoix, Father, on canoes, 327.

Chaucer, quoted, on spinning, 179.

Chebobbin, 415.

Cheese, making of, 150.

Cheese-basket, 150-151.

Cheese-hoop, 312.

Cheese-ladder, 150-151, 312.

Cheese-press, 150-151, 312.

Chesapeake, turkeys on, 109; wild fowl on, 125.

Chicory, introduction of, 449.

Children, at table, 101-102; occupations of, 179-180, 182, 188-189, 203-204, 261-262; dress of, 287; in meeting, 372 et seq.; in noon-house, 376.

Chimney, catted, 15, 53; size of, 52, 68; description, 53; in Dutch houses, 55.

China, early use of, 100; importation of, 100-101.

Chinese stuffs, 294.

Chinking walls, 5.

Chopping-bee, 403 et seq.

Chorister, in Dutch churches, 386.

Churches, in Virginia, 381-383; in Albany, 385. See also Meeting-house.

Churns, few in New England, 149; examples of, 149-150; whittling of, 312.

Cider, use by children, 148-149, 161; use by students, 161; price of, 161; manufacture of, 161-162; generous use of, 161-163.

Clam-shells, use of, 308-309.

Clarionets, in meeting, 378.

Clavell-piece, 54.

Clay, for dyeing, 241.

Clergymen, in Virginia, 384.

Clocks, 299.

Clock-jack, 65.

Clock-reel, 174-175; price of, 177; for yarn, 200.

Clogs, 295.

Cloth, finishing of, 231-233.

Cloth bar, 224.

Clothes, durability of, 281; extravagance in, 281; laws about, 281 et seq.; of Massachusetts settlers, 286-287; of Virginia planters, 287; of children, 288 et seq.

Coaches, in Boston, 331, 353-354; in England, 354; Judge Sewall on, 354; in New York, 354-355. See also Stage-coach.

Coat-of-arms, on sampler, 267.

Coat roll, 248.

Cob irons, 62.

Cocoanut-cups, 96-97.

Codfish, early discoverers on, 115-116; plenty of, 115; in New England waters, 120-121; varieties of, 121; for Saturday dinner, 122; price in Boston, 123. See Fish and Fishing.

Coffee, substitutes for, 159; early use of, 165; queer mode of cooking, 165.

Colchester, girls' life in, 253.

Cold houses, 70-71.

Cold party, 419.

Colored herbs, 430.

Coloring, 23.

Combing, description of, 196.

Combing machine, 230.

Combs. See Wool-combs.

Comfortier, 69.

Common crops, 130.

Common herds. See Herding.

Common lands, 398.

Communal privileges, 390 et seq.

Conch-shell, as summons to meeting, 367-368.

Concord coaches, 352-353.

Concordance, 33.

Conestoga wagon, 339-343; shape of, 339; rates on, 340; great number of, 340.

Connecticut, tar-making in, 33; pumpkin bread in, 143; flax culture in, 179; straw manufacture in, 260.

Contributions in New England meetings, 378; in Dutch churches, 386-387.

Cooking, influence of Indian methods, 131-136; English modes of, 151; spices used in, 152; limitations in, 158-159.

Cooeperation in olden times, 389 et seq.

Corbel roof, 9.

Coreopsis, persistence of, 448.

Corn, influence on colonists' lives, 126; in Virginia, 127-128; price of, 128, 138; scarcity of, 129; mode of cultivating, 130-131; Indian foods from, 131; Indian modes of preparing, 131; modes of cooking, 133-136; as currency, 138; profits on raising, 139; games with, 139; shelling of, 139-140; as ballots, 141; as national flower, 141.

Corn-cobs, use of, 141, 209.

Corn dances, 138.

Corn-husking, description of, 136.

Corn-sheller, 140-141.

Cotton, early use of, 206-207; cultivation of, 207; rarity of, 207-208; domestic manufacture, 209-210; Golden Age of, 230.

Cotton-gin, 208.

Cotton, John, quoted, 148, 285.

Coverlets, in Pennsylvania, 190; in Narragansett, 242-246.

Cows, herding of, 399-401.

Cowherds, duties of, 399-400; pay of, 399.

Cowkeeps, 399.

Cow-pens, 400.

Crabs, in Virginia, 118.

Crane, 53.

Creepers, 62.

Crocus, 237.

Crofting, of linen, 234.

Crown-imperial, 425.

Cups, 85, 90, 93-96.

Currency, corn as, 138.

"Cut-down," of trees, 405.

Cutler, Dr., quoted, 159.

Cut-tails, 122-123.

Daffodils, 426-427.

Dale, Sir Thomas, on corn-growing, 127; on Sunday observance, 380.

Danvers, Mass., house in, 30.

Daubing walls, 5.

Daughters of Liberty, 183-184.

Day's work in spinning, 185.

Deacons, in Dutch churches, 386-387.

Deacons' pew, 374.

"Deaconing" the psalm, 378.

Deaf pew, 374.

Dedham, Mass., house in, 22-23.

Deer, abundance of, 108-109; description of, 108.

Deerskin, clothing of, 288-289.

De La Warre, church attendance of, 382.

Delaware, house pie in, 146.

Delft ware, 100.

Dents, of sley, 219-220.

Designs, for weaving, 243-244, 250-251; of ancient Gauls, 242; for quilts, 272-273; for paper-cutting, 278-289.

Dew-retting, 169.

Dimity, 250.

Dinner, serving of, 104; primitive forms, 105-106; for Saturday, 122; in New York, 159; at John Adams' home, 159-160.

Discomforts of temperature, 70-71.

Distaff, in India, 178.

Dogs, in meeting, 374.

Dog-pelter, 374.

Dog-whipper, 374.

Donnison family, fire buckets of, 18.

Door latch, 11, 318.

Dorchester, windmill at, 133; corporation, laws in, 392, 394.

Double string-roaster, 64.

Drawing, in weaving, 219.

Drawing a bore, 224.

Dress. See Clothes.

Dresser, 68.

Drinking-cups, 85-96, 98.

Drinks, from curious materials, 163.

Drinking habits, 93-94, 161, 164.

Drinking-horns, 321.

Driver, 198.

Drugget, 250.

Drum, as summons to meeting, 367, 368.

Duck. See Wild fowl.

Duer, Colonel, dinner of, 159.

Dugouts, 326.

Dunfish, 121-122. Also see Codfish.

Durability of homespun, 238-239.

Durham, church discipline in, 372.

Dutch mode of serving meals, 106.

Dutch oven, 65.

Dyes, domestic, 155, 193-194, 250-251.

Dye-flower, 251.

Earmarks, 400.

Eastern Stage Company, 351.

Economy of colonists, 42, 185, 321-324; of Martha Washington, 237-238.

Eddis, quoted, 118.

Eels, method of catching, 117.

Egypt, flax in, 177-178; linen in, 178.

Embroidery. See Needlework.

Emerson, R. W., appointed hog-reeve, 403.

Endicott, Governor, sun-dial of, 443; his introduction of woad-wax, 448.

Entering, in weaving. See Drawing.

Ernst, C. W., quoted, 343, 345.

Etiquette for children, 100-102; of carving, 104-105.

Eye, of harness, 218.

Fairbanks, Jacob, house of, 22-23; sun-dial of, 443.

Fairs, instituted by Penn, 190; encouraged by Franklin, 191.

Faneuil, Miss, dress of, 292.

Fences, different varieties of, 25; common building of, 401-402; laws about, 401-402.

Fence-viewers, 401.

Ferries, by canoe, 330-331.

Finlay, Hugh, postal report of, 333-335.

Fireback, 54.

Fire-buckets, description, 16; use of, 17; of Donnison's, 18; of Quincy's, 18; of Oliver's, 19.

Fire-dogs, 62.

Fire-engine, first in Boston, 19; first in Brooklyn, 19.

Fire-hunting, 108-109.

Fire lanes, 16.

Fire laws, 15.

Fireplace of our fathers, 53.

Fire-plate, 54-55.

Fire-room, 7.

Fire-wardens, 15.

Fish, plenty of, 115-125; varieties of, in New England waters, 117; in Virginia waters, 119; in New York waters, 120; salted, 124-125; as fertilizer, 130; poisoned by flax, 169.

Fishing, King James on, 116; ill-success in, 117; supplies for, 117; in Virginia, 119-120; encouragement of, 121; laws on, 121; division of profit, 122, 123.

Fish-weirs, 121.

Flag, as summons to meeting, 368.

Flails, making of, 312; use of, 313-314.

Flannel sheets, 238.

Flax, patch of, 167; blossom of, 167; growth of, 168; weeding of, 168; ripening of, 168; pulling of, 168; spreading of, 168; rippling of, 168-169; watering of, 169; stacking of, 169; breaking of, 169-170; tenacity of, 171; swingling of, 171-172; beetling of, 172; hetcheling of, 172-173; spreading and drawing, 173; many manipulations of, 173; spinning of, 174; in Bible, 177; in Egypt, 177-178; in New England, 179-181, 186; in Pennsylvania, 181; in Virginia, 181, 182; in South Carolina, 182-183; in Ireland, 186; in Courtrai, 186; in England, 186.

Flax basket, 173.

Flax-brake, 169-170.

Flax hetchels, 172.

Flaxseed, how sown, 167; how gathered, 168, 176; how stored, 176.

Flax-thread, spinning of, 174; knotting of, 175; reeling of, 175; bleaching of, 175; backing of, 175.

Flax-wheel, revival of, 167; use of, 174; price of, 177.

Flint and steel, 48.

Flower, a national, 141.

Flowers, in churches, 383; old-time, 421 et seq.; folk-names of, 448; age of, 443-445; persistency of, 447; escaped from cultivation, 448.

Flower-seeds, sold by women, 440-441; old list of, 441.

Flutes, in meeting, 378.

Flying-machine, 345.

Fly-shuttle, 228.

Food, from forests, 108-114; from sea and river, 114-125; transportation of, 143; entirely from farm, 158; substitutes, 158-159.

Foot-mantle, 295.

Foot-paths, 329.

Foot-stoves, 375, 385.

Foot-treadle, of loom, 219.

Foot-wheel. See Flax-wheel.

Foote, Abigail, diary of, 253.

Forefathers' Dinner, 129.

Forests, destruction of, 52; riches of, 108-114.

Forms, 101.

Forks, use of, 77; first, 77.

Forts, as churches, 365, 385.

Fox, George, bequest of, 437.

Franklin, quoted, 53, 181; fairs encouraged by, 191; advertisement of, 292-293; as postmaster, 333; set milestones, 335; cyclometer of, 335-336; on canals, 353; in sedan-chair, 356.

Franklin stove, 70.

Fraxinella, 449.

Fringe-loom, 227.

Frocking, striped, 237.

Fulling-mill, in Boston, 188.

Fulling-stocks, 232.

Fulham jugs, 98.

Funerals, rings at, 298; gloves at, 298-299.

Furs, search for, 115.

Fustian, in America, 237; in Europe, 237.

Gallows-balke, 53.

Gallows-crooks, 53.

Gallows-frame. See Tape-loom.

Gambrels, 310.

Gambrel roof, description, 22.

Games, with corn, 139.

Garden, an old-time, 419 et seq.; in New England, 419 et seq.; in southern colonies, 438-439; in New York, 439-440.

Garnish of pewter, 85.

Garrison house, 26.

Garter-loom. See Tape-loom.

Geese, raising of, 257-258; pickings of, 257-259; noise of, 258.

Georgia, deer in, 109; turkeys in, 110; hand-weaving in, 249-251.

Georgius Rex jug, 99.

Germantown, flax-raising at, 181; flax-workers at, 181; seal of, 181; wool manufacture at, 190.

Gibcrokes, 53.

Gimlet, 305.

Giotto, loom of, 213.

Girdling, of trees, 403.

Girls, dress of, 289-292; seats in meeting for, 372.

Giskins, 96.

Glass, in windows, 23, 366; nailed in, 366; for lamps, 46; early use of, 92.

Gloucester, old house at, 70; fishing at, 122-123; communal privileges in, 390.

Gloves, given at funerals, 298-299.

Going a-leafing, 67.

Goldenrod, as dye, 193.

Goloe-shoes, 295.

Gookin, quoted, 137.

Goose-basket, 258.

Goose-neck andirons, 62.

Goose yoke, 258.

Gorse. See Woad-wax.

Gourds, cups of, 96; utensils of, 309.

Grant, Mrs. Anne, on Dutch gardens, 439.

Grapes, 145.

Grassing, of linen, 234.

Greeley, Horace, on canal-travel, 353.

Gridirons, 61.

Grist-mill, earliest, 133.

Guinea wheat, 129. See Corn.

Gun, as summons to meeting, 368.

Gundalow, 329.

Gutters of houses, 9.

Hackling. See Hetcheling.

Hadley, shad in, 123-124; potatoes in, 144; broom-making in, 256-257; restrictions of settlement in, 392-393; hay-ward in, 402.

Hakes, 53.

Half-faced camp, 3.

Hammond, John, quoted, 395.

Hamor, Ralph, quoted, 143.

Hancock House, knocker of, 28; on sampler, 268.

Hancock, John, hatred of pewter, 85; drinking cup of, 97; dress of, 293.

Hand-distaff. See Distaff.

Hand-loom. See Loom.

Hand-reel. See Niddy-noddy.

Hap-harlot, 242.

Harness. See Heddle.

Harvard College, standing salt of, 78-79; trenchers at, 81.

Hasty pudding, 135.

Hats, worn in meeting, 285; church votes about, 286.

Hay-wards, 402.

Heddle of loom, 219.

Heddle-frame. See Tape-loom.

Heel-pegs. See Shoe-pegs.

Hemlock, brooms of, 304-305; boxes of, 310.

Hemp, blossom of, 167; breaking of, 169.

Herding, of cows, 399-401; of sheep, 401; of swine, 403.

Hetcheling of flax, 172.

Hexe, of flax, 169.

Hides, use of, 109; tax on, 109.

Higginson, quoted, 33, 35, 117, 148.

Hind's-foot handle, 90.

Hinges, material of, 9, 318.

Hingham, church at, 365.

Hogarth, loom of, 213-214.

Hogs, as scavengers, 125; yokes of, 311; laws about, 402-403.

Hog-reeves, 402-403.

Homespun industries, 167; beneficent effect of, 179; foundation of liberty, 189.

Hominy, 131.

Honey, plenty of, 111.

Honey-locust, 163.

Horn, spoons of, 88; cups of, 96; as summons to meeting, 368.

Horse-blocks, in front of churches, 367.

Horse-bridges, 331.

Horse-laurel, as dye, 194.

Hose. See Stockings.

Hospitality, in Southern colonies, 395 et seq.

Hound handle, 100.

Hour-glass, in meeting, 376.

Housekeeper, qualifications of, 252-253.

House pie, 146.

House-raising. See Raising.

Hyperion tea, 165.

India china, 100.

Indians, houses of, 3-4; caves of, 138; corn dances of, 138; cultivation of corn by, 126-131; endurance of, 137; mode of cooking corn, 131-135; names of corn foods, 131-137; mode of drying pumpkins, 143; spoons of, 88; mode of cooking beans, 145; brooms of, 301-304; four best things, 304; modes of travel of, 325; boats of, 325; paths of, 329-330.

Indian corn. See Corn.

Indian pudding, 135.

Indigo, as dye, 193.

Inns. See Taverns.

Invention, of cotton-gin, 208; of fly-shuttle, 228; of spinning-jenny, 229; of throstle-spun yarn, 229; of combing-machine, 230; of flax-spinning machine, 230-231.

Ipswich, grist-mill at, 133.

Iris, as dye, 193.

Itineracies, old-time, 176, 300-301.

Jack-knife, 307-308.

Jacks, 64.

James I. on fishing, 116.

Jamestown, spinning-schools at, 182; summons to meeting at, 367.

Jeans, 250.

Jefferson, Thomas, quoted, 207, 256; hospitality of, 397; impoverishment of, 397-398.

Jewellery, slight wear of, 297.

Johnson, quoted, 143, 145, 188.

Johnson, Governor, baby clothes of, 265.

Johnny-cakes, 135.

Josselyn, quoted, 117; his list of plants in New England, 432 et seq.

Judd, Sylvester, quoted, 216, 237.

Jugs, of stoneware, 98.

Jumel, Madame, cave house of, 3.

Kalm, quoted, 39-40; on squirrels, 110; on bees, 111; on maize bread, 134; on canoes, 326-327; on the plantain, 436.

Kearsarge, Mount, romance of, 405.

Kentucky, hand-weaving in, 249.

Ketch, 328.

Kill-devil. See Rum.

Killing time, 153.

King Hooper house, 30.

Kitchen, description, 52; in rhyme, 73-75.

Knife. See Jack-knife.

Knife-racks, 68.

Knights, Madame, quoted, 8; on canoes, 327-328; journey of, 332; on sleighs, 355.

Knitting, 190; yarn for, 201; by children, 261-262; elaborate designs, 262.

Knitting machine, 190.

Knives, of flax brake, 170.

Knocker, Hancock house, 28; Winslow house, 29.

Knots, of flax thread, 175.

Krankbesoeckers, 385.

Labadist missionaries, quoted, 118-119.

Lad's lore, 428.

Lamps, 43-45.

Lathe. See Batten.

Latten ware, 58.

Laws, about flax culture, 179-180; about dress, 282-284; about ferries, 330-331; about mail, 334; about taverns, 357; on observance of Sunday, 378-379; of warning out, 392 et seq.; about fences, 401-402.

Lay, of loom. See Batten.

Laying a fire, 74.

Lays, of flax thread, 175.

Lean-to, description, 22.

Leashes, of heddle, 219.

Leather, utensils of, 95-96.

Letters. See Post.

Liberty Tea, 165.

Lincoln, Abraham, early home of, 4; rail-splitting, 25.

Linden, fibre from, 211.

Linen, manipulations of, 234; clothing of, 234; sentiment of, 234; price of, 234; checked, 238.

Lining the psalm, 378.

Litster, 187.

Livingstone, John, clothing of, 288.

Loaf-sugar. See Sugar-cones.

Lobsters, plenty of, 117; vast size of, 118.

Logan, Mrs., on flower-raising, 438.

Log cabin, forms of, 5.

Logging-bee, 416, 417.

Log-rolling, 389, 404, 406.

Longfellow, quoted, 327.

Long Island, bayberries on, 40; samp-mortars on, 133; wool raising on, 191; bad boys on, 373; Sunday observance on, 385; cow-herding on, 400.

Long-short, 236-237.

Loom, antiquity of, 213-214; of Giotto, 213; of Hogarth, 213-214; description of, 214. See Power-loom, Tape-loom.

Loom-room, 212.

Louisiana, corn in, 128; petticoat rebellion in, 128; hand-weaving in, 250.

Lowell, quoted, 73.

Lucas, Governor, quoted, 182-183.

Lug-pole, 53.

Luxury, after the Revolution, 159-160.

Lye, making of, 254.

MacMaster, quoted, 207.

Madison, Dolly, dress of, 290.

Mail, of heddle, 219.

Mail. See Post.

Mail coaches, 344, 350.

Maine, windows in, 23; candle-wood in, 32; chums in, 149; axe-making in, 315.

Maize. See Corn.

Mandillion, 287.

Manhattan, bark houses on, 4; palisados on, 24.

Manners. See Etiquette.

Maple sugar, old description of, 111; manufacture of, 111-112.

Maple-wood, bowls of, 82, 318-320.

Marblehead, fishing at, 122-123.

Marigolds, 427.

Marmalades, 152.

Maryland, houses in, 11; wild fowl in, 125; apples in, 145; hospitality in, 396-397.

Masks, 290.

Massachusetts, cave dwellings in, 1; palisados in, 24; venison in, 109; fish in, 123; flax culture in, 179-180; wool-raising in, 188; bounty in, 205; sumptuary laws in, 281-284; outfit for settlers, 286-287; ferries in, 330-331.

Matches, first, 50-51.

Mazer, 319.

Mead, 163.

Meeting-house, in Boston, 364, 366; in Salem, 364; in Hingham, 365; descriptions of, 364, 366-369.

Metheglin, 163.

Metheglin cups, 85.

Metzel-soup, 419.

Milestones, 335-336.

Milford, Conn., palisados in, 24.

Milk, price of, 148; use as food, 148.

Milk pitchers, names of, 106.

Milkweed, for candle wicks, 35, 211.

Mill, Indian, 132.

Mince-pies, pioneer, 159.

Ministers, encourage fisheries, 121.

Mittens, fine knitting of, 262; quick knitting of, 262.

Modesty-piece, 270-271.

Molasses, for New England slave-trade, 163.

Monkey spoons, 90.

Moore, Thomas, quoted, 348.

Mortar, Indian, 132.

Morton, quoted, 120-121.

Moss-pink, 423.

Mount Vernon, description of, 13; weaving at, 237; garden at, 431.

Mourning rings. See Rings.

Mourning samplers, 268-269.

Muffs, worn by men, 298, 386.

Mutton, its disuse previous to Revolution, 189, 191.

Nails, scarcity of, 11.

Napkins, use of, 77.

Narragansett, hand-weaving in, 241-244; shift marriages in, 241-242; old quilt in, 275-276; threshing in, 313-314.

Needlework, stitches in, 264-265; delicacy of, 265; rules for, 265.

Neighborhood, title of settlement, 391.

Neighbors, old-time, 388 et seq., 395 et seq.

Netting, 263-264.

Nettles, fibre spun, 211.

New Amsterdam, first church in, 385; laws about fences in, 401-402.

Newman, Rev. Mr., manner of work, 33.

Newburyport, house at, 27; straw bleaching at, 261; sumptuary laws in, 283; fines in, 374.

New England, houses in, 15; candle-wood in, 32; lobsters in, 117; fisheries in, 117-124; Indian corn in, 127-136; mills in, 131-133; pumpkins in, 142-143; potatoes in, 144; squashes in, 144; milk and ministers in, 148; churns in, 149; cider in, 161-162; rum in, 163-164; slavery in, 164; wool-raising in, 188-189; taverns in, 356-357; watchmen in, 363; meeting-houses in, 365 et seq.; summons to meeting in, 368; Sunday observance in, 378 et seq.; "taste of dinner in," 418; old-time gardens in, 421 et seq.

New Hampshire, candle-wood in, 32; potatoes in, 144; pioneer mince-pies in, 159; wheelwrights in, 176; flax manufacture in, 180, 236; fine knitting in, 269; birch brooms in, 304.

New Haven, restrictions in, 392.

New London, mill at, 133.

Newport, box plants at, 430; garden in, 437-438.

New York, houses in, 8; candle-wood in, 32; first fork in, 78; venison in, 109; lobsters at, 118; fish in, 120; salting shad in, 124-125; suppawn in, 133; ale and beer in, 161; wool-raising in, 191; dress in, 292; turnpikes in, 349-350; coaches in, 354-355; sleighs in, 355; street lighting in, 362; watch in, 363; Sunday observance in, 384; cow-herding in, 399; gardens in, 439-440.

Niddy-noddy, 200-201; carved, 320.

Nightgowns, 294.

Nocake, description of, 137; use of, 137; Eliot's use of word, 137-138.

Noggins, 82.

Noil, 196.

Nokick. See Nocake.

Noon-houses, 374-375.

Noon-marks, 299.

Norridgewock, life-work of a citizen of, 407-408.

Northampton, sumptuary laws in, 283-284.

Northboro, spinning match at, 184.

North Saugus, house in, 21.

Norwich, naughty girl in, 373.

Notices, nailed on church doors, 367.

Nott, President, story of boyhood, 202-203.

Occamy, 88.

Occupations, of children, 179, 180, 182, 186, 437; of women, 187.

Oiled paper for windows, 23, 366.

Old South Church, on sampler, 268.

Old Ship, 365.

Old South, 366.

Opening in land, clearing, 406.

Ordinary, name for tavern, 356.

Osenbrigs, 288.

Otis, Hannah, sampler of, 268.

Overhang, in walls, 19-20.

Ovens, 67.

Ox-bows, 311.

Oxen, sign of distress in, 413.

Oysters, in Brooklyn, 118-119; in Virginia, 119; vast size of, 119.

Pace-weight, of loom, 224.

Pack-horses, use of, 336-339; pay for, 337; load of, 337-338.

Pails, early, 58.

Paint, not used, 23.

Pales. See Fences.

Palfrey, quoted, 122.

Palisado, description of, 24.

Pansy, folk-names of, 425-426.

Paper-cutting. See Papyrotamia.

Papyrotamia, 277-278.

Parley, Peter, reminiscence of, 140.

Parsnips, 145.

Pastorius, Father, his choice for seal, 181; his encouragement of gardening, 436.

Patchwork. See Quilt-piecing.

Patent, first to Americans, 138-139, 260.

Pattens, 295.

Paupers, in Narragansett, 313; treatment of, in New England, 324.

Pawn, 55.

Pawtucket, cotton thread in, 207.

Pay, for spinning, 185; for weaving, 230, 250; for cow-herding, 399; of swineherds, 403.

Peabody, Francis, house of, 31.

Peachy, 163.

Peas, 145.

Peel, 67.

Pegging, 262.

Pelisses, 295.

Penn, William, fairs instituted by, 190.

Pennsylvania, cave-dwellers in, 2; stoves in, 69; squirrels in, 110; wool manufacture in, 190; dress in, 292-293; mail in, 333; post-rider, 335; transportation in, 335-344; roads in, 339; turnpikes in, 349; coaching in, 350-351; metzel-soup in, 419; gardens in, 436-437.

Peonies, 421.

Perfumes, in cooking, 152; of old garden flowers, 424; of sweet-scented leaves, 449 et seq.

Periagua, 329.

Perry, 163.

Peter, Hugh, encourages fisheries, 121.

Petticoat rebellion, 128.

Petunias, 428.

Pews, described, 368 et seq.

Pewter, for lamps, 44-45; for utensils, 84-85; on dresser, 68; lids of, 100.

Phoebe-lamps, 44.

Philadelphia, early houses in, 15; luxurious dinners in, 160; straw manufacture in, 260; travel from, 347-350; taverns in, 359; cow-herding in, 400-401.

Pickling, old-time, 152.

Pierce Garrison House, 26.

Pierpont, Rev. John, verses of, 306-307.

Pies, 146.

Pigeons, plenty of, 110; price of, 110.

Pilgrims, starvation of, 129.

Piling-bee, 406.

Pillions, 331-332.

Pillory, location of, 367.

Pinckney, Mrs., exchange of flowers of, 439.

Pinehurst, hand-weaving in, 250-251.

Pine-knots, use of, 32-33.

Pink, name of vessel, 328.

Pinks, varieties of, 427.

Pipe shelves, 68.

Pipe-tongs, 68-69.

Pitch-pipes, in meeting, 378.

Plantain, romance of, 435-436.

Plate-racks, 68.

Plate-warmer, 61.

Plymouth, vacant fields at, 130; sampler at, 266.

Pokeberry, as dye, 193.

Pompion. See Pumpkin.

Pones, 134.

Pop-corn, 135.

Poplar wood, use of, 81-82.

Porcelain. See China.

Porringers, 85-86.

Porter's fluid, 45.

Portsmouth, old house at, 21.

Portulaca, 429.

Posnet, 87.

Possing, of linen, 234.

Post, first, 332; duties of, 332-333; in Virginia, 333; report about, 333-335.

Potatoes, in New England, 144; queer modes of cooking, 144-145. See Sweet potatoes.

Potato-boiler, 57.

Pot-brakes, 53.

Pot-clips, 53.

Pot-crooks, 53.

Pot-hangers, 53.

Pothooks, 53.

Pots, cost of, 56; size of, 56.

Pound-keepers, 400.

Powder-horns, 320-321.

Powdering of hair, 297.

Powdering tub, 153.

Power-loom, 230.

Powhatan, teaches corn-planting, 127.

Prairie-schooner. See Conestoga wagon.

Prayers, length of, 376; with the sick, 419.

Preserving, old-time, 152.

Printer, dress of, 293.

Providence, straw manufacture in, 260; restrictions in, 392.

Psalm-singing, 376 et seq.

Puddings, of corn, 135.

Pudding-time, 104, 160.

Pue. See Pews.

Pulling of flax, 168.

Pulpits, 368, 385.

Pumpkin, tributes to, 143; modes of cooking, 143; their plenty, 143; shells of, 309.

Puncheon floor, 6.

Quakers, dress of, 258, 292.

Quarels, of glass, 9.

Quarnes, 133.

Quiddonies, 152.

Quills, for weaving, 216; from geese, 259.

Quilling-wheel, 216, 229.

Quilts, piecing of, 270-275; materials for, 272-274; patterns for, 272-275; quilting of, 273-274.

Quince drink, 96.

Quincy family, fire-buckets of, 18; samplers of, 266-267.

Quincy, Josiah, quoted, 341-342, 346.

Raddle, of loom, 219.

Rag carpet, 239-240.

Rail-fence, 25.

Raising, of a house, 408 et seq.

Rake. See Raddle.

Ramsay, quoted, 395-396.

Randolph, John, quoted, 205.

Raspberry leaves for tea, 158, 165.

Rattle-watch, 362.

Ravel. See Raddle.

Reading, communal privileges in, 391.

Recons, 53.

Reed. See Sley.

Reed-hook. See Sley-hook.

Reel, triple, 200. See Clock-reel and Niddy-noddy.

Revolution, influences towards success, 166-167, 189.

Rhode Island, stage-coach in, 346.

Rhode Island College. See Brown University.

Ribbon-beds, 445.

Ribbon-grass, 430.

Ride-and-tie system, 332.

Rings, wearing of, 297; at funerals, 298.

Rippling of flax, 168-169; of hemp, 169.

Rippling-comb, 168; of Egyptians, 178.

Roasting ears, 134.

Roasting-kitchens, 65.

Rock for spinning, in Egypt, 178; in India, 178; in New England, 179.

Rock-candy, 157.

Rocking-tree, of loom, 220.

Rochester, house-raising at, 410.

Rolliches, 154.

Rolling-roads, 330.

Rolling-up a house, 6.

Roof, of Dutch houses, 10; gambrel, 22.

Roquelaure, 295.

Rosselini, quoted, 178.

Roving, of yarn, 201.

Rowley, spinning match at, 184.

Ruffler for flax, 172.

Rum, manufacture of, 163; in New England, 163; in slave-trade, 163-164; at house-raisings, 410.

Rush, for scouring, 85.

Rushlight, 38.

Rutland, cave-dwellers in, 3.

Sabba-day house. See Noon-house.

Sabin Hall, 14.

Sack, law of sale, 357.

Sacjes, 386-387.

Saco, communal privileges in, 390.

Safeguards, 295.

Salem, coloring houses at, 23; lobsters at, 117; fisheries at, 121; milk in, 148; sumptuary laws in, 283; taverns at, 356-357; night-watch in, 363; meeting-house in, 364; seats for boys at meeting in, 372; swineherds in, 403.

Saler, 78.

Salisbury, meeting-house at, 369.

Salmon, price in Boston, 123; low regard of, 123; fishing for, 124.

Salt-cellar, 78-79.

Salting of fish, 124; of meat, 153.

Samp, mode of preparing, 131-132, 134; porridge of, 134.

Samplers, 265-268.

Samp-mills, 133.

Samp-mortars, 133.

Sap-buckets, 112.

Sap-yoke, 113.

Sassafras, as dye, 194; for soap, 255.

Sausages, making of, 154-155.

Sausage-gun, 154.

Save-alls, 42.

Scaffold, name for pulpit, 368.

Scarne. See Skarne.

Sconces, 42.

Scouring-rush, 85.

Scutching. See Swingling.

Scythe snathe, 309-312.

Seal of Germantown, 181.

Seating the meeting, 370-371.

Seats, at table, 101; in New England meetings, 369; in Virginia churches, 383-384; in Dutch churches, 386-387.

Section. See Bout.

Sedan-chairs, 356.

Sermons, length of, 376.

Sewall, Samuel, quoted, 354-356; character of, 418.

Shad, low regard of, 123-124; price of, 124; fishing for, 124; salting of, 124.

Shallop, 328.

Shed, in weaving, 221.

Sheep, in Massachusetts, 188; laws about, 188, 189; herding of, 409.

Sheep-folds, 401.

Sheep-herds, 401.

Sheep-ranges, 401.

Shelburne, girls work in, 262.

Shepster, 187.

Sherry-vallies, 296.

Shingles, making of, 316-317.

Shingle-bolts, 318.

Shingle-mould, 317.

Shoe-pegs, 315-316.

Shuttles, for loom, 224-225.

Sign-boards, name on, 358-359; historical value of, 359; of Philadelphia, 359; of Baltimore, 359.

Sigourney, Mrs., quoted, 277-278.

Silk-grass, 211.

Silver, use of, 89-92.

Skarne, 216-217.

Skeins, of flax thread, 175.

Skillet, 50.

Skilts, 236.

Slave-kitchen, 54.

Slave quarters, 14.

Slavery, in New England, 163; in Virginia, 164.

Sleds, 343.

Sleighs, in New York, 355.

Sley, of loom, 219-220; price of, 224.

Slice, 67.

Slippings, of flax thread, 175.

Smith, John, quoted, 115-116; plants corn, 127; description of first Virginia church, 381-382.

Smoke-house, 153.

Smoke-jack, 65.

Smoking tongs, 68-69.

Snake-fence, 25.

Sneak-cups, 106.

Snow, name of vessel, 328.

Snowstorm, in New England, 410 et seq.

Snuffers, 42.

Snuffers tray, 42.

Soap, making of, 253-255.

Society house, 396.

Sorrel, as dye, 194.

South Carolina. See Carolinas.

Southernwood, 428.

Spatter-dashes, 296.

Spelling, varied, of squashes, 144.

Spenser, quoted, 319.

Spermaceti, 42.

Spices, in cooking, 153; ground at home, 158.

Spice-mills, 158.

Spice-mortars, 158.

Spinning, of flax, 174, 230; pay for, 175; in Egypt, 178; in India, 178; in New England, 179-180; in Pennsylvania, 181; in France, 230-231; day's work in, 185; in modern times, 186; of wool, 196-198, 229-230; new materials for, 211; race between weaving and, 228-229; a by-industry, 228.

Spinning classes, 180.

Spinning-cup, 174.

Spinning-jenny, 229.

Spinning-matches, 184-185.

Spinning-school, 180, 182.

Spinning-wheel. See Flax-wheel and Wool-wheel.

Spinster, legal title of women, 187.

Splint brooms. See Birch brooms.

Spool-holder. See Skarne.

Spoons, use of, 87; material of, 87-88; types of, 89-90.

Spoon-moulds, 87-88.

Spoon-racks, 68.

Spreading of flax, 168.

Spunks, 50.

Squadrons, of spinners, 189.

Squanto, teaches fishing, 117; teaches corn-planting, 130.

Squashes, varied names of, 144.

Squirrels, abundance of, 110; premium on, 110.

Stage-coaches, in Great Britain, 331, 345-346; in America, 345-346.

Stage-wagon, 345.

Staircases, 27.

Standing salt, 78-79.

Standish, Lorea, sampler of, 266.

Starting a fire, 48-50.

Starving times, in Virginia, 127; in New England, 129.

Staves, 316.

Stays, 291.

Steeples, 366.

Steep-pool, for flax, 169.

Stepping-stones. See Horse-blocks.

Stitches, names of, 264-265.

St.-John's-wort, as dye, 194.

Stockings, knitting of, 190, 262-263; weaving of, 190.

Stocks, location of, 367.

Stone-bee, 407.

Stone-hauling, 407.

Stone walls, 407.

Stoves, first, 69; in Dutch churches, 385.

Strachey, quoted, 119.

Strangers, harboring of, forbidden in New England, 393-394.

Stratford, tithing-man in, 372.

Straw manufacture, 259-261.

Streets, condition of, 362; lighting of, 362; washing of, 363.

Strikes, of flax, 172.

Striking a light, 47.

Stump-pulling, 407.

Sturgeon, great catch of, 120; in New York, 120.

Substitutes for imported foods, 158-159.

Succotash, 134.

Sudbury, tavern at, 357-358.

Sugar, substitutes for, 110, 111, 147, 157, 158; cutting of, 155-156.

Sugar-bowls, names for, 106.

Sugar-cones, 155.

Sugar-cutters, 155-156.

Summer-piece, 8.

Sunday, observance of, by Puritans, 378 et seq.; by Rev. John Cotton, 379; by Virginians, 380; by the Dutch, 384; duration of, 379.

Sun-dials, 299, 442-443; inscriptions on, 443; materials of, 443.

Suppawn, use of, 133.

Sweep and mortar mill, 132.

Sweet potatoes, modes of cooking, 145.

Swifts, 215-216.

Swineherds. See Hog-reeves.

Swingling of flax, 171-172.

Swingling block, 171.

Swingling knives, 171, 312.

Swingle-tree hurds, 172.

Swingling tow, bonfires of, 177.

Swing-sign. See Sign-board.

Table, description of, 76.

Table-board, 76, 81.

Table-cloths, 77.

Tallow, lack of, 34.

Tambour work, 269.

Tankards, original meaning, 83; of wood, 83-84; of silver, 99.

Tapping-gauge, 112.

Tape-loom, various names of, 225; described, 225-227.

Tap-room, of Wayside Inn, 357-358.

Tarboggin. See Chebobbin.

Tar-making, 33.

Taste of a dinner, 418.

Tasters, 86-87.

Taverns, establishment of, 356; titles for, 356; prices at, 357; values about, 357; names of rooms at, 357; in southern colonies, 360; in New Netherland, 361.

Tea, substitutes for, 158-159; first sales of, 164; queer mode of cooking, 165.

Teazels, 232.

Teazeling, of cloth, 232.

Temperature, of houses, 70-71; of churches, 374.

Temple, of loom, 223.

Tennessee, hand-weaving in, 249.

Tenting, of cloth, 232.

Terbobbin. See Chebobbin.

Terrapin, 120.

Thatch, for roofs, 15.

Threshing, 313-314.

Thumbing, in weaving, 218.

Thumb-rings, 298.

Tin, slight use of, 58.

Tinder, 48.

Tinder-box, 48.

Tinder-mill, 50.

Tinder-wheel, 49.

Tithing-men, 372, 373.

Titles, old-time, for women, 187.

Toasting-forks, 60.

Tobacco, as currency, 189; use forbidden near meeting-house, 379.

Tomble. See Temple.

Tongs, 236.

Tow, garments of, 235-236.

Town, unit in New England, 390; narrow feeling of, 391.

Townsend, revolutionary story of, 203.

Toys, of wood, 306.

Trammels, 53.

Transportation, on horseback, 176, 336 et seq.; by wagons, 339 et seq.

Trees, girdling of, 403; drive of, 404; under-cutting of, 404.

Trenchers, description, 80; material, 82.

Trivets, 60.

Troughs, making of, 311.

Trumbull, Jonathan, chaise of, 353.

Trunks, 348.

Trunk pedler, 300.

Tumble. See Temple.

Tummings, 195.

Turkeys, wild, 109; size of, 109-110; price of, 110.

Turkey wheat, 129. See Corn.

Turkey-wings, 309.

Turnips, 145.

Turnpikes, 349-350.

Turnspit dog, 65.

Tusser, Thomas, quoted, 35, 168, 255, 321-322.

Twifflers, 106.

Van der Donck, quoted, 118, 119, 120.

Van Tienhoven, quoted, 2.

Veils, interference about, 285.

Venison. See Deer.

Vermont, candle-wood in, 32; broom-making in, 303.

Victualling, name for tavern, 356.

Violins, in meeting, 378.

Virginia, early houses in, 11; palisados in, 24; candle-wood in, 32; first fork in, 78; silver in, 91; table furnishings in, 104; deer in, 108-109; birds and fowl in, 110; lobsters in, 118; crabs in, 118; oysters in, 119; plenty of fish in, 118-119; corn in, 127; massacre in, 127; windmills in, 133; toll in, 133; starvation in, 127, 144; pumpkins in, 143; locust groves in, 163; flax culture in, 181-182; wool culture in, 189-190; cloths in, 237; broom-corn in, 256; sumptuary laws in, 285; outfit of settlers, 289; roads in, 331; taverns in, 361; Sunday observance in, 380; churches in, 381-382; cows in, 400; fences in, 402.

Virginia fence, 25.

Voiders, 106-107.

Voorleezer, duties of, 386.

Waffle-irons, 61.

Wagon. See Conestoga wagon.

Warming-pans, 72.

Warning out, 392; a mystery in, 393.

Warp, 218.

Warp-beam, 214.

Warping, 217-218.

Warping-bars, 217-218.

Warping-needle, 219.

Warp-threads. See Warp.

Washing, domestic, 255.

Washington, George, home of, 13; outfit of his stepdaughter, 291; dress of, 293; as canal promoter, 353.

Washington, Martha, thrift of, 237-238; netting of, 265.

Watches, 299.

Watch-chains, 263.

Water, as beverage, 147.

Watering of flax, 169.

Water-fowl, plenty of, 125; enumerated, 125.

Watertown, windmill at, 133; restrictions of settlement in, 393.

Wax, candles of, 37; bayberry, 39-40.

Waynesville, hand-weaving in, 250.

Wayside Inn, 357-358.

Weather-skirt, 295.

Weavers, status of, 212-213; seat of, 221; working-hours of, 228; in Narragansett, 241-244.

Weaving, noise of, 212, 220; three motions in, 221-222; disappearance of, 227; on tape-looms, 225-227; race between spinning and, 228-230; of linens, 230-231; of rag carpet, 239-240; of coverlets, 242-246; during Civil War, 249. See Loom.

Weaving-room. See Loom-room.

Webster, 187.

Weeds, once garden flowers, 435-436, 447-449.

Weight-timbers, 11.

Weld, quoted, 348-349.

Well-sweep, 443-444.

Westmoreland Revival, 227.

Whale-fishing, 41.

"Whang," 417.

Wheat, planting of, 147.

Wheel. See Flax-wheel and Wool-wheel.

Wheel-peg, 198.

Wheelwrights, early use of wood, 176.

Whipping-post, location of, 367.

White-Ellery House, 19.

Whiteweed, in America, 449.

Whitney, Eli, invention of, 208.

Whittemore, Amos, invention of, 205.

Whittier, quoted, 73-74, 181, 370, 413, 436; homespun attire of, 248.

Whittling, 321-323.

Wicks for candles, 34, 45.

Wigs, wearing of, 296-297; denounced, 296; names of, 296-299; cost of, 297.

Wigwams, 3.

William and Mary College, tax for, 109.

Williams, Roger, quoted, 134, 137, 285.

Windmills, Indian fear of, 130; first erected, 133; of John Winthrop, 133; in Virginia, 133.

Windows, of glass, 23; of oiled paper, 23.

Windsor, boys' pews in, 372.

Wine-taster, 87.

Winslow house, knocker of, 29.

Winthrop, John, fork of, 77; jug of, 98; his use of water as beverage, 148; pick-a-back, 329; sedan-chair of, 356.

Winthrop, John, Jr., quoted, 32; mill of, 133.

Woad-wax, in Massachusetts, 448.

Woburn, long services at, 376.

Wolfskin bags in meeting, 374.

Wolves' heads, nailed on meeting-houses, 364-365.

Wood, trenchers of, 80-81; utensils of, 82; spoons of, 88; for shuttles, 225; unusual uses of, 305; toys of, 306; natural shapes in, 308-311.

Wood, quoted, 32-33, 137.

Wool, an ancient industry, 187; early culture of, 187-193; manufacture of, 187-193; restraints on manufacture, 191-192; in England, 192; preparation of, 193; dyeing of, 193-194; carding of, 194-195; combing of, 196; spinning of, 196-198. See Yarn.

Wool-cards, described, 194-195; history of, 204-206.

Wool-combs, 196.

Wool-wheel, price of, 177.

Wordsworth, quoted, on spinning, 179.

Worsted stuffs, 233.

Wrathe. See Raddle.

Yarn, spinning of, 197-198, 201, 229; winding of, 198; skeining of, 199; cleansing of, 202; water-twist, 229.

Yarn beam. See Warp-beam.

Yarn roll. See Warp-beam.

THE END

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